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Ech oic Remnants C o nce rni ng Pre s e r v at i o n

Michaela Mallia Design Studio F Engineering Por tfolio Architecture and Environmental Engineering


Music al expression is a reflec tion of c ulture and identity. Just as c ities strive to preser ve ar t and literature, so should they tr y to preser ve their music al legac y, its histor y and its instruments. The proposal for this building does just this. The busk ing pavilions and c afe reinforc e and c elebrate the live per formanc es that intoxic ate Bristol; a buzzing and never still atmosphere surges into the already existing fabric as the c entral strong hold of Bristol’s live music sc ene. The fragmented and dynamic forms c reate a seduc tive atmosphere, tempting passer s by into the music al labyrinth. The sec ond phase of the building begins to intrigue the public to experienc e more formalised expressions of music . The adaptable c onc er t hall c an mould to fit different types of genres, from jazz to baroque. Here, the beginnings of preser vation tak e plac e, whereby rec ordings of the per formanc e are made and given to the audienc e. Lastly, the museum stands proud, punc hing out of the c itysc ape as a new beac on in Bristol’s music al sc ene. Music al instruments from the music al epoc hs of Britain’s histor y are exhibited for the public , inc ased in rooms whic h reflec t their timbre: wooden instruments live in wooden rooms, reflec ting their timbre ‘soul’, c reating a sense of intimac y. The rhythm of light seeping through the windows c omposes a route through the tower, c urating a c hronologic al time-line of the instruments’ histor y. The museum reinforc es and educ ates people’s music al k nowledge, allowing them to form a stronger under standing and memories of music when they end their journey, to experienc e beautiful music al piec es being played by instruments in their per fec ted ac oustic c onditions.

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Co n t e n t _

Fabric First_

An Overview_

Passivhaus & material s

The scheme

8

The Scheme_

16

I n t ro du c i n g P a s s i v h a u s_

He ating_

Ventil ation_

Strategy & ser vices arrangement

24

Coord ination_

Cooling_

Sizing & distribution

28

Ventila tion Stra tegy_

Sizing & distribution

38

Cooling Stra tegy_

Electrical Distribution_

Strategy & ser vices coordination

46

Distribution Schema tic_

Lighting_

Exhibition lighting & luminaires

50

Identifying Exhibition

Performance Modelling_ Over view & compliance

56

Mo de l li n g Ov e rv i e w _

58

SBE M C o m pl i a n c e _

Lighting Requirements_ 10

Site Responses_

18

M a t e ri a ls O v e rv i e w _

25

Z oning _

30

I ntegra tion_

39

System Coordina tion_

47

Coordina tion_ 52

12

En vi r o n m e n t a l &

20

Th e rm a l P e rfo rm a n c e _

32

S e rvi c e s S t ra t e gi e s _

40

Cooling Loa ds_

42

System Sizing_

Da ylighting_

I n the Museum_ 34

4

Sy stem Coordina tion

Considera tions on

Sy stem Sizing_

5


A n O v e rv i e w _ The scheme

7


The Scheme A centre for m u si c a l p re se r v a ti o n _

T he schem e si ts i n th e c e n tre of Br i sto l , nestled betwe e n N e l so n S tre e t a n d R u p e r t Street. Locat e d i n th e h e a r t of Br i sto l ’s underground sc e n e , th e si te i s d e n se w i th bar s, clubs a n d c o n c e r t h a l l s. T he schem e a d d re sse s th e m i ssi n g l i n k s

Gro und f l o o r p l an

in Bristol mu si c p e r f o rm a n c e c e n tre s a n d proposed an i n str u m e n t p re se n ta ti o n c e n tre. T he brief cal l s f o r a Pa ssi v h a u s re trof i t of th e already ex isti n g to w e r stru c tu r a l f r a m e o n t h e site, as well a s a n n e w b u i l d e x te n si o n to th e tower. While th e c o n c e r t h a l l i s Pa ssi v h a u s, the cafe’s are n o t.

8

F i r s t f l o o r p l an s ho w i ng te m p o r ar y m us e um c o l l e c ti o n i n the to w e r

9


Site Responses

N

Responding to e n v i ro n m e n ta l c o n str a i n ts_

As the majo r i ty of th e b u i l d i n g a i m s to a c h i eve Passiv haus, t h e e n v i ro n m e n ta l c o n d i ti o n s o n

Ex ist ing

the site were i m p o r ta n t to c o n si d e r w i th i n t h e architectura l d e si g n p ro c e ss. For ex ample, th e so u th - f a c i n g f a c a d e w a s designed with m i n i m a l o p e n i n g s to re d u c e

Flood risk 2

Underground river

Vehic le & pedestrian

Pedestrian

Ve hi cl e & p e d e s tr i an

ex cessiv e so l a r g a i n , d u e to th e l a rg e am ount of co o l i n g w h i c h i s re q u i re d i n p u b l i c

P re va le nt w ind p a t h

buildings.

N ois e s ource s

F lood ris k

Pe d e s t ria n a cce s s

Vehicle access

S un p ath

N

Resp onse

Sof t bu f f er

Hard buffer

Tree buffer

Sof t ground

Vehic le & pedestrian

Pedestrian

Ve hi cl e & p e d e s tr i an

Acce s s i nto s i te

A c c ess into site

Mi ni m i s e s o l ar g ai n

10

Intro d uc e s of t a nd ha rd b uf f e r

I nt rod uce t re e b uf f e ring

I nt rod uce s of t g round f or d ra ina g e

P riorit is e p e d e s t ria n circula t ion

Design Lim ited Vehicle Access

11


Environmental & Services Strategies Env ironmenta l se c ti o n s_

Ventilation_

be n eeded. Th u s , fa n co i l u n i t s s h a l l be

Fur ther to th e l i g h ti n g stra te g y, k e y

u s ed t o i n t h e co n cer t h a l l a n d t h e t owe r,

v entilation a n d c o o l i n g re q u i re m e n ts h a v e

w h ereby ch i l l ed w a t er w i l l be s u ppl ie d f orm

been addresse d ; h o w e v e r, d u e to th e

va po u r-co mpres s i o n ch i l l er s .

different req u i re m e n ts of th e sp a c e s, a m i x ed v entilation an d c o o l i n g stra te g y h a s b e e n u s ed

L a s t l y, a s t h e ca fe i s n o t Pa s s i vh a u s an d

in the differe n t p a r ts of th e b u i l d i n g .

i s rel a t i vel y s ma l l er i n s i z e, t h e cen tr al co u r t ya rd w i l l be u s ed t o pro vi de n at u r al

Mechanical v e n ti l a ti o n h a s b e e n sp e c i f i e d

s i n gl e-s i ded ven t i l a t i o n . H ea t i n g i n t h e

in the m useu m a n d th e c o n c e r t h a l l . W h i l e

w i n t er w i l l be pro vi ded by a n u n der f l oor

both buildin g s a re Pa ssi v h a u s, th e d e m a n d

h ea t i n g s ys t em.

Mus e um and c af e w i nte r s tr ate g y

Mus e um a nd ca f e s umme r s t ra t e g y

C o nc e r t hal l w i nte r s tr ate g y

Conce r t ha ll s umme r s t ra t e g y

for hum idity c o n tro l i n th e m u se u m a n d th e minim al v en ti l a ti o n re q u i re m e n t of 10l / s/

H e at in g_

per son nece ssi ta te s th e u se of m e c h a n i c a l

A s G S H P s u t i l i s e l o w gr a de h ea t a n d h ave

v entilation.

t h e ca pa ci t y t o r u n off el ect r i ci t y ( a ssu mi n g t h e gr i d w i l l s l o w l y deca r bo n i s e) t h e y

Moreov er, th e e n c l o se d n a tu re of a u d i to r i u m s

a re i dea l t o s u ppl y h ea t a n d redu ce CO 2

due to acou sti c p e r f o rm a n c e a l so re q u i re s

emi s s i o n s .

mechanical v e n ti l a ti o n . Pa ssi v h a u s requirem ent s sp e c i f y th a t M V H R m u st b e

Th e ca fe’s G S H P w i l l del i ver h ea t t h rou gh

designed into AH U .

a u n der fl o o r h ea t i n g s ys t em, a l o w t emper a t u re emi t t er. M o reo ver, h eat e d

Cooling_

w a t er w i l l be s en t t o h ea t i n g co i l s i n t h e

Due to the v o l u m e of p e o p l e e x p e c te d i n

co n cer t h a l l ’s a n d t o w er ’s fa n co i l un i t s.

both buildin g s, m e c h a n i c a l c o o l i n g w o u l d

12

R is e r loca t ions

Plant locations

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Fa b ri c F i r s t _ Pa s s i v h a us & m a te r i a l s

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Introducing Passivhaus T he retrofit & Pa ssi v h a u s i d e n ti f i c a ti o n _

As m entione d , th e b ri e f c a l l s f o r a Pa ssi v h a u s

Th e reco mmen ded U-va l u e l i mi t fo r w a l l s,

retrofit of th e to w e r. M o re o v e r, th i s p ro j e c t

fl o o r s a n d ro ofs i s 0 . 1 5 Wm- 2 K - 1 , w h i l e gl azi n g

aim s to constru c t th e c o n c e r t h a l l to

co mpl i a n ce i s s et t o 0 . 8 5 Wm - 2 K - 1 . Th e l at t e r

Passiv haus s ta n d a rd s.

n eces s i t a t es t h e u s e of t r i pl e gl a z i n g.

In order to a c h i e v e Pa ssi v h a u s, th e a p p l i c a t i o n

Th erma l br i dgi n g s h o u l d be kept t o a

of fundamen ta l b u i l d i n g p h y si c s a n d

mi n i mu m a n d co mpen s a t ed fo r el s ew h e re ;

M u se u m_

accurate deta i l i n g th ro u g h o u t th e d e si g n a n d

t h erma l br i dges a re cl a s s ed a s h a vi n g a P SI of

Passi vh au s re t rof i t

construction p ro c e ss i s n e c e ssa r y.

l es s t h a n 0 . 0 1 Wm K .

Summarising Pa ssi v h a u s stra te g i e s [ se e g rou p

L a s t l y, Pa s s i vh a u s i s ch a r a ct er i s ed by

C on ce r t h al l _

booklet for f u l l sp e c i f i c a ti o n ] _

s i gn i fi ca n t redu ct i o n s i n en ergy dema n d

Passi vh au s n e w bu i l d

-2

-1

t h ro u gh h i gh l evel s of u n i n t er r u pt ed i n su l at i on T he orientat i o n of th e b u i l d i n g h a s a l a rg e

a n d a co mpl et e a i r t i gh t ba r r i er a ro u n d

impact on he a ti n g / c o o l i n g re q u i re m e n ts.

t h e bu i l di n g. Th e l a t t er res u l t s i n des i r a bl e

C af e _

Large spaces, su c h a s th e c o n c e r t h a l l ’s

i n fi l t r a t i o n l o s s es bu t n eces s i t a t es t h e u se of

Re gu l ar n e w bu i l d; t o c omply with

foy er, should b e d e si g n e d to h a v e su f f i c i e n t

mech a n i ca l ven t i l a t i o n t o a ch i eve h ea l t h y ai r

Par t L 201 3 spe ci f i cation

solar gain to re d u c e h e a ti n g d e m a n d s ( 30%

co n di t i o n s . H ea t R eco ver y i s u s ed t o a ch i e ve

to 40% redu c ti o n ) . H o w e v e r, i m p o r ta n t to

go o d i n do o r a i r qu a l i t y w h i l e mi n i mi s i n g

consider shad i n g w h e re n e c e ssa r y to a v o i d

ven t i l a t i o n h ea t l o s s es / ga i n s .

ov erheating. T h i s h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d th ro u gh

16

the use of th e c o u r ty a rd s, w h e re b y h o r i z o nt a l

Pa s s i vh a u s l i mi t s t o t a l h ea t i n g a n d co o l in g

planes induc e th e l a rg e st so l a r g a i n s.

pl a n t l o a ds t o 1 5 kWh / m 2 a n n u a l l y ea ch .

17


B rick_ Ex ternal C l adding

Materials Overview

Embodi e d e n e rgy_ 3 M J /kg

Env ironmenta l i m p a c t_

Embodi e d car bon _ 0. 2 kgCO 2 /kg B r i cks h ave a re l at i ve l y compe t i t i ve car bon an d e n e rgy i n t e n si t y. Howe ve r, re cl ai me d br i cks wi l l be u se d t o cl ad t h e con ce r t h al l an d caf e .

A full assessm e n t of th e p ro j e c t’s e m b o d i e d carbon is ava i l a b l e o n p a g e s 156- 157 of th e

B l ack Scot tish L arch _ Ex ternal C l adding

architectura l d e si g n p o r tf o l i o .

Embodi e d car bon _ 0. 7 2 kgCO 2 /kg

T he material s u se d i n sc h e m e a re l i m i te d ;

Embodi e d car bon f rom t r ave l h as be e n mi t i gat e d by u si n g l ocal Scot t i sh l arch f or t h e wi n dow

a strategic pa l e tte , i n c l u d i n g b ri c k , b l a c k

ope n i n gs. M ore ove r, l arch i s a f ast growi n g t re e wh i ch al l ows f or car bon se qu e st r at i on .

tim ber and w h i te re n d e r h a s b e e n u ti l i se d t o com m unicate f r a g m e n ta ti o n . Tota l e m bo di e d c a rb o n While the exte rn a l of th e e n ti re b u i l d i n g , th e internal treatm e n t of th e c a f e i s a l so b ri c k . All the intern a l a c o u sti c sp a c e s a n d th e

Embodi e d car bon _ 0. 1 01 kgCO 2 /kg

reflect on th e e x te rn a l f a c a d e to w a rd s th e

N or t h Ele va t ion

New bu i l d_ 4 , 3 1 0 , 0 0 0 kgCO 2 / kg

permanent e x h i b i ti o n f l o o r s i n th e m u se u m hav e a timber i n te rn a l f i n i sh . T h i s b e g i n s to

I nsitu, Reinf orced Concrete with 50% Recycled Steel_ Structural Frame

C on cre t e h as a su r pr i si n gl y l ow e mbodi e d e n e rgy/car bon val u e . Howe ve r, i t i s n ot e asi l y re cycl e d. As su ch , re cycl e d aggre gat e s an d l ow car bon ce me n t wi l l be u se d t o make u p f or t h i s.

R et rofi t _ 8 6 0 , 2 0 0 kgCO 2 / kg

tower, where l a rg e o p e n i n g s h a v e b l a c k ti mber

L arsen Timber Stud Wall with Warmcell I nsul ation

cladding. T h e re st of th e i n te rn a l f i n i sh e s a re

Embodi e d car bon _ 0. 005 kgCO 2 /kg

painted in wh i te re n d e r. T h e L ar se n t i mbe r st u d wal l e n su re s mi n i mal t h e rmal br i dgi n g an d al so u se s h i gh pe r f orman ce ce l l u l ose i n su l at i on , wh i ch i s de r i ve d f rom n at u r al e l e me n t s an d re cycl e d pape r. A A

Eng lish Oak Panelling _ Concert Hall, M useum Floors 2- 6 I nternal Finish Embodi e d car bon _ 1 . 05 kgCO 2 /kg L ocal oak wi l l be u se d t o cl ad t h e se space s, re du ci n g car bon e mi ssi on s.

W hite Rend er_ Remaining I nternal Finishes Embodi e d car bon _ 0. 1 2 kgCO 2 /kg Gypsu m pl ast e r h as a l ow e mbodi e d car bon con t e n t . M ore ove r, l i me var i at i on s can be u se d. 18

S e ct ion A A 19


The IE S re s ul ts [ re fe r to the SB E M re p o r t] s ug g e s t that the

Thermal Performance

g l az i ng and ai r ti g htne s s of the b ui l d i ng wo ul d fai l Pas s i v haus .

U-Values_

W hi l e the g l az i ng o nl y fai l e d b y 0 . 0 5 , i t wo ul d ne e d to b e d e s i g ne d to a s l i g htl y hi g he r s tand ard . W i th re g ard to the ai r ti g htne s s , the AC H p e r ho ur are s o hi g h d ue to an i nab i l i ty to chang e the N C M b ui l d i ng s e tti ng s . As s uch, the b ui l d i ng wo ul d i n fact b e co ns tr ucte d to the re q ui re d ai r ti g htne s s l e v e l .

Conce r t ha ll roof d e t a il

Due to Passi v h a u s re q u i re m e n ts, th e b u i l d i n g was to hav e h i g h th e rm a l p e r f o rm a n c e f ro m the outset. While the caf e i s n o t Pa ssi v h a u s, i ts construction i s v e r y si m i l a r to th a t of th e concer t hall, e x c e p t i t h a s 150m m ra th e r th an 200m m of in su l a ti o n . As su c h , i t w i l l n o t b e looked at, as i t i s e x p e c te d to p a ss Pa r t L regulations. As such, the m u se u m a n d c o n c e r t h a l l construction s h a v e b e e n a n a l y se d to Conce r t ha ll w a ll d e t a il

determ ine if Pa ssi v h a u s sta n d a rd s h a v e b e en met.

Mus e um to w e r d e tai l

20

Conce r t ha ll f loor d e t a il

21


H e at i n g _ S tr a te g y & s e r v i c e s a r r a ng e m e nt

23


He ating Strategy Coordination _ T he entire p ro j e c t i s sp l i t i n to 5 z o n e s, w h e re each zone is su p p l i e d b y i ts o w n G S H P. Zone 1 is en ti re l y h e a te d u si n g u n d e r f l o o r heating; as i t i s a l o w h e a t e m i tte r, th e sy stem can b e d i re c tl y so u rc e d b y th e G S H P.

Mus e u m he a t ing s t ra t e g y

Under floor h e a ti n g i s i d e a l i n a sp a c e w h e re a constant strea m of p e o p l e c a n b e e x p e c te d, a s it is a slow re sp o n se sy ste m .

Z o n i n g s t r a t egy key

Zone 2a, tha t i s th e c o n c e r t h a l l ’s f o y e r a n d backstage are a s a re su p p l i e d b y ra d i a to r s.

Plant 1

T his is becau se th e se sp a c e s c a n e x p e c t to

Zone 1

hav e a sudde n i n f l u x of p e o p l e i n b e tw e e n per formance. T h i s re q u i re s f a st re sp o n se

Plant 2

emitter s. In o rd e r to b e d i re c tl y so u rc e th e

Zone 2a

radiator s fro m p l a n t 2’s th e G S H P, o v e r si z e d o r

Zone 2b

larger radiat o r s w i l l n e e d to b e i n sta l l e d . Plant 3 Lastly, zones 2b , 3a a n d 3b w i l l a l l b e su p p l i ed

Zone 3a

by FCUs. T hi s i s b e c a u se th e se sp a c e s w i l l

Zone 3b

Fan c o i l unit w it h w a rm w a t e r coil

already requ i re m e c h a n i c a l c o o l i n g u si n g th i s sy stem and F C U s a re e f f i c i e n t h e a ti n g sy stems , as well as coo l i n g sy ste m s. Zones 3a an d 3b a re se p a r a te b e c a u se 3b will require s tri c te r te m p e r a tu re c o n tro l d u e to the nature of sp a c e s - th e y w i l l h o u se the museum’s in stru m e n t c o l l e c ti o n s. Fl ow

Re t u rn

Mus e um Gro und f l o o r p i p e w o r k l ay o ut

24

C af e und e r f loor he a t ing d e t a il

Under floor heating

Radiator s

Fan c oil units

Z o ni ng s tr ate g y

25


Ve n t i l at i o n _ S i z i ng & d i s tr i b uti o n

27


Ventil ation Strategy T he three bu i l d i n g s & z o n i n g _

T he three bu i l d i n g s - th e c a f e , th e c o n c e r t

Th e co n cer t h a l l bu i l di n g u s es a mi x t u re of

hall and the m u se u m - e a c h h a v e th e i r o w n

mech a n i ca l a n d mi x ed-mo de ven t i l a t i on . As

HVAC plant a n d h a v e se p a r a te v e n ti l a ti o n

t h e fo yer i s a l a rge s pa ce w i t h ex t ern al wal l s,

sy stem s.

mech a n i ca l ven t i l a t i o n w o u l d s u ppl y su f f i ci e n t

Si n gl e - si de d

Plant 1

fres h a i r i n t h e w i n t er, w h i l e n a t u r a l v e n t i l at i on

St ack

Zone 1

Ext r act

Plant 2

Su ppl y

Zone 2 a

T he cafe uses n a tu ra l , c o m b i n e d c ro ss

ca n be u t i l i s ed i n t h e s u mmer. Th e remai n i n g

and stack v en ti l a ti o n th ro u g h th e c e n tr a l

s pa ces a re mech a n i ca l l y ven t i l a t ed ye ar rou n d.

cour ty ard.

Ve n t i l at i on st r at e gy ke y

Th e mu s eu m i s en t i rel y mech a n i ca l l y

28

Zoning strategy k ey

Zone 2 b

Both the con c e r t h a l l a n d th e m u se u m

ven t i l a t ed du e t o n eces s a r y t i gh t t empe r at u re

P l an t room

are Passiv ha u s b u i l d i n g s. D u e to th e l o w

a n d h u mi di t y co n t ro l . Wh i l e a A H U wi l l be

Ext r act

Plant 3

infiltration r a te sp e c i f i c a ti o n of 0.3 AC H , b o t h

u s ed t o pro vi de t h e requ i red fres h a i r, a

Su ppl y

Zone 3 a

must be des i g n e d w i th m e c h a n i c a l v e n ti l a ti o n ,

s epa r a t e h u mi di t y co n t ro l s ys t em w i l l mai n t ai n

with heat rec o v e r y.

t h e requ i red rel a t i ve h u mi di t y.

Zone 3 b

Natural ventilation

Mixed-mode ventilation

Mec hanic al ventilation

Z o ni ng s tr ate g y

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Integration Museum_

Conc er t hall_

Ro of p l ate and ro of b e y o nd 5 0 0 m m i ns i tu, re i nfo rce d co ncre te I n t e rme di at e f l oor pl at e 300mm i n si t u , re i n f orced c onc rete

D ro p b e am , re i nfo rce d i ns i tu co ncre te

Su spe n de d ce i l i n g syst em

Sus p e nd e d wal kway

Du ct wor k su spe n si on sy stem

D uctwo r k s us p e ns i o n s y s te m

200mm ve n t i l at i on su pp ly duc t

Ins ul ate d v e nti l ati o n s up p l y d uct 1 . 75 m x 1 . 75 m

El e ct r i cal cabl e t r ay Aco us ti cal p ane l s us p e ns i o n s y s te m Su spe n de d ce i l i n g 50mm wood- f i bre pan els

Sus p e nd e d ce i l i ng 5 0 m m wo o d -fi b re p ane l s

St e e l sl at e d di f f u se r Ste e l s l ate d d i ffus e r Z u mt h obe l L ED st opl i ght fixture St r u ct u r al col u mn 250mm i n si t u , re i n f orced c onc rete

30

31


FD

System Coordination in the Museum

N

FD

G round floor d u c tw o rk p l a n _

2.43 6.3 0.6 0.7

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

M

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

FD

T he museum h a s tw o se p a ra te z o n e s, th e ground floor b e i n g th e f i r st a n d th e u p p e r ex hibition fl o o r s ( f i r st to si x th f l o o r s) b e i n g the second. All floor s uti l i se th e c a sc a d e a f f e c t, w i th a perimeter su p p l y a n d c e n tr a l e x tr a c t arrangem en t. E a c h to i l e t a l so h a s a n e x tra c t v ent for odo u r c o n tro l . T he ground f l o o r c a n b e c o n si d e re d to b e t h e index run of th e b u i l d i n g a n d w a s, th e re f o re, used to calcu l a te th e d u c t si z i n g . 1

Single p e r so n of f i c e

5

Lobby

2

O pen p l a n of f i c e

6

R e c e p ti o n

3

WCs

4

Store

7

G i f t sh o p

2.13 7.5 0.9 0.6

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

L

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

FD

1.83 6.1 0.7 0.6

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

K

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

FD

1.53 5.2 0.5 0.5

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

J

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

FD

1.23 0.6 0.8 0.5 I

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15 0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

FD

0.93 5.8 0.9 0.45

VCD

FD

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

H

0.3 1.8 0.35 0.15

VCD

FD

0.53 4.2 0.55 0.4

VCD

VCD

FD

FD

VCD

VCD G VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

0.24 3.4 0.5 0.3

entrance lobby

VCD

Ext r ac t

Supply

0.41 4.3 0.7 0.35

private office 1 0.3 0.8

4.3 0.3

VCD

private office 2 0.25 3.6 0.8 0.3

VCD

F VCD

Ground f loor p la n

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

0.11 3.4 0.85 0.2

VCD

0.08 3.3 0.8 0.2

VCD

0.05 2.9 0.9 0.15

0.2 0.9

4.1 0.25

0.15 2.8 0.5 0.25

0.1 0.8

0.11 3.4 0.85 0.2

0.13 3.7 1 0.2

0.12 3.5 0.9 0.2

VCD

0.05 2.9 0.9 0.15

VCD

VCD

3.1 0.2

E

D

C

B

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

VCD

open office

disable WC

female WC

male WC

A

open office

32

entrance lobby

gift shop

33


System Design Duct sizing_

A HU and fan duties_

The pressure drop ac ross the supply duc twork was c alc ulated to be 75 0 Pa. Using this and the A HU duty of 2 .2 m 3 /s, R was c alc ulated Fresh air wil l b e su p p l i e d th ro u g h th e AH U

and thus the system c ur ve c ould be plotted

situated in th e ro o m p l a n t; a p l a te h e a t

against a manufac turer ’s fan c ur ve.

ex changer pre c o o l s/ p re h e a ts th e a i r b e f o re it reaches th e c o o l i n g / h e a ti n g c o i l s. T h i s i s

Nuaire’s X boxer S9 -X BH heat exc hange series

essential to a c h i e v i n g Pa ssi v h a u s sta n d a rd s .

provided a suitable fit, with the resulting per formanc e:

As illustrated i n th e i n te g ra ti o n d i a g ra m s,

_operating Q of 2 .4m 3 / s

the ductwork w i l l b e h o u se d i n th e p l e n u m

_operating pressure drop of 8 5 0 Pa

abov e the su sp e n d e d c e i l i n g . As o u tl i n e d by

_power of 3 .6 k W.

CIBSE guidel i n e s, 10l / s/ p h a s b e e n su p p l i e d throughout th e b u i l d i n g , c re a ti n g a to ta l AHU

The SFP is too high and would not pass Par t

duty of 2.2m / s f o r a p p rox i m a te l y 250 p e o pl e.

L regulations. This would be dealt with by

3

inc reasing the duc twork diameter s to reduc e Due to the n a tu re of th e b u i l d i n g , i t w a s

the pressure drop.

impor tant to k e e p n o i se l e v e l s f ro m th e v entilation sy ste m d o w n . T h u s, v e l o c i ti e s outside the ri se r h a v e b e e n k e p t b e tw e e n 3 t o 6m 3 /s. T he AHU’s d u c tw o r k w i l l b e f i t w i th a tte n u a t o r s in both the su p p l y a n d re tu rn , to m i n i m i se noise transmi ssi o n th ro u g h th e stru c tu re .

34

35


Co o l i n g _ S i z i ng & d i s tr i b uti o n

37


Cooling Strategy

System Coordination

Strategies & z o n i n g _

The museum_

T he concer t h a l l , i ts b a c k sta g e a n d th e museum will re q u i re m e c h a n i c a l c o o l i n g , as these spa c e s w i l l a l so b e m e c h a n i c a l l y v entilated. A s stated in the previous sec tion, due to

The ground floor is made up of the following

Fan coil unit s w i l l b e u se d to p ro v i d e c o o l th

the prec ious nature of the exhibited objec ts,

rooms:

to all these sp a c e s, a s th e y a re q u i c k re sp o n s e

the museum will require stric t temperature

_The offic e

sy stem s and c a n d e a l w i th a su d d e n , l a rg e

c ontrol.

_WCs

influx of peop l e e f f i c i e n tl y.

_The lobby and the gif t shop The building will be split up into 2 zones:

All the cooli n g sy ste m s w i l l b e su p p l i e d b y

A ll rooms other than the WCs will be

v apour-com p re ssi o n c h i l l e r s i n th e i r re sp e c t i ve

_The ground floor whic h would not have suc h

mec hanic ally c ooled. Fan c oil units will be

roof plants.

a stric t temperature c ontrol range.

used to address heat gains in the warmer months, using 9 FCUs on the ground floor

Zoning strate g y k e y Plant 1

Pl a n t 2

Zone 1a

Z o n e 2a

Zone 1b

Z o n e 2b

_The exhibition floor s whic h would have larger

whic h are supplied by the c hiller s . The fan

annual loads as air c onditions would not be

c oil units will be housed in the plenum above

able to be higher than 2 1°C.

the false c eiling.

Z o n e 2c

Flow

Re turn

G round floor pipework lay out

38

Co o l i n g t h ro u gh n a t u r a l ven t i l at i on

M e ch an i cal cool i n g

Zoning

39


Cooling tower

Cooling Loads Room gains_

System c oordination & c ontrol_

Vapourcompression chiller 50kW

RV

IV P

Cooling tower

Vapourcompression chiller 50kW

Cooling tower

Vapourcompression chiller 85kW

T RV

IV

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

P

All the cooli n g l o a d s w e re c a l c u l a te d u si n g

The BMS is fed flow and return temperature in

IES. Using th e N C M d a ta f o r a m u se u m /

the system. This information, along with the

galler y /libra r y b u i l d i n g s, i t w a s p o ssi b l e to

external temperature, would determine the

determine th e p e a k c o o l i n g l o a d s f o r th e

temperature of the c hiller water produc ed by

entire buildi n g , a s w e l l a s i n d i v i d u a l sp a c e s.

the c hiller s.

Heat gains i n c l u d e d : _ Task lightin g

A ll the FCUs in the system would be

_ Ex hibition l i g h ti n g

c onnec ted to a temperature sensor ; the

_ People

sensor s in the galler y spac es would need to C o o l i ng l o ad s b re a kd ow n

_ Solar gains

be par tic ularly sensitive.

As such, this a l l o w e d th e n u m b e r a n d c o o l i n g

If the internal temperature of 2 3 °C on the

capacity of e a c h F C U f o r th e i n d e x ru n ( th e

ground floor or 2 1°C in the exhibition spac es

ground floor ) , w h i c h i s a l so a d i f f e re n t z o n e t o

is exc eeded, the fan speed in the FCU will C o o l i ng p l ant l o ad f o r the g round f loor of f ice s

the rest of th e b u i l d i n g , to b e sp e c i f i e d [ se e cooling load s b re a k d o w n ta b l e ] .

BMS O

T

RV

IV

T

P

FS

P

AHU cooler battery

IV

9.76 1.13 121 0.1 N

7.76 1.51 291 0.08

6th floor M

IV

L

IV

K

IV

J

IV

I

IV

H

IV

G

IV

6.57 1.28 213 0.08

1.19 0.86 230 0.04

5th floor

5.38 1.05 147 0.08

1.19 0.86 230 0.04

4th floor

4.19 1.13 205 0.065

inc rease to produc e a greater c ooling rate.

1.19 0.86 230 0.04

3rd floor

3.00 0.81 111 0.065

Mus e um annual he ati ng and c o o l i ng l o ad s

1.19 0.86 230 0.04

2nd floor

1.95 0.88 180 0.050

1.05 0.76 183 0.04

1st floor

C o o l i ng p l ant l o ad f o r the g ro u nd f loor lob b y a nd g if t s hop 0.86 0.84 266 0.032

1.09 0.79 196 0.04

Ground floor F

E

0.52 0.51 109 0.032

0.62 0.60 147 0.32

D

0.43 0.48 98 0.032

B

C

0.33 0.56 186 0.025

0.28 0.4 102 0.025

0.09 0.46 256 0.015

IV

A

1.5kW FCU cooling coil

T

40

Office

2kW FCU cooling coil

T

1.5kW FCU cooling coil

T

2kW FCU cooling coil

2kW FCU cooling coil

T Lobby, reception and gift shop

2kW FCU cooling coil

T

3kW FCU cooling coil

2kW FCU cooling coil

T

T

2kW FCU cooling coil

T

T

41


System Sizing Pump duty an d p i p e w o r k si z i n g _

Chiller sizing_

Fan co i l uni t s p e ci fi cati o n_

As hi g hl i g hte d i n the co o l i ng l o ad b re akd o wn tab l e , the g ro und fl o o r wo ul d re q ui re 9 F C Us : two 1 . 5 kW, s i x 2 kW and o ne 3 kW.

The building’s c ooling loads will be supplied T hrough IES, th e m a x i m u m se n si b l e h e a t

by three vapour-c ompression c hiller s; multiple

gain on the b o tto m f l o o r w e re sp e c i f i e d i n

c hiller s are used to minimise effic ienc y loss

each room . M o re o v e r, th e to ta l c o o l i n g l o a d

due to par t loading and to have a bac k up

for each floor w a s th e n a tta i n e d a n d u se d

c hiller for the majority of the year.

to working o u t th e to ta l p re ssu re l o ss i n th e sy stem .

Integrated v entilation and cooling strategy

Two A ermec A NL°/L/C 2 9 0 and one A ermec A NL°/L/C 40 0 c hiller s would be appropriate

T he pum p du ty i s re q u i re d to p ro v i d e

to supply the building, c reating a c ombined

9.762kg/s of c h i l l e d w a te r to th e c o o l i n g c o i l

c ooling c apac ity of 18 6 k W, whic h is over sized

in the FCUs, a t a 59k Pa p re ssu re d ro p .

by 10 % of the c alc ulated requirement.

Fan coil unit sy stem

42

43


E l e c t ri c a l D i s t ri b u t i o n _ S tr a te g y & s e r v i c e s c o o rd i na ti o n


6th floor

Exhibition lighting M

Distribution Schematic

Sockets

Task lighting

FCUs

Coordination

Entire floor

T he museum_

5th floor

The museum_

Exhibition lighting M

Sockets

Task lighting

FCUs

Entire floor

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Exhibition lighting M

Sockets

Task lighting

FCUs

Entire floor 3rd floor

T he three bu i l d i n g s w i l l e a c h h a v e a n

independent e l e c tri c i ty su p p l y f ro m th e g r i d.

Exhibition lighting

In all cases, th e th re e p h a se c o n n e c ti o n w i l l

M

meet the uti l i ty m e te r a n d m a i n d i str i b u ti o n

Task lighting

FCUs

Entire floor

panel in the e l e c tri c a l p l a n t i n th e b a se m e n t of each buildi n g .

Sockets

2nd floor

Exhibition lighting M

T he cabling w i l l b e sp l i t i n to si n g l e p h a se

Sockets

Task lighting

FCUs

Entire floor

circuits for ea c h b u i l d i n g ’s z o n e . As th e

1st floor

museum will re q u i re ta sk l i g h ti n g , a s w e l l a s ex hibition lig h ti n g , i t w i l l b e l o o k e d a t i n mo re detail.

Exhibition lighting M

3-phase demands to AHU/chiller

Ground floor

Lifts M

Sockets

FCUs

Lighting

Entire floor M

M

Electrical cable tray Fiber cem ent board, 20m m

In order to separately manage and monitor

Insulation, 100m m

the display lighting in the exhibition spac es

X2 G y psum plasterboard, 12m m

and the surrounding task lighting in the

Prefabricated brick slip panelling, 19m m

anc illar y spac es and music rooms, two

Vapour control lay er

separate lighting c irc uits shall be spec ified.

X2 Rigid insulation, 200m m

This will also allow the BMS system to deal

X2 steel studs, 100m m

with the lighting independently.

Steel blots Reinforced concrete floor slab, 300m m

Elec tric al soc k ets and c abling will be run

New Insula steel-to-steel therm al break

around the perimeter of eac h floor ; the nature

Steel angel

of Passivhaus c onstruc tion allowed for a

Steel angel

to be used for 15 amp elec tric al distribution. Xtratherm soffit with brick slip finish, 220m m

Exhibition lighting

Laid brick

Task lighting

Basement floor

M

Utility panel

Sill

12 5 mm gap in between the struc tural c olumns

Entire floor

Each floor of th e to w e r re p re se n ts a n electrical zo n e .

Sockets

Task lighting

FCUs

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

4th floor

Sockets Museum storage and workshops

Main distribution panel

FCUs

Lighting

Typ ica l e xhib it ion f loor

Typ ica l e xhib it ion f loor

Lig ht ing p la n

Ele ct rica l d is t rib ut ion p la n

Ele ct rica l t ra y int e g ra t ion_ 1:10

Entire floor

M 46

3-phase demands to boiler/GSHP plant 47


Li g h t i n g _ E x h i b i ti o n l i g h ti ng & l um i na i re s


Identifying Exhibition Lighting Requirements T he museum_

Luminaires and lamps_

The Zumthobel MICROS-C D6 8 series spotlight

Annual Artificial Lighting Usage for Office D Annual Artificial Lighting Usage for Office D

is an ideal luminaire to illuminate the exhibition spac e; the low energy LED light has

DF

the ability to pivot, allowing for flexibility. For

N

the purpose of the c alc ulation, the light will While the caf e a n d th e c o n c e r t h a l l f o y e r w i l l

kW

be pivoted at 2 7° from the horizontal c eiling.

be naturally l i t d u r i n g d a y l i g h t h o u r s, th e

hrs Zumt hob e l MI CR OS - C lumina ire

enclosed acou sti c re q u i re m e n t of th e c o n c e r t

A s shown in the detail drawn in the ventilation

hall and the n a tu re of m u se u m s re su l t i n a

sec tion, the spotlights will be housed in the

need for ar t i f i c i a l l i g h ti n g .

suspended timber-panelled c eiling.

kWh Price per KWh

DF

5.000

5.000

N

3.000

3.000

kW

0.025

0.025

hrs

869.000

kWh

65.175

65.175

Price per KWh

W he re ,

869.000

11.000 Annual Lighting Cost (£) Annual Lighting Cost (£) 7.169 Annual Lighting Cost per m2 (£) 2 Annual Lighting Cost per m (£) 0.590 Estimated Cost for Office Block (£) Estimated Cost for Office Block (£) 238.778 Lig ht t hrow e le va t ion

11.000 7.169 0.590 238.778

C

C and e l a p e r kl m

Lf

Lum i nai re l um i no us fl ux ( l m )

I

Inte ns i ty ( cd )

θ

Ang l e of thro w ( °)

While the mu se u m d o e s ta k e m e a su re s to

The lamp have a c olour temperature of 3 0 0 0 K

d

D i s tance ( m )

introduce di f f u se d d a y l i g h t i n to th e sp a c e ,

- warm, white light. It also has a work ing life

E

Il l um i nance ( l x )

ex hibition or sp o t l i g h ti n g w i l l b e u se d to

of 5 0 ,0 0 0 h at 2 5 °C and a power input of 9 .2 W.

illum inate th e c o l l e c ti o n s. The photometr y polar diagram for the

1500 cd/klm

luminaire provide the c d/k lm at E1, E2 , E3 and

428 lm

E4. These values were then used to determine

642 I at 15°

the illuminanc e at eac h point on the wall.

2900 cd/klm

Zumt hob e l MI CR OS - C p ola r d ia g ra m

428 lm 1241.2 I at 0°

Exhibition lighting Task lighting Re f l e ct e d ce iling p la n

E=I/d^2.sin E1 d Angel of light throw

50

1500 cd/klm

Angle of throw

428 lm

15°

642 I at 15°

d Angel of light throw

Lf (lm)

I (cd)

428

642

428

1241

θ (°) d (m) 0 2.236 15 2.045 15 2.315 15 4.483

I (cd) E (lx) 1241 248 642 110 642 116 642 31

2900 cd/klm 428 lm

θ (°)

1241.2 I at 0°

E=I/d^2.sin E1

Angle of throw C (cd/klm) C (cd/klm) Lf (lm) I (cd) 15° 1500 1500 428 642 0° 2900 2900 428 1241

Lig ht t hrow s e ct ion

248 lm

2.236 m 0 °

248 lm

E1

0

E2

15

E3

15

E4

15

E1 E2 E3 E4

I (cd) 1241 642 642 642

d (m)

E (lx)

2.236

248

2.045

110

2.315

116

4.483

31

2.236 m 0 °

51


Considerations on Daylighting Controlling di re c t su n l i g h t_

Continuing w i th th e m u se u m , th e to w e r w a s

co u r t ya rds recede a ba y’s dept h i nt o t h e

to be retrofi tte d to Pa ssi v h a u s sta n d a rd s

t o w er, t h u s pro vi di n g s o l a r s h a di n g bu t st i l l

and prov ide a h e a l th y e n v i ro n m e n t f ro m th e

i n t ro du ci n g da yl i gh t .

A_ Harold Street Residence, Jackson Clem ents Burrows Architects

outset.

B

Fu r t h ermo re, t h e u s e of t h e s t a gge re d l ai d T he design h a s c o n si d e re d a n d a i m s to c o n t ro l

br i ck w h i ch en cl o s e t h e co u r t ya rds al so

day lighting th ro u g h th e i n tro d u c ti o n of th e

co n t ro l di rect s u n l i gh t i n t h e w i n t er morn i n gs

cour ty ards. N a tu ra l l i g h ti n g i n m u se u m s

a n d even i n gs , ca s t i n g a da ppl ed l igh t i n t o t h e

and galleries sh o u l d a l w a y s b e c o n tro l l e d

mu s eu m.

A A

to m inimise d i re c t su n l i g h t; th i s i s d o n e to preser v e the i te m s b e i n g e x h i b i te d .

B_ St Lewis Ar t Museum , Dav id Chipper field Architects

Th e co u r t ya rd, o r l a n t ern , a t t h e t op of t h e t o w er di ffu s es t h e l i gh t by u s i n g s l i gh t l y

As such, the n u m b e r of w i n d o w s o n th e to w er

t r a n s l u cen t gl a s s . Th e des i red t o p l i t e f f e ct i s

has been lim i te d , of f se t b y th e i n se r ti o n of

di s pl a yed i n R a fa el M o n eo’s M u s eum of Fi n e

the three inte rn a l ‘c o u r ty a rd s’. th e l o w e r

Ar ts.

Mus e um c o ur ty ard i d e nti f i c ati o n

Cour t ya rd A s umme r s ha d ing

Cour t ya rd A w int e r s ha d ing

Cour t ya rd B lig ht d if f us ion

B_ Museum of Fine Ar ts, Rafael Moneo

52

53


P e rf o rm a n c e Mo de l l i n g _ O v e r v i e w & c o m p l i a nc e


Modellin g Overview Model functi o n s_

T he IES m ode l w a s u se d f o r tw o f u n c ti o n s. Fir stly, the Ap a c h e si m c a l c u l a ti o n a l l o w e d the building c o o l i n g a n d h e a ti n g l o a d s to b e determ ined, a s se e n i n th e p re v i o u s se c ti o n s . T he model wa s a l so se t to a N C M b u i l d i n g D1: Museum/ g a l l e r y / l i b r a r y a n d u n d e r w e n t a s SBEM com pl i a n c e c h e c k to d e te rm i n e i f Pa r t L 2013 regulat i o n s w e re m e t. As IES strugg l e d w i th so m e of th e g e o m e tr i es , mainly m ezz a n i n e sp a c e s, th e m o d e l w a s simplified an d h e i g h ts w e re a v e ra g e to achiev e as m u c h a c c u r a c y a s p o ssi b l e Each buildin g h a s i t’s o w n Ap a c h e sy ste m so the m odel w o u l d se p a r a te th e b u i l d i n g p l a n t s .

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SBEM Compliance T he simulatio n f a i l e d Pa r t L re g u l a ti o n s. T h i s is, howev er, d u e to i ssu e s w i th th e m o d e l l i n g process. T he biggest i ssu e w i th th e m o d e l w a s th e lighting outc o m e . Af te r a n i n i ti a l te st, th e lighting of ea c h ro o m w a s f o u n d to b e se t t o both task an d d i sp l a y l i g h ti n g . E v e n th o u g h this was corre c te d , th e o u tp u t of th e se c o n d simulation resu l ts w i th th e sa m e l i g h ti n g energy intak e . T h e re a so n f o r th e e rro r i s not under stoo d , h o w e v e r, i t m a y b e a ssu m e d that the buil d i n g w o u l d u ti l i se l e ss e l e c tr i c al energy for li g h ti n g . T he cooling a n d a u x i l i a r y l o a d s a l so e x c e e ded that of the NC M b u i l d i n g . T h e re a so n f o r this m ay be c o u r ty a rd s, w h i c h c o u l d p o ssi bl y introduce la rg e h e a t g a i n s i n to th e sp a c e s. A possible respo n se to th i s m a y b e to i n tro d u ce more natural v e n ti l a ti o n i n to th e sp a c e s to reduce energ y c o n su m p ti o n w h e re p o ssi b l e, such as the g ro u n d f l o o r of th e m u se u m a n d the back stag e a re a s of th e c o n c e r t h a l l . . Passiv haus co m p l i a n c e _ T he building c o m p l i e s w i th Pa ssi v h a u s i n a l l respects, apa r t f ro m th e a i r ti g h tn e ss v a l u e. T his, howev e r, w a s d u e to a n i n a b i l i ty to change the i n f i l tr a ti o n r a te f ro m th e se t N C M standard.

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Profile for Michaela Mallia

UWE_BEng Graduation Portfolio: Engineering_Concerning Preservation_2014-2015  

UWE_BEng Graduation Portfolio: Engineering_Concerning Preservation_2014-2015  

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