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3: HIV/PREGNANCY TESTING PRE-PAIR


Testing is an essential step towards ensuring a woman’s health.

PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


World Prevalence of HIV in 2011 (% of population age 15-49)

China: 1 in 1,000

United States: 1 in 142

India: 1 in 71

68% of all HIV cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa

Tanzania: 1 in 17

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.AIDS.ZS

2.68

million people (age 15-49) living with HIV in Tanzania

HIV is a world-wide problem, and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


9 in 10 women know where a clinic is located, but only 3 visited a clinic and recieved test results last year.

Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

Most treatment for HIV has been free in Tanzania since 2005, yet 36% of women in need of treatment have not received it. UN AIDS Report, 2012.

Women diagnosed with HIV in the last year recieved treatment 36% unplanned 

% planned

82% of unplanned are due to  lack of modern contraceptives 18% other 

PRE-PAIR

36% HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

pre

didn’t recieve treatment

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


“My mother and myself have tested and been found positive. She has told me not even to tell my relatives; not even my own sister because she is afraid I will be stigmatised.” - A young girl from Tanzania

Private testing and treatment reduce fear of stigmatization PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Testing Strategies

Opt-in

Opt-out

Testing not given unless requested

Testing is given

Information is given about HIV testing

Woman requests testing

Testing is given

Woman refuses testing

Testing not given

http://www.avert.org/pmtct-hiv.htm PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Testing Strategies cont. Documented Cases of Pregnant Women With HIV 100

90 80

70

60 Before opt-out testing %

50 After opt-out testing introduced

40

30

20

10

Uganda

http://www.avert.org/pmtct-hiv.htm

Opt-out testing is the more effective strategy PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


18% other

18% other

36% u

Comparative study of Rapid HIV tests

64% planned 36% unplanned

Potential test fluids Oral Urine

82% o mode

36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned

Blood

How long until results 10 min

64% planned 64% planned 64% planned 64% planned

82% of unplanned 82% of are unplanned due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due to lack are of due to lack of 18% o 64% planned 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives

Where to test

Cost of test

Home

$10

Clinic

Accuracy

$ $%

18% other 18% other 18% other 18% other

64% planned

$%

Percentage 18% other

36% u

$ $% 93 $$% $% $%% 64% planned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned

64% planned 64% planned 64% planned

OraQuick® Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody test

82% o mode

36% unplanned 82% of unplanned 82% of are unplanned due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due to lack are of due to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives 18% o 64% planned 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

64% planned

18% other 18% other 18% other

18% other

36% unplanned

64% planned

Clearview Complete HIV 1/2

$ $$% $%99.7 %$ % 36% unplanned

82% of unplanned are due to lack of 64% planned modern contraceptives

18% other

82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

64% planned

18% other

36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned 64% planned 64% planned 64% planned 64% planned

Calypte™ HIV-1 Urine EIA

PRE-PAIR

$%

$% 99

18% other 18% other 18% other 18% other

Uni-Gold Recombigen® HIV test

36% unplanned

82% of unplanned 82% of are unplanned due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due to lack are of due to lack of 64% planned 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives

18% other

$% 100 $$% $% $% % HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Out of 9,145 births in Tanzania last year 73% were planned 27% were unplanned 23% were mistimed 4% were unwanted Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

Over 1/4 of pregnancies in the last year were unplanned, leaving mothers unknowing and unprepared PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


st

Menstrual irregularity can signify uncertainty of pregnancy status. Results: 10 min. 44% of women are denied family planning service at small clinics because they are not menstruating. Clinics97% accurate only if used  assume this due to pregnancy, in which case correctly (Brands differ in  contraception is no longer needed.

the required steps to  self-test) Results: 1 hour

eeded

The woman must be tested  in a hospital (which may  be located far from her  home) Mother-To-Child Transmission Risk

Mother-To-Child Transmission Risk

Yet in fact, women in developing countries experience only 1/3 of expected menstrual cycles, due to frequency of pregnancies & extended time breast feeding.

25%

PRE-PAIR

25%

? ?

Risk of transmission for  undiagnosed mothers

Risk of transmission for 

Progress in Family Planning

2%

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

2%

Risk of transmission f HIV diagnosed moth THE FEMALE INITIATIVE Risk of tran when proper 


18% other

36%

Comparative study of common pregnancy tests Potential test fluids Urine

Blood

18% other

$% $ $% $% 64% planned

82% mod

36% unplanned 36% unplanned

36% unplanned

How long until results 5 min

1 day

64% planned 64% planned

82% of unplanned 82% of unplanned are due to lack are due of to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives 64% planned

Where to test Home

Cost of test

Clinic

$10

Accuracy

82% of unplanned are due to lack of18% modern contraceptives

Percentage

18% other 18% other

18% other

64% planned

36% u

$ $% $$%% 99 64% planned

82% o mode

36% unplanned

36% unplanned

64% planned

82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives 64% planned

First Response

18% o 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

64% 18% otherplanned

18% other

36% unplanned 64% planned

82% of unplanned are due to lack of 82% modern contraceptives mod

64% planned

36% unplanned

64% planned

$ $% $ % 99 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

AccuClear

18% other

64% planned

36% unplanned

18%

36% unplanned

18% other 64% planned

36% unplanned

36%

82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

36% unplanned

18% other

64% planned

64% planned

64% planned 82% of unplanned are due 82% to lack of unplanned of are due 82% to lack of unplanned of are due to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives

18% other

18% other

18% other

$ %$ 60

36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned 36% unplanned

36% unplanned

64% planned 64% planned 64% planned 64% planned

$% $ 99% $% $% $% $% 99 $$% $% $%%

Paper test

18% other 18% other 18% other 18% other

Blood test *can track problems during pregnancy

PRE-PAIR

82% of unplanned 82% of are unplanned due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due 82%tooflack are unplanned of due to lack are of due to lack of modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives modern contraceptives 64% planned 82% of unplanned are due to lack of modern contraceptives

Multiple sources

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

18% other

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Mother-To-Child-Transmission

?

Undiagnosed mother with HIV

25%

Diagnosed mother with HIV who takes proper treatment

Antiretroviral drugs Caesarian section birth Avoids breast feeding

2%

Risk of transmitting HIV to their child

Risk of transmitting HIV to their child

AIDS.gov

HIV Testing

Pregnancy Testing

Solution PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Patterned paper allows multiple diagnostic tests using only one sample. Diagnostics for All and a team at Harvard has implemented the patterned paper technology into their devices for the developing world, and we plan to expand its use into HIV and pregnancy testing.

highly absorbent paper

test 2 result

photo-sensitive coat

test 1 result

negative of the pattern

control testing area

the layers are fused and then irradiated with UV light PRE-PAIR

colored reagents are added to each test well HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

a patterned paper urine test gives results of multiple assays. Colored results appear in 12 minutes. THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


36% unplanned

modern contraceptives

otherto lack of 82% of unplanned 18% are due modern contraceptives

36% unplanned

Non-invasive, durable, lightweight

$ % Easy to use & read, no extra parts

82% of unplanned are18% dueother to lack of modern contraceptives

18% other

$%

Fast response

$%

Inexpensive for users and manufacturers

$% PRE-PAIR

Reliable and safe HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


Form studies

grip

urine sample

wide grip but not bulky

comfortable length

noninvasive width PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


perforated center enables opt-out system specific indicators differentiate each test

results appear in 12 minutes

control area confirms validity of test

hydrophobic channels direct the fluid sample to testing areas

hydrophillic area absorbs only 5 ÎźL of a urine sample, and cannot be contaminates by dirt or debris

PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE


How it works

Option 1

1. Remove testing stick from package

2. Fold along perforated line

3. Collect urine sample

4. Read results

2. Fold along perforated line

3. Tear along perforated line

4. Select desired test

5. Collect urine sample

Option 2

1. Remove testing stick from package

PRE-PAIR

HIV/PREGNANCY TEST

6. Read results

THE FEMALE INITIATIVE

Winter 2013 — Product Design Studio  
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