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Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

Spirit OT: HEBREW: 178, 5397, 7307, 7308 NT: GREEK: 4151, 4152, 4153, 5326

Soul OT: (strong's) 5082, 5315 NT: (Strong's)5590

Heart OT: (Strong's) 3820,3824,5315 NT: (Strong's) 2588,4641,4937,5590

Mind OT: 5315,7307,3820,3824,3336 NT: 363,1106,1271,1771,1878,3540,3661,3675,4288,4290, 4993,4995,5012,5427,5279, 5426,5590

Notice how the various Biblical words overlap in the ideas they communicate: Bible Word

Translated as: spirit xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx 7307 is translated both spirit 5315 is translated as 5590 is translated as 3820 is translated as 3824 is translated as

soul heart mind xxxx xxxxx xxxx mind soul heart mind soul heart mind heart mind heart mind

SUMMARY C C

The words -- spirit, soul, heart, and mind -- are translated from 9 different Hebrew words in the Old Testament and 20 different Greek words in the New Testament.

These Hebrew and Greek words are used in C a total of 2,609 verses.


Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

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Below is a summary of the concepts they convey when describing the nature of people.

Notice how much they overlap in the ideas that they convey What different Words Describe the same idea? KEY VERSES

SPIRIT Pr.16:32 Attitude or disposition:

SOUL Pr.28:25

HEART Lk.24:25

MIND Ac.20:19

Expressed by Spirit Pr.16:32 He who is slow to anger is better than the mighty, And he who rules his spirit(7307), than he who captures a city. Expressed by soul Pr.28:25 He that is of a proud soul <5315> stirs up strife: but he that puts his trust in the LORD shall be made fat. (NASB): An arrogant man stirs up strife, But he who trusts in the Lord will prosper. [Comment: Most places in the Old Testament, 5315 is translated, soul.) Expressed by heart Lk.24:25: Then he said unto them, O fools and slow of heart <2588> to believe all that the prophets have spoken (NASB: Jesus said, "You are foolish and slow to realize what is true. You should believe everything the prophets said. ) Expressed by mind Acts 20:19 Serving the Lord with all humility of mind <5012>, and with many tears and temptations, which befell me by the lying in wait of the Jews (NASB: The Jews plotted against me. This troubled me very much. But you know that I always served the Lord. I never thought of myself first, and I often cried.

SPIRIT Pr.20:27 Conscience:

SOUL

HEART Ac.2:37

MIND

Expressed by Spirit Pr.20:27(NASB: The spirit<5397> of man is the lamp of the Lord, Searching all the innermost parts of his being. Expressed by Heart Acts 2:37: Now when they heard [this], they were pricked in their heart <2588>, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles Men [and] brethren what shall we do?


Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

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SPIRIT SOUL HEART MIND 1Ki.21:5 Ac.14:2 Ac.14:17 Ac.17:11 Ac.17:16 Emotional capacity: Expressed by Spirit 1Ki.21:5: But Jezebel his wife came to him, and said unto him, Why is thy spirit <7307> so sad <5620>, that thou eatest no bread? (NASB: But Jezebel his wife came to him and said to him, "How is it that your spirit is so sullen that you are not eating food?" ) Expressed by Soul Acts 14:2: But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles and made their minds <5590> evil affected <2559> against the brethren (NASB: But the Jews who disbelieved stirred up the minds of the Gentiles and embittered them against the brethren. ICB: But some of the Jews who did not believe excited the non-Jewish people and turned them against the believers. ) Jas.3:14 But if ye have bitter envying <2205> and strife <2052> in your hearts <2588>, glory not and lie not against the truth (NASB: But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, do not be arrogant and [so] lie against the truth. ICB: But if you are selfish and have bitter jealousy in your hearts, you have no reason to brag. Your bragging is a lie that hides the truth. ) Expressed by Spirit Acts 14:17 (ICB:) Yet he did things to prove he is real: He shows kindness to you. He gives you rain from heaven and crops at the right times. He gives you food and fills your hearts <2588> with joy." Expressed by heart Acts 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica in that they received the word with all readiness of mind <4288>, and searched the scriptures daily whether those things were so (NASB: Now these were more noble-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they received the word with great eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily [to see] whether these things were so. ICB: These Jews were better than the Jews in Thessalonica. They were eager to hear the things Paul and Silas said. SOUL HEART MIND SPIRIT Is.57:16 Ac.20:10 2Co.3:2 Inner being, The noumenal Expressed by spirit Is.57:16 For I will not contend for ever neither will I be always wroth; for the spirit <7307> should fail before me, and the souls <5397> [which] I have made (NASB: "For I will not contend forever, Nor will I always be angry; For the spirit would grow faint before Me, And the breath [of those whom] I have made. Expressed by soul Acts 20:10 And Paul went down and fell on him and embracing [him] said, Trouble not yourselves for his life <5590>(pscuche: soul, life, mind, heart, breath) is in him Expressed by heart 2Co..3:2 Ye are our epistle written in our hearts <2588>, known and read of all men


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SPIRIT SOUL HEART Eph.4:23 Pr.23:7 Mat.9:4 Intellectual capacity Expressed by spirit Eph.4:23 And be renewed in the spirit <4151> of your mind <3563>;

MIND 1Pt.4:7

Expressed by soul Pr.23:7 For as he thinketh in his heart (soul) <5315>, so [is] he: Eat and drink saith he to thee; but his heart <3820> [is] not with thee. Expressed by heart Jas.1:26 6 If any man among you seem to be religious and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart <2588>, this man's religion [is] vain (ICB: A person might think he is religious. But if he says things he should not say, then he is just fooling himself. His "religion" is worth nothing.) Expressed by mind 1Pet.4:7 But the end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober <4993> and watch unto prayer (NASB: The end of all things is near; therefore, be of sound judgment and sober [spirit] for the purpose of prayer. ICB: The time is near when all things will end. So keep your minds clear, and control yourselves. Then you will be able to pray. )

SPIRIT Pr.16:2

SOUL Eph.6:6

HEART Jr.31:33 Mt.6:21

MIND He.8:10

Intention, purpose Expressed by spirit Pr.16:2 All the ways of a man [are] clean in his own eyes; but the LORD weighs the spirits <7307>. (NASB: All the ways of a man are clean in his own sight, But the Lord weighs the motives. ICB: A person may believe he is doing right. But the Lord will judge his reasons. ) Expressed by soul Ep.6:6 Not with eyeservice as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ doing the will of God from the soul <5590>; Expressed by heart Mt.6:21 For where your treasure <2344> is, there will your heart <2588> be also He.8:10 I will put my laws into their mind <1271>, and write them in their hearts <2588>: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people (ICB: I will put my teachings in their minds. And I will write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. )


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Jr.31:33 But this [shall be] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel. After those days saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts <7130>, and write it in their hearts <3820>; and will be their God and they shall be my people ((I will make the law the core and center of all their life)

Physical strength,

Ju.15:19 1Sa.30:12

SPIRIT SOUL HEART MIND Judg.15:19 1Sa.30:12 Physical Strength Expressed by spirit Ju.15:19,16 Then Samson said, "With the jawbone of a donkey, I have killed a thousand men." 18 Then he became very thirsty,19 But God split the hollow place. When he drank, his strength returned and he revived.(lit. his spirit came again) 19 But God clave an hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout; and when he had drunk, his spirit <07307> came again, and he revived <02421> KJV 1Sa.30:12 But David pursued, he and four hundred men, for two hundred who were too exhausted to cross the brook Besor remained [behind]. 11 Now they found an Egyptian in the field and brought him to David, and gave him bread and he ate, and they provided him water to drink. 12 They gave him a piece of fig cake and two clusters of raisins, and he ate; then his spirit revived (his spirit came again). For he had not eaten bread or drunk water for three days and three nights.

SPIRIT

SOUL Gen12:13

HEART Ex.9:14

MIND

Pronoun Expressed by soul Gn.12:13 Say I pray thee, thou [art] my sister that it may be well with me for thy sake; and my soul <5315> shall live because of thee (NASB: . . . . I may live on account of you.") Expressed by heart Ex.9:14 For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart <3820> (NASB: "For this time I will send all My plagues on you)


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Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

SPIRIT SOUL Ps.143:7 1Chr.28:9 Will Expressed by spirit Ps.143:7 NASB: Answer me quickly, O Lord,

HEART He.13:9

MIND 1Pt.

my spirit (7307) fails; Do not hide Your face from me,

Expressed by soul 1Ch.28:9 And thou, Solomon my son know thou the God of thy father and serve him with a perfect heart <3820> and with a willing soul <5315>: for the LORD searcheth all hearts <3824>, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts <4284>: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever Expressed by heart He.12:3 For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds <5590>. (NASB: so that you will not grow weary and lose heart. ICB: Think about Jesus. He held on patiently while sinful men were doing evil things against him. Look at Jesus' example so that you will not get tired and stop trying. ) He.13:9 Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines For [it is] a good thing that the heart <2588> be established with grace; (NASB: Do not be carried away by varied and strange teachings; for it is good for the heart to be strengthened by grace, not by foods, Expressed by mind 1Pet.5:2 Feed the flock of God, taking the oversight [thereof], not by constraint, but willingly ; not for filthy lucre but of a ready mind <4290> (NASB: shepherd the flock of God, exercising oversight not under compulsion, but voluntarily, according to [the will of] God; and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness ICB: take care of God's flock, that you are responsible for. Watch over it because you want to, not because you are forced to do it. That is how God wants it. Do it because you are happy to serve, not because you want money.)


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In Summary: They ways the words spirit, soul, heart, and mind are more alike in their meaning than they are different in their meaning. The list below shows where they overlap in the way the Bible uses them: Attitude or disposition: spirit

soul

heart

mind

Conscience: spirit

heart

Emotional capacity: spirit

soul

heart

mind

spirit

soul

heart

mind

spirit

soul

heart

mind

spirit

soul

heart

mind

spirit

soul

heart

mind

Inner being, the noumenal:

Intellectual capacity:

Intention, purpose:

Will:

The Biblical words focus, not on the parts we are made out of, but instead on the various abilities we have.

CONCLUSIONS The scriptures describe man as being having a united personality. It doesn't present the idea that man is a whole bunch of parts functioning separately from one another. Man is an integrated whole personality. He has various abilities, but these abilities function together to produce unified actions. His inner being has a body which he uses to express himself and to bring about his activity in the physical world. 1. 2Co.4:16 Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed day by day. 2. 2Co.5:1,2,6,8 For we know that if the earthly tent which is our house is torn down, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens ... For indeed in this house we groan, longing to be clothed with our dwelling from heaven ... knowing that while we are at home in the body we are absent from the Lord ... we are of good courage, I say, and prefer rather to be absent from the body and to be at home with the Lord.


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Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

Spirit, Soul, Heart Spirit has Intellect Job.20:3 "I listened to the reproof which insults me, And the spirit (7307 rooagh) of my understanding makes me answer. Will Ps.51:17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; A broken and a contrite heart, O God, You will not despise. Pr.16:2 All the ways of a man are clean in his own sight, But the Lord weighs the motives (7307). Emotions Ge.45:27 When they told him all the words of Joseph that he had spoken to them, and when he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit (7307) of their father Jacob revived Soul has Intellect 1Sam.2:35 `But I will raise up for Myself a faithful priest who will do according to what is in My heart and in My soul (5315); and I will build him an enduring house, and he will walk before My anointed always Will Dt.21:14 "It shall be, if you are not pleased with her, then you shall let her go wherever she wishes (5315); but you shall certainly not sell her for money, you shall not mistreat her, because you have humbled her. Emotions Ge.23:8 And he spoke with them, saying, "If it is your wish (5315 nephesh) [for me] to bury my dead out of my sight, hear me, and approach Ephron the son of Zohar for me Heart has Intellect Dt.4:9 "Only give heed to yourself and keep your soul diligently, so that you do not forget the things which your eyes have seen and they do not depart from your heart (3824) all the days of your life; but make them known to your sons and your grandsons. Will 2Chr.19:3 "But there is [some] good in you, for you have removed the Asheroth from the land and you have set your heart(3824) to seek God." Emotions Dt.19:5 as when [a man] goes into the forest with his friend to cut wood, and his hand swings the axe to cut down the tree, and the iron [head] slips off the handle and strikes his friend so that he dies--he may flee to one of these cities and live; 6 otherwise the avenger of blood might pursue the manslayer in the heat (3824) of his anger

Summary verse 2Co.4:16 Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed day by day. C We are created with an inner man (our noumenal reality) and an outer man (physical body â&#x20AC;&#x201C; our phenomenal reality.) C A person should be viewed as a total person. Every aspect of his being is involved in every action that he does. Every aspect of his being is involved in his relationship with God.


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PLAUSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS OF A FEW VERSES SOMETIMES USED TO EXPRESS THAT MAN IS COMPOSED OF SEPARATE INDEPENDENTLY FUNCTIONING PARTS Mt. 22:37

THOU SHALT LOVE THE LORD THY GOD;

The meaning of this is, that Thou shalt love him with all thy faculties or powers. Thou shalt love him supremely, more than all other beings and things, and with all eagerness. To love him WITH ALL THY HEART is to fix the affections supremely on him, more strongly than on anything else, and to be willing to give up all that we hold dear at his command. To love him WITH ALL THY SOUL is to love him with all thy life. This means to be willing to give up the life to him, and to devote it all to his service; to live to him, and to be willing to die at his command. To love him with ALL THY MIND is to submit the intellect to his will.To love his law and gospel more than we do the decisions of our own minds. To be willing to submit all our faculties to his teaching and guidance, and to devote to him all our faculties to his teaching and guidance, and to devote to him all our intellectual attainments, and all the results of our intellectual efforts. To love him WITH ALL THY STRENGTH is the summary command to love him with all the faculties of soul and body. To labor and toil for his glory, and to make that the great object of all our efforts. (ref: Albert Barnes Notes on the New Testament.)

1Co.14:14 -16 IF I PRAY IN A TONGUE, MY SPIRIT PRAYS, BUT MY MIND IS UNFRUITFUL. Paul's point in the context is that public worship should be conducted in a language that is understood by the people. However well meant it might otherwise be, and however the heart might be expressed in it, unless it is understood, it is not fruitful to others. MY SPIRIT PRAYS, that is my personal intentions and purposes are correct, my feelings find utterance in prayer, my heart is engaged in devotion, and my prayer is acceptable to God, who looks upon the intention of heart. Further I may have true enjoyment; but I do not personally understand specifically what is being expressed. Further it is unfruitful in that it won't profit others. What I say will not be understood by them. MY UNDERSTANDING IS UNFRUITFUL. My intellect, my mental efforts produces nothing that will be of advantage to it. It is like a barren tree; a tree that bears nothing that can benefit others. They cannot understand what I say. Therefore, I WILL PRAY WITH THE SPIRIT, I will endeavour to blend all the advantages which can be derived from prayer. I will unite all the benefits which can result to myself and to others. I know it is extremely important that I pray in such a way that the heart and the affections may be engaged, so that I may myself derive benefit from it; but I will also unite with that, the aim of utility to others; I will use such language that they may understand it, and be profited.


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Reflections upon the Biblical Description of the Nature of Man

I WILL PRAY WITH THE UNDERSTANDING ALSO. I will make the appropriate use of the intellect, so that it may convey ideas, and make suitable impressions on the minds of others. I WILL SING WITH THE SPIRIT. It is evident that the same thing might take place in singing as what occurred in prayer. Paul's passage proves: 1. that the praises of God are to be celebrated among Christians, and that it is an important part of worship; 2. that the heart should be engaged in it, and that it should be so performed as to excite proper affections in the hearts of everyone. 3. It should be done in an understandable way so that it edifies others. There is scarcely any part of the devotions of the sanctuary that may be made more edifying or impressive. It has the advantage -- an advantage which preaching and praying have not -- of using the sweet tones of melody and harmony to impress sentiment on the heart; and it should be done. OTHERWISE, IF YOU BLESS IN THE SPIRIT ONLY, HOW WILL THE ONE WHO FILLS THE PLACE OF THE UNGIFTED SAY AMEN AT YOUR GIVING OF THANKS, SINCE HE DOES NOT KNOW WHAT YOU ARE SAYING? 1Co.14:32 THE SPIRITS OF PROPHETS ARE SUBJECT TO PROPHETS. All the manifestations of our personality are under our control.All of our acts begin with a decision of the will. People are able to control their inclination to speak. They are not under a necessity even though they might be inspired. Therefore, there is no need of disorder. This verse confirms that the extraordinary endowments of the Holy Spirit are subjected to substantially the same laws as a man's natural endowment. Heb.4:11-13 Let us be diligent to enter that rest, lest anyone fall through following the same example of disobedience. For the word of god is living, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. Neither is there any creature hidden from his sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of him with whom we have to do. The point of the passage is that all of us are being evaluated in our entirety by God. His word is the basis upon which He evaluates us. He evaluates not just action which men can see, but He evaluates the inner being, the heart, from which the action originates. He evaluates not just the thoughts we had in carrying out the action, but also what we intended. There is never anything so subtle that God would ever be confused and not able to identify disobedience. The words SOUL, JOINTS, and THOUGHTS parallel each other, and the words SPIRIT, MARROW, and INTENTIONS parallel each other. Thus, triple emphasis is made to drive the point home that all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of him with whom we have to do. 1Th.5:23 and may the very God of peace sanctify you entirely; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless. The key word is entirely. Every aspect of us is to be dedicated to God's use and purposes because His purposes are loving, right, wise, and good. Every aspect of outer being belongs to Him. Every aspect of our inner being belongs to Him. The construction: και . . . και should be translated: (both . . . and) I pray God your whole being, both (kai) your noumenal being and (kai) your body be preserved blameless.


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