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Lesson 2 & 3 Definitions and Verbs

1) DEFINITIONS VERB:

There are two types of verbs, action and being verbs. Action verbs tell what is happening in a given sentence. Ex: I am jumping. The man sang. 2. Being verbs act as an “equal” sign (=) stating “this and this are the same”. Ex: The ball is an object. (Ball = Object). The apostle is a teacher. (The apostle and the teacher are the same person.) 1.

2)

VERBS have person, number, tense, voice and mood.

TENSE: time and kind of action • Time: past, present or future • Kind: 1) Punctiliar (seen as a point or happening all at once, climactic) Ex: I spoke. 2) Linear (a progressive or continuous action) Ex: I am speaking. The present tense indicates a progressive (continuing) action happening in the present time (right now). This is seen through the presence of am/is/are and the “ –ing” ending of the verb. Ex: He is loosing.

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VOICE: The relationship of the subject to the action. • Active: The subject is doing the action. Ex: The boy is kicking the ball. • Passive: The subject is being acted upon. Ex: The ball is being kicked (by the boy). • Middle: (We’ll study this later on.)

MOOD: The relation of the action to reality. • Indicative: The speaker indicates that the action is really happening. Ex: I am studying Greek. • Subjunctive: A possibility. Ex: If you study, you will pass the test. • Imperative: A command. Ex: Study!


PERSON • 1st - I, we • 2nd - you, you (pl.) • 3rd - he, she, it, they No subject pronoun is needed. This is taken care of by the inflected (personal) ending of the verb. ανθρωπος λυει means “a man is loosing”. λυει means “he is loosing”. Greek changes the form of words to reflect changes. It is a highly inflected language. In English both the second person singular and plural are translated “you”. The English usage makes no distinction.

• NUMBER: Tells whether the subject is one (singular) or many (plural). Ex: The man (S) or the men (P).

3) THE PARSING CODE The Parsing Code for verbs is as follows: Part of Speech, Person, Number, Tense, Voice, Mood Examples: V-PAI-3S stands for Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 3rd Person, Singular V-PAI-1P stands for Verb, Present, Active, Indicative, 1st Person, Plural

SINGULAR

PARSING CODE

GREEK WORD

PLURAL

PARSING CODE

GREEK WORD

1st Person

I am loosing

V-PAI-1S

λυω

We are loosing

V-PAI-1P

λυοµεν

2nd Person

you are loosing

V-PAI-2S

λυεις

You (pl.) are loosing

V-PAI-2P

λυετε

3rd Person

he, she or it is loosing

V-PAI-3S

λυει

They are loosing

V-PAI-3P

λυουσι

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