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Focus: The Street, and working in The Street • Objectives • Learning about The Street, and working in The Street • The City; urban perspectives • History • Inclusion / Exclusion • Street work • Aims & values • Methodology • Exchange of • Knowledge; Skills; Methods • But also opinions, ideas and questions • Personal, social and professional development • Networking; developing partnerships

• • • • • • •

Theoretical inputs Practical activities Workshops Discussion and dialogue Study visits Conference and conference input Inter-cultural activities

• The City / Urban perspectives • Urbanism / Urban geography • The changing city • Increased diversity (ethnicity / faith / culture / language) • Mobility: immigration / emigration; • Immobility; social exclusion

• Tuan (1977) The difference between ‘space’ and ‘place’ can be described in the extent to which human beings have given meanings to a specific area. “Space is freedom, place is security.” • Seamon & Sowers (2008) “So space and place are dialectically structured in human environmental experience.”

Nathan Phillips Square, Toronto, Canada

Public space has been celebrated as a democratic and inclusive space whose defining characteristics are ‘proximity, diversity and accessibility’. Zukin, S. (1995) The Culture of Cities, Blackwell: Oxford, p. 262, quoted in Valentine, G. (2001) Social Geographies: space and society, Prentice Hall: Malaysia.

(Social) space is a (social) product [...] the space thus produced also serves as a tool of thought and of action [...] in addition to being a means of production it is also a means of control, and hence of domination, of power. Change life! Change Society! Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Social Production of Space, London: Blackwell.

The authorities in the Slovak city of Kosice say they are taking legal action to remove a wall separating Roma (Gypsy) families from majority Slovaks. The pledge came in a letter from Kosice mayor Richard Rasi to EU Commissioner for Culture Androulla Vassiliou. He called the wall illegal. He was responding to a complaint from Ms Vassiliou , who said the wall violated the EU's stand against racism. Walls blocking off Roma areas have raised tensions in Slovakia before. Mr Rasi’s letter said the wall in Kosice-Zapad district had been put up this summer on the initiative of the district mayor, Rudolf Bauer, "illegally, without the necessary permits, and without informing the city of Kosice". "Appropriate legal actions against the city part in question shall follow," he promised. In 2010 Roma were walled off from majority Slovaks in the town of Michalovce. Ms Vassiliou had asked him "as a matter of urgency... to remedy this unfortunate situation". Kosice, in the east, is Slovakia's second city, after the capital Bratislava. This year the EU gave Kosice the title "European Capital of Culture". Pictures of the wall appeared on the Slovak news website, showing that someone had painted the word "Prepacte" ("sorry") on it in big letters. The CTK news agency reports that the Kosice wall is the eighth such project to arise in eastern Slovakia since 2009, and the fourteenth in Slovakia as a whole. The 2011 census put the Roma population of Slovakia at about 106,000, out of a total population of 5.5 million. But the figure for Roma is disputed, with some estimates putting their numbers higher, at more than 5% of the total population. Roma communities in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Serbia have long complained of discrimination. Many Roma live in desperate poverty and suffer higher rates of sickness and illiteracy than the national average.

‌ the Panoptican must not be understood as a dream building: it is the diagram of a mechanism of power reduced to its ideal form.

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish, 1977.

Freewheel Parklett, Valencia Street, San Francisco

‘wanted help in forming associations’ and ‘making himself generally useful among the class to which his efforts will be developed’.

Shedd, C.P. (1955) History of the World Alliance of Young Men’s Christian Associations, London: SPCK.

Thresher, F.M. (1927) The Gang: a study of 1,313 gangs in Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Whyte, W.F. (1943) Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Some are too wary or too deeply estranged to accept, at any rate initially, even the slight commitment required by club membership. We should like to see more experiments made to cater for their social needs in the unconstrained way which they appear to seek. We have in mind the coffee bar sited strategically at the sort of place where they tend to congregate, the ‘drop-in’ club … the experimental youth centre or workshop … We would go even further and suggest there is also a need for experiment with peripatetic youth workers, not attached directly to any organisation or premises, who would work with existing groups or gangs of young people … Only by going out to young people shall we discover how to gain their confidence, to meet their needs and to make them aware of more genuinely rewarding pursuits. The Youth Service in England and Wales (The Albermarle Report), HMSO, Cmnd. 929, London, 1960, paras. 186/7.

per·i·pa·tet·ic/, peripəˈtetik/ Adjective: Traveling from place to place, esp. working or based in various places for relatively short periods. Noun: A person who travels from place to place.

It is so important that teenagers are able to live elsewhere, in places where they can escape both family constraints and those of the systematic learning of rationale (school) … in truth, it is this participation in social life within frameworks that are relatively free from the family and school sphere that guarantees the gradual emergence of autonomy in adolescence. Mérieu, P. (1992) ‘Mais comment peut-on être adolescent ?, Le Ligueur, Bruxelles, le Octobre 2, 1992, pp. 1-5.

“Social street workers can give back to people in difficulties the power to act in their own lives and move towards improved wellbeing, using the values of justice, equality, human dignity and solidarity.â€? Jean-Marc BelizĂŠe, Secretary of State for the fight against poverty, Belgium

Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft: Streetwork / Mobile Jugendarbeit Ă–sterreich (2007)

1. Voluntary participation 2. Confidentiality and anonymity 3. Critical partiality 4. Accepting attitude 5. Low threshold 6. Transparency

7. Focus on milieu 8. Mouthpiece role 9. Focus on resources 10. Flexibility and mobility 11. Accessibility 12. Continuity 13. Gender-specific

A Youth Work Spectrum:

The Management of Detached Work, 1981

• Outreach • Detached • Street-based • In-reach

• Mobile • Centre-based

street social work or social street work?







Social worker



Being together





Street Work Methodology 1:1 Support

Group Action

Community-based Action

Accompanying an individual in various aspects of their life, either on an ad hoc or longterm basis

Working with groups through various activities which encourage meetings and strengthen links, combining a trust-based relationship with socio-educational objectives

This aims to engage and foster citizen participation, in order to promote the empowerment and development of the community or the environment

Low threshold

ProximitĂŠ Rhythm & pace The request

Accompagner Privileged witness of social reality

Skills & Qualities • Communication • Openness & Honesty with self & others • Reflective • Respectful • Observant • Flexibility • Collaboration • Challenging • Consistent • Information & Advice • ???

The 4 Stages of Streetwork Reconnaissance: A period of time taken to research the area to be covered by the project and the young people within it. To include: the agencies that work with young people in the area; who to visit and the wider community’s views of young people and attitudes toward them. Contact: The initial approach to young people and attempting to establish relationships with them. Intervention: Once contact is established, workers begin to explore issues relevant to the young people and the most appropriate way to respond to them. Development: The actual work undertaken in order to respond to the on-going needs of the young people.

Level of contact: to see and record the development of relationships e.g.

Observation only Routine acknowledgement Neutral conversation Personal conversation Constructive conversation Personal crisis situation

Possible individual interventions Reflective/ active / selective listening, summarising, reframing Unconditional positive regard Empathy – even confrontation can be empathetic Highlight cognitive dissonance Offer alternative strategies – a menu Raise doubts Strengthen self-efficacy Raise awareness of risk Keep door open for access Ask about past, relationships, interests, dreams, views, lifestyles, stresses, typical day, stimulate debate, refer to previous encounters / discussions. • Look at dialogue again • • • • • • • • • •

Trust: is a product of investing time and effort; supports and helps relationships to develop; it is two-way, and leads to respect; it engenders enthusiasm and commitment.

⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ Evaluation

Mission  Values  Aims  Strategy  Objectives  Tactics ⇑ Methods – Target Groups

Team work: between colleagues but also between staff and young people • Helps and encourages young people to take responsibility • Makes for better information-sharing • Supports the identification of common goals • Nurtures ideas • Supports discussion on values • Brings opinions and viewpoints into the open (is underpinned by participation and partnership) • Aids planning • Provides feedback: information that can inform future work / an opportunity for research

The concept of prevention is used in very different fields of activity, and therefore can be interpreted in many ways, often resulting in confusion. For example police prevention of criminal behaviour has nothing to do with socioeducational prevention work on the streets. Too often used as a floating message, the term “prevention� is adapted to all kind of contexts. It is unsurprising to find real confusion, and a difficulty in grasping a proper understanding of the work of street workers. Dynamo International (The International Network of Social Street workers) (2009) International Guide on the methodology of street work throughout the world. Brussels: Dynamo International, p.11.

The social street worker through their closeness to the most excluded populations is in a privileged position to report on their social realities. It is first a matter of strengthening the ability of society to help young people at risk, including making governments aware of their responsibilities to them.

Privileged witness of social reality

• Providing support and needle exchange to drug users • Working with sex workers on the side of busy motorways • Contacting groups of young people involved in gang culture • Providing information and advice to homeless people in disused premises • Community-based action work, for example, mobile schools • Working with people who congregate in public places, like shopping centres & parks

Staying Safe on the Street • Risk assessment • Reflective thinking; ‘what if … ?’ • Health & Safety policies • Emergency contact • Exit plans • Identification • Communication with the community • Communication with managers • Communication with colleagues • Co-working • Limitations

Graeme Tiffany - Identity From The Street  

Presentation created by Graeme Tiffany during Identity From The Street Trainig Course project. Preparing and realization by Human Lex Insty...

Graeme Tiffany - Identity From The Street  

Presentation created by Graeme Tiffany during Identity From The Street Trainig Course project. Preparing and realization by Human Lex Insty...