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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ 1 Course Syllabus .............................................................................................................................. 2 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... 4 Notes on Authorship ....................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Handholds to Proficiency................................................................................................................ 6 Part I - Philosophy and History of Hermeneutics ........................................................................... 7 The Foundations of Hermeneutics .................................................................................................. 7 The Heart of Hermeneutics ........................................................................................................... 10 Historical Hermeneutics................................................................................................................ 12 Part II - Using the Grammatical-Historical Approach .................................................................. 18 Introduction to the Grammatical-Historical Approach ................................................................. 18 Literal, Figurative, and Symbolic Interpretations of Scripture ..................................................... 18 Doing a Word Study ..................................................................................................................... 19 Exegesis: The Art of Interpretation............................................................................................... 21 A Brief History of Chapter and Verse Divisions .......................................................................... 22 The Importance of Paragraphs in Interpreting Scripture .............................................................. 24 Literary Styles ............................................................................................................................... 25 Figures of Speech .......................................................................................................................... 26 Parables and Allegories................................................................................................................. 29 Biblical Types ............................................................................................................................... 31 Part III - Study Tools .................................................................................................................... 33 Translation Styles.......................................................................................................................... 33 Choosing and Using Commentaries.............................................................................................. 33 Resources for Bible Reading and Study ....................................................................................... 34 A Student's Glossary for Biblical Studies ..................................................................................... 46 A Student's Guide to Reference Books and Biblical Commentaries ............................................ 73


2 COURSE SYLLABUS Course: Principles of Biblical Interpretation - Hermeneutics Credit: 1 Semester Credit Course Description: The course is designed to acquaint the student with various approaches to Biblical interpretation. It teaches the superiority of the grammatical-historical method and covers the principles and guidelines involved in discovering the author's intended meaning. These principles involve matters of context, the meaning of words, figurative language, and various literary types found in both the Old and New Testaments. Also included are some methods of applying hermeneutics to life and ministry. This is an introductory course that will illustrate the application of principles and guidelines through practical assignments from the Bible. Course Objectives Affective (Attitudes) - The student should experience: 1. Greater respect for and desire to seek the author’s intended meaning for any passage under investigation. 2. A heightened appreciation for the wisdom manifested to us through God's revelation of Himself in the Bible. 3. An increased confidence in realizing that God is revealing, not hiding, truth about Himself and His will. 4. An increase in humility, patience, and confidence in God as he learns to deal honestly with the Word of God. 5. An increased desire to “rightly divide” God’s Word through proper application of hermeneutical principles. 6. New motivation to be a lifetime student of those things basic to hermeneutics, such as language, grammar, logic, attention to detail, objectivity, etc. 7. An increased desire to teach others the content, principles, and application of the Bible, as well as methodology for personal study, investigation, and verification of Bible truths. 8. A greater confidence in his ability to be an effective interpreter and in applying Biblical principles to life situations. Cognitive (Knowledge) - The student will: 1. Identify the necessary principles for correct Bible interpretation. 2. Name the various approaches to Bible interpretation, both historic and contemporary. 3. See how an interpreter's presuppositions may affect his hermeneutics. 4. Learn how to guard against his personal bias and presuppositions affecting his attempt to interpret. 5. Identify how to research the geographical, historical, and cultural setting of a Bible passage. 6. Learn the principles of word study, including etymology, semantic range, and context. 7. Learn the importance of grammar in analysis of the biblical writer's thought. 8. Learn the importance of context, with its various applications. 9. Learn the various "literary types" of language used in the Bible, and their application to understanding the Bible. 10. Learn how to identify figurative language and idioms and to recognize their application. 11. Learn how to understand biblical Hebrew poetry. 12. Learn some methods of approaching alleged discrepancies in the Bible. 13. Learn the four types of Bible prophecy.


COURSE SYLLABUS

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Conative (Skills) - The students will be able to: 1. Use the reference tools available to him. 2. Do word studies. 3. Construct a mechanical layout of a Bible passage. (If the student has the proper background in grammar, he will be able to diagram a grammatical analysis of a Bible passage.) 4. Gather relevant information regarding the context of a passage through the use of the Bible and available reference tools. 5. Discern the effect of presuppositions in the interpretation of a Bible passage. 6. Identify the "literary type" of a Bible passage, and its implications for understanding its meaning. Course Requirements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Read and interact with the textbook and course notes. Complete all daily assignments. Keep a notebook for all lectures and handouts. Attend and participate in class lectures and discussions. Complete the final examination.

Course Evaluation 1. 2. 3. 4.

Notebook Class participation Assignments Final Examination

10% 10% 40% 40%


4 BIBLIOGRAPHY Carson, D.A. Exegetical Fallacies. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984. Corley, Bruce, Steve Lemke and Grant Lovejoy. Biblical Hermeneutics: A Comprehensive Introduction To Interpreting Scripture.Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996. Dunnett, W.M. The Interpretation of Holy Scriptures. Nashville: Nelson, 1984. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Exegetical Theology: Biblical Exegesis for Preaching and Teaching. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Uses of the Old Testament in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr., ed. Classical Evangelical Essays in Old Testament Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972. Kearly, F.F., E.P. Myers, and T.D. Hadley, eds. Biblical Interpretation, Principles and Practices. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986. McQuilkin, Robertson. Understanding and Applying The Bible. Chicago: Moody, 1992. Mickleson, A.B. Interpreting the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963. Ramm, Bernard. Protestant Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1970. Silva, Moises. An Introduction to Lexical Semantics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. Terry, M.S. Biblical Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. Virkler, Henry A. Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981.

NOTES ON AUTHORSHIP All course notes for School of the Bible were originally compiled by Larry Allen and Dean Harvey. This 2002 edition of the course notes has been re-written (except where other authorship is stated) by Beth Ann Smith with editing by Sarah Hunter. Permission to reproduce any part of these course notes (except where prohibited by other publishers’ copyrights) must be granted through Youth With A Mission Madison. Please submit requests to Youth With A Mission P.O. Box 8503 Madison, WI 53708 Fax (608)233-4125


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INTRODUCTION The Bible is intended to communicate the truth that we need to know about who God is and how he relates to us. As Paul wrote to the Romans, many things about God are obvious – that He is invisible, eternal, and powerful (Rom. 1:20). However, many things are not so obvious – that He is holy and kind, merciful and just, and that He will go to extraordinary lengths to win the heart of man back to Himself. For these things, man must have revelation, and that revelation is found in the Bible. The Bible is God’s account of Himself given to man through men. These individuals occupied a certain time and place in history. They used the words of their time and place to communicate the truths of God. Therefore, we must apply the same methods of study to the Scriptures in order to understand them that we would apply to any literary work. For example, if the book in question is a novel by Charlotte Brontë, I may understand a great deal of the story and be entertained by it without understanding what the author intended to communicate because I am separated from her by time and space. Fortunately, she wrote in the same language that I use, but even then, there are subtle nuances of meaning that have shifted that can confound my understanding. So, in order to fully understand the works of Charlotte Brontë, I need to explore her world – her time in history, her culture, her understanding of reality, her use of language, her geography even. If I’m only looking for a “good read” I can read her without extra study. In order to become the serious Bible students, we must learn certain skills. In this course, we will study both hermeneutics (which is the philosophy of Bible interpretation), and exegesis (which is the actual skills necessary to get at the author’s intended meaning). We will examine various philosophies or approaches to biblical interpretation, with special emphasis on the grammatical-historical approach. We will also practice very practical helps such as doing a word study, using reference tools, researching the cultural and historical background of a text. Before we begin, think about the following dilemma presented by Henry Virkler:

THE NAPHTUNKIANS’ DILEMMA Situation: You once wrote a letter to a close friend. Enroute to its destination the postal service lost your message, and it remained lost for the next two thousand years, amidst nuclear wars and other historical transitions. One day it is discovered and reclaimed. Three poets from the contemporary Naphunkian society translate your letter separately, but unfortunately arrive at three different meanings. “What this means to me,” says Tunky I, “is…” “I disagree,” says Tunky II. “What this means to me is…” “You’re both wrong,” claims Tunky III. “My interpretation is the correct one.” Resolution: As a dispassionate observer viewing the controversy from your celestial (we hope) perspective, what advice would you like to give the Tunkies to resolve their differences? We will assume that you had been a fairly articulate writer. a. Is it possible that your letter actually has more than one valid meaning? If your answer is “Yes,” go to (b). If “No,” go to (c). b. If your letter can have a variety of meanings, is there any limit on the number of its valid meanings? If there is a limit, what criteria would you propose to differentiate between valid and invalid meanings? c. If there is only one valid meaning of your letter, what criteria will you use to discern whether Tunky I, II, or III has the best interpretation? If you conclude that Tunky II’s interpretation is superior, how would you justify this to Tunkies I and III?1

1

Henry A. Virkler, Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981), p. 23.


6 HANDHOLDS TO PROFICIENCY By the end of these sessions, students should be able to discuss intelligently the following topics. If you do not feel confident of your ability to competently discuss each of these points, go back and review your notes and text. Further, we suggest that you engage in discussion with fellow students on these topics. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The significance of the mind (presuppositions) and heart (attitudes) to Bible study. The five main hermeneutic approaches, giving the strengths and weaknesses of each. The significance of the author’s intended meaning is the goal of hermeneutics. Correct interpretation skills of the various literary styles used in Scriptures. Word studies. Ways to study the historical, cultural, philosophical, and physical background of the Scriptures.


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PART I - PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF HERMENEUTICS THE FOUNDATIONS OF HERMENEUTICS DEFINITIONS: Hermeneutics, n. The art of finding the meaning of an author’s words and phrases, and of explaining it to others. – Webster’s 1828 Dictionary2 “Hermeneutics is the science of the correct interpretation of the Bible.” – Bertrand Ramm3 “Hermeneutics is essentially a codification of the processes we normally use at an unconscious level to understand the meaning of a communication. The more blocks to spontaneous understanding, the greater the need for hermeneutics.” – Henry A. Virkler4 “They read from the Book of the Law of God, making it clear {or translating it} and giving the meaning so that the people could understand what was being read.” – Nehemiah 8:8 (NIV)

THE PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF HERMENEUTICS Deuteronomy 29:29 says, “The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever, that we may observe all the words of this law.” In John 1:1, Jesus is introduced as “the Word,” which “was with God, and…was God.” All of creation exists because God spoke. In a fundamental way, God is a communicator. God is love (I John 4:8) and love must communicate in order to be love and not some mental abstraction. The Bible is revelation and communication from God to man in man’s language. Man, being made in God’s image, is also fundamentally a communicator. Since God loves man, He wants to communicate that love to man, and He uses the method that is most calculated to be understood by us: words. The basic laws that govern human communication also govern the communication between God and man. If two people are having a conversation, the listener may not arbitrarily assign meaning to the speaker’s words. If he has not correctly interpreted the speaker’s intended meaning, then no true communication has taken place. If the people in question want to have a good relationship of mutual understanding, they must seek to truly understand one another, not come to the conversation with biases and presuppositions about what the other person will say, or mean by what they say.

THE NECESSITY OF HERMENEUTICS Bernard Ramm, in his book Protestant Biblical Interpretation, states the need for hermeneutics as first, “to ascertain what God has said in Sacred Scripture; to determine the meaning of the Word of God. There is no profit to us if God has spoken and we do not know what He has said. Therefore, it is our responsibility to determine the meaning of what God has given to us in Sacred Scripture.” 5 In Romans 14:12, Paul wrote, “So then each one of us shall give account of himself to God.” We are responsible for what we accept as truth ourselves, and even more so for what we teach as truth to others. 2

Noah Webster, American Dictionary of the English Language (San Francisco: Foundation for American Christian Education, 1995 from the original 1828 edition). 3 Bertrand Ramm, Protestant Biblical Interpretation (Boston: W.A. Wilde, 1956), p. 11. 4 Virkler, p. 19. 5 Ibid, p. 2.


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Dr. Ramm continues, “The second great need for a science of hermeneutics is to bridge the gap between our minds and the minds of the Biblical writers. People of the same culture, same age, and same geographical location understand each other with facility….But when the interpreter is separated culturally, historically, and geographically from the writer he seeks to interpret, the task of interpretation is no longer facile. The greater the cultural historical, and geographical divergences are, the more difficult is the task of interpretation.”6 We are separated by nearly two thousand years from the writers of the most recent biblical texts and by a far larger number of years from the writers of the most ancient. We speak entirely different languages than they did. We have entirely different day-to-day experiences. And these are only the most obvious differences! Human beings need an authoritative standard for right and wrong. Obviously, the Scripture is our standard, but wrong interpretation and application can lead to many errors. For example, how do we know that we are now allowed to wear cotton-polyester blends? The Bible expressly forbids blending fabric types in one garment in Deuteronomy 22:11, doesn’t it? Why are all the young ladies in this class sitting with shamelessly uncovered heads? Why are they speaking up and asking questions when the Bible commands that women be silent? Why can’t men marry more than one wife? King David did it. So did King Solomon. Right hermeneutic helps us arrive at the answer to these and many other questions.

CLOSING THE GAP 1. The Language Gap – (See “Exegesis: The Art of Interpretation” below and Chapter 7 of Understanding and Applying the Bible by Robertson McQuilkin) – As Henry Virkler points out, “The Bible is written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek – three languages that have very different structures and idioms from our own…distortions in meaning…would result…if the reader is not aware that phrases such as ‘God hardened Pharaoh’s heart’ may contain Hebrew idioms that make the original meaning of this phrase something different from that conveyed by the literal English translation.”7 The serious Biblical student should have an understanding of the following: a. A basic understanding of the biblical languages (the more the better). b. An understanding of literary styles and how to rightly handle different styles c. A familiarity with the various forms of Biblical types and figurative language d. How to do a word study e. How to analyze the sentence and paragraph structure of the passage f. How to put the text into its literary context 2. The Historical Gap – (See Chapter 8 of Understanding and Applying the Bible) [Note that when you do research in recent historical material, scholars may sometimes use BCE (Before Common Era) for the more common BC time designation and CE (Common Era) for the AD designation] Research: a. The personal situation of the author b. The historical references within Scripture c. Extrabiblical sources8 3. The Physical Gap – (See Chapter 8 of Understanding and Applying the Bible) Research: a. Geographical references b. References to animal life c. References to plant life9

6

Ibid, p. 4. Virkler, Ibid, p. 20 8 The above categories are taken from Robertson McQuilkin, Understanding and Applying the Bible Chicago: Moody, 1992), pp. 91-96. 7


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4. The Cultural Gap – (See Chapter 8 of Understanding and Applying the Bible) – Bernard Ramm defines culture as, “…in the anthropological sense…all the ways and means, material and social, whereby a given people carry on their existence.”10 He continues, “Until we can recreate and understand the cultural patterns of the various Biblical periods we will be handicapped in our understanding of the fuller meaning of Scripture. For example, the web of relationships among husband, wife, concubines and children that existed in Abraham’s time has now been recovered from clay tablets. Abraham’s treatment of Hagar is now seen as protocol in terms of these relationships.” 11 Research: a. Cultural background learned from the Bible b. Cultural background from extrabiblical sources12 c. “A knowledge of marriage customs, economic practices, military systems, legal systems, agricultural methods, etc., is all very helpful in the interpretation of Scripture.”13 5. The Philosophical/Theological Gap – Virkler writes, “Views of life, of circumstances, of the nature of the universe differ among various cultures. To transmit a message validly from one culture to another, a translator or reader must be aware of both the similarities and the contrasts in world view.”14 Research: a. Philosophy - It is quite possible for the modern reader to misinterpret Scripture because he is unaware of the prevailing world view of either the author or the intended audience. Some things can only be understood when we understand the philosophy of both the writer and the intended audience. b. Antecedent Theology - What was the theology of the writer of the text? Revelation is progressive. For example, Abraham knew that God would make of him a nation, but didn’t have any specific idea of the aspects of that nation and its religion (e.g., the Levitical priesthood, temple worship, specific holidays and sacraments). Isaiah knew that a Messiah would come, but didn’t realize fully what that Messiah would be like. The disciples knew that Jesus would send them the Holy Spirit, but didn’t know exactly what that meant. First we must identify where the author was in the process of revelation. At that point, what theology or understanding did the author have from what had been revealed before his time? We must therefore interpret his meaning in light of what he would have understood at the time.

BLOCKS TO UNDERSTANDING 1. Sin/Personal Bias- This occurs when we don’t want to learn or hear some things. Once we start hardening our hearts to truth, we are in a very dangerous place. Eph. 4:17-18 affirms, “This I say therefore, and affirm together with the Lord, that you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind, being darkened in their understanding, excluded from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart.” Notice the progression: Hardness of heart leads to ignorance which leads to exclusion from the life of God and a darkened understanding. 9

The above categories are taken from Robertson McQuilkin, Understanding and Applying the Bible Chicago: Moody, 1992), pp. 96-100. 10 Ramm, p. 5 11 Ramm, pp. 5-6. 12 The above categories are taken from Robertson McQuilkin, Understanding and Applying the Bible Chicago: Moody, 1992), pp. 100-103. 13 Ramm, p. 6. 14 Virkler, p. 20.


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2. Lack of Imagination - This power to envision from the printed page is essential to coming to a good understanding of the emotional impact of the passage. 3. Lack of Knowledge of the whole Bible – Without such knowledge, it is impossible to put a text into its context. 4. Tone of Voice – We are all hampered by not knowing the emphasis in the original languages. For example, in emails, the author often uses capital letters and symbols such as :) to convey excitement or that he is being ironic. Knowing the author helps in interpretation of these methods of conveying meaning. However, 500 years from now, these “tones” probably wouldn’t mean anything to someone trying to interpret such an email.

CONCLUSION With all of the above in mind, it’s important to add a word of balance. The essential message of Scripture is clear. The Reformers of the 16th and 17th Century argued that no special knowledge was necessary to understand Scripture – that any Christian could read the Scriptures in his own language and come to a knowledge of salvation. Even earlier, John Wycliffe, the great pioneer in English Bible translation, said that Word of God is for the government of the individual by the individual. In other words, he believed that each Englishman ought to be able to read the Scriptures in his own language for himself and then to govern himself according to what he read in the Bible. On the other hand, we have to remember Peter’s warning in 2 Peter 3:16 regarding the letters of Paul and all of Scripture, “…in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as [they do] also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.” We can all benefit from listening to sound teaching, but let us be like the Bereans. The Bible testifies of them that, “These were more noble-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they received the word with great eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily, [to see] whether these things were so” (Acts 17:11).

THE HEART OF HERMENEUTICS We have seen and we believe that God wants to communicate Himself to man. If there is a problem in communication, we may be sure that it’s not because of a fault with God, but with us. We are not always ready to receive truth.15 God wants to give us truth, but we must be to a point in our lives (relationships) where truth will not destroy us through pride. As Paul wrote in I Corinthians 8:1, “Knowledge makes arrogant, but love edifies.” There is also a process involved in growing in maturity and depth of understanding which requires patience and cooperation with what God is doing in our lives. God knows what we’re ready to understand and apply. That is why it took so many years for Moses to be ready for the understanding and ministry that God had designed for him. God would not destroy Moses to bless us. When God did release Moses into his new role as the leader of the new nation of Israel and transmitter of the Pentateuch, He knew that Moses would not be destroyed by his role. Moses spent forty years in the palace of Pharaoh, learning the art and science, philosophy and leadership. He felt that he was qualified to be a deliverer of his people at that point, but he had no real revelation – the best that he could do was to murder an Egyptian guard and meddle in other people’s quarrels without an invitation. He spent the next forty years in the wilderness, tending sheep, learning humility through loss of position and hardship. On this foundation of patience and humility, God was able to make Moses into the deliverer he was meant to be for his people. He was able to reveal to him His own heart, and his final testimony was that Moses was the friend of God. We are all on a learning curve. For example, a small boy might run up to his grandfather, jump up to give him a hug, and knock him down. He loves his grandfather, but doesn’t know how to apply that love. 15

A good definition for truth is: the description of reality, both objective and subjective.


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As he grows in maturity, he will begin how to apply his love so that his grandfather is not injured by it! We must also grow to maturity. II Peter 3:18 says, “But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ...” This maturity is to understand how to truly love our neighbor as ourselves in every sphere of relationship, bringing forth God’s purposes in history. The process of interpretation is the process of holding the Bible in one hand, and as we read, holding the other hand to heaven in prayer and humility. This does not mean that nonbelievers using correct method will not be able to come to some knowledge of what Scripture says. As Henry Virkler points out: According to Scripture, persons do not truly possess knowledge unless they are living in the light of that knowledge. True faith is not only knowledge about God (which even the demons possess) but knowledge acted on. The unbeliever can know (intellectually comprehend many of the truths of Scripture using the same means of interpretation he would use with nonbiblical texts, but he cannot truly know (act on and appropriate) these truths as long as he remains in rebellion against God.16 Growing to maturity includes applying the truths that we know. Understanding and interpreting the Bible has a strong relational aspect to it. Relationally, we depend upon the Holy Spirit and prayerfully seek God’s wisdom in understanding Scripture. Personally, we must meet the conditions for correct understanding: 1. Purity – As John 3:19 says, being a “lover of light”. This includes a willingness to apply what the Spirit shows us from the Scripture. Proverbs 15:33 says, “The fear of the LORD teaches a man wisdom and humility comes before honor.” We follow the dictates of our conscience, which compares our attitudes and actions with our understanding. 2. Humility – We are to come to the Bible with a teachable attitude. Again, this relies on a willingness to apply what we learn. “This is the one that I esteem: He who is humble and contrite in spirit and who trembles at my word” (Isaiah 66:2). 3. Diligence – Proverbs 2:4-6 encourages us, “If you seek her [wisdom] as silver, and search for her as for hidden treasures; then you will discern the fear of the Lord, and discover the knowledge of God. For the Lord gives wisdom; From His mouth [come] knowledge and understanding.”

16

Virkler, p. 30.


12 HISTORICAL HERMENEUTICS HERMENEUTICS AT THE TIME OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES The world in which Christianity first made its appearance was the soil in which the seed of the Gospel grew. The soil has had a profound effect on the way that the Scriptures have been treated by interpreters in the centuries since the appearance of Jesus on the earth. There are two main cultural groups we first need to look at when tracing the history of hermeneutics. The first group is the Jewish community at the time of Christ. The other is the Greco-Roman world of which the Jewish community was a part. The Greeks, although they had been conquered by the Romans, had a monopoly on culture, ideas, and even manners. They ‘conquered their conquerors’ in culture and even their language took over to a great extent and became the language of commerce, culture, ideas, and even religion. This process is called Hellenization. The New Testament was written in Greek. Among the Greek thinkers during the centuries directly before the birth of Christ and at the time of his birth, there was a desire to reconcile the writings of Greek philosophers and the religious traditions and literature (namely, those of Homer and Hesiod) of the Greeks. The only problem was that the religious traditions and literature were about gods and goddess that were very much in the human likeness, who did things that were not in keeping with the high standards set by the Greek philosophers, especially Plato. This gave rise to an allegorical approach (sometimes called the supernatural approach) to the myths. An allegorical approach looks for the true meaning beneath the obvious literal meaning of the story.17 As Ramm writes, “The stories of the gods, and the writings of the poets, were not to be taken literally. Rather underneath is the secret and real meaning.”18 The Jews had been scattered to the four winds of the Roman Empire. As a result, many no longer even spoke or understood Hebrew. The Old Testament had to be translated into Greek so that they could understand their own history and sacred writings. Through this Diaspora (scattering) of the Jews, the Jews influenced the Greco-Roman world in which they lived. Through their worship, many Romans became aware of the monotheism practiced by the Jews, and some even became “God-fearers” – those who worshiped the Jewish God without going all the way and becoming Jews. On the other hand, the Jews were also very influenced by the world in which they found themselves, and in particular, by Greek literature and philosophy. There was a very sizable Jewish settlement in Alexandria, Egypt, which was a center of learning during that period. Indeed, the first library (which, sadly, burned down) was in Alexandria, and it was for this library that the Old Testament was translated into Greek. It is through Alexandria that allegorical method as practiced by the Greeks entered into Jewish and eventually Christian tradition. Those Jews who embraced Greek philosophy (especially that of Plato) had the same problem that the Greeks did. They needed to harmonize their Scriptures with their philosophy. The allegorical method solved their problems and provided them with a way to keep their religious tradition without abandoning their new philosophy. Two of the Jewish allegorists were Aristobulus (about 160 B.C.), who was probably the first to use this method, and Philo (20 B.C. to 54 A.D.), the most famous. Through the allegorical method, these Jewish allegorists managed to see the teachings of the Greek philosophers in the writings of the Old Testament.19 Although Philo did not deny that the Old Testament reported actual historic events, he did teach that the literal understanding was an immature understanding and that the allegorical was the soul of the literal body.20 Bernard Ramm gives one example of this type of allegorization. Abraham’s journey from Ur to the land of Canaan is allegorized as follows: 17

See Ramm, pp. 24-25 and Virkler, pp.52-53 for a discussion of Greek allegorization. Ramm, p. 25. 19 See Ramm, pp. 25-28 and Virkler, pp. 52-53 for a discussion of Jewish allegorization. 20 Ramm, p. 27. 18


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Abraham’s trek to Palestine is really the story of a Stoic philosopher who leaves Chaldea (sensual understanding) and stops at Haran, which means “holes,” and signifies the emptiness of knowing things by the holes, that is the senses. When he becomes Abraham he becomes a truly enlightened philosopher. To marry Sarah is to marry abstract wisdom.21 Of course, there were other methods of Jewish exegesis, of which the literal was one type.22 Other allegorical schools used numerology, substituting one word for another word of the same numeric value. The Essenes (who gave us the Dead Sea Scrolls) practiced a form of allegorical interpretation which interpreted all Scripture and all current events in light of their presupposition that they were living in the end times and that their community and its founder were referred to in the Scriptures.23 It is informative to see what use Christ and the Apostles made of the Hebrew Scriptures (what we know as the Old Testament). Virkler points out that about ten percent of the New Testament comes from the Hebrew Scriptures either through direct quotations, references to materials, or paraphrases.24 Jesus generally treats Scripture to a literal exegesis. When referring to historical events or people, he treats them as if they actually occurred, and when he applied historical events to the current circumstance, he used the literal understanding and not any sort of allegorical interpretation. Furthermore, he criticized the Pharisees for setting aside the literal meaning of the law to make way for their traditions (see Mark 7:6-13 for example). Interestingly, the Pharisees and Scribes, although they accused Jesus of many things, never accused him of misapplying Scripture.25 Generally, his use of Scripture stopped them in their tracks and they were unable to answer him. Likewise, the Apostles regarded the Scriptures as the Word of God and referred to God as the author of Scripture on no less than fifty-six occasions.26 They accept historical events of the Hebrew Scriptures as accurate, and appeal to the Hebrew writings continuously. Virkler quotes Roger Nicole: They appeal to Scripture when in debate; they appeal to it when requested to answer questions, whether serious or captious; they appeal to it in connection with their teaching even to those who would not be inclined to pres them for other authorities than their own word; they appeal to it to indicate the purpose of some of their own actions or their insight into God’s purpose in relation to contemporary developments; and they appeal to it in their prayers.27 Kaiser concludes that “in all passages where the New Testament writers quote the Old to establish a fact or doctrine and use the Old Testament argumentatively, they have understood the passage in its natural and straightforward sense.”28

THE PATRISTIC AGE (100-600 A.D.) Since Christ and the Apostles treated Scripture in a straightforward, literal manner, the student must question how the allegorical method of interpretation came to have dominion in the church for centuries. The allegorical method entered Christianity through Alexandria as well. Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – 21

Ramm, p. 28. See Kaiser, pp. 52-56; Ramm, pp. 45-48; and Virkler, pp. 48-51 for fuller discussions. 23 Kaiser, p. 55-56 24 Virkler, p. 53. 25 The above points came from Virkler, p. 54. 26 Virkler, p. 55. 27 Bernard Nicole, “Old Testament Quotations” in Virkler, p. 56. 28 Kaiser, p. 57. 22


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c. 215 A.D.) and Origen (185?-254? A.D.) brought the allegorical approach into mainstream Christianity and “institutionalized” it.29 They were heavily influenced by Philo, and they believed staunchly that the Old Testament was essentially Christian. Their strong desire to prove it so came in part from the teaching of the Manicheans who saw the God of the Old Testament as evil and the God of the New Testament as good. Their use of allegorical method thus sprang out of an intellectual foundation in Greek philosophy and an honest desire to prove the Old Testament to speak of Jesus. As Ramm points out however, they also practiced literal interpretation. “They did emphasize the truths of the Gospel in their fancies. If they had not done this, they would have become sectarian [that is, holding to other doctrines than the church as a whole].”30 They advocated using allegorical interpretation whenever “(1) there appeared anything in the text which in their judgment was unworthy of being attributed to God, (2) the text presented an insoluble difficulty, or (3) an expression made no sense or contained what appeared to be a contradiction.”31 Clement and Origen had backgrounds in Greek philosophy which they never abandoned. They, like Philo, looked to allegorization as a way to harmonize the Old Testament and the writings of Plato. They had such a high regard for Plato that they saw him as leading the Greeks to Christ in the same way that the Hebrew Law leads the Jews to him. Clement saw the Scriptures as having five senses. He believed that not everyone could understand all five, because it is not appropriate for everyone to understand all five. Only those who understand the deeper senses can understand the deeper senses of Scripture. The five senses are: “historical, doctrinal, prophetic, philosophical, and mystical.”32 Obviously, the philosophical and the mystical were the deepest senses. Thus, every Scripture could be interpreted in five different ways. Origen, Clement’s successor saw every detail of Scripture as an allegorical symbol. He theorized that man has three parts – a body, soul, and spirit – and so does Scripture. He saw the body as the literal meaning of the Scripture, the soul as the moral meaning, and the spirit as the allegorical meaning. The allegory was that which gave the true knowledge.33 Augustine (354-430), considered by many to be the greatest thinker of his age, also advocated the allegorical method. Indeed, it was Anselm’s use of the allegorical method of interpret the Old Testament that resolved many of Augustine’s problems with the Old Testament (he had been heavily involved in Manicheanism himself before coming to Christ). He also saw the Old Testament as fundamentally a Christian book, and not just that, as a book about Christ. Therefore, everything in the Old Testament had to be allegorized so that it pointed to Christ. However, at the same time, he held that the entire Bible was not allegorical, and that much of it was to be taken literally. He himself used the literal method often in his own work. Augustine also held that the interpreter’s job was to find the intended meaning of the author and not bring his own interpretations to the Scriptures and that each verse must be taken in its context and in the context of the whole Scripture. Furthermore, he maintained that no verse which wasn’t absolutely clear could be used to establish a doctrine. Unfortunately, Augustine himself frequently violated his own rules for hermeneutics.34 Augustine’s writings on hermeneutics (De Doctrina Christiana) became the standard for the church of the Middle Ages.35 Bernard Ramm comments on the allegorical method of interpretation as practiced by the early Greek Christians: “The curse of the allegorical method is that it obscures the true meaning of the Word of God and had it not kept the Gospel truth central it would have become cultic and heretical. In fact, this is exactly what happened when the Gnostics allegorized the New Testament. The Bible treated allegorically becomes putty in the hand of the exegete.”36 In other words, using the allegorical method, the interpreter 29

Kaiser, p. 58. Ramm, p. 29. 31 Kaiser, p. 58. 32 Virkler, p. 59. 33 Virkler, p. 60. 34 Ramm, p. 34-38. 35 See also Virkler, pp. 60-61 on Augustine. 36 Ramm, p. 30. 30


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may make the Scriptures mean just about anything that he wants, and may find all sorts of hidden “truths” that the Scripture never intended to teach. The allegorical method helped to lead to the split between the laity and the clergy in the early church and a more hierarchical form of church government. Obviously, someone had to have the final word on what Scripture was really trying to teach. Who better than the priest – he who was trained to understand the “deep” meanings of Scripture? Slowly, then, the Scriptures were taken out of the hands of the untrained because they were seen to be unqualified to recognize its deeper truths and might misinterpret the message of Scripture. The Alexandrian School, with its allegorical hermeneutic, was not the only school of thought in the early church. The Syrian School of Antioch practiced a more literal interpretation of Scripture and opposed the Alexandrian and other allegorical schools. They, in turn, were influenced by the Antiochian Jews, who practiced literal interpretation of Scripture. Their standard for interpretation was to interpret according to “the rules of grammar and the facts of history.” 37 In other words, they used the grammatical-historical approach. Their great spokesperson was Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 350-428), but other members of their school were Lucian (b. 240 A.D.), Diodorus (b. 320 A.D.), and Chrysostom (b. 350 A.D.). Unlike the allegorists, they found the spiritual meaning of the events in Scripture in the actual events, not in the “hidden meaning” which was only for the elite to understand. Virkler sums up nicely: According to the allegorists, Abraham’s departure from Haran signified his rejection of knowing things by the senses; to the Antiochians, Abraham’s departure from Haran represented an act of faith and trust as he followed God’s call to go from the historical city of Haran to the land of Canaan.38

Unfortunately for the Antiochians and the entire church, one of their students, Nestorius (later Bishop of Constantinople), who became involved in a controversy over the deity of Christ in which he was accused of heresy.39 His association with the school reflected badly on the whole cause and eventually led to their downfall.40 Nonetheless, they influenced Western Christianity through Jerome and other Church Fathers and their principles were again popularized during the Reformation.41

THE MIDDLE AGES (600-1500 A.D.) For the most part, the hermeneutics practiced in the Middle Ages clung to the tradition handed down by Augustine and others of the allegorical school. The interpreters during this period practiced dogmatic exegesis in that all interpretations had to agree with those already established in the doctrines and traditions of the church. There were a few exceptions. Hugh of the Abbey of St. Victor in Paris (1096?-1141), while holding that Scripture could be interpreted allegorically, emphasized a literal interpretation and taught that the meaning intended by the author was the meaning of the Scripture. One of his students, Andrew of St. Victor further emphasized the literal interpretation of Scripture. His followers, the “Victorines” argued that Scripture should form doctrine, not doctrine form interpretation.42 It is interesting to note that the Victorines carried on a friendly intellectual interaction with the Jewish scholars at this time, notably the Spanish Jews, who were turning to a more literal approach to Biblical interpretation as well.43 37

Virkler, p. 62. Ibid. 39 Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity, vol. 1. New York: Harper & Row, p. 166-167. 40 Ibid. 41 See also Ramm, pp. 48-50. 42 See Virkler, p. 64; Ramm, p. 51; and Kaiser, p. 59. 43 Ramm, p. 51. 38


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Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), the great figure of the scholastic movement,44 emphasized the literal meaning, and put firm boundaries around when the allegorical method might be properly used. Since God is the author of Scripture, Aquinas felt that it could have multiple meanings, and that therefore, it would be wrong to limit it only to the literal meaning.45 Nicolas of Lyra (ca.1270-ca.1340) was a Jewish believer who emphasized the literal interpretation over the allegorical (though he still allowed for the allegorical). When using the allegorical, he argued that the allegorical interpretation was secondary and must grow out of the literal understanding. So influential was his work on the Reformers that there is a saying, “If Lyra had not piped, Luther would not have danced.”46

THE REFORMATION (1500’S) As Bernard Ramm points out, “there was a hermeneutical Reformation which preceded the ecclesiastical Reformation.”47 In other words, had it not been for a revolution in the way men looked at Scriptures, the Reformation of the church would never have taken place. The Reformation in large part truly began in the Renaissance. During the Italian Renaissance, there was a re-birth in study of the classic literature of Greece, namely Plato and Aristotle. While this movement has been criticized for its emphasis on humanism, it did sparked a new interest in the grammatical-historical approach. Many ancient documents were being studied from this approach. It was only a matter of time before Scripture too came in for this treatment. This return to scholarship and its emphasis on the original languages, led to the realization that the Latin Vulgate (a translation done by Jerome in the Sixth Century which had become the Catholic Bible) had textual errors and mistranslations. A priest named John Colet (1467-1519) was a pioneer in applying textual criticism to the Scriptures. In Italy, he was inspired by the new emphasis on studying the original language and history of the texts. Bringing the techniques home to England, he in turned influenced the great thinker, priest, and writer Desiderius Erasmus who attended lectures by Colet in 1498. He went on to publish a critical edition in Greek of the New Testament in 1516, the first of its kind. Erasmus in turn greatly influenced Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564).48 Luther and Calvin both scorned allegorical interpretation as coming from Satan. Luther said “allegory is a sort of beautiful harlot, who proves herself especially seductive to idle men” and maintained that, “Origen’s allegories are not worth so much dirt.” Calvin called allegories “a contrivance of Satan.”49 These two men and the movements they founded were absolutely instrumental in restoring and establishing the grammatical-historical method as the method of interpreting Scripture.50 Both men asserted that the true meaning of the text was the literal meaning intended by the author. Both men asserted that the Scriptures were understandable by the average educated Christian. In fact, Luther translated the Scriptures into German so that his fellow German’s could understand them. He said, “The Holy Ghost is the all-simplest writer that is in heaven or earth; therefore his words can have no more than one simplest sense, which we call the scriptural or literal meaning. 51 Calvin urged interpreters to let “Scripture interpret Scripture,” maintaining that “it is the first business of an interpreter to let the author say what he does say, instead of attributing to him what we think he ought to say.”52 44

The scholastic movement was a church movement which sought to wed faith and reason. In particular, the scholastics attempted to prove the doctrines of the faith through Aristotelian logic. 45 Ramm, pp. 40-41. 46 Kaiser, p. 60. 47 Ramm, p. 52. Italics original. 48 Kaiser, p.60-61. 49 Both quoted in Kaiser, pp. 60-61. 50 Kaiser, p. 60. 51 Quoted in Kaiser, p. 60. 52 Quoted in Virkler, p. 67.


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The Reformers stated the hermeneutic principles that with only minor changes are those which the orthodox Protestant churches still use today.53

53

For more information on the specific principles laid out by Luther and Calvin, see Ramm, pp. 53-59.


18

PART II - USING THE GRAMMATICAL-HISTORICAL APPROACH INTRODUCTION TO THE GRAMMATICAL-HISTORICAL APPROACH The grammatical-historical method aims to get at the meaning the author intended when he first penned the words. There are two aspects to this method, as its name suggests – a grammatical aspect, which has to do with interpreting the meaning of the language, and a historical aspect, which has to with putting the author’s words into their historic background. This method is not inherently Christian – it can be applied to any literature and is the method that secular scholars use in approaching both the Bible and other texts. It is essential to know the scholar’s presuppositions when using his scholarship. Many scholars who use the grammatical-historical method approach come from a naturalistic presupposition. As it is the Holy Spirit who is both the ultimate author of the scriptures, and the one who “leads us into all truth” (John 16:13), the Holy Spirit must also be a vital part of interpreting the scripture. We will be examining first the historical part of grammatical-historical, examining how to research the historical, cultural, and physical background that the book had. This is necessary to begin to enter into the presuppositions that the first audience would have had. Once we have explored the historical, we’ll turn to the grammatical, examining different literary styles and how they are to be understood, studying how to put Scripture into the context, discussing the thought structure of the Scripture, and learning how to do word studies.

LITERAL, FIGURATIVE, AND SYMBOLIC INTERPRETATIONS OF SCRIPTURE BY HENRY A. VIRKLER FROM HERMENEUTICS: PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION54 A third controversial issue in contemporary hermeneutics involves the literalness with which we interpret the words of Scripture. As Ramm points out, conservative Christians are sometimes accused of being “wooden-headed literalists” in their interpretations.55 Their more theologically liberal brethren claim that incidents such as the fall, the flood, and the story of Jonah’s submarine voyage should be understood as metaphors, symbols, and allegories rather than as actual historical events. Since all words are symbols representing ideas, say these liberals, we should not seek to apply these words in a strictly literal sense. Conservative theologians agree that words can be used in literal, figurative, or symbolic senses. The following three sentences exemplify this: a. Literal: A crown, sparkling with jewels, was placed on the king’s head. b. Figurative: (Angry father to son) “If you do that once more, I’ll crown you!” c. Symbolic: “A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head” (Rev. 12:1). The difference between the three uses of the word crown is not that one sense refers to actual historical events while the others do not. Literal and figurative expressions usually do refer to actual historical events, as little Johnny (sentence 2) could testify when he did “that” once more. The relationship between the ideas expressed by the words and reality is direct, rather than symbolic. However, ideas conveyed in symbolic language (e.g., allegorical and apocalyptic literature) also frequently have historical referents. Thus the woman in Revelation 12:1 may signify the nation of Israel,

54

Published by Academic Books, a division of Baker Book House Company, © 1981. permission (must be renewed annually). 55 Ramm, Protestant Biblical Interpretation, pp. 122,146.

Used by


19 with twelve stars representing the twelve tribes, the moon the Old Testament revelation, and the sun the light of New Testament revelation.56 Problems result when readers interpret statements in a mode other than the one intended by the author. As much distortion of the author’s meaning results from interpreting a literal statement figuratively as from interpreting a figurative statement literally. If Johnny believes he will receive a goldplated headpiece the next time he misbehaves, he has an unexpected surprise awaiting him. And the onlookers at the king’s coronation (sentence 1) would be equally surprised to see the gem-studded crown applied to his seat of learning. If all words are in some sense symbols, how can we determine when they are to be understood literally, or figuratively, or symbolically? The conservative theologian would reply that the same criterion for determining the valid interpretation of all other types of literature applies here, namely, that the words are to be interpreted according to the author’s intention. If the author meant them to be interpreted literally, we err if we interpret symbolically. If the author meant them to be interpreted symbolically, we err equally if we interpret them literally. The principle is easier to state than to apply; however, as shown in later chapters, the context and syntax provide important clues to intent and thus to meaning.

DOING A WORD STUDY BY MIKE HUCKINS

INTRODUCTION Words are the building-blocks of any language. Knowing the meaning of a particular word with the greatest degree of precision is critical for proper interpretation. The subtle shades of meaning are brought out by words around the word in question. As Walter Kaiser says, “Words, like people are known by the company they keep.”57 The word “running” can be used as an illustration. We might say, “There is a man running down the street.” Or “Is the car running?” Or “My nose is running.” The word in these three contexts has three different meanings. This range of meaning is called the “semantic range.” In any one use of the word though, the author has a single intended meaning for the word. The job of the interpreter is to get at what that meaning is. We must use textual clues to help us get at the meaning of the word as the author used it. An important consideration is the meaning of the word at the time that it was used. For example, I Peter 3:1 in the King James version reads, “Likewise, ye wives, [be] in subjection to your own husbands; that, if any obey not the word, they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives,” while the New American Standard reads, “In the same way, you wives, be submissive to your own husbands so that even if any [of them] are disobedient to the word, they may be won without a word by the behavior of their wives.” Obviously there is a difficulty here. In the first version, the husbands are to be won by their wives’ conversation, while in the other version, they are to be won without a word. The difficulty is solved by realizing that the meaning of the word conversation has changed in the nearly four hundred years since the King James Version was translated. It has come to refer to speech. The Greek word that the King James translators interpreted as “conversation” now better corresponds to the word “behavior” or “conduct” in our vernacular.

56 57

Leon Morris, The Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969), p. 156. Kaiser, p. 106.


20 CIRCLES OF CONTEXT The context of a word in the Bible may be seen as concentric circles. The closer the circle is to the word, the more important it is for determining the word’s meaning. See Figure 1 below.

Word Passage Paragraph Book Same author’s writings Other authors Whole Bible

Figure 1 In other words, the sentence the word is found in is the most important starting place for determining the meaning of the word. Out from there, the interpreter looks at other uses of the same word in the same paragraph, in the same book, in other writings by the same author, in other Biblical authors of the same period, and finally, consideration must be given to the word’s use across the whole of the Bible.

APPLYING THE RULE OF DEFINITION 1. Establish the “semantic range” – Study all instances of the target word’s use in the Bible and begin to establish tentative categories of meaning. An expanded study should include a study of the word’s cognates. These are words related to the target word. (For example righteous and righteousness are cognate words). 2. Study the immediate context (the passage) – a. The role of the word in the sentence may give clues. Is it a noun or a verb? Is it the subject or the object? b. The author may define the word by description. “Love is…” (I Cor. 13). “Sin is…” (James 4:17). “The mature are…” (Heb. 5:14). c. There may be explanatory or appositional phrases. For example, “…redemption, the forgiveness of our sins…” (Eph. 1:7). d. The author may define the word by contrast or antithesis. For example, “unwholesome” is contrasted with edification and “grace giving” (Eph. 4:29). 3. Study the paragraph context – a. The explanation of the word’s meaning may be given in the paragraph, either explicitly or by implication. b. The topic or basic subject and theme of the paragraph may make the meaning clear. 4. Look over the book context – a. How the author uses the word in the rest of the book may provide the meaning. b. The theme or topic of the book may help reveal the word’s meaning.


21 5. Research historical-cultural background – Sometimes, issues of history and culture impact the word’s meaning to the first audience. A good example is citizenship in Philippians 3:20. 6. Review how the same author uses this word in other writings – Take care however, to let the author and context control because he is free to use the word however he chooses in different contexts. 7. Review how other Biblical authors of the same period use this word. 8. Review the overall Biblical context and usage. a. Consider the total number of uses, time periods of use, concentration of use in any given period, and concentrated use in any limited context. Concentrations of use may indicate a “teaching block” for this word to be especially studied (especially the historical and cultural context). b. Determine if the concept or word has theological and/or technical significance in the Scripture, especially concerning redemption history or the nature and character of God. c. Consider the antecedent theology. Significant ideas develop over time, and prior use may be important to understand the word in its particular historical context. In other words, is there a sense of development in the use of this term? Do not impose later understanding on former uses. d. Use topical and real parallel passages (passages that speak of the same concept or event). Remember, however, that the immediate context is the determining factor. There may be parallel passages that use similar concepts but not the same words, (e.g., Ephesians 6:18 and I Thessalonians 5:17). Be careful of verbal parallels which use the same word but involve different concepts or events. Hebrews 4 and Ephesians 6 both use the word “sword,” yet the sense or meaning is not the same and thus are not real or true parallels. 9. Summarize your findings based on the steps above. 10. Consult the work of others – Review the research of others through the use of lexicons, theological wordbooks, and other Bible reference material. 11. Draw conclusions – Would you revise your work based on what other researchers have found? What are your conclusions based on your work?

EXEGESIS: THE ART OF INTERPRETATION As Kaiser writes, “It is the interpreter’s job to represent the text, not the prejudices, feelings, judgments, or concerns of the exegete [the person doing the interpretation].”58 Exegesis, then, is studying the text in order to identify the single meaning that the author sought to communicate. Bad exegesis is to “read into” the text – to give it a meaning that fits the interpreter’s presuppositions, not the author’s. The starting place for exegesis is the text itself and the language of the text. This is no easy task. As Bernard Ramm points out, “Each word is a little pool of meanings. Here again it taxes the learning and judgment of the wisest scholars to decide out of the pool of meanings which is the meaning intended in a given sentence, and then to try to match it with some word in the English language which is itself a pool of meanings.”59 Each word must be defined as the author originally intended that word to be used. Word uses should be chosen according to the following standard: First consider how the author has used the word in the book in which it was found. Second, consider how the author used the word in other writings. Third, consider the use of the word in the rest of the Bible. Fourth, look at the use of the word in other ancient uses of the language. One reason for studying biblical languages is so that the interpreter can move away from dependence on others. He can look at the text and see how all the words fit together. Knowing the definitions of the 58 59

Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Toward an Exegetical Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981), p. 45 Ramm, p. 5.


22 words does not complete the picture. He must understand how the words and the thoughts fit together and function in the sentence. This is hard work, but the rewards of a deeper and truer understanding of the text are worth it! Good exegesis requires great patience, the “ability of lovingly staying with each sentence until we can discern the finer points of its style, structure, beauty, and the special nuance of meaning the author had in mind. Haste, superficiality, and an unreceptive heart and mind are dangerous enemies to sound exegesis.”60 Of course, a humble reliance on the Holy Spirit for insight into the text is also critical. Walter C. Kaiser suggests that it’s often helpful for the exegete to make his own translation of the text if he is able. Kaiser then suggests reading five other translations of the same text, making note of any differences between his translation and the translation being read. Specifically, making note of the verse, the exegete writes the problem text as it is translated in each version so that he may compare.61 He should always record his reasons for choosing the translation that he chose. After the text itself, the exegete moves on to work with the background of the text: the author, date of writing, the cultural and historical setting of the work, the style, and who the intended audience was. An honest exegete must investigate these questions carefully and not merely accept the opinion of one source. Rather, he must seek the opinions of several trustworthy sources in order to arrive at his best understanding of the biblical book’s background. Obviously, there are sources available which ought not to be consulted, including those using a naturalistic, supernaturalistic, existential or dogmatic approach. 62 Of course, the exegete must also pay attention to the text’s context – how it fits into the paragraph and the overall book which is its setting. What was the author’s reason for putting it where he did? How does it fit in with the surrounding texts? What is the overall purpose of the book? After researching the background of the text, the exegete returns to the text itself to see what new light is shed on the text by the understanding of the background. Exegesis is both a science and an art. The science is the careful study. The art is in knowing how to communicate truths from one culture to another culture.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF CHAPTER AND VERSE DIVISIONS Obviously, the Bible wasn’t written divided into chapters and verses. The goal of chapter and verse is to make it easy to find specific passages of Scripture, and to refer to them so that others may find them as well. With all of its advantages, however, the chapter and verse divisions sometimes fall in awkward places, breaking up the author’s thought patterns in unnatural ways. Chapter divisions as we know them were first introduced by Stephen Langton (1150-1228), who later became the Archbishop of Canterbury. Although other systems and chapter divisions had been made to the Gospels and New Testament before, his was the one that has become the norm. 63 Robert Stephanus, who was a printer in Paris, added the versification that has made its way into our modern translations. There is some indication that he made the verse divisions in the New Testament while riding a horse from Paris to Lyon. This may explain why some of his divisions occur mid-sentence.64 The famous Geneva Bible, which was published in 1560 by Puritans who had fled from persecution in England, was one of the first widely published Bibles in English, and also the first Bible to “paragraph each verse,” that is to indent each verse as if it were a separate paragraph. The King James Version followed this model as well. Kaiser, p. 50, from ideas presented in “On the Interpretive Task” by Eduard Haller. Kaiser, p. 51. 62 See McQuilkin, chapters 2 through 5. 63 Kaiser, p. 59. 64 Daniel P. Fuller, “Bible Chapter and Verse Divisions – Late Comers” (www.fuller.edu/ministry/berean/chs_vss.htm) August 7, 2002. 60 61


23 The following quotations show where the problem lies with the chapter and verse divisions and especially the practice of paragraphing each verse. Sakae Kubo writes, “The system used in the KJV tends to destroy all sense of connection between the verses and gives the impression that each is a separate unit standing by itself.”65 Edward Goodrick concurs: When I was in school, I was taught that paragraph indentation indicated a new paragraph with a new subject. The Geneva version's second blunder, (Indenting each verse) has been a legacy for English Christians ever since. It leads great numbers of devout semi-educated Christians astray as they, ignorant of the absolute indispensability of contextual flow of thought for the meaning of a verse, skip from here to there, from one verse in one book to another verse in another, oblivious of the fact that in this manner you can make the Bible say anything. Like the old saying, “And Judas went out and hanged himself” (Matt. 27:28); “Go thou and do likewise” (Luke 10:37).66

The chapter division between Philippians 3 and 4 and between Joshua 5 and 6 are good examples of bad chapter divisions. Colossians 1:13-14, and I John 3:11-12 demonstrate verse divisions in the middle of sentences. In conclusion, although chapter and verse designations are very useful, even invaluable, for referencing verses and as study tools, they can get in the way of interpreting the text. The interpreter must all but ignore the verse and chapter divisions of the text when he is working with a passage. He must instead, think in terms of the paragraph or thought unit and how each contributes to the overall theme of the book. [Note that some translations of the Bible avoid verse divisions (although chapters are still marked); for example, The Message.

65

Sakae Kubo and Walter F. Sprecht (photographer), So Many Versions, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983) p. 46. 66

Edward W. Goodrick, Your Bible from Its Beginning Until Now, (Portland, OR: Multnomah School of the Bible, 1987), p. 183.


24 THE IMPORTANCE OF PARAGRAPHS IN INTERPRETING SCRIPTURE Walter C. Kaiser defines a paragraph as, “the framework for expressing and developing a single idea…It generally deals with a single topic, or a series of events that relate to one actor or participant in the same time-setting and location. It may be concluded that a paragraph consists of an assertion of a thematic proposition together with supporting propositions.”67 The Harbrace College Handbook describes how a paragraph functions as a unity of composition: A paragraph is a distinct unit of thought - usually a group of related sentences, though occasionally no more than one sentence - in a written or printed composition. The form of a paragraph is distinctive: the first line is indented. The content of a unified paragraph deals with one central idea. Each sentence fits into a logical pattern of organization and is therefore carefully related to other sentences in the paragraph. Since each paragraph in a composition is a distinct unit of thought, the beginning of a new paragraph is an important signal to the reader. It serves as a signpost marking an approaching curve in the avenue of thought; or it warns him that he must take a new avenue of thought. It announces a new time, place, person, or thing, in the course of a narrative, a different point of view in description, a new step in exposition, or an advance in the argument. 68

It is important to note that the paragraphing in translations of scripture is not the original paragraphing. The interpreter must never assume that the paragraphing given is the correct one, but think through the ideas for himself. Walter Kaiser gives some clues for finding paragraph divisions in the Scriptures. 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

The principal feature of a paragraph is a unifying theme. This is often indicated by the repeated use of the same term of concepts (“love” in I Cor. 13; “wisdom” in I Cor. 2:6ff.). Rhetorical questions will often introduce a new paragraph (cf. Rom. 6:1). A vocative [direct to a particular person or persons] form of address may commence a new paragraph (e.g., Col. 3:18-4:1). Sudden change in the text is one of the best ways to detect the beginning of a paragraph. For example, there may be an abrupt shift in the key actor or participant; the mood, tense, or voice of the verb; the location of the action; or the topic. The use of a striking introductory connective, be it a conjunction, preposition, or a relative pronoun, can also be an indicator. Frequently what appears at or near the end of one paragraph is taken up and developed more fully in the next paragraph (e.g., “wisdom” in I Cor. 2:5 and 6ff.) 69

Although this is not always the case, most paragraphs have a “theme proposition.” This is the main idea of the paragraph and the principle or idea that the author is trying to get across. Each sentence and idea of the paragraph supports the theme proposition. Usually, the theme proposition comes first in the paragraph, but may also come in the middle or at the end of the paragraph as well. 70 The paragraph is the immediate context of any given sentence within the Scripture, so knowing where the paragraph begins and ends is crucial to the interpreter.

67

Kaiser, p. 96. J.C. Hodges and M.E. Whitten, Harbrace College Handbook, (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972), pp. 328-330. 68

69 70

Kaiser, p. 96. Kaiser, p. 100-101.


25 LITERARY STYLES It’s important to know what sort of literary style in which the biblical text was written because each presents its own challenges for the interpreter and also gives clues to the interpretation. As Kaiser writes, “the literary form suggests a certain range of purposes, audiences, or effects and responses that were desired by the original author.”71 There are five basic types of Biblical writing, all of which need to be approached from the particular standpoint of their genre (literary type).72 The exegete ought to be able to identify the literary style of a passage as well as be proficient in the rules of interpreting that style in order to have a clear understanding of the passage.

STYLES OF BIBLICAL WRITING 1. Prose – This is the basic form of communication in the Bible and in the world. This paragraph is written in prose. Kaiser defines “prose” as, “the plain speech of mankind which is used without reference to the rules of verse.” Prose can be used to describe, to tell stories (whether true or fictional), to explain, or to convey emotion. The Bible uses three main types of prose: a. Speeches (whether sermons or prayers) b. Records (of laws, rituals and ceremonies, covenants or contracts, letters, genealogies, etc.) c. Historical narratives, which will be treated separately below. 2. Poetry – This form of writing makes up about one-third of the Old Testament. Rather than using rhyme as is common in English and other European languages, Hebrew poetry uses parallelism to make its points. Parallelism is the use of repetition of the same idea or sounds or the contrast of opposites for emphasis. 3. Historical Narrative – Historical narrative tells the history of events in the Bible. Interpreters often have difficulties making the Old Testament especially relevant to a contemporary audience. Contemporary speakers often allegorize events in the Old Testament and give them meanings that the author did not intend. Sometimes speakers ignore the Old Testament altogether because they are uncomfortable with finding a contemporary application. The key is to draw out the principles of the narrative, which are timeless, and apply them in the contemporary situation. 4. Wisdom Writing - This writing comes in two types. One is long argument sustained over the course of a large amount of text (for example, the Sermon on the Mount and Ecclesiastes), and the other short and not contextually linked to the verses around it (for example, the snippets of wisdom found in Proverbs). 5. Apocalyptic – The common understanding of apocalyptic literature is that it deals with the “end time,” but in truth, it also refers to any setting aside of the current order of things and the establishment of a new order. Kaiser writes of the “general literary features” of apocalyptic writing: (a) rich symbolism involving angels, demons, and mixed features of animals, birds, and men; (b) a formalized phraseology indicating that the revelation came by a vision or a dream; (c) frequent conversations between the prophet/seer/apostle and a heavenly being who disclosed God’s secret to him; (d) cosmic catastrophes and convolutions; (e) a radical transformation of all of nature and the nations in the near future of that day; and (f) the imminent end of the present age and the establishment of the eternal kingdom of God (the coming King shares the inauguration of the coming kingdom with the righteous and the remnant).73

71

Kaiser, p. 95. The following categories are found in Kaiser, pp. 91-95. 73 Kaiser, pp. 93-94. 72


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Once the exegete has interpreted the symbolism in the apocalyptic writings, he can treat the writings in a straightforward manner as if it were normal prose.

FIGURES OF SPEECH DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES A “figure of speech” is a word or phrase used in a way which deliberately departs from its normal literal meaning in order to communicate a specific meaning. Figures of speech are not true in their literal sense, but they are true. Bernard Rahm says of figurative language, “The literal meaning of the figurative expression is the proper or natural meaning as understood by students of language.”74 They simply express truth in a different way, a more vivid and interesting way. In our native language, we take in the meaning without stopping to think that the expression is a figure, or to imagine what it would mean literally; our minds translate it automatically. For example, in American English, someone might use the phrase “by the skin of my teeth” or a child might be said to be “growing like a weed.” An American would probably instinctively understand this use of language (although there are important regional differences as well). A non-native speaker would probably need to think about the meaning of the language and maybe even do some research. In Biblical interpretation, it sometimes does not matter much whether a statement is literal or figurative. At other times it matters a great deal. Consider three approaches to the words of Christ in Matthew 26:26, "This is my body." At the time of the Reformation the Roman Catholic Church taught that this statement is literal, i.e., that the bread and wine actually become the physical flesh and blood of Christ (transubstantiation). Martin Luther also believed it to be literal, though he could not go so far as the Catholic view that there was a physical change. Rather, he believed that there was a spiritual presence of the body and blood of Christ (consubstantiation). Ulrich Zwingli insisted it was a metaphor, i.e., that the bread and wine represent the body and blood of Christ. These three groups of Christians are divided over this issue even today.

CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF FIGURES OF SPEECH Figures of Comparison 1. Metaphor - a comparison in which the form is “A is B.” a. Psalm 100:3 – “Know that the Lord Himself is God; It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves; [We are] His people and the sheep of His pasture.” b. Luke 11:39 – “But the Lord said to him, ‘Now you Pharisees clean the outside of the cup and of the platter; but inside of you, you are full of robbery and wickedness.’ ” c. Luke 13:32 – “And He said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third [day] I reach My goal.’ ” 1. Simile - a comparison between two things using “like” or “as”. The form is “A is like B.” a. Job 41:24 – “His heart is as hard as a stone; even as hard as a lower millstone.” b. Hosea 6:4 – “What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah? For your loyalty is like a morning cloud, And like the dew which goes away early.” c. I Peter 2:2 – “like newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the word, that by it you may grow in respect to salvation…” Figures of Association

74

Ramm, p. 141.


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1. Metonymy - a figure of speech in which an idea is evoked or named by means of a term designating some associated notion. a. Acts 2:4 – “And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance.” (Their tongues were not changed, but they spoke other languages with them.) b. Genesis 42:10 – “Then they said to him, "No, my lord, but your servants have come to buy food.” (They were not literally his servants, but the word implies their inferior position and respect.) c. Luke 16:29 – “But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.’” (Moses and the Prophets here refer to the books they had written, namely the Scriptures.) 2. Synecdoche - a figure of speech by which a more inclusive term is used for a less inclusive term or vice versa. A part stands for the whole, or the whole for a part; singular for plural, or plural for singular. a. Genesis 42:38 – “But Jacob said, ‘My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he alone is left. If harm should befall him on the journey you are taking, then you will bring my gray hair down to Sheol in sorrow.’” b. The Old Testament often uses the term “Ephraim” to refer to the entire northern kingdom of Israel. (See Hosea 11:8 for example.) c. The Bible often refers to the entire Old Testament as “the Law” or “the Law and the Prophets.” (See Luke 16:16 for example.) Figures of Humanization 1. Personification – a figure of speech in which a writer speaks about (but not to) a non-personal or a non-living thing as though it were a person; that is, he attributes personal characteristics to things that do not have them. a. Psalm 98:8 – “Let the rivers clap their hands; Let the mountains sing together for joy.” b. Jeremiah 14:7 – “Although our iniquities testify against us, O Lord, act for Thy name's sake! Truly our apostasies have been many, We have sinned against Thee.” c. It is possible that “sin” is personified in Romans 7. 2. Anthropomorphism – a figure of speech in which a writer ascribes to God a human characteristic. a. Psalm 91:4 – “He will cover you with His pinions, And under His wings you may seek refuge; His faithfulness is a shield and bulwark.” b. 2 Samuel 22:9 – “Smoke went up out of His nostrils, And fire from His mouth devoured; Coals were kindled by it.” 3. Apostrophe -in this figure of speech a writer addresses directly things or persons absent or imaginary. And for the purpose of the moment he treats things as if they were persons. a. 2 Samuel 18:33 – “And the king was deeply moved and went up to the chamber over the gate and wept. And thus he said as he walked, ‘O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son! b. Psalm 68:16 – “Why do you look with envy, O mountains with [many] peaks, At the mountain which God has desired for His abode? Surely, the Lord will dwell [there] forever.” c. Zechariah 4:7 – “’What are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel [you will become] a plain; and he will bring forth the top stone with shouts of “Grace, grace to it!”’” Figures of Illusion 1. Hyperbole - a deliberate exaggeration for the sake of emphasis. a. Leviticus 26:36 – “As for those of you who may be left, I will also bring weakness into their hearts in the lands of their enemies. And the sound of a driven leaf will chase them and even when no one is pursuing, they will flee as though from the sword, and they will fall.” b. Psalm 6:6 – “I am weary with my sighing; Every night I make my bed swim, I dissolve my couch with my tears.”


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c. Joshua 11:4 – “And they came out, they and all their armies with them, [as] many people [as] the sand that is on the seashore, with very many horses and chariots.” 2. Irony – a figure of speech in which the author says the opposite of what he means. It is used for emphasis. Like hyperbole, it must by clear to the hearers so there is no question of deceit. Irony often comes from the tone of voice, so would be hard to understand from the written word. Context thus becomes even more important. a. II Samuel 6:20 – “But when David returned to bless his household, Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David and said, ‘How the king of Israel distinguished himself today! He uncovered himself today in the eyes of his servants' maids as one of the foolish ones shamelessly uncovers himself!’” b. 2 Corinthians 12:13 – “For in what respect were you treated as inferior to the rest of the churches, except that I myself did not become a burden to you? Forgive me this wrong!”75 Figures of Contrast 1. Euphemism - substituting a more agreeable expression for something unpleasant or taboo. a. I Samuel 24:3 - “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where [was] a cave; and Saul went in to cover his feet: and David and his men remained in the sides of the cave.” b. Judges 19:22 – “While they were making merry, behold, the men of the city, certain worthless fellows, surrounded the house, pounding the door; and they spoke to the owner of the house, the old man, saying, ‘Bring out the man who came into your house that we may have relations with him.’” 2. Litotes - stating something by denying its opposite or disparaging one thing in order to make another look greater. a. Genesis 18:27 – “And Abraham answered and said, ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, which [am but] dust and ashes.’” b. In Psalm 51:17 – “The sacrifices of God [are] a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.”76 Other Figures of Speech 1. Pleonasm - uses superfluous words and repetition usually for emphasis. a. 2 Samuel 7:22 – “Wherefore thou art great, O LORD God: for [there is] none like thee, neither [is there any] God beside thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears.” b. Psalm 118:10-12 – “All nations surrounded me; In the name of the Lord I will surely cut them off. They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me; In the name of the Lord I will surely cut them off. They surrounded me like bees; They were extinguished as a fire of thorns; In the name of the Lord I will surely cut them off.” c. Genesis 40:23 – “Yet the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, but forgot him.” 2. Interrogation – questioning intended to confirm the truth. a. Jeremiah 32:27 – “Behold, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh; is anything too difficult for Me?” b. Romans 8:31 – “If God be for us, who can be against us?”

GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETING FIGURES OF SPEECH Walter Kaiser suggests that the place to start in interpreting figures of speech is to determine what the author is trying to do with it.77 If the author uses metaphor or simile for example, he is making a 75

Note that different authors categorizes figures of speech differently. The above categories are from McQuillkin, pp. 173-178. See also Kaiser, pp. 123-124. 76 This category is taken from Kaiser, p. 124. 77 Kaiser, p. 123.


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comparison and the interpreter’s job is to figure out how the one thing is like the other. If the author uses litotes, on the other hand, the interpreter will know that the author is not making a statement about the worthlessness of the one thing but the greatness of the other. The next place to turn is to other passages that use the same figure of speech, especially if the figure was used by the same author. Compare the passages to see if the usage is the same and if the interpretation makes sense.78 Finally, the interpreter may consult a guide to figures of speech. Good ones are by E.W. Bullinger (Figures of Speech Used in the Bible: Explained and Illustrated) and John Albert Bengel (the index of Gnomon of the New Testament).79 Always remember however, that these men are merely applying scholarship to the biblical text and that there may be some different ways to look at the figures of speech that they discuss.

PARABLES AND ALLEGORIES DEFINITIONS Robertson McQuilkin defines a “parable” as “a true-to-life short story designed to teach a truth or to answer a question.”80 An allegory on the other hand is not realistic, and may even be fantastic, but it is still designed to teach truth. However, while a parable will teach one main principle or central truth, an allegory might teach many possible truths, sometimes unrelated. The parable has a central meaning surrounded by possibly irrelevant details. In an allegory though, every detail may have meaning. Henry Virkler distinguishes between parables and allegories as follows: A parable can be understood as an extended simile. The comparison is expressed, and the subject and the thing compared, explained more fully, are kept separate. Similarly, an allegory can be understood as an extended metaphor: the comparison is unexpressed, and the subject and the thing compared are intermingled.81

Often the author of a parable will explain the parable afterwards, while the author of an allegory may explain it throughout the allegory. For either the parable or the allegory though, there is one intended meaning. It is important to distinguish between actual historical events and parables, as they are treated differently. There has been much debate as to whether the story of the rich man and Lazarus is a parable or an historical account. Obviously, if it is an historic event, we have a lot of information about hell that we didn’t have before. If it is a parable, other rules apply.82

EXAMPLES 

78

Parable: Luke 17:7-9 – “But which of you, having a slave plowing or tending sheep, will say to him when he has come in from the field, ‘Come immediately and sit down to eat’? But will he not say to him, ‘Prepare something for me to eat, and [properly] clothe yourself and serve me until I have eaten and drunk; and afterward you will eat and drink’? He does not thank the slave because he did the things which were commanded, does he? So you too, when you do all the things which are commanded you, say, ‘We are unworthy slaves; we have done [only] that which we ought to have

Kaiser, p. 124. Ibid. 80 McQuilkin, p. 185. 81 Virkler, p. 159. 82 For a longer discussion of this issue, see McQuilkin, pp. 191-193. 79


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done.’ ” – There is one central point to this parable. As McQuilkin points out, this is not about slavery, labor management relations, or courtesy. He says, “The point of the story is that we do not deserve credit for doing the right thing. The other details are irrelevant to that central purpose and should be set aside.”83 Allegory: John 10:1-16 – (verses 1-5) “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter by the door into the fold of the sheep, but climbs up some other way, he is a thief and a robber. But he who enters by the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To him the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name, and leads them out. When he puts forth all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice. And a stranger they simply will not follow, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers.” – Unlike in parables, every detail of this allegory has meaning, and each item in the allegory corresponds to someone – either Christ or his followers or Satan.

GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETING PARABLES Bernard Ramm writes that the “golden rule” for interpreting parables is: “Determine the one central truth the parable is attempting to teach.”84 Here are some helpful guidelines for interpreting parables:85 1. Explore the immediate context of the parable. Sometimes, knowing the audience helps. Also, look at the situation in which Jesus told the parable – often someone’s question will have triggered the parable. Also look at how the parable was explained and applied if it is. 2. Determine the main point of the parable. Oftentimes, the teller of the parable will say what the main point of the parable was. 3. Determine the irrelevant details of the parable. Irrelevant details have no spiritual significance, and it is dangerous to treat them as if they do. For example, in the parable quoted above, if the interpreter did not realize that the way the master treats the slave was irrelevant detail, he might come to the conclusion that the master’s treatment of the slave is a model for how we are to treat those who work for us, or even that God’s character is like the master’s character. The same is true for the parable of the persistent widow and the unjust judge. If the irrelevant details are not strained out, the interpreter might come to the conclusion that God is like the unjust judge. This would mean that he was unjust, reluctant to help, careless of people’s needs, arrogant, and selfish. 4. Determine the relevant details of the parable. McQuilkin says that relevant details are those which, “are intended to teach some truth and, therefore, may legitimately be interpreted and applied.”86 For example, the fact that the father in the parable of the prodigal son came running to meet his son is a relevant detail because it shows the heart of the father toward his son and reinforces the main point of the parable – that God loves and forgives sinners. 5. Compare and contrast similar parables. By doing so, the interpreter may find a theme emerging that ties all together, or that they bring out different themes or place the emphasis in different places. 6. Only base doctrines on passages that are clear. Parables can help with our understanding of central doctrines by illustrating them. However, it’s dangerous to base doctrines on parables that do not have clear interpretation given. As McQuilkin points out, “in general, figurative language is not the best ingredient for building doctrine.”87

83

McQuilkin, p. 189. Ramm, p. 261. 85 McQuilkin, pp. 186-194. 86 McQuilkin, p. 189. 87 McQuilkin, p. 194. 84


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BIBLICAL TYPES DEFINITIONS McQuilkin defines a “type” (in the hermeneutical sense) as “a prophetic symbol.”88 Virkler defines it as, “a preordained representative relationship which certain persons, events, and institutions bear to corresponding persons, events, and institutions occurring at a later time in salvation history.”89 A type is the prefigurement and an antitype is the fulfillment.90 There is some debate as to when a similarity between an Old Testament event, person, or object and a New Testament event, person, or object can be said to be a type. For example, many scholars in the early Middle Ages saw everything in the Old Testament as a type of Christ. This question is important because the more liberty an interpreter feels to say that something in the Old Testament is a type in the Christian life, the more free the interpreter will feel to practice allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures. This establishes a dogmatic grid that doesn’t allow for the text to speak for itself. For the amateur interpreter, it is best to err on the side of caution. McQuilkin’s rule of thumb is that Scripture itself should identify the type, not the interpreter.91 Bishop Marsh, in his Lectures on the Criticism and Interpretation of the Bible set forth his famous principle that “a type is a type only if the New Testament specifically so designates it to be such.”92 On the other hand, Virkler writes, “A moderate view, and one held by the majority of scholars…is that for a resemblance to be a type there must be some evidence of divine affirmation of the corresponding type and antitype, although such affirmation need not be formally stated.”93 In other words, the interpreter may make educated guesses if he has enough evidence. It is dangerous to use such things as colors, numbers, materials, shapes, etc. as types unless the Bible specifically does [for example, when Jesus compared himself to Jonah when he said, “just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth” (Matthew 12:40).]. Never become dogmatic about a type if it is not explicitly identified as a type by Scripture. Virkler summarizes the characteristics of a biblical type: In order for a figure to be a type there must be (1) some notable resemblance or analogy between the type and its antitype; (2) some evidence that the type was appointed by God to represent the thing typified; (3) some future corresponding antitype. 94

In addition, with only a few exceptions, the type will be historical – in that it actually existed or occurred. They are usually physical realities that prefigure spiritual realities where the physical type will point to the spiritual fulfillment. For example, Moses lifted up a serpent for the physical healing of the people, and Christ was lifted up on a cross for the total healing of the people. The spiritual antitype is generally on a greater scale or higher plane than the physical type.

88

McQuilkin, p. 259. Virkler, p. 184. See also Ramm, pp. 208-209. 90 Ibid. 91 McQuilkin, p. 263. 92 Ramm, p. 200. 93 Ibid. 94 Virkler, p. 187. 89


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EXAMPLES OF BIBLICAL TYPES 

Numbers 21:4-9 – “And the people spoke against God and Moses, ‘Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this miserable food.’ And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died. So the people came to Moses and said, ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the Lord and you; intercede with the Lord, that He may remove the serpents from us.’ And Moses interceded for the people. Then the Lord said to Moses, ‘Make a fiery [serpent,] and set it on a standard; and it shall come about, that everyone who is bitten, when he looks at it, he shall live.’ And Moses made a bronze serpent and set it on the standard; and it came about, that if a serpent bit any man, when he looked to the bronze serpent, he lived.” The antitype is found in John 3:14-15, where Jesus remarks, “And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up; that whoever believes may in Him have eternal life.” In other words, His own death on the cross was the antitype or fulfillment of the type in Numbers 21. Exodus 12:3-13 – In this passage, God established the Passover. There are many correspondences between this type and New Testament antitypes. Paul sites one antitype in I Corinthians 5:7-8: “Clean out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, just as you are [in fact] unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”

GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETING TYPES AND SYMBOLS Use the following guidelines when approaching types and symbols:95 1. Look at the context. In different contexts, different symbols can have different meanings. One common symbol in the New Testament is leaven. As we have already seen, this can refer to old ways and sin as it does in I Corinthians 5:7-8, or to the ways and influence of the Pharisees, as Matthew 16:6. On the other hand though, Jesus uses leaven to speak of the spread of the kingdom of heaven in Matthew 13:33. Therefore, no sort of universal statement regarding what leaven means in Scripture can be used. 2. Look at other Scriptures. Again, if Scripture does not name an Old Testament event or person as a type, then be very careful about doing so. Look at how symbols are used in other scriptures and try to determine if those uses in unclear Scriptures brings any light. 3. Always seek the author’s intended meaning. The first task is to see what the author was trying to communicate, even if it makes modern interpreters squeamish. For example, the Song of Songs has often been allegorized as God’s relationship with the nation of Israel and Christ’s relationship with the Church because its sexual content was thought to be too explicit or because it rendered the interpreters uncomfortable and didn’t fit in with their presuppositions about sex and marriage. As McQuilkin points out, “it is quite legitimate to find in the Song of Solomon parallels to and illustrations of the spiritual relationship between God and His people. However…if Solomon intended to write a song of human love, that is the meaning the interpreter should seek in all of the rich symbolism.”96

The guidelines are from chapter 18, “Biblical Prophecy” in McQuilkin Understanding and Applying the Bible, pp. 263-266. Please refer to those pages for more details regarding interpreting types. 96 McQuilkin, p. 265. 95


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PART III - STUDY TOOLS TRANSLATION STYLES Whenever we read the Bible in translation, we’re also reading the translation philosophy of the translator. Some translators try to be as literal as possible, while others are more concerned about making a translation that reads well or easily in the translation language. The translator’s philosophy leads to subtle but important textual differences. For example, three different translations of 2 Timothy 1:9 render an important phrase in three different ways. The King James Version reads, “…before the World began…” while the New International Version renders the same Greek words as “…before the beginning of time…” The New American Standard translates the Greek as, “…from all eternity…” There are 3 different styles of translation. 1. Literal: These translations seek to be as literal as possible, but can be clumsy in English. The New American Standard is one example. The King James Version is a literal translation, in beautiful English that has become clumsy as English has evolved in the past four hundred years. A literal translation of the Spanish phrase, “el hombre viejo” is “the old man.” 2. Dynamic Equivalent: These translations use the original Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic as a starting point, but in the interest of understanding, “update” the translation language. The only problem with this approach is that translators often take theological liberties as well. In other words, their theological bias is reflected in their translation and the equivalent part is sometimes lost. The New International Version is a dynamic equivalent. A dynamic equivalent translation of “el hombre viejo” is “the elderly gentleman.” Notice that this conveys a different picture to your mind than the literal translation did. 3. Paraphrase: A paraphrase often starts from an existing translation and “translates” it into a version of English that is “easy reading.” Most children’s Bibles are paraphrases, as is The Living Bible (a paraphrase of the King James Version) and The Message (a paraphrase from the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek scriptures). A paraphrase of “el hombre viejo” might read “the old guy.” Again, this communicates something different than the literal.

CHOOSING AND USING COMMENTARIES Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart suggest that there are three reasons to have a good commentary for each book of the Bible: 1. They can give information and sources for information on historical background. 2. They can help with content questions. 3. They give the various possible explanations of difficult texts with supporting comments for each.97 A good commentary will do all three of those tasks, and these three are good rules of thumb for evaluating commentaries. However, no commentary is a substitute for the basic work of studying the Scripture. It is a reference tool to help the exegete understand what the Bible says. The tendency is to close off to new opinions once you have read the first opinion, so avoid the temptation to seek quick solutions to questions through commentaries.

97

Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982), p. 219.


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Other criteria are as follows: 1. The author must have a good understanding of the original Hebrew and Greek texts of Scripture. 2. The author should discuss all the possible understandings of the text and evaluate them before giving his own opinion. (Note that many commentaries focus on the opinion of the author, not grammatical-historical information. The value of these commentaries is limited and they tend to be dangerous.) 3. The author should discuss historical background of the text. 4. The author should include material that helps the interpreter have a thorough understanding of the occasion for the writing of the book and its intended audience, as well as their theological understanding. 5. The author should include bibliographic information so that the interpreter can continue his research.98 Other helpful information includes the theme and overall organization of the entire book, the meaning of words, phrases, and idioms that will be unfamiliar to the modern reader. Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart suggest that in choosing a commentary that the interpreter choose a particularly difficult passage of Scripture and see how the commentary treats it.99 A final note from Fee and Stuart: “You do not begin your Bible study with a commentary! You go to the commentary after you have done your own work; the reason you eventually consult a commentary is to find answers to the content questions that have arisen in your own study. At the same time, of course, the commentary will alert you to questions you failed to ask, but perhaps should have.”100

RESOURCES FOR BIBLE READING AND STUDY BY MIKE HUCKINS

The Bible is the most valuable deposit of truth available to man. All that it contains is true in both its whole and its parts. What is required of us as followers of the Living God is to become diligent students who search out the richness of the Scripture, seeking as one would for precious treasure. Such pursuit requires effort. Those who have searched before us have left to us a rich heritage of scholarship and have put at our disposal “tools” of which we can take advantage in our own seeking to know Him and “all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” that are to be found in Him (Col. 2:2,3). The following pages provide an abbreviated listing of some of these tools. A specific category of resource (for example, “Atlases”) will be listed followed by an explanation of the category and some representative titles which contain this particular type of information (for example, The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands).

BIBLES When you are looking into the purchase of a personal study Bible, especially one to serve as your primary Bible, consider the following: 1. Version – While it is critical to choose a translation that reflects the modern vernacular, it is important to avoid versions which over use modern slang. Translations vary in their grammatical closeness to the original languages, their “literalness.” This characteristic affects the version’s readability, so try on several for size before choosing.

98

Fee and Stuart, p. 220. Ibid. 100 Fee and Stuart, p. 220-221. 99


A STUDENT’S GLOSSARY FOR BIBLICAL STUDIES 2.

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Pay careful attention to the intended audience. Some versions are aimed at a particular segment of the population (the Living Bible was intended for children) or use language directed to a certain educational level (Good News Bible) or particular culture (New English Bible). Some are even designed with a particular religious group in mind (Roman Catholics, the Jerome Bible). Who is doing the translation work? To what extent has this persuasion influenced the version? One should avoid translation work shaped by a narrow persuasion or particular agenda. For example, the New World Translation is produced by the Jehovah Witnesses. However, one should be aware that the best translation work to some degree reflects the translator's bias. A translation produced by a committee composed of persons of diverse persuasions helps to avoid bias. For more information on translation methods and Bible versions see the article on Translation Styles.

3. Format, Readability and Durability - A Bible formatted in paragraphs is very helpful and to be preferred over one that indents or “paragraphs” each verse. Because different publishers are involved in producing any one version, a variety of formats are often available for any given version. Avoid versions which clutter the text or which insert alternative readings in the text (for example, the Amplified Bible). Versions like these can be useful study tools but are less functional as a regular Bible for reading and study. 4. Think about items which affect readability like print size, font type, and the color of the red ink in "red letter" editions. Some other considerations are the size of the Bible, what kind and quality of cover, binding and paper are used, and the color of course! 5. Features and Helps - Recognize that the helps available for Bibles can range from some basic items like maps and cross-references to very elaborate features including study notes and articles. The following are some features to consider when looking at study Bibles: a. Maps - A must, but quality and usefulness varies. A map index is important; sites are listed alphabetically and then referenced to the maps. b. Concordance - Concordances will vary in the degree of selectivity, in other words, what words are included. c. Alternative readings - These are typically to be found as footnotes in the margin or at the bottom of the text. An alternative is another possible translation of the verse, a different reading of the verse based on variation in the manuscripts, or a different interpretative nuance. d. Cross-references - Cross-references are of two basic types – key word or reference by topic. The latter is the more useful. e. Book Introductions – These give information about the content, author, historical setting, and significance of the book. f. Book Outlines - These are useful in tracing the major themes and their interrelationship in the particular book. g. Articles - Some Bibles contain articles on various subjects; for example, archaeology, original languages, translation and transmission. h. Tables of weights and measures - Tables which enable the reader to “convert” measurements used in Biblical times into modern standards of measure; for example, “ephahs” to bushels. i. Chronological charts and information - As is true for many features, these range from very basic to rather elaborate. Chronological information allows you to place Biblical events and texts in their historical order and setting. j. Interpretive notes - Be very cautious here. Notes which are limited to giving cultural and historical background can be an aid as you seek to discover the meaning of the text. However, notes which do the interpretive work for you are not reference but commentary. The danger is that having commentary so near the text tempts one to rely on the notes and not his own reading and work with the text. Often the interpretation offered in the notes and the Bible passage itself


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become so intermingled in the mind of the reader that he is no longer able to separate the two. Let the Bible speak for itself! We need to read and interpret for ourselves before consulting the understanding of others. Be aware of the theological persuasion or bent of those providing the notes, as their bias will naturally come through. Two illustrations of this tendency are the Schofield Bible and Ryrie Study Bible, both of which are clearly dispensational in theological bent. What to Choose? With all of these choices what helps should one include in his Bible? Recognize that more is not necessarily better. Choose those helps which will be most useful to you. Recognize as well that many of the above helps are available in expanded and more comprehensive form in other reference books. Interpretive notes are available in commentaries, maps in Bible atlases, introductory information in Bible introductions and surveys, articles in Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, and so forth. Multi-version Old and New Testament When studying a particular passage or text, renderings of different versions can be compared at a glance by using multi-version Bibles. The versions are paralleled in columns for ease of use. They come in four, six, or eight version parallels, in various combinations, and are available for the whole Bible or the NT alone. 1. The New Layman's Parallel Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. (Old and New Testaments in four columns: KJV, LB, NIV and RSV) 2. The Eight Translation New Testament. Wheaton: Tyndale, 1974. (New Testament in eight columns: KJV, MLB, Phillips, RSV, TEV, NIV, JB and NEB) 3. The Word: The Bible in 26 Translations. Vaughan, Curtis, Ed. . Mathis Publishers, 1993. (Has the complete KJV and three to five additional translations drawn from twenty-six translations for each verse) Topical Bibles Places scripture under various topical headings. Sometimes context is given along with the particular passage. 1. Naves Topical Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1979. 2. The Zondervan Topical Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979. Parallel - (See Harmonies below.) Interlinear The English translation is shown with the Hebrew or Greek text “in between the lines” allowing an examination of the original languages in correspondence with the English translation. 1. Marshall, Alfred. The NASB-NIV Parallel New Testament in Greek and English. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. [Shows parallel English versions of the New Testament (NIV, NASB) in the side and use the center section to display the Greek text and an additional English translation.] 2. While not a true interlinear, The Word Study New Testament by Ralph and Roberta Winter (available in KJV only) key the Greek words to Strong’s Concordance. Corresponding with this interlinear is The Word Study Concordance, which lists every passage using the particular Greek word. The Word Study Concordance also shows cognates or families of words for further study. These two volumes are very useful and available through William Carey Library, U.S. Center for World Missions, 1605 Elizabeth St., Pasadena, CA 91104. Find them on the web at www.uscwm.org. 3. Hill, Gary and Gleason Archer, eds. The Discovery Bible. Chicago: Moody, 1987. This New Testament is available only in the New American Standard version. By using a simple code, it shows the various nuances and tenses which are inherent in the Greek but not always clear in


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English. Chronological Bibles Chronological Bibles arrange the text according to the chronology of the events. The Psalms and prophetic writings are inserted into the historical books; Paul's writings coincide with the events in Acts. 1. The Reese Chronological Bible. Bloomington, Minnesota: Bethany. (KJV version)

EXHAUSTIVE CONCORDANCE While some concordances are selective, limiting listings to significant words, exhaustive concordances list every word used in the Bible. Words are listed alphabetically; under each is a list of the passages containing that word. It is essential that you get a concordance that corresponds with the particular Bible version you are using. It is highly recommended that you become proficient enough with the Greek and Hebrew alphabets to use original language concordances and resources. Greek and Hebrew concordances are discussed under the section on Greek and Hebrew Tools. 1. New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1995. (Strong's is the best known concordance; however, it is only for the KJV. Reference to book, chapter, and verse is given along with an abbreviated section of the passage. A number identifying the Greek or Hebrew word is shown for each passage and is referenced to Hebrew and Greek dictionaries found in the back of the concordance.) 2. Zondervan NASB Exhaustive Concordance. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000. (For use with the NASB version, this concordance uses the Strong's numbering system. Includes, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek dictionaries as well.) 3. Zondervan NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999. (For use with the New International Version, it uses the Strong's numbering system.) 4. Young's Analytical Concordance. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1980. (Young's, like the other concordances above, is also exhaustive. It differs in that uses a unique format, arranging passages for English words under the Greek and Hebrew words they translate. It also includes a Greek and Hebrew dictionary at the back.)

WORD STUDY More detailed information on Biblical words can be found in what are sometimes called theological wordbooks. They deal with the usage of a particular word throughout the Bible, issues of etymology (origins of words) and word meaning. For more about language study see Hebrew and Greek Tools. 1. Vine, W.E. and Merrill F. Unger. Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2000. (This is a single volume which explains more than 6,000 Biblical words, keyed to Strong’s Concordance.) 2. Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr. and B.K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. (Abbreviated TWOT - A two volume set, which has a very usable key to Strong's Concordance. It defines all theologically significant words in the Old Testament.) 3. Brown, Colin ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. (4 Vols.) (Abbreviation NIDNTT - Excellent and useable, well formatted and does not require a working knowledge of Greek. Also available on CD-ROM.) 4. Kittel, Gerhard and Frederich Gerhard, eds., translated by Geoffery Bromiley. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1976. (10 volumes) (Abbreviated TDNT - This is the mother of all wordbooks. It is very extensive and expensive. As such is sometimes more than what is useful for the average student. One might consider the edited one volume version, called the “Little Kittel”. See below.) 5. Kittel, Gerhard and Frederich Gerhard, eds., translated by Geoffery Bromiley. Theological


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Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. 6. Robertson, A. T. Word Pictures in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Broadman & Holman, 1973. (6 volumes)

ATLASES An atlas “describes” the physical context of the Biblical writings. Maps should reflect the various eras of Biblical history. There should be an index or “gazetteer” of the places and features shown on the maps. Major cities, political boundaries, trade routes, and geographical features such as mountains, rivers, and seas should be identified. Better atlases show the topography in contour and will provide information on climate. 1. Pritchard, James B. Harper Atlas of the Bible. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. (Colorful and illustrated, has information on history, archaeology, etc. There is also a smaller, cheaper version – The Harper Concise Atlas of the Bible available. Published in 1991.) 2. Wiseman, Donald, et. al. New Bible Atlas. UK: Intervarsity Press, 1994. 3. Beitzel, Barry. The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody, 1985. 4. Reader's Digest Atlas of the Bible. Pleasantville: Reader's Digest Association, 1982. 5. May, Herbert G., ed. Oxford Bible Atlas. 3rd ed. NY: Oxford University Press, 1985.

GEOGRAPHIES While there is often some overlap between atlases and geographies, geographies are more specifically focused. Historical geographies provide some very interesting insights into how archaeology, history and culture interrelate with the land. 1. Pfeiffer, Charles F. and Howard F. Vos. Wycliffe's Historical Geography. Chicago: Moody, 1967. (Out of print – look in used bookstores.) 2. Blaiklock, E.M., ed. The Zondervan Pictoral Bible Atlas. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1972. (Out of print – look in used bookstores.) 3. Baly, Denis. The Geography of the Bible. Rev. ed. NY: Harper & Row, 1978. (Out of print – look in used bookstores. Considered a standard due to Baly's superior knowledge of the subject. Also Baly, Basic Biblical Geography. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.)

GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS Introductions cover items such as translation philosophy, inspiration, transmission of the Greek and Hebrew texts, canon and history of translation/versions. Must reading for the Bible student; the emphasis is on the Bible as a book rather than its content or interpretation. 1. Ewert, David. From Ancient Tablets To Modern Translations. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. 2. Geisler, Norman and William E. Nix. A General Introduction to the Bible. Chicago: Moody Press, rev. ed. 1986. (Out of print – check used bookstores.)

DICTIONARIES, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, AND HANDBOOKS These invaluable aids provide information on almost every Biblical theme, topic and word. Dictionaries and encyclopedias are arranged like their conventional counterparts, listing topics and words alphabetically. Dictionaries focus on the Bible itself, limiting themselves to the words and phrases in Scripture. Encyclopedias are broader in scope including information on a variety of topics related to the Bible. Handbooks are shorter, more general and less thorough and are arranged either chronologically or according to the books of the Bible (Genesis to Revelation). As an overview they provide basic information and highlight important facts. Each of the above resources can vary in illustration,


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readability, and attractiveness as well as the level of expertise needed by the reader, ranging from the beginner to the scholar. Dictionaries: 1. Unger, Merrill and R.K. Harrison, ed. New Unger's Bible Dictionary. Rev.ed. Chicago:Moody Press, 1988. 2. Douglas, J.D., organ. ed. New Bible Dictionary. Rev. ed. Wheaton: Tyndale, 1982. 3. Douglas, J.D. and Merril Tenney, ed. The New International Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987. (Was previously: The Zondervan Pictoral Bible Dictionary.) Encyclopedias: 1. Elwell, Walter A. ed. The Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible. (2 vols.) Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988. 2. Pfeiffer, Vos and Rea, eds. Wycliffe's Bible Encyclopedia. (2 vols.) Chicago: Moody Press, 1975. 3. Tenney, Merril gen. ed. Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. (5 vols.) Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976. (Now somewhat dated, it is well illustrated and readable.) 4. Bromiley, Geoffrey ed. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. (4 vols.) Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. (Considered excellent, conservative.) Handbooks: 1. Alexander, David and Patricia. Eerdman’s Handbook to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973. (Very readable and colorful.) 2. Halley, Henry. Halley's Bible Handbook. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976. (The classic among handbooks, though not as colorful as Eerdmans.) 3. Packer, Tenney, and White eds. The Bible Almanac. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1980. (Considered by some to be the best.) 4. Dockery, David S. Holman Bible Handbook. Nashville: Holman, 1992. (Looks very well done, recent.)

OLD TESTAMENT AND NEW TESTAMENT SURVEYS AND BACKGROUND As the words “survey” and “background” would suggest, the purpose of these reference works is to provide general information to the reader. Surveys provide background information on the historical, cultural and political setting of the Biblical writings. Background and overview is given for each book, including a look at the author, his recipients (and their circumstances), and the purpose for which the book was written. Usually there is an outline showing the author's arrangement of material and flow of thought. A survey does not go into a detailed examination of content like one would expect from a commentary. Surveys summarize, while introductions analyze. Introductions bring forward themes and show how God’s purposes are unfolded. They often deal in greater depth with the critical issues of the text and are for the more serious, advanced Bible student. Resources following are listed according to levels of content and sophistication: beginning, middle, and advanced. Old Testament Surveys and Introduction: 1. Schultz, Samuel J. and John Loudon, ed. The Old Testament Speaks, 5th Edition. Harpercollins 2000. (Excellent beginning level work, useful information and very readable – also available in Spanish: Kregel Publications, 1976.) 2. Hill, Andrew E. and Walton, John H. A Survey of the Old Testament. 2nd Edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000. 3. Archer, Gleason. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Rev. and updated edition. Chicago: Moody Press, 1996. (Beginning to middle level, considered one of the best.) 4. LaSor, William Sanford, David Alan Hubbard, Frederic William Bush. Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.


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5. Unger, Merril F. Introductory Guide to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1951. (Somewhat dated, this is considered one of the best conservative introductions and mounts a defense against critical approaches. Out of print, try second hand book sellers.) 6. Harrison, R.K. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969. (Advanced, technical.) New Testament Surveys and Introductions. 1. Tenney, Merril C. rev. ed. by Walter M. Dunnet. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. (An excellent beginning survey.) 2. Gundry, Robert H. A Survey of the New Testament. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994. (A fine beginning level survey.) 3. Harrison, Everett F. Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971. (Excellent, middle level.) 4. Carson, Moo and Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992. (Advanced students.) 5. Guthrie, Donald. New Testament Introduction. 4th rev. and updated edition. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 1990. (Advanced students.) Other excellent resources: 1. Bell, Albert A. Exploring the New Testament World. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1998. (Basic and helpful, good bibliography.) 2. Tenney, Merrill C. Exploring New Testament Culture. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965. (Easy to read, good background. Out of print – try used book sellers.) 3. Scott, J. Julius Jr. Jewish Background of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Bookhouse, 2000. (Answers the questions that the average student is asking, excellent resource.)

HISTORY Biblical Christianity is about the Living God speaking and acting in history; therefore, understanding the Bible requires understanding history. Histories emphasize historical detail especially as it relates to the Biblical text. 1. Wood, Leon. A Survey of Israel's History. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. (Basic and for the beginning reader.) 2. Harrison, R.K. Old Testament Times. Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.; 2001. 384 pages 3. Bright, John. A History of Israel. 4th Edition, Westminster: John Knox, 2000. (Excellent, scholarly.) 4. Bruce, F.F. New Testament History. Garden City: Doubleday, 1977. (Excellent, but out of print. Try used bookstores.) 5. Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. New updated edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1997. 6. Edersheim, Alfred. Old Testament Bible History, Updated Edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995. 5. Kaiser, Walter. A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age through the Jewish Wars. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1998.

COMMENTARIES While it is our responsibility to first read the Scripture and come to our own conclusions, commentaries are a way for us to consult the judgment and scholarship of others throughout the ages and by doing so to evaluate and check our work in light of history and scholarship. Commentaries are best


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purchased as individual volumes for the particular book of the Bible in which you are interested, as opposed to buying whole commentary sets. Commentaries are of different types. Ask the following questions of a commentary before you purchase: 1. Does the author deal with the literary and historical/cultural context? 2. Does he discuss the plan and purpose of the book? 3. Does the commentary address the various ambiguities and options available for a particular text and then let you choose? A more detailed analysis of commentaries as well as recommendations on commentaries for different books of the Bible can be found by referring to the books listed below under the section “Books about Resources.” Types of Commentaries: 1. Devotional or popular - Reflection on and application of the text. There is little or no detailed analysis or theological reasoning. 2. Expository - Involve discussion of the text. The commentator seeks to explain the message of the text, consults others who have dealt with it and utilizes various linguistic, historical, and theological materials in the effort. 3. Exegetical - Involve a deeper discussion of Hebrew and Greek syntax as the commentator seeks to “draw out” the meaning of the text. This type of commentary can range from general works useful to the average Bible student to very technical ones designed for those more advanced in the Biblical languages. 4. Single Volume Commentaries. Commentaries which cover the entire Bible in one volume are obviously limited, but can be useful.

GREEK AND HEBREW TOOLS The following is a very small sample of the resources available. Also, it is important to recognize that many of the functions provided by these resources are available in computer software. Concordances 1. Wigram, George V. Englishman's Greek Concordance. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publisher, 1996. [Wigram is an excellent tool. Each word is listed in both Greek (one needs to have a basic familiarity with the Greek alphabet) and the English transliteration (using the English alphabet).] 2. Wigram, George V. The Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance of the Old Testament. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publisher, 1996. (A similar volume for the Old Testament which lists every verse where a particular Hebrew word is used. Words are listed according to the Hebrew alphabet, the transliterated English and the numbering system of Strong's Concordance. The use of Strong's numbers is especially helpful in that one does not need to be familiar with the original language.) Texts 1. Aland, Kurt, B. Aland, Bruce Metzger, J. Karavidopoulos, eds. The Greek New Testament (with Dictionary). 3rd. edition, Philadelphia: Fortress, 2000. 2. Friberg, Barbara and Timothy. Analytical Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981. (This is a Greek only text with a parsing code for every word.) Lexicons Lexicons are original language “dictionaries.”


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1. Bauer, Arndt, Gingrich and Danker. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. (This is an excellent resource and a standard.) 2. Thayer, Joseph Henry. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Reissued edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1997. 3. The Analytical Greek Lexicon. (Every Greek word in the NT is listed in alphabetical order, parsed and the root word identified.) 4. Kubo, Sakae. A Reader’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975. (Brief definitions of words used less than 50 times in the NT. Follows the text.) 5. Moulton and Milligan. The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. Reprint edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997. Grammars 1. Dana, H.E. and Julius R. Mantey. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. Macmillan, 1955. (A standard.) 2. Brooks, James A. and Carlton L. Winberry. Syntax of New Testament Greek. University Press of America, 1978. (Less detailed than Dana and Mantey.) 3. Summers, Ray. Essentials of New Testament Greek. Revised edition, Grand Rapids: Broadman & Holman Publishers 1995. 4. Robertson, A.T. and W. Hersey Davis A New Short Grammar of the New Testament, 10th edition, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977. 5. Robertson, A.T. Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research. Baptist Sunday School Board - Baptist Book Stores, 1947.


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Miscellaneous 1. Rienecker, Firtz and Cleon Rogers. The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998. (A valuable tool to explore grammatical issues in the New Testament.) 2. Metzger, Bruce and Sellars, M. eds. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Fortress, 2001. (Deals with issues of textual criticism verse by verse throughout the New Testament.)

BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION AND HERMENEUTICS The study of the Bible requires that we understand the principles needed to approach, read, and interpret the Bible. The following books are helpful in this regard and are from a grammatical-historical perspective, i.e., they seek to understand the text in its historical and literary context. 1. McQuilkin, J.R. Understanding and Applying the Bible. Rev. ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1992. (An excellent introduction, very readable.) 2. Thompson, David and Robert Traina. Bible Study That Works. Revised edition. Nappanee, IN: Evangel Publishing House, 1994. (Inexpensive and basic, introduces principles for "English Bible" study.) 3. Fee, Gordon and Douglas Stuart. How To Read the Bible for All It’s Worth. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993. (Focus is on the various types of literature in the Bible and how to approach each.) 4. Virkler, Henry A. Hermeneutics, Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995. (Good material on hermeneutics and interpretation. Step by step "how to" with exercises to test your skills.) 5. Ramm, Bernard. Protestant Biblical Interpretation 3rd Rev edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1980. (Classic text.) 6. Mickelsen, A. Berkley, and Alvera M. Mickelsen. Understanding Scripture. Revised Edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992. 7. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Exegetical Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981. (Excellent.) 8. Bruce Corley, Steve Lemke, Grant Lovejoy. Biblical Hermeneutics 2nd revised edition. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 2002.

CUSTOMS, CULTURE AND SOCIETY Identifies and provides information/explanations of customs and cultural practices of Biblical times, particularly as these have relevance to the text. Many books are available to help the reader understand the social and cultural context of Biblical times. Listings are available in commentaries and Bible dictionaries. A useful list is in Eric Kiehl, Building Your Biblical Studies Library. St. Louis: Concordia, 1988, pp. 148-151. 1. Ferguson, Everett. Backgrounds of Early Christianity.2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 1993. 2. Wight, Fred and Ralph Gower. The New Manners and Customs of Bible Times. Chicago: Moody Press, 1987. 3. Mathews, Victor. Manners and Customs in the Bible. Rev. ed., Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. 1993.

ARCHAEOLOGY Archaeological discoveries have provided and continue to provide invaluable information for the Bible student. Due to the rapid pace of change in this field, information can quickly become dated. 1. Blaiklock, E.M. and R.K. Harrison, ed. The New International Dictionary of Biblical


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Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983. 2. Kitchen, Kenneth A. The Bible in its world : the Bible and archaeology today. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 1991 (Out of print. Check used bookstores.) 3. Unger, Merril F. Archaeology of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1954. (Out of print, limited availability) 4. Unger, Merril F. Archaeology of the New Testament reprint edition. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984. (Considered by some the best layman's book on the subject, written from a conservative viewpoint.)

HARMONIES Harmonies place information from various biblical books side by side in the order in which they occurred (sometimes, the order is based on an educated guess and not any sort of conclusive information). For example, a harmony of the Gospels takes all the events of the life and ministry of Jesus and put them together so that you can compare the various accounts of events. The harmony of Paul and Acts places Paul’s writings into the context of the book of Acts. Old Testament harmonies put prophetic materials in their context within historical books. Gospel Harmonies: It’s important to be careful with Gospel harmonies. In the Gospels, context involves both the historical setting of the event plus the context of the particular Gospel from which the event comes. As we seek to understand any particular text, we must first look carefully at the immediate context and the book in which the text is found before considering other Bible references. 1. Pentecost, J. Dwight. A Harmony of the Words and Works of Jesus Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982. 2. Thomas, Robert L. and Stanley N. Gundry. A Harmony of the Gospels: With Explanations and Essays: Using the Text of the New American Standard Bible. San Francisco: Harper, 1986. 3. Thomas, Robert and Stanley N. Gundry. The NIV Harmony of the Gospels. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988. Harmonies of Paul and Acts: 1. Goodwin, Frank J. Harmony of the Life of St. Paul: According to the Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline Epistles. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1983. (The Acts narrative of Paul's life in parallel with Paul's writings.) Old Testament Harmonies: 1. Crockett, William D. A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles: The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981. (Out of print – check used bookstores.) 2. Newsome, James D., Jr., ed. A Synoptic Harmony of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles: With Related Passages from Psalms, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezra. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990.

CHRONOLOGIES A chronological Bible was listed above. It should be noted that there is serious debate on the dating of certain events, particularly in the Old Testament. However, the resources listed below are helpful in putting Biblical events into the larger historical context. 1. House, H. Wayne. Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. 2. Walton, John. Chronological Charts of the Old Testament revised ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.


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CHARACTER STUDIES Focus is on the life and meaning of Biblical personages. 1. Bruce, F.F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,2000. A life of Paul. Whyte, Alexander. Bible Characters From the Old and New Testament. Republished edition. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1990.

BOOKS ABOUT RESOURCES The following are books whose purpose it is to introduce the reader to the resources which are available to aid the student in Bible study. The material in this article is drawn in great measure from Allison's book listed below. One should be sensitive to the date of resource books. New Bible resource materials are being released as well as older resources being updated; the more current the resource guide, the more likely the resources listed will be current as well. 1. Allison, Joseph D. The Bible Study Resource Guide. Revised edition, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1984. (This is an excellent guide which, in addition to listing resources, gives the reader instruction in their use. Allison is readable, well-illustrated, and is full of interesting and helpful information. He provides useful tips on choosing a Bible, has a section on Bible study methods and lists sources for out-of-date books. The author presumes that the reader is a novice in theological and technical jargon and is careful to clarify and explain anything which he believes might be uncertain.) 2. Kiehl, Eric. Building Your Biblical Studies Library. St. Louis: Concordia, 1988. (Also an excellent resource. In contrast to Allison, Kiehl is aimed at those more familiar with Biblical studies and as such is not written with the purpose of providing the reader all the introductory instruction and material. Out of print – check in used bookstores.) 3. Danker, Frederick. Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Revised and expanded edition, Philadelphia: Fortress, 1993. (More scholarly.) 4. Foster, Lewis. Selecting a Translation of the Bible. Cincinnati: Standard, 1993. 5. Skilton, John H. The New Testament Student at Work. Nutley: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1975 (out of print – check in used bookstores). 6. Fowler, David. CBD Guide to Bible Reference Resources. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers.

COMPUTER RESOURCES New and more sophisticated resources for the computer are constantly being released and current resources are in a constant state of revision and development. Perhaps the best way to attempt to stay current is ask software providers for current product information and updates. Also, consider subscribing to a Christian computer magazine; for example, Christian Computing, see www.ccmag.com. 1. The Master Christian Library, version 8. Ages Software, Inc. Rio, WI. (Excellent and loaded with a variety of reference and resource. See their web page: www.ageslibrary.com.) 2. Bibleworks. Hermeneutika. (Powerful Bible tool, excellent search abilities, Hebrew and Greek. See www.bibleworks.com.) 3. Classic Theological Library. Bible Research Corporation. (Several hundred books, emphasis on revival and other theological topics.) 4. Holiness Truth in Heart CD. (See www.truthinheart.com.)


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NOTES Christian Book Distributors (CBD), is a great source for all of the above resources as well as a host of other books and materials. Check their web site at www.christianbook.com. www.amazon.com is also a comprehensive and easy to use source. (Mike Huckins: 10/87. Rev. 2/94, 1/98, 8/99, 6/02, 8/02.)

A STUDENT'S GLOSSARY FOR BIBLICAL STUDIES COMPILED BY BRUCE CORLEY, STEVE LEMKE, AND GRANT LOVEJOY, FROM “A STUDENT’S GLOSSARY FOR BIBLICAL STUDIES” IN BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS: A COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION 101 TO INTERPRETING SCRIPTURE The need for a specialized glossary arises for the student who first encounters the overwhelming number of technical terms in biblical studies. The obvious gaps in dictionary help have been in the areas of language, grammar, history, and criticism. Terms have been chosen with the theological student in mind who tackles the Hebrew and Greek texts along with their allied disciplines. We have concentrated our effort on important definitions found both in this book and other primary tools for biblical interpretation. In many cases an entry is accompanied by examples from the Bible. Recourse to Hebrew and Greek will clarify the examples; these are introduced by the abbreviations Heb: and Gk:, meaning an example from the Hebrew Old Testament (OT) and the Greek New Testament (NT) respectively. Illustrations applicable to both languages or of a general nature are introduced by Ex: (example). When an entry title contains more than one word or term, synonyms and alternate spellings are separated by a comma (Stich, Stichos); different parts of speech, such as a noun and an adjective, by a slash (Messiah/messianic). Unless otherwise indicated, the translation used is the NIV. Accent/Accentuation. In the biblical languages, a matter of stressed sound or force utterance. Also a mark used in written Hebrew and Greek to indicate the nature and place of the spoke accent. Acrostic. In Hebrew poetry, an arrangement of successive words or phrases that begin with consecutive letters of the alphabet. There are a number of acrostics in the OT that are lost in translation. Heb: Pss. 111, 112, 119; Prov. 31:10-31; Lam. 1-4.1here are no NT acrostics. Ad Hominem. Latin, “to the man.” An argument that is directed to one's prejudices rather than to one's intellect, or an argument that attacks the opponent rather than his arguments. Gk: the argument of Rom. 3:1-5 concludes, “I am using a human argument”; cf. Matt. 12:27. Adjective/Adjectival. A word, phrase, or clause used to modify a noun or in some cases a substantive. In Hebrew and Greek, it agrees with the word modified (concord). Heb: “Abraham held a great feast” (Gen. 21:8). Gk: “I am the good shepherd” John 10:11). Adjunct. A modifier attached to the head of a phrase, or a secondary element (such as an adjective or adverb) that can be removed without the structural identity of the construction being affected. Ex: “I went home today” or “I went home,” but not “I went today.”

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Adoptionism. A Christological heresy of Gnosticism, which holds that the human Jesus became divine or was possessed by the divine Christ at the time of his baptism; a form of docetism ascribed to Cerinthus in Asia Minor at the end of the first century A.D. Adverb/Adverbial. A word, phrase, or clause used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb. In English, adverbs are usually formed with the suffix -ly. In Hebrew and Greek, many adverbs are formed with suffixes; other parts of speech and many clauses are used adverbially. Heb: “Agag came to him confidently” (I Sam. 15:32). Gk: “Freely you have received, freely give” (Matt. 10:8). A Fortiori. Latin for “from the stronger (reason or argument).” The conclusion drawn is inferred to be even more certain than the preceding. Agape. A transliteration of one of the Greek words for “love” found in the NT. It is self-giving, selfsacrificing love preeminently found in God himself. Aggadah. See haggadah. Aleppo Codes. A Hebrew manuscript of the OT from the tenth century A.D., claimed to have been pointed (see pointing) by Aaron Ben Asher, the most illustrious member of the Ben Asher family. Preserved, although with loss of a quarter of its folios, and adopted for a new critical edition of the OT by the Hebrew University. Alexandrian Text. A NT text-type associated with Alexandria, Egypt; allegedly revised in the fourth century A.D. by the Egyptian bishop Hesychius. Its early form (called the neutral text by Westcott and Hort) includes the major witnesses Codes (Codex): Sinaiticus and Codes: Vaticanus. Also called Egyptian, Hesychian, or Beta text. Allegory. An interpretation that assumes that a text has a secondary and hidden meaning underlying its primary and obvious meaning; a story that presents its true meaning through figures; it has been called a prolonged metaphor. Allegorical interpretation of the Bible was widespread in the early church (e.g., Origen and Augustine). Ex: interpreted allegorically, the Song of Solomon deals with the love of Christ for his church; cf. Cal 4:24. See typology. Alliteration. Words or syllables that begin with the same sound. Alliteration is usually not retained when words are translated from one language (or another). Heb: Ps. 122:6; Arnos 5:5; Isa. 1: 18-20. Gk: Rom. 1:29-30; 1 Pet. 1:4. Allusion. In biblical studies, an implied or indirect reference to the OT In the NT by means of a common theme, word, or idea; a brief verbatim phrase that comes from the writer's vocabulary of faith, father than an explicit quotation of the OT text. A less clear allusion is called an echo. Amanuensis. A scribe or secretary hired to write from dictation; Paul frequently used an amanuensis (cf. Rom. 16:22; Gal. 6:11; Col. 4:18). Ambiguous. A word or phrase that may have more than one meaning in a specific context. Heb: “Ahab served Baal a little; Jehu will serve him much” (2 Kings 10:18). Gk: “Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days” John 2:19). Anachronism. An error in chronology by which events, circumstances, or customs are misplaced in time, generally too early. Ex: when Shakespeare refers to the striking of a clock in Julius Caesar, he introduces an anachronism. Heb: the reference to the Philistines in Gen. 21:32 has frequently been called an anachronism, as it is believed that these people did not settle the eastern Mediterranean coast until ca. 1200 B.C. Anagogical/Anagogic Sense. Greek, “leading above.” Mystical interpretation of the Scriptures popular in the Middle Ages that focused on references to the afterlife. Ex: an interpretation of the Promised Land in terms of heaven. See fourfold sense.


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Analogue. That which corresponds to something else; in biblical studies, specifically an earthly analogy for something divine. Ex: shepherd, father, king. Analogy. A comparison between two otherwise dissimilar things so that the one that is less known or understood is clarified by the other. Gk: Paul, who is fond of analogy, compares the love of a husband for his wife to that of Christ for the church (Eph. 5:25); 1 Con. 14:6-8; 21 Tim. 2:3-7. Analogy Of Faith. Latin, analogia fidei. Method of interpretation whose principle is that Scripture interprets Scripture; assumes that a passage is lo he seen in the full context of Scripture and that the Bible has an underlying unity Analytical Lexicon. An alphabetically arranged list of all the major parts of speech, including nouns and verbs in their inflected forms, parsed and de fined. Analytical lexicons are available for the Hebrew and Aramaic OT and for the Greek NT. Also called a parsing guide. Anamnesis. Greek, “memory.” Recalling to mind, especially the redemptive five acts of God, for example, the Commemoration of Christ's death in the Lord's Supper. Antediluvian. Refers to the period of time before the Flood. Anthropomorphism/Anthropomorphic. A description of God in human terms or with physical characteristics. Ex: “God saw” (Gen. 1:4), the “arm of the LORD” (Isa. S 1:9), “the LORD smelled the pleasing aroma” (Gen. 8:21). Anthropopathism/Anthropopathy. The attribution of human emotion or feelings to God. Heb: “the LORD's anger” (Exod. 4:14), “You do not delight” (Ps. 5 1: 16). Gk: “the kindness and sternness of God” (Rom. 11:22). Antilegomena. (Greek, “the ones spoken against.”) The books that wet not accepted by all circles into the NT canon or, more precisely, NT books that were disputed during the first three Christian centuries (see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.25). See homologoumena. Antinomianism. In biblical ethics, the attitude and practice of unlimited moral license, based on the assumption that grace means freedom to sin; a misunderstanding of Christian liberty. Ex: Rom. 3:8; 6:1-2; Gal. 5: 13; 1 John 3:46. Also called libertinism. Antithesis/Antithetical. Contrast; a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses (parallelism) are contrasted by being balanced one against the other. Heb: “For the LORD watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish” (Ps. 1:6). Gk: “He was delivered over to death for our sins and was raised to life for our justification” (Rom. 4:25). Antithetic Parallelism. In Hebrew poetry, the second line of a couplet contrasts with the thought of the first by means of a contradictory or opposing statement, thereby intensifying the thought of the first line. Ex: Prov. 10: 1. Antonym, Antonymy. A word that is approximately opposite in meaning and use to another. Ex: “bad” is an antonym of “good,” Heir: “God called the light 'day,' and the darkness he called night... (Gen. 1:5). Aphorism. A short, pithy statement of a general truth; a maxim. Heb: Prov. 13:1; Gk: Gal. 6:7. Apocalypse/apocalyptic. Greek, “to uncover,” “unveil.” A heavenly revelation disclosing the meaning and end of history, it concerns the overthrow of the present age and the establishment of God's rule. As a genre, a group of OT, intertestamental, and NT texts featuring vision, symbol, and historical determinism. Ex.: Daniel 7-12 (OT), Enoch (See Pseudepigrapha), and Revelation (NT). Apocalypse, The. Another name for the Book of Revelation. Apocrypha/Apocryphal, OT. A large group of Jewish writings outside the OT canon that were composed between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200. They are included in the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate.


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Apocrypha/Apocryphal, NT. A collective term for noncanonical literature produced by the early church that developed forms present in the NT, viz., gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses. By and large, spurious writings that served Gnostic tenets and rivaled NT documents in some communities of early Christianity. Apocryphon. Greek, “hidden writing.” A term used to describe a noncanonical, pseudonymous writing of the intertestamental or early church periods that qualifies for, but is not included in, the traditional collections of Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Ex: the Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran. Apodictic Law. A law that is stated in absolute terms; cf. casuistic law. Heb: the OT laws introduced by “you shall” (Exod. 20:3-17). Apologia. Greek for “apology” or “defense.” A reasoned verbal defense or explanation of one's conduct; also a rhetorical genre in the Second Sophistic. Ex: Christian apologies by Paul (Acts 26:1-29) and harassed believers (I Per. 3: 15). Apophthegm. See apothegm. A Posteriori. Latin for “from the latter (effect).” Argument from inductive reasoning; derived by reasoning from observed facts or experience; the opposite of a priori. Apostolic Age. The earliest period of church history, coextensive with I lie activity of the apostles; generally dated A.D. 30 to A.D. 100, from the founding of the Jerusalem church to the death of the apostle John. Apostolic Fathers. Conventional title given to the Greek church fathers immediately following the apostolic age; the collection of Greek patristic writings that date from the early second century A.D: the letters of Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, and Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Didache, the fragments of Papias, and the letter to Diognetus. Apostolicon. Greek for “that relating to an apostle.” Used variously by the Greek church fathers to refer to an apostolic writing, a collection of epistles (Marcion's term for Paul's letters), or a lectionary of one of the NT epistles. Apostrophe. A sign used in English and Greek to indicate the omission of one or more letters from a word. Also, a figure of speech in which a person (usually absent) or personified thing is addressed rhetorically, as if present and capable of understanding. Heb: “Hear, 0 heavens! Listen, 0 earth!” Isa. 1:2). Gk: “Now you, if you call yourself a Jew” (Rom. 2:17). Apothegm, Apophthegm. A short, pithy saying that expresses an important truth in a few words; a maxim. In form criticism, a technical term for a saying of Jesus set in a brief narrative context. Ex: Mark 2:23-28. Also called paradigm, pronouncement story, and chreia. A Priori. Latin for “from the former (cause).” Argument from deductive reasoning; derived by reasoning from self-evident presuppositions; the opposite of a posteriori. Aramaic. A branch of the northwest Semitic languages that is closely related to Hebrew. in the OT, Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; Dan. 2:4b-7:28; and Jer. 10:11 are in Aramaic rather than Hebrew. Aramaic had become the common language of the Jewish people by NT times. See Aramaism, Masoretic text. Aramaism. The insertion of an Aramaic word where a Hebrew or Greek word should have appeared, or a feature of NT language that reflects Aramaic influence. Ex: “Rabboni” (John 20:16). See Semitism. Archaism. The preservation (or insertion) of an earlier or more primitive word or expression. Archetype. A manuscript that is not the immediate parent of another but is a remoter ancestor. Argumentum E Silentio. Latin for “argument from silence.” An interpretation based on the silence of the Scriptures, often on the assumption that because a biblical writer did not mention an event he was ignorant of it or it had not happened when he wrote. Ex. Heb: the scarcity of messages by Jeremiah


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during the reign of Josiah is used as an argument that he was not totally supportive of Josiah's reforms. Gk: the letters of Paul must have been collected after the writing of Acts since otherwise Luke would have referred to them. Asceticism. A lifestyle designed to combat vice and develop virtue by self-denial and, in exaggerated forms, withdrawal from society. Attributive. An adjective or other adjunct word that stands before the noun it qualifies. Ex: white bread, Heb: the attributive may also be expressed by the genitive relationship: “man of strength”= “strong man.” Gk: the attributive may follow the noun when both have the article. Authorized Version. See AV. Autograph. The original manuscript in the author's own handwriting or dictated to all amanuensis by the author. No autographs of biblical texts have been discovered. Autonomous Reason. The belief that the reason is free and able to discover truth without reference to higher authority. AV. Abbreviation for Authorized Version; another name for the King James Version of the Bible. See KJV. Babylonian Talmud. See Gemara. B. C. E. Abbreviation of “Before the Common Era” (sometimes understood as “Before the Christian Era”). It is used as a “neutral” substitute for B.C. (“Before Christ”). BH. Abbreviation used to designate Kittel's Biblica Hebraica; third edition published 1937; sometimes abbreviated BH3, BHK. BHS. Abbreviation of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, a complete revision of BH; published in its entirety in 1977. Biblical Criticism. A term used loosely to describe all the methodologies applied to the study of the biblical texts. Biblicism/Biblicist. Uncritical and extremely literal interpretation of the Scriptures. Bibliography. An alphabetically arranged list of books and articles pertinent to a given subject. Bibliolatry. Excessive reverence for the Bible that makes it into a sacred object. Usurping the place of the God of the Bible who properly should be the object of reverence. Byzantine Text. The NT text-type associated with Byzantium and the Greek East, found in the majority of later manuscripts and usually the majority reading of a passage. Probably revised at Antioch of Syria in the fourth century A.D. (Lucianic text). It is the basis of the Textus Receptus. Also called Syrian, Koine, Alpha, or Antiochene text. CA., C. Abbreviation of the Latin word circa, “about,” “approximately.” Ex: David became king ca. 1020 B.C. Chalcedon. The Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451) adopted the formula that Christ is completely human and completely divine, his two natures loving inseparable. Canon. Greek, “measure,” “norm.” The books of the Bible that have been accepted as inspired and authoritative. The Jewish canon of the OT (39 books) and the NT canon (27 books) together form the Christian canon. Canonical. Pertaining to the books or parts of the OT and NT that form the canon. Canonical Criticism. Study of the biblical texts in their present form in the canon and of the process by which they were composed and transmitted


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Cardinal. Short for cardinal number (one, two, three, etc.). See ordinal. Cartesian. Related to the philosophy of Rene Descartes that was essential to the rise of modern thought and scientific method, Descartes' Discourse on Method laid the foundation for a primary way in which modern thinkers have approached the discovery of new knowledge. Casuistic Law. A law that is stated in conditional terms; the key word is “if”; sometimes called case law. Heb: “If a man has a stubborn and rebellion son” (Dent. 21:18-19). See apodictic law. Catechesis/Catechetic. Oral instruction in one's faith or a collection of written materials used for this purpose. Form criticism proposes that catechetical needs were responsible for the formation of some of the Scriptures. Catena. Latin, “chain.” A commentary (lit., chains of comments) made up of strung-together quotations that accompanies biblical and theological writings. The device is found in various sources, such as the LXX, Qumran, and the church fathers. The word generally means a series of quotations, sayings, or stories. Ex: the chain of OT quotations in Rom. 9:25-29. Catholic Epistles. Title assigned by Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 2.23) to seven NT letters: James, 1 2 Peter, 1-3 John, and Jude. The term katholikê (Greek “universal”) was apparently used in the sense “addressed to all the churches,” although 2-3 John and 1 Peter have specific addresses. Also called General Epistles. C. E. Abbreviation of “Common Era” (sometimes understood as Christian Era”). It is used as a “neutral” substitute for A.D. (Anno Domini, “in the year of [our] Lord”). Charisma/Charismatic. Greek for “gift,” “a favor bestowed.” A spiritual gift, an endowment of God's grace bestowed by the Holy Spirit. “Charismatic” refers to a person who claims spiritual gifts, or to behavior performed in the power of such gifts. Gk: “Now about spiritual gifts” (I Car. 12:1). Chiasmus, Chiastic. An arrangement of the parallel members of a verse or literary unit to form an a-b-b'-a' arrangement (the first line corresponds to the fourth, the second to the third). Chiasmus is also called inverted or introverted parallelism: extended patterns appear in Hebrew and Greek. Heb: Its. 30:8-10; Gen. 4:4b-5a. Gk: Rom. 10:9-10; 1 Cor. 1:24-25; Philemon 5. Chiliasm/Chiliastic. From the Greek word “thousand.” The belief that Christ will return to reign on earth for a thousand years (Rev. 20). Synonymous with Millennialism/ Millennial. Christocentric. Centered on Jesus Christ; having Jesus Christ as the focal point, as in a theology or a hermeneutical method. Christology/Christological. That part of theological study or confession relating to the person and work of Christ, especially the union in him of the human and the divine. Circumlocution. A roundabout way of expressing something that could be stated more directly or in fewer words. Heb: The Hebrew language does not have a verb “to have,” so the idea must be expressed by circumlocution: “We have an aged father” (Gen. 44:20) is literally, “There is to us an aged father,” Gk: It is commonplace in the verb and genitive constructions dependent on the LXX. Circumstantial Clause. The statement of the particular circumstances under which the action of the main clause takes place. Heb: “As the sun was setting, Abram fell into a deep sleep” (Gen. 15:12). Gk: The Greek participle performs this function in a wide variety of ways: temporal, causal, conditional, etc. “When God raised up [temporal participle] his servant, he sent him” (Acts 3:26). CT Abbreviation of Latin coniectura, “conjecture.” In textual criticism and in a critical apparatus, the conjectural reading of a manuscript. Also abbreviated conj. Clause. A clause may compose all or part of a complete sentence; it consists of a subject and predicate. In terms of function in the sentence, clauses are of three types: main, subordinate and coordinate.


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Codex (pl, codices). An ancient manuscript in book form, made of papyrus, parchment, or vellum. In earlier times, documents were written on scrolls or clay tablets; the codex became dominant in the second century A.D. among Christian scribes. Cognate Language. A language that shares a common origin with another. Spanish and Italian are cognate languages sharing a common origin in Latin. Cognitive Process. The process of learning or of thinking. Colloquialism. A word or expression used in spoken and informal language rather than in written and formal language. Commentary. A study of a book (or of several books) of the Bible that employs the critical insights of linguistic, historical, and theological disciplines. Common Era. See C. E. Common Sense Rationalism. A philosophical movement founded by Thomas Reid (1710-1796) which asserts certain basic reasonable principles by which everyone lives, and that any philosophy, however logical it may be, that does not conform to these principles is to be rejected. Comparative Religion. A comparative historical and theological study of the various religions of the world with a particular interest in discovering their similarities and mutual relations. Complex Sentence. A sentence composed of one main clause plus at least one subordinate clause. Ex: “When they heard this, they were amazed” (Matt. 22:22). Composition. The art of putting together words and sentences in accordance with the rules of grammar and rhetoric; in grammar, the relationship between morpheme, word, phrase, clause, sentence, and discourse. Composition Criticism. An alternative term for redaction criticism, used by some scholars to emphasize the compositional technique of a true author as opposed to a mere redactor or editor. Compound-complex Sentence. A sentence composed of two or more main clauses plus at least one subordinate clause. Ex: “When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son” (Hos. 11:1). Compound Sentence. A sentence composed of two or more main clauses, often joined by a coordinating conjunction. Ex: “Gladness and joy will overtake them, and sorrow and sighing will flee away” Isa. 3S: 10). Conceptual Grid. A framework of presuppositions and concepts through which one views a text in the interpretative process. Ex: The logos doctrine in Greek philosophy (the rational principle of creation) was used by the early fathers to expound the church's Christology. Concordance. An alphabetical listing of the principal words in a book, giving all or some of the places where the word occurs. Ex: Young’s Analytical Concordance. Consonantal Text. I he Hebrew text of the OT as written originally without the use of vowel points. Any text that is made up of consonants only. Condition/Conditional Clause. A type of adverbial clause that poses an “if “; also called a protasis. There are four conditional sentence Structures in Greek. Heb: “If my head were shaved, my strength would leave me” Judg. 16:17). Contextualization. The act or practice of placing an element of language, culture, behavior, etc. in its linguistic, cultural, or social setting in order to interpret it properly. For the reading of a text, this involves preceding and following sections (the literary context or co-text), the historical situation of the writer, and the perspective of the reader.


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Contextual Principle. The interpretive principle that Scripture should be read in context, that is, in its literary, historical, and social dimensions. Coordinate/coordination. The linking of grammatical units of equal rank. Coordinate clauses occur in a compound sentence; they can be joined by a coordinating conjunction such as or, but, or and. See parataxis. Copyist. In biblical studies, one who copies the Scriptures. See scribe. Cosmogony. A theory regarding the creation and origination of the world or universe. Cosmology. Study of the orderly system or character of the universe. The ancient Near East largely conceived of a three-tiered cosmology: the earth, the water below, and the heavens above. Credo. A creed or brief, authoritative expression of religious beliefs. Gethard von Rad argued that such passages as Dent. 6:20-24, 26:Sb-9, and josh. 24:2b-13 are creeds of the faith of ancient Israel. Creedal. Of, or pertaining to, a creed or credo. Critical Apparatus. The textual critical footnotes found in Hebrew and Greek editions of the OT and NT. These notes supply readings that support or differ from the printed text and give manuscript sources for comparative studies of the text. Critical Text. A hypothetical reconstruction of a document based oil available divergent recensions. Criticism. From Greek krisis, “act of judging.” A general term that refers to the art of making an intelligent judgment about some object of study. In biblical studies, the major areas of criticism include the following: canonical criticism, form criticism, grammatical-historical criticism, higher Criticism, historical criticism, literary criticism, redaction criticism, religio-historical criticism, rhetorical criticism, source criticism, structural analysis, stylistic criticism, textual (lower) criticism, and tradition criticism. Cult/cultic. The public worship practices of a people, involving established forms, rites, feasts, times, places, etc. When used in biblical studies, the word should not be confused with its popular connotation (Satan cult, etc.). Dead Sea Scrolls. Writings of an Essene-like community that were discovered in 1947 near the Dead Sea. They have been dated between 168 B.C. and A.D. 233. They include the oldest OT manuscripts yet discovered. Decalogue. From Greek “ten words.” Another name for the Ten Commandments (Exod. 20:1-17; Deut. 5:6-21). Deconstruction. A literary-critical method associated with Jacques Derrida (b. 1930) that relativizes the meaning of a text. This theory states that meaning arises out of the interaction of the reader and the rest, thus ultimate meaning is continually deferred because every reader interprets differently. Texts thereby “deconstruct” or subvert their own claims to self-evident meanings. Deductive Method. The process of reasoning from the general to the particular, as opposed to inductive, which goes from the particular to the general. For biblical languages, a traditional method of pedagogy and grammar that introduces the learner to grammatical structure by rules and paradigms and then applies the principles learned to the reading of texts. By contrast, the inductive method begins with the text and leads the student to formulate grammatical structure by generalizing from examples encountered in reading. Demythologize. To interpret those parts of the Bible considered to be mythological (i.e., where the supernatural, transcendent is described in terms of the mundane, this-worldly) by understanding the essential existential truths contained in the imagery of the myth. Rudolf Bultmann is particularly associated with demythologizing the Scriptures.


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Denotative Meaning. The aspect of meaning that most closely relates to that portion of the nonlinguistic world to which the word refers. Also called referential meaning. Ex: the denotative meaning of “father” includes human, male, generation, and ancestor, whereas the connotative meaning suggests care, love, protection, and discipline. Dependent Clause. Another name for a subordinate clause. Determinism/Deterministic. Tending to see every factor as the result of one overarching cause that cannot be changed. Determinism in theology is usually associated with the idea of predestination. Deus Ex Machina. Latin for “god out of the machine.” In Greek drama a deity was lowered suddenly onto the stage by mechanical means to resolve the dilemma at hand or untangle the plot. The phrase is now applied pejoratively to contrived solutions by means of an artificial or improbable device. Deuterocanon/Deuterocanonical. A term used by Roman Catholics to designate books or parts of books that are not found in the Hebrew Bible but are included in the Septuagint and accepted as inspired since the Council of Trent; others call these books the Apocrypha. Catholics refer to the Pseudepigrapha as the Apocrypha. Deutero-Isaiah. The name given to the unknown author of Isaiah 40-55 (sometimes applied to Isaiah 40-66) by those who do not accept the unity of the Book of Isaiah. Deuteronomist Historian. A designation given by many scholars to an unknown editor responsible for compiling the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel, and 1 2 Kings, ca. 550 B.C. Deutero-Pauline. Name given to canonical letters of Paul whose authenticity is doubted by some scholars; usually ascribed to the work of a Pauline admirer who imitated the apostle's style. The list includes Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1-2 Timothy, and Titus. Devotio Moderna. Pietistic approach to hermeneutics which emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit as illuminator. Devotional Study. Bible study which seeks personal truths or encouragement to live closer to God. Diachronic. From Greek, “through time.” A term Used to refer to the developing or changing state of a language over a period of time. Heb: ylk became hlk; Gk: the dual number was dropped. See synchronic. Dialect. One of a number of varieties of a language, especially as differentiated by geographical region or by social class. Ex: Ugaritic, Hebrew, and Aramaic are northwest Semitic dialects: Ionic, Doric, and Attic are classical Greek dialects. Dialogue. A conversation between two or more persons. The character of biblical faith-the relationship of God and persons-makes dialogue an inevitable form of rhetorical expression. Heb: “Come now, let us reason together” (Isa. 1:18); Hab. 1-2 contains a dialogue between God and the prophet. Gk: “Then one of the elders asked me ... I answered” (Rev. 7:13-14). Diaspora. The dispersion or scattering of the Jewish people after the exile of 587 B.C., particularly the extended settlements following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Didactic. That which is intended to teach or instruct. Much of the OT and NT is didactic in nature. Ex: the Sermon on the Mount. Direct Equivalence. A theory of translation that believes only one English word should be used to represent each Hebrew or Greek word found in the OT and NT. See formal correspondence. Discourse. A biblical passage displaying semantic and structural coherence, unity, and completeness, and conveying a message. From a linguistic viewpoint, discourse is marked by certain universals or restraints that give it structure. Ex: the Bread of Life discourse (John 6:25-59). See discourse analysis.


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Discourse Analysis. The linguistic task of discovering the regular features of discourse structure, the way in which words, phrases, clauses, and especially sentences and whole compositions are joined to achieve a given purpose. Docetism/Docetic. From Greek dokein, “to seem.” A Christological heresy of Gnosticism, which asserted that Christ “seemed” to suffer, i.e., the death of the divine Christ was only apparent, not real. Ex: docetism is the target of the polemic in 1 John 5:6. Documentary Hypothesis. A theory that explains the formation of the Scriptures, especially the Pentateuch, as being the result of combining a number of documents from different sources and time periods. See also source criticism, JEDP. Doxology. From Greek doxa, “praise,” “glory.” An ascription of praise or glory to God or the persons of the Trinity, usually found at the end of a literary section. Heb: “Praise be to the LORD, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting” (1 Chron. 16:36). Gk: “Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God!” (Rom. 11:33). DSS. Abbreviation of Dead Sea Scrolls. Dualism. Any doctrine that asserts that there are two absolute powers or principles. Matter and spirit in Gnosticism are two ultimately opposed realms of being; biblical dualism is ethical in character, e.g., spirit versus flesh. Dynamic Equivalence. A type of translation in which the message of the biblical text is conveyed to the reader with effect equivalent to that for the original reader; closer to a paraphrase, and contrasted with formal equivalence. Also called functional equivalence. Ecclesiology. The branch of theology that is concerned with the nature of the church. Eisegisis. Reading into a passage of Scripture the meaning one wishes to find in it. See exegesis. Ekklesia. Greek for “church” or “assembly.” El. A Hebrew name for God in the OT. The word is the most general designation for deity and was also used by the Canaanites for the name of their chief god. Frequently combined with an adjective to create a name for God that expresses one of his attributes. See El Elyon. El Elyon. A name of God, customarily translated as “God Most High.” The name occurs thirty-one times in the OT (e.g., Gen. 14:18). Elohim. A Hebrew name for God found 2,570 times in the OT; it is the plural of Eloah. In addition to being a proper name of God, it can also refer to gods in general. See El. Enlightenment. Eighteenth-century movement that exalted reason and human freedom. Enlightenment thinkers recognized no higher authority than reason, refusing to accept supernatural revelation as authority. Among the great Enlightenment thinkers were Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, and John Stuart Mill. Epigraphy. The study of inscriptions written on durable materials such as stone. Epiphany. A manifestation of God (Exod. 3; 19; Isa. 6; Ezek. 1); also called theophany. Also, a feast celebrated on January 6 that commemorates the coming of the Magi as being the first manifestation of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles. Epistemology. Greek, “study of knowing.” The branch of philosophy concerned with the theory and grounds of knowledge, especially its limits and validity. Epistle. Greek for “letter.” A genre of Greco-Roman public correspondence applied to the NT letters; now distinguished from the latter as a technical term in literary criticism. See letter. Epistolary. Of, or pertaining to, an epistle.


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Epistolography. The study of Hebrew and Greek letter writing. Eschatology. From Greek eschatos, “last.” Strictly speaking, the study of events associated with the end of time; the term is drastically modified by some interpreters. Eschaton. Greek for “the end,” i.e., of the present world order. Etymology. Study of the origin or derivation of a word. Euphemism. A word substituted for another, usually for reasons of good taste or delicacy. Excursus. A digression that gives an extended discussion of a matter not covered extensively in the main body of a text; often placed at the end of a text as an appendix. Exegesis. The use of critical and scholarly methods to derive the meaning of a passage of Scripture; it is to be distinguished from exposition and eisegesis It may also refer to the written product of such study. Exegete. The person who practices or writes an exegesis. Exposition. A method of elaborating the meaning of a text as determined by exegesis and showing its contemporary relevance or application without distorting or falsifying its original meaning; it is to be distinguished from exegesis. Extrabiblical. Not found in the Bible; also used as another term for extracanonical. Extracanonical. Books that were not accepted into the canon as part of the Scriptures; also called noncanonical or extrabiblical. See Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha. Figurative Language. See figure, figure of speech. Figure, Figure Of Speech. The use of words in a way other than the ordinary or literal sense. Figurative language may be expressed by such devices as metaphor and simile. Heb: “all the trees of the field will clap their hands” (Isa. 55:12). Gk: “I am the bread of life” (John 6:35). Formal Correspondence. Another term for formal equivalence. Formal Equivalence. A type of translation in which the form and structure of the original are reproduced as nearly as possible, in contrast to dynamic equivalence. Also called formal correspondence. Ex: the NASB stresses formal equivalence, the Contemporary English Version dynamic equivalence, while the Living Bible is a paraphrase. Form Criticism. The analysis of a text according to typical, identifiable literary forms by which the people of a given cultural context expresses itself linguistically. Former Prophets. In the Hebrew Bible this is the designation of the books of Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings. Formgeschichte. German name for the discipline known as form criticism. Four Document Hypothesis. An elaboration of the two-source hypothesis on the relationship of the Synoptic Gospels made by B. H. Streeter. He postulated that behind Matthew and Luke lay four sources: M, the material unique to Matthew (written A.D. 60, Jerusalem); L, the material unique to Luke (written A.D. 60, Caesarea); Mark (written A.D. 66, Rome), and Q, the sayings source (written A.D. 50, Antioch). Fourfold Sense. A theory of biblical interpretation on four levels formulated as early as John Cassian (ca. A.D. 425) that flourished throughout the medieval period. The four meanings of Scripture were (1) literal, (2) allegorical, (3) moral (or tropological), and (4) anagogical (mystical and eschatological); biblical exegesis for a thousand years exhibited the fourfold sense of each passage. See anagogical. Gattung. German word for “kind” [of form]. See genre. Gemara. A type of commentary on the Mishnah produced by rabbis in the third through sixth centuries A.D. It contains a variety of proverbs, tales, and customs that relate to rabbinic lore as well as


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direct expositions of the text. The Mishnah together with the Palestinian Gemara is called the Palestinian of Jerusalem Talmud; the Mishnah together with the Babylonian Gemara is called the Babylonian Talmud. Genealogy. The history of the descent of a person or a family from earlier ancestors. Both the OT and NT contain extensive genealogical lists. Ex: I Chron. 1:1-9:44; Matt. 1:1-16. General Epistles. Another name for the Catholic Epistles. Genre. As applied to literature, this term denotes a distinctive group (or a structural scheme) with respect to style, form, and purpose; now being used in form criticism to replace the German term Gattung. Geschichte. A German term for “history.” See historie. Gloss. (1) An added comment usually placed in the margins of an ancient text by the copyist. Sometimes glosses made their way into the text when later recopied. John 5:3b-4 is considered by many NT scholars to be such a gloss. (2) A marginal or interlinear commentary copied by students during lectures at medieval schools; the most famous collection of these notes was the Glossa Ordinaria, which became a standard work of reference. Glossolalia. Greek, “tongue-speaking.” The gift of speaking in tongues. See charisma. Gnosis/Gnostic/Gnosticism. From Greek gnosis, “knowledge.” A widespread and highly diverse religious movement with roots in Greek philosophy and folk religion. Its chief emphases are the utter transcendence of God, created matter as fallen and evil, and salvation by esoteric knowledge. The Gnostic heresy or Gnosticism is the developed system that emerged in the second century A.D. and is associated with the names of Marcion, Basilides, and Valentinius. Sources of information on Gnosticism are the church fathers-Tertullian, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Origen-and the Gnostic texts of Nag Hammadi. By convention some scholars refer to pre-Christian evidence as gnosis, reserving the term Gnosticism for the later heresy; other scholars prefer the terms incipient or proto-Gnosticism for pre-Christian and NT evidences. Grammatical-Historical Criticism. This discipline makes use of many critical disciplines in order to shed light on the Scriptures and to understand them better. It studies the historical background together with grammatical, syntactical, and linguistic factors. It usually combines exegesis with exposition and is used largely in conservative circles. Griesbach Hypothesis. A solution to the Synoptic problem proposed by J. J. Griesbach (1783), which holds that Matthew was the earliest Gospel, that Luke depended on Matthew, and that Mark later used the two, producing an abbreviated and conflated version (See conflation). Chief among contemporary advocates is W. R. Farmer; also called the two-gospel hypothesis. Haggadah/Haggadic. From Hebrew “to narrate.” The nonlegal sections of rabbinic literature, featuring imaginative exposition and explanatory narration of OT texts, enhanced by anecdotes and spiritual maxims. See Halakah, Midrash. Halakah/Halakic. From Hebrew, “to walk.” The Jewish oral laws of the Tannaim that supplemented or explained the laws of the OT: the legal portions of rabbinic literature as distinct from haggadah, emphasizing rules for conduct of life. These normative interpretations are preserved in various midrashim, the Mishnah, and the Talmud. Harmony of the Gospels. A rearrangement of the four Gospels on a chronological basis so that they present a unified, continuous life and ministry of Jesus; the earliest known example is Tatian's Diatessaron. Ex: A. T. Robertson, A Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ. See synopsis of the Gospels. Hebraism. A word or idiom derived from the Hebrew language; in biblical studies it refers especially to any part of the Septuagint or NT Greek that shows the influence of Hebrew style and terminology.


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Heilsigeschichte. A German word translated variously as “salvation history,” “redemptive history,” or “sacred history”; it interprets the Bible as the ongoing story of God's redemptive activity in history. Hellenistic Age. The era of cultural unity in the Greek East brought about by the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period extends from the death of Alexander (323 B.C.) to the rise of the Augustan principate (31 B.C.). Hellenize/Hellenization. The adoption or imposition of Greek language and culture; a tendency accelerated in Judaism during the Hellenistic age. Hermeneutics. Theory and principles of interpretation; for writings, correctly understanding the thought of an author and communicating that thought to others. See exegesis. Hexapla. From Greek for “sixfold.” The first “parallel Bible,” an OT edition compiled by Origen ca. A.D. 245 that contained in six parallel columns the Hebrew text, a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew text, and several Greek versions of the OT. Higher Criticism. A type of biblical criticism that deals with matters such as historical background, authorship, date of writing, etc., as opposed to lower or textual criticism. Historical Criticism. A term that is used loosely to describe all the methodologies related to biblical criticism. It was developed especially in the nineteenth century when it was believed that reality was uniform and universal and could be discovered by human reason and investigations. Also, it is used to mean the historical setting of a document (such as time, place, sources, etc.). The term is also used to describe an emphasis on historical, philological, and archaeological analysis of the biblical texts. Historie. A German term used in contemporary criticism to denote that which is public and verifiable according to the methods of historiography. Its counterpart, Geschichte, refers to the significance of historical facts for faith, which is not open in the same way to historical scrutiny. See Heilsgeschichte. History of Religions School. An early-twentieth-century German school of interpretation that applied the principles of comparative religion to the study of early Christianity. It held that, as a religion of the Roman Empire, Christianity was a syncretistic faith borrowing from mystery religions and Gnosticism. Chief proponents of this school were R Reitzenstein (1861-1931) and W. Bousset (1865-1920). Also called religio-historical criticism. Homiletics. The study of preaching as an art and a science. Homologoumena. Greek, “ones agreed to.” Books of the Bible that were received by all alike, i.e., undisputed books of the NT canon (see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.25). See antilegomena. Hyperbole. Greek, “flung too far,” an overstatement. A literary exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis without any intention of deception. Heb: “David [has stain] his tens of thousands” (1 Sam. 18:7). Gk: “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God” (Matt. 19:24). Hypothesis. A conjectural explanation that has not yet been vented but leads to scientific understanding; a preliminary step towards a theory, which is more comprehensive and better grounded, Idiom. An expression used in a language that is peculiar or unique in that language in grammatical construction or meaning. Hebrew and Greek are replete with Idiomatic expressions. Ex: “As the Lord lives,” “soil of the bridal chamber.” Implied Author. An analytical framework in narrative criticism that depicts the implied author through clues in the text itself apart from the identity of the real author provided by historical reconstruction. Often the implied author is identical with the narrator in the text who tells the story. See literary criticism.


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Implied Reader(s). In narrative criticism, a depiction of the readers implied by clues from the text alone, who may be distinguished from the real readers in both the original and contemporary settings. See literary criticism. Imagery. Another designation for figurative language. See also figure, figure of speech. Inerrancy/Inerrant. The doctrine that the Bible is free from error or in mistake; its rationale usually is based on verbal inspiration and is restricted to the autographs, which would be free from textual corruption. The term infallibility properly means the Bible is incapable of error, not liable to deceive of mislead. Although the adjectives inerrant and infallible are often used synonymously, some scholars apply the word infallible only to what the Bible teaches, in order to avoid the connotation of historical and scientific accuracy in all matters implied in the word inerrant. Infallibility/Infallible. See inerrancy. In Media Res. Latin for “in the midst of things.” For dramatic effect, a narrative account may take up a story not at its beginning but in the middle of later events. Inscription. Engraved writing on durable materials such as stone, wood, or metal; the term includes graffiti but usually excludes coins (numismatics), papyrus, and parchment. Intentional Fallacy. The error of studying a literary work in order to establish or assess the author's intention rather than concentrating on what the text actually says. Modern literary criticism tends to the view that a text's meaning is detached from the author's intention and control, hence literary critical insights must be deliberately ahistorical. Interlinear Bible. A Bible that contains an English translation written between the lines of the biblical text printed in Hebrew or Greek. Intertestamental Period. The period between the completion of the writing of the OT Scriptures and the beginning of the NT era. Ipsissima Verba/Ipsissima Vox. Latin, “the very words” or “the very voice.” The exact words or language spoken or written by an individual and preserved without any change. Especially applied to the actual words of Jesus as preserved in the Gospels as distinct from sayings attributed to him by the early church; if the actual words are not preserved, one seeks the actual message or “the very voice.” Irony. A kind of humor, ridicule, or sarcasm in which the true meaning intended is the opposite of the literal sense of the words. Heb: “Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine and champions at mixing drinks” (Isa. 5:22). Gk: “I am not in the least inferior to the 'super-apostles”' (2 Cor. 12:11); “We are fools for Christ, but you are so wise in Christ!” (1 Cor. 4:10). JEDP. Terminology used in the documentary hypothesis to designate tile documents identified by this method of analysis: J=Jahwist, dated ca. 950 B.C.; E=Elohist, dated ca. 850B.C.; D=Deuteronomist, dated ca. 622 B.C.; P=Priestly, dated ca. 500-450 B.C. Proponents of this theory believe that J and E were combined ca. 750 B.C., to which D was added ca. 620 B.C., with P added fit the postexilic period, giving the Pentateuch its final form as we know it by 400 B.C. This hypothesis was given its classical expression by Julius Wellhausen in 1878. See source criticism. Jehovah. A pronunciation of Yahweh that began in medieval times out of a misunderstanding of the vowels of the name Adonai (Lord) written with the consonants JHVH by the Masoretes. This combination of vowels and consonants produces the hybrid “Jehovah” in English. However, the vowels were intended to instruct the reader to substitute the name Adonai for the sacred unpronounceable name. Jerusalem Talmud. See Gemara. Kairos/Kairotic. A term derived from Greek that describes a period of time that has special significance, cf. nodal points in Heilsgeschichte. The Exodus was a kairotic event for the ancient Israelites; the incarnation was a kairotic event for Christians.


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Kenosis/Kenotic. From Greek kenos, “empty.” A Christological term that refers to the self limitation of Christ in the incarnation, derived from Phil. 2:511. Gk: “but made himself nothing [lit., emptied himself], taking the very nature of a servant” (Phil. 2:7). Kerygma. Greek for “proclamation” or “preaching.” A NT term for the act or content of apostolic proclamation of the gospel. The minimal points include (1) Jesus as the fulfillment of the OT promises, (2) his mission attested by mighty works, (3) his crucifixion, (4) resurrection, (5) ascension and promise of his Parousia, and (6) a call to repentance issuing in the forgiveness of sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit. Ex: Acts 2:14-39; 13:16-41; Rom. 1:1-6; 1 Cor. 15:1-8. In modern biblical theology and criticism, kerygma may refer to the content of what is preached or to the act of preaching. Koine Greek. The “common” Greek dialect spread throughout the Greek East in the wake of Alexander's conquests, primarily through his armies; the lingua franca of the Hellenistic age. The NT is Written in a Koine halfway between the vernacular of the papyri and the literary Koine of prose writers such as Josephus; the grammar and style owe much to the OF and can be described as Semitic or biblical Greek. See Semitism. Koine Text. Another name for the Byzantine text. Koinonia. Greek for “sharing” or “fellowship.” Descriptive of the church in the NT and in contemporary usage. Gk: Acts 2:42; 1 Cor. 1:9; 1 John 1:7. Lament. A term used in form criticism to designate a particular literary form characterized by complaint or dirge; sometimes it is a funeral song. Ex: the Book of Lamentations. Latinism. A word or idiom derived from Latin that appears in the NT. The majority of occurrences are loanwords from the areas of Roman administration, military, and coinage. Gk: kolonia (Acts 16:12); kentyrion (Mark 15:39); denarion (Matt. 20:9). Latter Prophets. In the Hebrew Bible, the designation of the books of the major prophets and minor prophets as distinguished from the former prophets. Law. A general designation of the requirements of God to be obeyed by the covenant people. Specifically, it is the designation of the first five books of tile Hebrew Bible, also called the Torah. See apodictic law. Lectionary. From Latin “reading.” Compilation of portions of Scripture for reading in worship services of synagogues and churches. Ancient lectionaries form one source of witnesses to the text of the Greek NT. Leningrad Codex. A Hebrew manuscript of the entire OT copied in A.D. 1008, a primary witness to the Ben Asher text. It forms the basis of Biblia Hebraica (BH) and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS). Letter. The letters of Paul are closest in form to the familiar private correspondence of the Hellenistic and Roman period. Their unique features include (1) apostolic greeting, (2) prayer report and thanksgiving, (3) an opening formula to the main body, which itself consists of doctrine and paraenesis, (4) a travelogue, and (5) a closing with Christian greetings. The distinction between letter and epistle has limited value because some NT letters have the characteristics of public correspondence. Lexicon. The word is used most frequently in biblical studies to designate a dictionary of Hebrew words that are found in the OT or a dictionary of Greek words that are found in the NT. Ex: Brown, Driver, and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament; and Arndt, Gingrich, and Danker, A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Liberation Theology. A theological movement born in the Third-World in the 1960s that proposes the liberation of oppressed peoples from social, economic, and political tyranny as the dominant theme of the Bible. The OT Exodus from Egypt and the NT Sermon on the Mount are paradigm texts for liberation hermeneutics.


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Linguistics. The scientific study of language developed as a discipline lit the twentieth century; when the emphasis is historical, the term is equivalent to the older term philology, Literal. The ordinary or basic meaning of a word or expression in contrast to a figurative meaning. See also figure, figure of speech. Literal Translation. A translation based on exact word-for-word renderings that retain the word order of the original language as much as possible. An extremely literal translation from one language to another can be awkward, wooden, or unnatural. See formal equivalence. Literary Criticism. A study of the literary characteristics of a text, especially its structure, style, vocabulary, point of view, repetition of words, and plot. Approaches to biblical narrative adopt an analytical distinction between the real author and readers and the implied author and readers depicted in the text. Loanword. A foreign word used in a biblical text, There are, for example, Persian, Aramaic, and Greek loanwords found in the OT, and Aramaic and Latin ones in the NT. Heb: a Persian word, pardes, “orchard” (Song of Sol, 4: If I Gk: a Latin word, phragellion, “whip” (John 2:15). Locus Classicus. A Latin term used for the passage of Scripture or other literature that is usually cited as the best illustration or explanation of it word or subject. Ex: John 3:16 is a locus classicus of the gospel; Exod. 21:24 is the locus classicus for the law of retaliation. Logion (pl., Logia). Greek for “saying.” A saying of Jesus, usually in contrast to a longer utterance such as a parable. Gk: “It anyone wants to be first he must be the very last, and the servant of all” (Mark 9:35). The plural logia refers to a collection of sayings, particularly a sayings-source (Q) for the Gospels or the logia compiled by Matthew (according to Papias). Lollards. A Dutch term meaning “mumblers”; followers of the dissident scholar and preacher, John Wycliffe. The Lollard movement grew in England during the fourteenth century but was persecuted severely in the early fifteenth century. Lower Criticism. Another term for textual criticism. LXX. Latin numerals for “seventy”; symbol for the Septuagint. According to tradition, it was fitting that, since seventy elders accompanied Moses up Mount Sinai (Exod. 24:1-9), seventy elders should translate the Torah into Greek. However, the Letter of Aristeas reasons that seventy-two were involved in the translation (six times twelve tribes). Magic. A term used in biblical studies to describe a widespread belief in the ancient Near East that the gods could be activated or moved to work on behalf of a worshiper who brought offerings, performed prescribed rituals, or repeated certain incantations. Magnificat. The name of Mary's hymn of praise at the announcement of Jesus' birth (Luke 1:46-55), derived from the opening word of the Latin text: Magnificat anima mea Dominum, “My soul praises the Lord.” Major Prophets. In the Hebrew Bible, the Books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. English Bibles (based on the Septuagint arrangement) add the Book of Daniel; in the Hebrew Bible Daniel is found in the section called Writings or Hagiographa. Makarism. From Greek for “blessing.” Another name for a beatitude (Matt. 5:3-10). Manuscript. In textual criticism this refers to the handwritten document in the original language. Secondarily, it is used to describe any handwritten document. It is abbreviated MS (sing.) and MSS (pl.). Maranatha. A primitive Aramaic formula of the early church; the phrase can be translated as a creedal declaration, “Our Lord has come” (maran atha), or, more likely, an eschatological prayer, “Our Lord, come!” (marana tha). Gk: 1 Cor. 16:22; cf. Rev. 22:20.


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Masoretes. From Hebrew for “tradition.” The Jewish scholars who added the vowel points to the Hebrew consonantal text. Masoretic Text. The vocalized text of the Hebrew Bible, prepared by a group of Jewish scholars around A.D. 700 to preserve the oral pronunciation of the Hebrew words. See Masoretes. Massoretes. See Masoretes. Messiah/Messianic. A title from a Hebrew word meaning “to smear,” “to anoint.” Kings and priests were anointed, i.e., set apart for their service through an anointing ceremony. The term came to be applied to a member of the family of David who would appear to restore the kingdom of Israel. The NT presents Jesus as the Christ (Greek Christos or Messiah), the fulfillment of the messianic hopes of the OT. Messianic Secret. The intentional concealment of Jesus' identity as the Messiah, particularly in Mark, by means of injunctions to silence following miracles (exorcisms and healings) and in training the twelve disciples. William Wrede argued that the secrecy motif was Mark's invention, created to explain how Jesus could be proclaimed as the Messiah when he never claimed as much in his lifetime. The biblical motif is better described as a “Son of God” secret. Metalanguage. Language about language, the formal terms or grammatical language used to describe language itself. Ex: sentence, clause, adjective, alliteration, etc. Metaphor. An implied comparison, the transfer of a descriptive term to all object to which it is not literally applicable; saying that one thing “is” another Heb: “The LORD is my light and my salvation” (Ps. 27: 1). Gk: “I am the gate for the sheep” (John 10:7). See parable, simile. Methodology. The form and methods of study employed in a given discipline. Metonymy. The use of one word (often an attribute) for another that it suggests, as the effect for the cause, the cause for the effect, the sign for the thing signified. Heb: “You prepare a table before me” (Ps. 23:5): “table” is a metonym for food. Gk: “This cup is the new covenant in my blood” (Luke 22:20); “cup” is a metonym for its contents. Midrash (Pl, Midrashim). Rabbinic interpretation of the OT text, both the practice and genre of rabbinic exposition. Its content may be either halakic or haggadic, although the best known midrashim (expository commentaries) are haggadic in nature. Millennialism/Millennial. From the Latin word “thousand.” See chiliasm/chiliastic. Minor Prophets. The twelve books of the prophets from Hosea to Malachi: the name originated with the rabbis. Minuscule. Small letters joined together one after another with strokes. Also called cursive writing. Minuscules, the manuscripts of the Greek NT in this script, superseded the uncial manuscripts and now form the great bulk of extant copies, more than 2500 manuscripts. Mishnah. A codification of the traditional oral law of the Tannaim as distinct from the written Torah of the Pentateuch. Committed to writing ca. A.D. 200 by Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi (The Prince). It is the basic hatakic document of Judaism, containing sixty-three tractates organized into six major divisions. See Talmud. Mnemonic Device. A literary aid to memory such as an acrostic, catchword, or connected themes. Heb: the graded number in Amos' oracles against the nations-“for three crimes ... and for four” (Amos 1:3, 6, 13; 2:1, 6). Gk: the arrangement of Jesus' genealogy into three sections of fourteen names, probably connected with the numerical value (gematria) of the name David in Hebrew: dwd = 14 (Matt. 1: 1-17). Modifier. A grammatical unit that limits or describes another word, phrase, or clause: usually it has an adjectival or adverbial function.


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Modus Operandi. Latin term for “method of operation.” Monism. A philosophical viewpoint that views all reality as a unified whole or in organic connection. Monograph. A scholarly, carefully documented study of a particular (usually limited) subject as opposed to an introduction or survey. Monotheism. Belief in the existence of only one God. Morphology. From Greek morphe, “form.” A study of the forms (morphemes) that comprise the structure of words in a language. The phoneme is the basic meaningful element of speech; the morpheme the basic meaningful element of grammar. See syntax. Motif. In literature, a salient feature of the work, especially the recurring theme or dominant feature. It is any repetition that helps unify a work by recalling its earlier occurrence and all that surrounded it. Heb: tile appeal to return to God is the motif of Jeremiah 3-4. Gk: the theme of God's righteousness pervades Paul's exposition in Rom. 3:21-5:21. MS/MSS. Abbreviations of manuscript/manuscripts. MT. Abbreviation for Masoretic text. Mystery Religions. The pagan cults of the Hellenistic age whose adherents gained the promise of redemption by initiation into the secret ceremonies (Gk: mysterion, “mystery”) of the cults. The more important mystery religious were those of Isis and Osiris from Egypt, of Ants and Cybele from Phrygia in Asia Minor, of Adonis from Syria, of Mithras from Persia, and the Greek cult of Demeter at Eleusis. See History of Religions School. Myth/Mythological. Popularly, a story that is untrue, imaginative, or fictitious. In biblical studies the word has been applied in a positive and functional way (though misunderstood because of association with its popular meaning) to literary forms that express transcendent realities and truths in this-worldly terms. Ex: Some scholars understand hell not as a literal place (by this definition of myth) but as the human condition of being separated from God. NA21. Abbreviation for the Nestle-Aland text of the Greek NT, 27th edition (1993). See Nestle-Aland Greek NT. Nag Hammadi Cortices. An extensive collection of fourth-century Christian and non-Christian Gnostic writings, discovered in 1946 at a site near the modern city of Nag Hammadi in upper Egypt. The twelve papyrus cortices represent many literary forms as well as diverse forms of Gnosticism. The texts reinforce the view that Gnosticism has a non-Christian origin but does not predate the NT. Narrative. A story told, a type of historical account basic to biblical literature organized around a series of events, generally in chronological order, that includes participants and attendant circumstances. Ex: the Pentateuchal narratives of creation and Israel's early history and the Gospel accounts of Jesus' ministry. NASB. Abbreviation for the New American Standard Bible, a revision of the American Standard Version (ASV), first published in its entirety in 1970. Natural Theology. A philosophical approach that seeks to discover and validate truth claims about God and religious matters from the standpoint of reason and the natural world. Natural theology builds its conceptual framework on the empirical data of the created order. NEB. Abbreviation for the New English Bible, a translation by British scholars, first published in its entirety in 1970. See REB. Nestle-Aland GK NT. A critical text of the Greek NT, first published in 1898 by Eberhard Nestle; the 22nd-25th editions (1956-63) were revised by Erwin Nestle and Kurt Aland. The 26th edition (NA26, 1979) and the third edition of the United Bible Societies Greek NT (UBS3, 1975) printed the same text


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with differences in punctuation and the critical apparatus. The 27th edition (referred to as NA 27, 1993) reproduces the text of NA26. NIV. Abbreviation for the New International Version, a translation by evangelical scholars from several countries, first published in its entirety in 1978. NKJV. Abbreviation for the New King James Version, a modernization of the KJV, first published in its entirety in 1982. NRSV. Abbreviation for the New Revised Standard Version, a revision of the RSV, published in 1989. Numismatics. The study and collection of coins. Ontology. Greek, “study of being.” That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the fact and nature of ultimate reality or existence. Oracle. A term used to mean any communication or message from God to humanity. Oral Tradition. The preliterary stages of a written text; the assumption that a spoken message passed from generation to generation by word of month before taking a fixed written form. Ex: individual pericopes in the Gospels. See form criticism, tradition criticism. Ordinal. Short for ordinal number (first, second, third, etc.). See cardinal Orthography. The correct writing of words and letters according to standard usage. Pantheism. The belief that God is everything and that his attributes are expressed in the forces of the universe. Palestinian Talmud. See Gemara. Papyrus (Pl., Papyri). An Egyptian plant made into a writing material (hence called papyrus) by the ancient Egyptians and widely used by other ancient peoples. Sheets were formed by cutting the stems into long, thin strips, that were placed in two crosswise layers and glued together by hammer blows, Parable/Parabolic. A short, usually fictitious, narrative in which a moral or spiritual truth is taught; an extended metaphor. In the teaching of Jesus it takes the form of a story or anecdote, an aphorism, or a similitude. The primary meaning of the kingdom of God is spoken in parables. Heb: Isa. 5:1-7. Gk: Parable of the mustard seed (Matt. 13:31-32). Paradigm. An example or pattern of a conjugation or declension, showing a word in all its inflectional forms. In form criticism, another name for apothegm. Paradox. A statement that is self-contradictory or seemingly false or opposed to common sense, but which in fact may be profoundly true; e.g., the sovereignty of God does not preclude human freedom. Biblical language and faith are replete with such paradoxes. Heb: “Those who guide this people to, lead them, and those who are guided are led astray” (Isa. 9:16). Gk: “For when I am weak, then I am strong” (2 Cor. 12: 10). Paraenesis/Paraenetic, Parenesis/Parenetic. In form criticism, used to describe a text containing a series of admonitions, usually ethical and eclectic in nature; a text that exhorts or gives advice. Heb: Prov. 1:8-19. Gk: 1 Thess. 4:1-12. Parallel. A word, idea, or construction that is similar in all essential points to another. Heb: “For you have been my refuge, a strong tower against the foe” (Ps. 61:3). Gk: “He will give you another Counselor ... the Spirit of truth” (John 14:16-17). See parallelism. Parallelism. In Hebrew poetry, the relationship between two or more lines. Hebrew poetry is characterized by parallelism of thought rather than by rhyme. The types of parallelism that have been identified in Hebrew poetry include: synonymous, synthetic, antithetic, emblematic, inverted (chiastic), and climactic.


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Paraphrase/Paraphrastic. Restatement of a text, passage, or literary composition, giving the meaning in words other than those of the original writer or speaker. Also, a free translation. Do not confuse with periphrasis. Ex: The Living Bible is a paraphrase rather than a translation. See dynamic equivalence. Parataxis. Coordination of words, clauses, and/or sentences in series, without any other expression of their syntactical relationship; the opposite of hypotaxis or subordination. It is characteristic of Hebrew composition copulative waw) and appears in sections of the NT influenced by Semitic style. Gk: copulative kai at the beginning of Mark's pericopes. See coordinate/coordination. Parchment. A writing material prepared from the skins of animals. See vellum. Parenesis. See paraenesis. Parousia. Greek for “coming,” “presence.” Used in the NT as a common noun, e.g., “comforted us by the coming of Titus” (2 Cor. 7:6), but primarily as a technical term for the return of Christ. Gk: “Concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ” (2 Thess. 2: 1). Parse/Parsing. A pedagogical exercise to aid in morphological analysis; to describe grammatically a part of speech by listing its inflectional modifications and/or its syntactic relationships in the sentence. Heb: The verb 'amar is parsed as qal, perfect, third person, masculine gender and singular in number. Gk: the verb lusomen is future, active, indicative, first, plural. See analytical lexicon. Parsing Guide. See analytical lexicon. Participle. A verbal form that has characteristics of both noun and verb. In Hebrew it represents characteristic, continual, uninterrupted action. Heb: “The Spirit of God was hovering over the waters” (Gen. 1:2). The Greek participle is widely used as a substantive, adjective, and adverb in phrases and clauses. Gk: in God, who raised him from the dead and glorified him” (11 Pet. 1:21). Parts of Speech. The major word classes into which the vocabulary of a language is divided. Traditional divisions in Hebrew and Greek grammar are based on meaning and function: they are noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and particle. Pastoral Epistles. Since the eighteenth century a collective name for 1-2 Timothy and Titus, owing to their nature as pastoral instruction for church ministry. Patriarchy. Greek for “rule of the father.” The common form of social organization in tribal cultures where the father or male ancestry is supreme In the clan or family. Ex: the Israelite settlement of Canaan. Patristics. From Latin pater, “father.” The branch of theological study that deals with the writings and thought of the Greek and Latin church fathers; In a stricter sense, the major Christian lathers to the close of the eighth century A.D. Also called patrology. Patrology. Another name for patristics. Pentateuch. Greek name for the first five books of the OT. Pericope. A designated portion or unit of Scripture; it may be quite brief or relatively long. Particularly, the self-contained literary units or sections of the Gospels. Heb: Ezek. 18:15-17 is a pericope. Gk: the healing of the paralytic in Capernaum (Mark 2:1-12). Personification. A figure of speech in which some human characteristic is attributed to an inanimate or abstract object. Heb: “The land we explored devours those living in it” (Num. 13:32). Gk: “the stones will cry out” (Luke 19:40). Pesher (Pl., Pesharim). Hebrew for “commentary.” A unique form of haggadic midrash documents found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The commentary form uses a formula, “this means,” and fulfillment motif revealing the mystery of God's purpose. Ex: the Habakkuk commentary from Qumran (abbreviated 1QpHab).


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Philology. Traditional term for the study of language history; in the widest sense, the study of literature, also linguistics; in classical usage, the study of ancient culture as revealed in history, language, art, literature, and religion. Plenary Inspiration. From Latin, “full.” The view that the Bible is inspired in all its parts. Frequently used synonymously with verbal inspiration. Pointing. A term that refers to the vowels added by the Masoretes to the consonantal text of the OT (Hebrew was originally written without vowels) in order to preserve the pronunciation of the language at a time when it was in danger of being forgotten. Polytheism. The belief in many gods. Most cultures of the biblical period espoused this religious practice. Post-apostolic Age. The period immediately following the apostolic age, ca. A.D. 100-150; also called sub-apostolic age. Praxis. From Greek, “to practice.” The practice of a discipline or skill; the application of theoretical understanding to the realities of life. Pre-understanding. In hermeneutics, the inevitable assumptions and attitudes that one brings to the interpretation of a text. Its philosophical rationale maintains that everything is understood in a given context and from a given point of view. Prolegomenon (pl., Prolegomena). An introduction to or preliminary remarks for a study. Ex: Julius Wellhausen, Prolegomena to the History of Ancient Israel. Prophets. A class of people in OT times who received messages from God and transmitted them to the people. Also, the name of the third division of the Hebrew Bible. Prose. The ordinary form of written or spoken language. It does not make use of the special literary forms of structure, meter, and rhythm that are characteristic of poetry. Proselyte. A convert to a religious faith; in NT times it was used especially of a convert to Judaism. Protasis. The subordinate or “if” clause that expresses the condition in a conditional sentence (apodosis). Heb: “If you fully obey the LORD ... [Protasis], the LORD your God will set you high above all the nations on earth [apodosis]” (Dent. 28:1). Gk: “If you love me [protasis], you will obey what I command [apodosis]” John 14:15). Psalter. Another name for the Book of Psalms. Pseudepigrapha. Greek, “falsely inscribed.” When capitalized, the traditional name given to 65 documents of Jewish and Christian origin that were not included in the OF canon or in the Apocrypha. These books were written ca. 250 B.C.-A.D. 200. There are also pseudepigraphal writings connected with the NT. Pseudonym/Pseudonymous. A fictitious name or a name of a well known person from the past assumed by a writer who for various reasons prefers not to use his own name. Ex: The Wisdom of Solomon in the Apocrypha; many scholars classify the books of Daniel and 2 Peter as pseudonymous; many OT and NT pseudepigrapha, including the Apocalypse of Moses and the Letter of Peter to Philip. Q. Siglum for the Synoptic sayings-source or the double tradition of Matthew and Luke; likely derived from the German word Quelle: “source.” Used in source-critical research of nineteenth-century German scholarship. There is no agreement on the question whether Q was written or oral or on its origin, date, and contents. Although currently disputed, a source like Q remains integral to the two source hypothesis. Qumran. First-century site, eight-and-a-half miles south of Jericho, on the western edge of the Dead Sea. Eleven caves near the Qumran community yielded the Dead Sea Scrolls.


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Rabbi. The transliteration of Hebrew rabbi, “my master” or “my teacher.” Originally a respectful term of address used in greeting experts in the Law, It became a title in the first century A.D. for a member of the Tannaim. Gk: used in the Gospels as an honorary designation of Jesus (e.g., Mark 9:5; John 1:38; 6:25), also in its Palestinian Aramaic form, rabboni (Mark 10:51; John 20:16). Real Author. See implied author. REB. Abbreviation for the Revised English Bible, a revision of the NEB published in 1989. Received Text. Another name for textus receptus. Recension. An edition of an ancient text that involves a revision of an earlier text form. Receptor Language. The language into which an original text is translated. In a translation from Greek to English, Greek is the source language, English the receptor language. Also called target language. Redaction. See redactor. Redaction Criticism. A study of how the Scriptures reached their final form from the earliest oral form, through a process of editing and composition to their written form. Especially in the Gospels, the study of the editorial techniques and contributions of the Gospel writers. Also called composition criticism. Redactor. One who edited a document at a later time, to bring it up to date or who in some other way modified a text. One who collects and edits older and smaller units (it is generally assumed) of material into newer, larger compositions. The process of editing is called redaction. Ex: Mark as redactor of the earliest gospel tradition. Regula Fidei. Latin for “rule of faith.” The extension of the kerygma to creedal-type confessions used for catechesis and as criteria of orthodoxy in the early church. Renaissance. Literally, “renewal,” “rebirth.” In history, the period which began in Italy in the fourteenth century and was marked by a rebirth of interest in classical art and literature. Rhetoric. The art of persuasive speech or discourse, used especially of literary composition; skillful or artistic use of speech. Rhetorical Criticism. A study of the structural patterns of a literary unit with attention given to various devices (such as parallelism, chiasmus, etc.) used in its composition. Special attention now focuses on the kinds of persuasion and topics of argumentation that are used by the biblical writers in comparison to forms of ancient rhetoric. Rhetorical Question. An expression cast in the form of a question, not to elicit an answer but to make a stylistic point of emphasis. The expected answer is understood. A rhetorical question may be asked to introduce a subject which the speaker or writer wishes to discuss. Heb: “'Does job fear God for nothing?' Satan replied” Job 1:9). Gk: “How shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation?” (Heb. 2:3). RSV. Abbreviation for the Revised Standard Version, a revision of the RV and ASV in the light of the KJV and not a completely new translation; first published in its entirety in 1952. See NRSV. RV. Abbreviation for the Revised Version, a British revision of the KJV; it was first published in its entirety in 1885. Sacerdotalism. Latin for “priesthood.” Religious practice governed by an official priesthood (a class distinguished from the laity) that mediates between God and man, being authorized to perform acts of ministry restricted to the priestly class itself. Saga. A common narrative genre in the OT; it is a story that contains fundamental truths apart from historical consideration; it usually actualizes the event vividly. Ex: the story of Sodom in Genesis 19 is classified as a saga.


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Salvation History. Translation of the German term Heilsgeschichte. Samaritan Pentateuch. A Hebrew recension of the Pentateuch, retained and used in the Samaritan community during the Second Temple period; a pre-Masoretic textual tradition that was probably revised in the first century B.C. It differs significantly from the Masoretic text but preserves ancient and important readings. Satire. Prose or poetry in which contemporary vices or follies are held up to ridicule; its popular adaptation in Horace and Juvenal is full of invective and sarcasm. Ex: Paul's satirical outburst against the intruders in the church at Corinth (2 Cor. 10-13). Scribal Error. An obvious mistake made by a scribe in the copying of a document. Scribe. Originally a secular office held by one who was skilled in the art (it writing. In postexilic Judaism the scribes composed a class of professional interpreters and teachers of the Law. See amanuensis. Scroll. Papyrus, parchment, or leather sheets joined together in rolls, usually 10-12 inches wide and up to 35 feet long. Writing was usually on one side only in vertical columns a few inches wide. The scrolls were read by rolling from left to right between two rollers. See codex. Second Temple Period. A designation of the Hellenistic-Roman period from the viewpoint of the Jewish commonwealth, beginning with the subjugation of Palestine by Alexander in 332 B.C. and extending through the first Jewish revolt to the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70. Semantics. The science of the meaning of words. In biblical studies, especially the view that word meaning is not simply a listing of independent items but a study of fields wherein words interrelate and define each other. Semitism. A word or construction derived from Hebrew or Aramaic, more specifically those features of the LXX and the Greek NT that reflect the influence of Hebrew (Hebraism) or Aramaic (Aramaism). Sensus Plenior. Latin for the “fuller meaning” of a passage of Scripture in. tended by God but not clearly intended by the human author or understood by the original hearers or readers. Septuagint. From Latin septuaginta, “seventy.” Greek translation of the OT that (according to the Letter of Aristeas) was made by Jews of Alexandria, Egypt, around 250 B.C.; the word is frequently written as LXX. Strictly speaking, the term should apply only to the Pentateuch, but the name came to be used of the entire Greek translation of the OT. Septuagintism. A word or idiom in the Greek NT that is due to the influence of the Septuagint; because of the influence of Hebrew on the Septuagint, many Septuagintisms are properly Semitisms. Gk: the use of tou with the infinitive after verbs (Luke 4:10; 9:5l; Acts 3:12; 15:20). Servant Songs. The designation of Isa. 42:1-4; 49:1-6; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12 because these passages describe one who is a servant of the Lord. The designation was first proposed by Bernard Duhm in 1892. Shekinah. From Hebrew, “to dwell.” A way of referring to the divine presence of God that developed during the Intertestamental period. The word is not found in the Bible but is found in the Targums and rabbinic writings. Shema. Hebrew, “hear.” Taken from the first word of the passage, the title given to Dem. 6:4-9, Judaism's confession of faith, proclaiming the unity of God. Siglum (Pl, Sigla). A letter (or letters), abbreviation, or symbol used to Indicate a manuscript or source of an edited text. Ex: 1QpHab for the pesher-commentary on Habakkuk from Qumran cave I (See Dead Sea Scrolls); Q for the common tradition of Matthew and Luke not in Mark.


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Simile. An explicit comparison (usually with the word “like”) of two things that in their general nature are different from each other; cf. metaphor, which is all implied comparison. Heb: “I am like a moth to Ephraim” (Hos. 5:12); Gk: “They are like children sitting in the marketplace” (Luke 7:32). Similitude. A parable form proper, it figurative story that compares an unknown reality (the kingdom of God in Jesus' use) to a known image, a typical circumstance, or event. The image depicts things that happen every day and general situations accessible to everyone. EA: the parables of the lost sheep and the, lost coin (Luke 15:4 10). Shre Qua Non. Literally, “without which not.” That indispensable or essential element without which something does not exist. Sitz Im Leben. A German expression used in form criticism to describe the “situation in life,” i.e., the cultural context out of which a certain form of literary expression arose, especially the community setting in which a form was developed and understood. Sola Fides. Latin, “faith alone.” Reformation principle of salvation or justification by faith alone apart from human merit. Sola Scriptura. Latin, “Scripture alone.” Reformation principle of authority for life and doctrine by Scripture alone apart from church tradition. Source Criticism. A special aspect of literary criticism, an analytical methodology used in the study of biblical books to discover individual documents (or sources) that were used in the construction of a particular literary unit as we now have it. Ex: the source hypotheses postulated for the Synoptic problem. Speech Act. A term used in the philosophy of language, associated with the insights of J. L. Austin and J. R. Searle, to refer to those utterances that perform an act as opposed to those that convey information; e.g., in saying “I bless you,” the act of blessing occurs. Structural Analysis, Structural Criticism, Structuralism. A study of the structure of the language to which the biblical texts conform in order to be intelligible; often concerned primarily with the sentence and smaller units. It has also been called stylistic criticism. In a wider sense, it examines the structural features of biblical narratives that can be analyzed in terms of underlying modes of expression inherent to all human thought. Interest in the author's purpose and historical dimensions of the text are minimal. Subordinate Clause. A clause that is dependent on another clause for its meaning; it does not make sense when standing alone. It is usually introduced by a particle, conjunction, or adverb and can be a part of a main clause or a complex sentence. Also called dependent clause. Heb: “because of the evil you have done” Jer. 4:4). Gk: “because of their lack of faith” (Matt. 13:58). S.V. Abbreviation of Latin sub voce, “under the voice [i.e., utterance]” or sub verbo, “under the word.” It means “look up the reference under the entry of heading named.” Synchronic. A term that refers to the static or fixed aspects of a language at a given point in time. Heb: Guttural letters do not take a daghesh forte in Hebrew. Gk: The use of the perfect tense in first-century Koine Greek. See diachronic. Syncretism. The mingling of different religious beliefs through the influence of contact with other cultures. EA: the fusion of traditional Greek cult, and oriental beliefs in the mystery religions; the blending of Yahweh worship, with Baal worship in Israel. Synod. A formal assembly of church officials having authority to speak and to make decisions on behalf of the church. Synonym. A word that has approximately the same meaning and use as another; e.g., “purpose” is a synonym of “intention.” Heb: ish and geber are synonyms for “man.” Gk: the word “good” renders agathos, kalos (Matt. 7: 18), and chrestos (I Car. 15:33).


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Synopsis of the Gospels. An edition of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (sometimes with John) arranged in parallel columns: the printed formal preserves the full text of each gospel in sequence. The first printed synopsis was made by J. J. Griesbach (1776). Ex: A. Huck and H. Greeven, Synapse der drei ersten Evangelien; K. Aland, Synopsis of the Four Gospels. See also harmony of the Gospels. Synoptic Gospels. From Greek synoptikos, “seen together.” The first three Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), which present a parallel or common view of the story of Jesus. The term harks back to the printed Synopsis of the Gospels by J. J. Griesbach (1776). Synoptic Problem, The. How to account for the similarities and differences in wording, content, and sequence among the Synoptic Gospels. See also two source hypothesis, Griesbach hypothesis. Syntax. From Greek syntaxis, “arrangement.” A study of the arrangement of words to show their mutual relations in the sentence; sentence structures as opposed to morphology, the study of word structure. Talmud. The name given to the combination of the Mishnah and the Gemara; the compilations of rabbinic teaching and interpretation made by the Amoraim during the third through sixth centuries A.D. in the academies of Babylonia and Palestine. These compilations are called the Babylonian Talmud, comprising some two and one-half million words, and the Palestinian or Jerusalem Talmud, a shorter version. Tanak. Jewish name for the entire OT. It is a word composed of the first letters of Torah, Nebiin, and Ketubim, the three major divisions of the Hebrew Bible. Tannaim/Tannaitic. Collective name given to the earlier generations of rabbis (ca. first two centuries A.D.) who were duly qualified to expound tile Scriptures with authority; some 120 scholars dating from the last of tile “pairs,” Hillel and Shammai, to Judah Ha-Nasi, the compiler of the Mishnah. The word tanna, “teacher,” or “transmitter,” was later applied to students who successfully learned the traditions. Targum. Aramaic for “translation.” Usually refers to translations of parts of the OT into Aramaic that originated in the public reading of the OT in the synagogue and involved a certain amount of interpretative comment or paraphrase. Ex: the Targum of Onkelos (the Pentateuch) and the Targum of Jonathan (the Prophets). Tautology. The needless repetition of an idea in different words; a statement true by virtue of its logical form alone. Ex: widow woman; it rained rain; God is divine. Temporal. The expression of duration or point in time. There are it number of ways of expressing the temporal idea in Hebrew and Greek. In Hebrew the preposition beth can mean “while.” Heb: “And while they were in the field” (Gen. 4:8). Greek primarily utilizes particles in case constructions or verbal phrases to express time. Gk: “When his family heard about this, they went” (Mark 3:2 1). Text-type. A major grouping of biblical manuscripts, based on textual affinities, geographical proximity, and local recensions. The three primary text-types are Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine or Lucianic. Textual Criticism. The discipline that attempts to reconstruct the original text of the Bible as nearly as can be determined. The procedure involves reconstruction of the history of transmission and assessment of the relative value of manuscripts. The discipline is also called lower criticism. Textual Evidence. The cumulative evidence of various manuscripts for a particular reading of the text. Textus Receptus. The phrase means “received text.” The text underlying the earliest printed editions of the Greek NT upon which the King James Version was based; a Byzantine text-type published in two main editions by Stephanus (1550) and Elzevir (1633). Also used to designate any standard text, such as the Ben Asher text of the OT.


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Theocracy. Government by the immediate direction of God or through those who are his representatives. Ex: During the period of the judges, Israel was a theocracy. Theodicy. A vindication of the justice of God in permitting evil to exist. Ex: the Book of job is a theodicy. Theophany. A manifestation of God in a visible form. Ex: the burning bush (Exod. 3: 1-5); the living creatures and throne (Ezek. 1:4-28). See epiphany. Torah. The word properly means “instruction.” The name of the first division of the Hebrew Bible composed of the first five books; it is also referred to as the Law. Tractate. A treatise or essay; a book or section of the Mishnah or Talmud, e.g., the tractate Pirke Aboth. Tradition Criticism, Tradition History. A study of the history of a tradition from its oral to its written stage. It is based on the belief that the material in the OT (and the NT to a lesser extent) passed through many generations by word of mouth before taking a fixed written form. This discipline is also called traditio-historical criticism, oral tradition, and in German Uberlieferungsgeschichte. Translation. Transferring thoughts or writings from one language to another, while preserving the original meaning and intent of the author or speaker. Translation has also been used to describe the phenomenon of Enoch's (Gen. 5:24) and Elijah's (2 Kings 2:11) departing to be with God without experiencing death. See dynamic equivalence, formal equivalence. Two Document Hypothesis. See two source hypothesis. Two Source Hypothesis. The most widely-accepted solution to the Synoptic problem, developed in late nineteenth-century German scholarship. It postulates the priority of Mark; this earliest Gospel served as a major source for Matthew and Luke, and the latter two also used another common source, the sayings source, usually called Q. The hypothesis of Mark and Q (held in modified forms) now tacks critical consensus; also called the two document hypothesis. See four document hypothesis, Griesbach hypothesis. Type/Typology. A method of biblical interpretation that sees persons, things, or events in the OT as foreshadowings or patterns (“types”) of persons, things, or events in the NT, particularly as they occur within the framework of history as opposed to allegory. Ex: Joseph as a type of Christ. UBS4. Abbreviation for United Bible Societies' text of the Greek NT, fourth edition (1993). See United Bible Societies Greek NT. Ugaritic. Ancient Semitic language of Ugarit in Syria. Uncial. Early form of Greek, written entirely in capital letters. Any text or manuscript written in capital letters. United Bible Societies Greek NT. A critical text of the Greek NT, now in its fourth edition (1993; referred to as UBS4). Since UBS3 (1975) this edition prints the same text as the 26th and 27th editions of Nestle-Aland; although its critical apparatus is more selective, the evidence cited is exhaustive for any variant listed. Urevangelium. German for “primitive” or “original Gospel.” The name assigned by G.E. Lessing to the lost Aramaic document that was the common source of the Synoptic Gospels. Also called Urgospel, primitive Gospel, or original Gospel. Urgospel. Another name for Urevangelium Variant Reading. A term used in textual criticism to refer to differences in the wording of a biblical passage that are discovered by comparing different manuscripts of the passage. Ex: a comparison of the


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Masoretic text with the LXX reveals a number of variants between the two texts. The Dead Sea Scrolls have also revealed variants between the Masoretic text and these scrolls. Vaticinium Ex Eventu. A Latin term that means “prophecy or prediction made after the event.” A disputed principle of historical criticism that assumes that an event known to a biblical writer is turned into a prophecy by literary artifice. Ex: The Roman siege of Jerusalem known to Luke is placed back on the lips of Jesus as a prophecy (Luke 19:42-44; 21:20). Vellum. A leather writing material made from calfskin; sometimes refers to a finer, more expensive product, but often synonymous with parchment. Verbal Inspiration. The belief that every word in the Bible is inspired fly God. A corollary of this view is inerrancy. Verbal inspiration should he distinguished from the dictation theory in that the former is generally held to involve both divine and human authorship (See paradox); frequently used as synonymous with plenary inspiration. Vernacular. The language of ordinary daily speech in a certain locality or region, as opposed to literary language. It frequently does not follow strict grammatical rules of correct usage. Version. A translation of the Bible from one language to another; frequently it is dependent on preceding translations. Ex: King James Version, Revised Standard Version, New International Version. Vowel Points. See pointing. Vulgate. A translation of the Bible into Latin by Jerome at the end of tile fourth century A.D.; the “common” version of the medieval Catholic church. Jerome translated the OT directly from the Hebrew text current fit his day; the NT is based on the Old Latin and underwent curious revision. Wisdom. Wisdom was a phenomenon of ancient Near Eastern outline that observed human experience and benefited from it in order to gain mastery of life. It has been described as a quality of mind that distinguished the wise man from others (he is often contrasted with the “fool” in the OT), His wisdom enabled him to use factual knowledge to make proper judgments involving everyday living and so he was able to live well and enjoy success. Wisdom was also considered to be a quality inherent in God. Wise living was Israel was associated with following the precepts and counsel of God. Wise men exercised significant influence in the royal courts as well as among the common people. See wisdom literature. Wisdom Literature. The name given to a type of literature common to the ancient Near East. Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes are the wisdom books of the OT, but wisdom writing is also found elsewhere in the OT. See wisdom. Worldview. The framework through which one sees reality; the set of convictions by which one knows and interprets reality. A Christian worldview includes such things as belief in the supernatural and moral certainty. A modern worldview is skeptical of the supernatural and exalts reason. A post-modem worldview is morally relativistic and pluralistic in its approach to truth. Writings, The. The third division of the Hebrew Bible; also called the Hagiographa or Ketubim. See Torah. Yahweh, Jahweh. The name for God found most frequently in the OT; it occurs approximately 6,823 times. It is the suggested pronunciation of the Hebrew tetragram. The word is usually translated as “The Lord” but sometimes as “Jehovah” (based on a misunderstanding of the combination of the consonants of YHWH and the vowels of Adonai). Most English versions use “LORD” for Yahweh, “Lord” for Adonai; cf. Exod. 4: 10.


73 A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES COMPILED BY BRUCE CORLEY, STEVE LEMKE, AND GRANT LOVEJOY, FROM “A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES” IN BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS: A COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION TO INTERPRETING SCRIPTURE There is no end to the writing of books on the Bible. They are to the Bible student what wrenches are to a mechanic-the tools of the trade; likewise, they should be purchased for a specific use. We recommend that the student become acquainted with a book before buying it. The question to ask is, Will (or can) I use it? To that end we have compiled a selected bibliography to guide the Bible student in the use of reference books and commentaries. We offer two rules-of-thumb: (1) use it first (spend time in the library); (2) be selective and balanced. The great Manchester scholar, T. W. Manson, once said that any discipline could be mastered by use of no more than a hundred books-the right books, of course. To guide the student we have marked several entries with either an asterisk (*) or dagger (t). We do not intend thereby to suggest that these books alone should be consulted, rather that these are basic and representative of two poles of scholarship: the more popular, introductory level, and the more critical, technical level. *…books marked by asterisk are expository, more popular, and meaningful for beginning students. †…books marked by dagger are linguistic, more technical, and intended for advanced students.

REFERENCE BOOKS Bibliography: For a fuller discussion of commentaries and exegetical tools in general we note the following guides: *Carson, D. A. New Testament Commentary Survey. 4th ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993. Childs, B. S. Old Testament Books for Pastor and Teacher. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977. †Danker, E W. Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Rev. and exp. ed. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. †Fitzmyer, J. A. An Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture. 3d rev. ed. Subsidia. Biblica 3. Rome: Biblical Institute, 1990. France, R. T. A Bibliographic Guide to New Testament Research. 3d ed. Sheffield: JSOT, 19 79. *Longman, Tremper III. Old Testament Commentary Survey. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995. Martin, R. P. New Testament Books for Pastor and Teacher. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Stuart, Douglas. A Guide to, Selecting and Using Bible Commentaries. Dallas: Word, 1990. One-Volume Reference: The beginning student will find the following single volumes from Broadman Press to be a dependable reference trio that is generously illustrated: Dockery, David S., ed. Holman Bible Handbook. Nashville: Broadman, 1992.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 74 Butler, Trent C., ed. Holman Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Broadman, 1991. Brisco, Thomas V. Holman Bible Atlas. Nashville: Broadman, forthcoming. Bible Dictionary. The multivolume works should be consulted for standard essays on a given biblical topic. Achtemeier, P. J., ed. Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985. †Bromiley, G. W., ed. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979-86. *Douglas, J. D., ed. The New Bible Dictionary. Rev. ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1984. †Freedman, D. N., ed. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6vols. GardenCity, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. Bible Atlas. Chronological data, maps, charts, and photographs of the Bible lands are available in the following student atlases: Aharoni, Yohannon, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1977. Beitzel, Barry. The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody, 1985. Paterson, John H., Donald J. Wiseman, John J. Bimson, and J. P. Kane, eds. New Bible Atlas. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1985. Biblical Word Studies. In addition to the standard lexicons of Hebrew and Greek, the student should consult the following sets for extended treatments of individual words: †Botterweck, G. J., Helmer Ringgren, and H.J. Fabry, eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament 7 vols. of 12 to date. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974 *Brown, Colin, ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975-78. †Kittel, Gerhard, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated by G. W. Bromiley. 10 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-78. *Van Gemeren, William A., et al., eds. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, forthcoming.

BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES By way of suggested reading, we have marked a handful of commentaries for each book of the Bible. Again, we do not intend by these selections to endorse all the interpretations set forth in them. We value them because they are sound and helpful, not because they are always right. The following list features representative approaches to the biblical text. A given text should be studied, if possible, in the original language. By way of general approach, the student should consult available volumes on each biblical book from the following series:


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 75 Anchor Bible (Doubleday) Expositor's Bible Commentary (Zondervan) Hermeneia (Fortress) Interpretation (John Knox) International Critical Commentary (T. & T. Clark) New American Commentary (Broadman) New Century Bible (Eerdmans) New International Commentary on the Old and New Testament (Eerdmans) New Interpreter's Bible (Abingdon) Tyndale Old and New Testament Commentaries (InterVarsity and Eerdmans) Word Biblical Commentary (Word) For brief exposition and helpful general articles, we recommend the following single volume commentaries: Murphy, Roland E., Raymond E. Brown, and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, eds. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 1990. Wenham, G. J., J. A. Motyer, D. A. Carson, and R. T. France, eds. New Bible Commentary. 4th ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

GENESIS Atkinson, David. The Message of Genesis 1-11. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1990. Baldwin, Joyce G. The Message of Genesis 12-50. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1986. *Bruggemann, Walter. Genesis. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1982. Cassuto, Umberto. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis. 2 vols. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961-64. Driver, S. R. The Book of Genesis. 5th ed., enl. Westminster Commentaries. London: Methuen, 1948. Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. _____. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-5a New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 199S.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 76 Keil, C. E, and F. Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. Translated by James Martin. 3 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 186S. *Kidner, Derek. Genesis. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: Inter-Varsity, 1967. Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Genesis. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1956. Rad, Gerhard von. Genesis: A Commentary. Rev. ed. Translated by J. H. Marks. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1973. Skinner, John. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis. 3d ed. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1930. †Westermann, Claus. Genesis 1-11: A Commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1984. †_____. Genesis 12-36: A Commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1984. †_____. Genesis 37-50: A Commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1984. †Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. †_____. Genesis 16-50. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1994.

EXODUS †Cassuto, Umberto. A Commentary on the Book of Exodus. Translated by 1. Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1967. †Childs, Brevard S. The Book of Exodus. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1974. Clements, Ronald E. Exodus. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1972. *Cole, R. A. Exodus. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973. Davidman, Joy. Smoke on the Mountain. Philadelphia: Westminster, 19S4. Durham, John 1. Exodus. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. Ellison, H. L. Exodus. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982. Fretheim, Terence E. Exodus. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1991. Hyatt, J. P. Exodus. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1971. Keil, C. E, and F. Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. 3 vols. Translated by James Martin. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1865.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 77

Noth, Martin. Exodus. Translated by J. Bowden. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962. *Ramm, Bernard. His Way Out. A Fresh Look at Exodus. Glendale, Calif.: Regal Books, 1974. Sarna, Nahum M. Exodus Shemot. JPS Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1991.

LEVITICUS *Harrison, R. K. Leviticus. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1980. †Hartley, John E. Leviticus. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1992. Keil, C. F., and E Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. Translated by James Martin. 3 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1865. *Knight, G. A. E Leviticus. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981. Levine, Baruch A. Leviticus Va-yikra. JPS Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989. Mays, James L. The Book of Leviticus, The Book of Numbers. The Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 4. Richmond: John Knox, 1963. Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1-16. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday, 199 1. Noth, Martin. Leviticus. Translated by J. E. Anderson. The Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977. Snaith, Norman H. Leviticus and Numbers. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967. †Wenham, G. J. The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979.

NUMBERS †Ashley, Timothy R. Numbers. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. Budd, Philip J. Numbers. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. †Gray, George Buchanan. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1903. Greenstone, Julius H. Numbers, with Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1939. Harrison, R. K. Numbers. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 78

*Huey, E B. Numbers. Bible Study Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. Keil, C. F., and F. Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. Translated by James Martin. 3 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1865. Mays, James L. The Book of Leviticus, The Book of Numbers. The Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 4. Richmond: John Knox, 1963. Milgrom, Jacob. Numbers Ba-midbar. JPS Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990. Noth, Martin. Numbers: A Commentary. Translated by James D. Martin. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968. Riggans, Walter. Numbers. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983. Snaith, Norman H. Leviticus and Numbers. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967. *Wenham, Gordon J. Numbers. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1981.

DEUTERONOMY Brown, Raymond. The Message of Deuteronomy. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1993. Christensen, Duane L. Deuteronomy 1-11. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1991. ____. Deuteronomy 12-34. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, forthcoming. Clements, R. E. God's Chosen People: A Theological Interpretation of the Book of Deuteronomy. London: SCM Press, 1968. Craigie, Peter C. The Book of Deuteronomy. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. †Driver, S. R. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteronomy International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1902. Keil, C. F., and E Delitzsch. The Pentateuch. Translated by James Martin. 3 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1865. Mayes, A. D. H. Deuteronomy. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1979. *Merrill, Eugene H. Deuteronomy. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1994. Miller, Patrick D. Deuteronomy. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1990. Payne, David E Deuteronomy. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1985.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 79 †Rad, Gerhard von. Deuteronomy. Translated by Dorothea Barton. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966. Smith, George Adam. The Book of Deuteronomy. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1918. *Thompson, J. A. Deuteronomy. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1974. Wright, G. E. "Deuteronomy: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 2. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953.

JOSHUA †Boling, Robert G. Joshua: A New Translation with Notes and Commentary. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982. Bratcher, Robert G., and Barclay M. Newman. Translator's Handbook on the Book of Joshua. New York: United Bible Societies, 1983. *Bright, John. "Joshua: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 2. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953. †Butler, Trent C. Joshua. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1983. Cohen, Arthur. Joshua and Judges: Hebrew Text and English Translation, with an Introduction and Commentary. Soncino Books of the Bible. London: Soncino, 1950. Gray, John. Joshua, Judges and Ruth. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967. Hamlin, E. John. Inheriting the Lan& A Commentary on the Book of Joshua. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. Keil, C. E, and F. Delitzsch. Joshua, judges, Ruth. Translated by James Martin. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1887. †Soggin, J. Alberto. Joshua: ~ Commentary. Translated by R. A. Wilson. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972. *Woudstra, Marten H. The Book of Joshua. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981.

JUDGES AND RUTH Atkinson, David. The Message of Ruth. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: Inter-Varsity, 1985. *Auld, A. Graeme. Joshua, Judges and Ruth. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. †Boling, Robert G. Judges. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 80 Campbell, Edward F. Ruth. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975. *Cundall, Arthur Ernest, and Leon Morris. judges and Ruth. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,1968. Davis, Dale Ralph. Such a Great Salvation: Expositions of the Book of Judges. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990. Gray, John. Joshua, judges and Ruth. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967. Hubbard, Robert L. Jr. The Book of Ruth. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Keil, C. E, and E Delitzsch. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. Translated by James Martin. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1887. †Moore, George F, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on judges. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner, 1895. †Soggin, J. Alberto. Judges: A Commentary. Translated by John Bowden. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981. Wilcock, Michael. The Message or Judges. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1992. First and Second Samuel Ackroyd, Peter. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1977. _____. The Second Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1977. †Anderson, A. A. 2 Samuel. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989. *Baldwin, Joyce G. 1 and 2 Samuel. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. *Brueggeman, Walter. First and Second Samuel. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1990. Caird, George B. "The First and Second Books of Samuel: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 2. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953. †Driver, S. R. Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1913. †Hertzberg, H. W. I and II Samuel. Old Testament Library. Translated by John Bowden. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1964. Mauchline, John. 1 and 2 Samuel. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1971.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 81 McCarter, P. Kyle. 1 Samuel. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980. _____. 2 Samuel. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984. *Payne, D. E I & II Samuel. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982. Smith, H. P. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1904.

FIRST AND SECOND KINGS Auld, A. Graeme. I & II Kings. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986. Brueggemann, Walter. 1 Kings; 2 Kings. Atlanta: John Knox, 1982. †DeVries, S. J. 1 Kings. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1985. †Gray, John. I & II Kings: A Commentary. 2d ed. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970. Hobbs, T. R. 2 Kings. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1985. *House, Paul R. 1, 2 Kings. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1995. †Montgomery, James A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings. 2d ed. Edited by H. S. Gehman. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1951. Slotki, I. W. Kings: Hebrew Text and English Translation, with an Introduction and Commentary. Soncino Books of the Bible. London: Soncino, 1950 Wifall, Walter. Court History of Israel: A Commentary on First and Second Kings. St. Louis: Clayton, 1975. *Wiseman, Donald J. 1 & 2 Kings. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1992.

FIRST AND SECOND CHRONICLES †Braun, Roddy. 1 Chronicles. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1986. Dentan, Robert C. The First and Second Books of the Kings; The First and Second Books of the Chronicles. Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 7. Richmond: John Knox, 1964. †Dillard, Raymond B. 2 Chronicles. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987 Francisco, Clyde T. "First and Second Chronicles." In the Broadman Bible Commentary. Vol. 3. Nashville: Broadman, 1970. Keil, C. F. Books of the Chronicles. Translated by Andrew Harper. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1872.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 82 Myers, Jacob M. I Chronicles. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965. _____. II Chronicles. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965. *Selman, Martin J. 1 Chronicles. Tyndale Old Testament Commentary, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994. *_____. 2 Chronicles. Tyndale Old Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994. Thompson, J. A. 1, 2 Chronicles. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1994. *Williamson, H. G. M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982.

EZRA AND NEHEMIAH †Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary. The Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988. *Breneman, Mervin. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Clines, David J. A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Fensham, Charles F. Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982. Holmgren, Fredrick Carlson. Ezra and Nehemiah: Israel Alive Again. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Keil, C. R Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther. Translated by Sophia Taylor. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1873. *Kidner, Derek. Ezra and Nehemiah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1979. Myers, Jacob M. Ezra, Nehemiah. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965. †Williamson, H. G. M. Ezra, Nehemiah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1985.

ESTHER Anderson, Bernhard W. "Esther: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 3. Nashville: Abingdon, 1954. *Baldwin, Joyce G. Esther. An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1984. *Breneman, Mervin. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 83 †Clines, D. J. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Coggins, R. J., and S. Paul Re'emi. Israel Among the Nations: A Commentary on the Books of Nahum and Obadiah and Esther. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. Keil, C. E Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther Translated by Sophia Taylor. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1873. †Moore, Carey A. Esther. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.

JOB *Anderson, Francis 1. Job. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1976. *Bennett, T. Miles. When Human Wisdom Fails: An Exposition of the Book of Job. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971. †Clines, David J. A. job 1-20. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989. Davidson, A. B. The Book of Job. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1918. Delitzsch, Franz. The Book of Job. Translated by Francis Bolton. 2 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1866. †Dhorme, Edouard. A Commentary on the Book of Job. Translated by Harold Knight. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967. †Driver, S. R., and G. B. Gray. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Job. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1921. *Ellison, H. L. From Tragedy to Triumph. London: Paternoster, 1958. Gordis, Robert. Book of Job: Commentary, New Translation and Special Studies. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1978. †Habel, Norman C. Book of Job: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1985. Hartley, John E. The Book of Job. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. †Rowley, H. H. job. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1970.

PSALMS Alexander, J. A. Psalms, Translated and Explained. 6th ed. 3 vols. New York: Scribner, 1869. Allen, Leslie C. Psalms 101-150. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1983.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 84 Anderson, Arnold A. The Book of Psalms. 2 vols. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1972. Briggs, C. A., and E. G. Briggs. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms. 2 vols. The International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1906-7. Craigie, Peter C. Psalms 1-50. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1983. †Dahood, Mitchell. Psalms. 3 vols. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966-70. Delitzsch, Franz. A Biblical Commentary on the Book of Psalms. Translated by D. Eaton. 3 vols. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1883. *Kidner, Derek. Psalms. 2 vols. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1973. Knight, G. A. E Psalms. 2 vols. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982. Kraus, Hans-Joachim. Psalms 1-59. Translated by Hilton C. Oswald. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1988. _____. Psalms 60-150. Translated by Hilton C. Oswald. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1989. *Mays, James L. Psalms. Interpretation. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1994. *Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Psalms. Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg, 1959. Mowinckel, Sigmund. The Psalms in Israel's Worship. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962. Perowne, J. J. Stewart. The Book of Psalms: A New Translation with Introduction and Notes. 2 vols. 8th ed. Cambridge: Deighton Bell, 1892. Tate, Marvin E. Psalms 51-100. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1990. †Weiser, Artur. Psalms. Translated by Herbert Hartwell. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962.

PROVERBS Delitzsch, Franz J. Biblical Commentary on the Proverbs of Solomon. Translated by M. G. Easton. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1874-75. *Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. *Kidner, Derek. Proverbs. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1964. †McKane, William. Proverbs, A New Approach. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970. Oesterley, W. 0. E. Book of Proverbs with Introduction and Notes. Westminster Commentaries. London: Methuen, 1929.


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*Rylaarsdam, John Coert. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Richmond: John Knox, 1964. Scott, R. B. Y. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965. †Toy, Crawford Howell. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1899. Whybray, R. Norman. Proverbs. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

ECCLESIASTES Barton, George Aaron. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book ofEcclesiastes. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner, 1908. †Crenshaw, James L. Ecclesiastes: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987, Delitzsch, Franz J. Commentary on the Song of Solomon and Ecclesiastes. Translated by M. G. Easton. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1877. *Eaton, Michael A. Ecclesiastes. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1983. *Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Gordis, Robert. Koheleth: The Man and His World. Texts and Studies of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Vol. 19. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 195 1. Kaiser, Walter C. Ecclesiastes: Total Life. Chicago: Moody Press, 1979. *Kidner, Derek. The Message of Ecclesiastes. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1976. Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Ecclesiastes. Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg, 1952. †Murphy, Roland. Ecclesiastes. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1992. Rylaarsdam, John Coert. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Richmond: John Knox, 1964. Whybray, R. N. Ecclesiastes. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.

SONG OF SOLOMON *Carr, G. Lloyd. Song of Solomon. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downer's Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1984. Delitzsch, Franz J. Commentary on the Song of Solomon and Ecclesiastes. Translated by M. G. Easton. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1877.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 86

*Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. †Gordis, Robert. Song ofSongs and Lamentations: A Study, Modem Translation and Commentary. New York: KTAV, 1974. Gledhill, Tom. The Message of the Song of Songs. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994. Harper, Andrew. Song of Solomon: With Introduction and Notes. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1902. †Murphy, Roland. Song of Songs. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1990. Pope, Marvin H. Song orSongs: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1977. Rylaarsdam, John Coert. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Richmond: John Knox, 1964.

ISAIAH Alexander, J. A. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. New York: Scribner, Armstrong and Co., 1875. Clements, Ronald E. Isaiah 1-39. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980. Delitzsch, Franz. Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1877. Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 1-12: A Commentary. 2d ed. Translated by John Bowden. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983 _____. Isaiah 13-39: A Commentary. Translated by John Bowden. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminsteer, 1974. Leupold, H. C. Exposition or Isaiah. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968. *Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1993. Muilenberg, James. "Isaiah 40-66: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. S. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953. Oswalt, John N. Book or Isaiah, Chapters 1-39. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Scott, R. B. Y. "Isaiah 1-39: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 5. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 87 Skinner, John. The Book of the Prophet Isaiah. 2 vols. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1905-1906. Smith, G. A. The Book of Isaiah. Expositor's Bible. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1900. †Watts, J. D. W. Isaiah 1-33. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1985. †_____. Isaiah 34-66. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. †Westermann, Claus. Isaiah 40-66: A Commentary. Translated by D. M. G. Stalker. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. Whybray, R. N. Isaiah 40-66. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1975. *Wright, G. Ernest. Isaiah. Layman's Bible Commentary. Vol. 11. Richmond: John Knox, 1964. *Young, E. J. The Book of Isaiah. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 19651972.

JEREMIAH AND LAMENTATIONS Bright, John. Jeremiah. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NX: Doubleday, 1965. Brueggemann, Walter. To Pluck Up, to Tear Down: A Commentary on the Book orleremiah 1-25. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. _____. To Build, To Plant: A Commentary on Jeremiah 26-52. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. †Carroll, Robert P. Jeremiah: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986. Clements, R. E. Jeremiah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. †Craigie, Peter C., Page Kelley, and Joel E Drinkard Jr. Jeremiah 1-25. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1991. Davidson, Robert. Jeremiah. 2 vols. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1985. Driver, S. R. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1906. Gordis, Robert. Song of Songs and Lamentations: A Study, Modern Translation and Commentary. New York: KTAV, 1974. Habel, Norman C. Concordia Commentary. Jeremiah, Lamentations. St. Louis: Concordia, 1968. *Harrison, R. K. Jeremiah and Lamentations. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979. Hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 88 Holladay, W. L. Jeremiah 1: A Commentary on the Books of Jeremiah, Chapters 1-25. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986. Jeremiah 2: A Commentary on the Books of Jeremiah, Chapters 26-52. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989. *Huey, E B. Jeremiah, Lamentations. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Hyatt, James Philip. Jeremiah, Prophet of Courage and Hope. New York: Abingdon,1958. †McKane, William. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Jeremiah. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1987. Skinner, John. Prophecy and Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922. †Thompson, John A. The Book of Jeremiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

EZEKIEL Allen, Leslie C. Ezekiel 20-48. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1990. Brownlee, William H., and Leslie C. Allen. Ezekiel 1-19. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1986. Cooke, G. A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1936. *Craigie, Peter C. Ezekiel. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983. Davidson, A. B., and A. W. Streane. The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1900. †Eichrodt, Walther. Ezekiel. Translated by Cosslett Quinn. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970. Ellison, H. L. Ezekiel, the Man and His Message. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 19S6. Greenberg, Moshe. Ezekiel 1-20. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983. Keil, C. E Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Ezekiel. Translated by James Martin. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1875. Skinner, John. The Book of Ezekiel. Expositor's Bible. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1909, *Taylor, John B. Ezekiel. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1969. Wevers, John W. Ezekiel. New Century Bible. London: Thomas Nelson, 1969.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 89 †Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel. Translated by R. E. Clements, et al. 2 vols. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979-83.

DANIEL Anderson, Robert A. Signs and Wonders: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. *Baldwin, Joyce G. Daniel. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1978. Charles, R. H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Oxford: Clarendon, 1929. †Collins, John J. Daniel: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993. Driver, S. R. The Book of Daniel. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1901. †Goldingay, John. Daniel. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989. Hartmann, Louis E, and Alexander A. Di Lella. The Book of Daniel. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978. Lacocque, Andre M. 7he Book of Daniel. Translated by David Pellauer. Atlanta: John Knox, 1979. Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Daniel. Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg, 1949. Montgomery, James Alan. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1927. Porteous, Norman. Daniel. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 196S. Russell, D. S. Daniel. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981. *Wallace, Ronald S. The Message of Daniel. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1979. *Young, Edward J. The Prophecy of Daniel: A Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949.

MINOR PROPHETS *Craigie, Peter C. Twelve Prophets. 2 vols. Daily Study Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Eiselen, F. C. The Minor Prophets. Whedon's Commentary on the Old Testament. New York: Eaton and Mains, 1907. Keil, C. F. The Minor Prophets. Translated by James Martin. 2 vols. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1888.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 90 *McComiskey, Thomas E, ed. The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expository Commentary. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker; 1992-95. Smith, George Adam. The Book of the Twelve Prophets. 2 vols. Expositor's Bible. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1903.

HOSEA Andersen, Francis L, and David N. Freedman. Hosea. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980. Cheyne, T. K. Hosea. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1884. Harper, W. R. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905. *Hubbard, David Allan. Hosea. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1989. *Limburg, James. Hosea-Micah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. †Mays, James L. Hosea. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. *Snaith, Norman Henry. Amos, Hosea, and Micah. Epworth Preacher's Commentaries. London: Epworth, 1956. †Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. Vawter, Bruce. Amos, Hosea, Micah: With an Introduction to Classical Prophecy. Old Testament Message. Vol. 7. Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, 1981. Ward, James M. Hosea: A Theological Commentary. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. †Wolff, Hans Walter. Hosea: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Hosea Translated by Gary Stansell. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.

JOEL Allen, Leslie C. Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. Driver, S. R. The Books of Joel and Amos. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 19 IS. *Hubbard, David Allan. Joel &Amos. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1989. Smith, J. M. P., W. H. Ward, and J. A. Bewer. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Obadiah and Joel. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1911.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 91 †Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. Thompson, John A. "The Book of Joel: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 6. Nashville: Abingdon, 1956. *Watts, John D. W. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1975. †Wolff, Hans Walter. Joel and Amos. Translated by Waldemar Janzen, et al. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

AMOS Andersen, Francis L, and David Noel Freedman. Amos. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1989. Cripps, Richard S. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Amos. 2d ed. London: S.P.C.K., 1955. Driver, S. R. The Books of Joel and Amos. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1915. Harper, W. R. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905. *Hubbard, David Allan. Joel and Amos. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1989. *Limburg, James. Hosea-Micah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. †Mays, James L. Amos. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. Paul, Shalom M. Amos. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991. Snaith, Norman Henry. Amos, Hosea, and Micah. Epworth Preacher's Commentaries. London: Epworth, 1956. †Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. Vawter, Bruce. Amos, Hosea, Micah: With an Introduction to Classical Prophecy. Old Testament Message. Vol. 7. Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, 1981. †Wolff, Hans Walter. Joel and Amos. Translated by Waldemar Janzen, et al. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

OBADIAH Allen, Leslie C. Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 92 *Baker, David W., T. Desmond Alexander, and Bruce K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. Coggins, R. J., and S. Paul Re'emi. Israel Among the Nations: A Commentary on the Books of Nahum and Obadiah and Esther International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. *Limburg, James. Hosea-Micah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. †Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. Thompson, J. A. "The Book of Obadiah: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 6. Nashville: Abingdon, 1956. †Watts, John D. W. Obadiah: A Critical Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969. †Wolff, Hans Walter. Obadiah and Jonah: A Commentary. Translated by Margaret Kohl. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1986.

JONAH Allen, Leslie C. Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. *Baker, David W., T. Desmond Alexander, and Bruce K. WaItke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. Fretheim, Terence. The Message of Jonah: A Theological Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1977. *Limburg, James. Hosea-Micah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. Smart, James. "Jonah: Introduction and Exegesis." In The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 6. Nashville: Abingdon, 1956. Snaith, Norman Henry. Notes on the Hebrew Text of Jonah. London: Epworth, 1945. †Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. *Watts, John D. W. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1975. †Wolff, Hans Walter. Obadiah and Jonah: A Commentary. Translated by Margaret Kohl. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1986.

MICAH Allen, Leslie C. Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. *Baker, David W., T. Desmond Alexander, and Bruce K. WaItke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity~ 1988.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 93

Cheyne, T. K. Micah. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1882. Copass, Benjamin A., and E. L. Carlson. Study of the Prophet Micah: Power by the Spirit. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1950. †Hillers, Delbert R. Micah: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Micah Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984. King, Philip J. Amos, Hosea, Micah: An Archaeological Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988. *Limburg, James. Hosea-Micah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988. †Mays, James L. Micah. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976. Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. Snaith, Norman Henry. Amos, Hosea, and Micah. Epworth Preacher's Commentaries. London: Epworth, 1956. Vawter, Bruce. Amos, Hosea, Micah: With an Introduction to Classical Prophecy. Old Testament Message. Vol. 7. Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, 1981. tWolff, Hans Walter. Micah the Prophet Translated by Ralph D. Gehrke. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981,

NAHUM AND HABAKKUK Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum-Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1986. *Baker, David. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. Coggins, R. J., and S. Paul Re'emi. Israel Among the Nations: A Commentary on the Books of Nahum and Obadiah and Esther International Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. Davidson, A. B. Books of Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1920. Garland, D. David. "Habakkuk." In The Broadman Bible Commentary. Vol. 7. Nashville: Broadman, 1972. *Maier, W. A. The Book of Nahum. St. Louis: Concordia, 1959. †Roberts, J. J. M. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1990. Robertson, 0. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 94 †Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. Watts, John D. W. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1975.

ZEPHANIAH Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum-Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1986. *Baker, David. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. Berlin, Adele. Zephaniah. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1994. Davidson, A. B. Books of Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1920. Kapelrud, A. S. The Message of the Prophet Zephaniah. Oslo: Universitesforlaget, 1975. †Roberts, J. J. M. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1990. Robertson, 0. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. †Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. *Watts, John D. W. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1975.

HAGGAI Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum-Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox,1986. *Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1972. Coggins, R. J. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1987. Mason, Rex. Books of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi Cambridge Bible Commentary~ Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1977. Meyers, Carol L., and Eric M. Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987. †Petersen, David L. Haggai and Zechariah 1-8: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Redditt, Paul L. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 95 †Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. Verhoef, Pieter A. Books of Haggai and Malachi. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.

Zechariah Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum-Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1986. *Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1972. Coggins, R. J. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1987. *Leupold, Herbert Carl. Exposition of Zechariah. Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg, 1956. Mason, Rex. Books of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1977. †Meyers, Carol L., and Eric M. Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987. †. Zechariah 9-14. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1993. Petersen, David L. Haggai and Zechariah 1-8: A Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Redditt, Paul L. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. †Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word Books, 1984.

MALACHI Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum-Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox,1986. *Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1972. Coggins, R. J. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1987. *Kaiser, Walter C, Jr. Malachi: God's Unchanging Love. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984. Mason, Rex. Books of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1977. †Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. Redditt, Paul L. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. Verhoef, Pieter A. Books of Haggai and Malachi. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 96

MATTHEW Blomberg, Craig L. Matthew. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1992. Broadus, John A. Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. American Commentary. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1886. Bruner, Frederick Dale. Matthew 1-12: The Christbook. Dallas: Word, 1987. _____. Matthew 13-28: The Churchbook. Dallas: Word, 1990. *Carson, D. A. "Matthew." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 8. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984. †Davies, W. D., and Dale Allison. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. 2 vols. to date. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988-1991. *France, Richard T. The Gospel According to St. Matthew. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Garland, David E. Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel. New York: Crossroad, 1993. Gundry, Robert H. Matthew: A Commentary on His Handbook for a Mixed Church Under Persecution. 2d ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. †Hagner, Donald A. Matthew 1-13. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993. †_____. Matthew 14-28. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993. Hendriksen, William. Exposition of the Gospel According to Matthew. New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973. Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1972. McNeile, A. H. The Gospel According to St. Matthew: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Index. London: Macmillan, 19 15. Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992. Mounce, Robert H. Matthew. Good News Commentary. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.

MARK Anderson, Hugh. The Gospel of Mark. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1976. Brooks, James A. Mark. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1991.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 97 *Cole, R. A. The Gospel According to St. Mark. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989. †Cranfield, C. E. B. The Gospel According to St. Mark. 3d ed. Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1966. Guelich, Robert. Mark 1-8:26. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989. Gundry, Robert H. Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. Hooker, Morna. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Mark. Black's New Testament Commentaries. London: A & C Black, 1992. *Lane, William L. The Gospel of Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. Mann, C. S. Mark. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1986. Nineham, D. E. The Gospel of St. Mark. Pelican Commentaries. Baltimore: Penguin, 1964. Swete, H. B. The Gospel According to St. Mark. 3d ed. London: Macmillan, 1909. †Taylor, Vincent. The Gospel According to St. Mark: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Indexes. 2d ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1966.

LUKE Arndt, W. F. The Gospel According to St. Luke. Bible Commentary. St. Louis: Concordia, 1956. Bock, Darrel L. Luke. 2 vols. Baker Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994. *Caird, G. B. The Gospel of St. Luke. Pelican Commentaries. Baltimore: Penguin, 1963. Creed, J. M. The Gospel According to St. Luke: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Indexes. London: Macmillan, 1930. Ellis, E. E. The Gospel of Luke. Rev. ed. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1974. Evans, Craig A. Luke. New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1990. †Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Gospel According to Luke. 2 vols. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981-85. Geldenhuys, J. N. Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1951. Godet, Frederic. A Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke. Translated by E. W. Shalders. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1887.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 98 †Marshall, I. Howard. Gospel of Luke: Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978. Nolland, John. Luke 1-9:20. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989. _____. Luke 9:21-18:34. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993. _____. Luke 18:35-24:53. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993. Plummer, Alfred. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1914. *Stein, Robert A. Luke. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1993.

JOHN †Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to SL John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978. Beasley-Murray, George R. The Gospel of John. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. †Brown, Raymond E. The Gospel According to John. 2 vols. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971. *Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. *Carson, Donald A. The Gospel According to John. Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. Dodd, C. H. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1953. Morris, Leon. Commentary on the Gospel of John. Rev. ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to St. John. 3 vols. Herder's Theological Commentary on the New Testament. New York: Crossroad, 196882. Turner, G. A., and J. R. Mantey. The Gospel According to John. Evangelical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964. Westcott, B. E. The Gospel According to St. John: The Authorized Version with Introduction and Notes. London: John Murray, 1881.

ACTS †Barrett, C. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Acts 1-14. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1993. †Bruce, F. F. The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. 3d ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES 99 _____. Commentary on the Book of Acts. Rev. ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Carter, C. W., and Ralph Earle. The Acts of the Apostles. Evangelical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1959. Haenchen, Ernst. The Acts of the Apostles: A Commentary. Translated by R. McL. Wilson, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1971. Lake, Kirsopp, and H. J. Cadbury. The Beginnings of Christianity, Part 1. The Acts of the Apostles. Vol. 4: English Translation and Commentary. London: Macmillan, 1933. *Longenecker, Richard N. "Acts." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 9. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. *Marshall, I. H. The Acts of the Apostles. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981. Neil, William. Acts. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1973. Polhill, John B. Acts. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1992. Rackham, R. B. The Acts of the Apostles. 12th ed. Westminster Commentaries. London: Methuen, 1939. Stagg, Frank. The Book of Acts. Nashville: Broadman, 1955. *Stott, John R. W. The Message of Acts. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1990.

ROMANS Barrett, C. K. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Rev. ed. Black's New Testament Commentary. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1993. *Bruce, F. F. The Letter of Paul to the Romans. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. †Cranfield, C. E. B. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. International Critical Commentary. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1975-79. †Dunn, James D. G. Romans 1-8. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1988. †_____. Romans 9-16. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1988. Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Romans. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1993. Gifford, E. H. The Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans. London: John Murray, 1886. Godet, Frederic. Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Translated by A. Cusin. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1883.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES100

*Johnson, Alan F. Romans: The Freedom Letter. Rev. ed. 2 vols. Everyman's Bible Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 1985. K5semann, Ernst. Commentary on Romans. Translated by G. W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980. Moo, Douglas J. Romans. 2 vols. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 199 1 -forthcoming. Morris, Leon. The Epistle to the Romans. Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Sanday, William, and Arthur C. Headlam. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. 5th ed. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1902. Thomas, W. H. Griffith. St Paul's Epistle to the Romans: A Devotional Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1946.

FIRST CORINTHIANS Barrett, C. K. A Commentary to the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper and Row, 1968. *Bruce, F. F. 1 and 2 Corinthians. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1971. Conzelmann, Hans. 1 Corinthians: A Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Translated by James W. Leith. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975. †Fee, Gordon D. The First Epistle to the Corinthians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Findlay, G. G. "St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians." In The Expositor's Greek Testament Vol. 2, Edited by W. R. Nicoll. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1900. Godet, Frederic L. Commentary on the First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. Translated by A. Cusin. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1886. Hering, Jean. The First Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians. Translated by A. W. Heathcote and P. J. Allcock. London: Epworth, 1962. Moffatt, James. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. Moffatt's New Testament Commentary. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1938. *Morris, Leon. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. †Robertson, Archibald, and Alfred Plummer. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. International Critical Commentary. 2d ed. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1914.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES101 SECOND CORINTHIANS *Barnett, Paul. The Message of 2 Corinthians. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988. Barrett, C. K. A Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Beasley-Murray, G. R. "2 Corinthians." In The Broadman Bible Commentary. Vol. 11. Nashville: Broadman, 19 7 1. Bruce, F. F 1 and 2 Corinthians. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1971. †Furnish, Victor F. II Corinthians. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984. Harris, Murray J. "2 Corinthians." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976. Hering, Jean. The Second Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians. Translated by A. W. Heathcote and P. J. Allcock. London: Epworth, 1967. Hughes, Philip E. Paul's Second Epistle to the Corinthians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1962. *Kruse, Colin G. The Second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity,1987. †Martin, Ralph P. 2 Corinthians. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1986. Plummer, Alfred. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 191S. †Thrall, Margaret E. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians. Vol. 1. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1994.

GALATIANS Betz, H. D. Galatians: A Commentary on Paul's Letter to the Churches in Galatia. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979. †Bruce, F. F. The Epistle to the Galatians: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982. †Burton, E. D. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1921. Cole, R. A. The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989. Dunn, James D. G. The Epistle to the Galatians. Black's New Testament Commentaries. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES102

Fung, R. Y. K. The Epistle to the Galatians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988 *George, Timothy. Galatians. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1994. *Hansen, G. Walter. Galatians. IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 19 Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. 19th ed. London: Macmillan, 1926. Longenecker, Richard N. Galatians. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1990.

EPHESIANS Abbott, T. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1897. †Barth, Markus. Ephesians. 2 vols. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974. *Bruce, F. F. The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. *Caird, G. B. "The Letter to the Ephesians." In Paul's Letters from Prison. New Clarendon Bible. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976. Lincoln, Andrew T. Ephesians. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1990. Mitton, C. L. Ephesians. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1976. †Robinson, J. A. Saint Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians: A Revised Text and Translation, with Exposition and Notes. 2d ed. London: Macmillan, 1904. Westcott, B. F. Saint Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians: The Greek Text with Notes and Addenda. London: Macmillan, 1906.

PHILIPPIANS Beare, F. W. The Epistle to the Philippians. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. *Bruce, F. F. Philippians. Good News Commentary. New York: Harper & Row, 1983. Caird, G. B. "The Letter to the Philippians." In Paul's Letters from Prison. New Clarendon Bible. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976. Collange, J. F. The Epistle of Saint Paul to the Philippians. Translated by A. W. Heathcote. London: Epworth, 1979. Fee, Gordon. Philippians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES103 †Hawthorne, Gerald F. Philippians. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1983. Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians. London: Macmillan, 1894. *Martin, Ralph P. The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. _____. Philippians. New Century Bible. London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott, 1976. †O'Brien, Peter T. The Epistle to the Philippians: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. Robertson, A. T. Paul's Joy in Christ. Revised by W. C. Strickland. Nashville: Broadman, 1959. Silva, Mois6s. Philippians. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 1988.

COLOSSIANS AND PHILEMON *Bruce, F. E The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Caird, G. B. "The Letter to the Colossians" and "The Letter to Philemon." In Paul's Letters from Prison. New Clarendon Bible. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976. Harris, Murray J. Colossians &Philemon. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon: A Revised Text with Introductions, Notes and Dissertations. 3d ed. London: Macmillan, 1879. Lohse, Edward. Colossians and Philemon: A Commentary on the Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon. Translated by W. R. PoehImann and R. J. Karris. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971. *Martin, R. P. Colossians and Philemon. New Century Bible. London: Oliphants, 1974. Melick, Richard R. Philippians, Colossians, Philemon. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1991. †Moule, C. E D. The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Colossians and Philemon. Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1957. †O'Brien, Peter T. Colossians, Philemon. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1982. Robertson, A. T. Paul and the Intellectuals. Revised and edited by W. C. Strickland. Nashville: Broadman, 1959. Schweizer, Eduard. The Letter to the Colossians. Translated by Andrew Chester. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1982.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES104 Wright, N. T. The Epistles of Paul to the Colossians and to Philemon Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.

FIRST AND SECOND THESSALONIANS *Best, Ernest. A Commentary on the First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 19 72. †Bruce, E F. 1 & 2 Thessalonians. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1982. Findlay, G. G. The Epistles to the Thessalonians. Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1904. Frame, J. E. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912. Hendriksen, William. Exposition of I and II Thessalonians. New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1955. Hiebert, D. E. The Thessalonian Epistles: A Call to Readiness. Chicago: Moody, 1971. Hogg, C. E, and W. E. Vine. The Epistles to the Thessalonians with Notes Exegetical and Expository. London: Pickering & Inglis, 1914. Lightfoot, J. B. Notes on the Epistles of St. Paul. London: Macmillan, 1895. *Marshall, I. Howard. 1 and 2 Thessalonians. New Century Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. †Milligan, George. St. Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians. London: Macmillan, 1908. Morris, Leon. The First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians. Revised edition. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991. *_____. The Epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians. Revised edition. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Wanamaker, Charles A. The Epistles to the Thessalonians. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.

FIRST AND SECOND TIMOTHY AND TITUS Barrett, C. K. The Pastoral Epistles. New Clarendon Bible. Oxford: Clarendon, 1963. Bernard, J. H. The Pastoral Epistles. Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1899. Dibelius, Martin, and Hans Conzelmann. The Pastoral Epistles. Translated by P. Buttolph and A. Yarbro. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972. *Fee, Gordon D. 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus. Good News Commentary. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES105 Guthrie, Donald. The Pastoral Epistles. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957. *Kelly, J. N. D. A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1963. †Knight, George. The Pastoral Epistles. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992. Lea, Thomas D. and Hayne P. Griffin Jr. 1, 2 Timothy, Titus. New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman, 1992. Lock, Walter. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1924. Mounce, William. The Epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, forthcoming. Oden, Thomas C. First and Second Timothy and Titus. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1989. †Simpson, E. K. The Pastoral Epistles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. London: Tyndale Press, 1954.

HEBREWS Attridge, Harold. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989. Brown, Raymond. Christ Above All: The Message of Hebrews. Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1982. *Bruce, F. F. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Revised edition. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Davidson, A. B. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Handbooks for Bible Classes. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1882. Delitzsch, Franz J. Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1872. †Ellingworth, Paul. The Epistle to the Hebrews. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. Guthrie, Donald. The Letter to the Hebrews. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. Hagner, Donald A. Hebrews. Good News Commentary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983. Hering, Jean. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Translated by A. W. Heathcote and P. J. Allcock. London: Epworth, 1970. *Hughes, P. E. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES106

Kistemaker, Simon J. Hebrews. New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984. †Lane, William L. Hebrews 1-8. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1987. †_____. Hebrews 9-13. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1991. Moffatt, James. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1924. Montefiore, Hugh. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. Nairne, Alexander. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1917. Westcott, B. E The Epistle to the Hebrews. 3d ed. London: Macmillan, 1920.

JAMES Adamson, James B. The Epistle of James. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. †Davids, Peter H. Commentary on James. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982. Dibelius, Martin. James. Revised by Heinrich Greeven. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976. Hiebert, D. Edmond. The Epistle of James: Tests of a Living Faith. Chicago: Moody, 1979. Hort, E J. A. The Epistle of St. James: The Greek Text with Introduction, Commentary as far as Chapter IV, Verse 7, and Additional Notes. London: Macmillan, 1909. Laws, Sophie S. A Commentary on the Epistle of James. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. Martin, Ralph P. James. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1988. †Mayor, Joseph B. The Epistle of St. James: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and Comments. London: Macmillan, 1897. *Mitton, C. Leslie. The Epistle of James. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966. *Moo, Douglas J. The Letter of James. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. Robertson, A. T. Studies in the Epistle of James. Revised and edited by H. E Peacock. Nashville: Broadman, 1959. Ropes, James Hardy. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle of St. James. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1916.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES107

FIRST AND SECOND PETER AND JUDE †Bauckham, Richard J. Jude, 2 Peter. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1983. †Beare, F. W. The First Epistle of Peter: The Greek Text with Introduction and Notes. 3d ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1970. Bigg, C. A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles ofSt. Peter and St. Jude. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1901. Davids, Peter H. The First Epistle of Peter New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. Goppelt, Leonhard. A Commentary on I Peter. Edited by Ferdinand Hahn. Translated by John E. Alsup. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. *Green, Michael. The Second Epistle General of Peter and the General Epistle of Jude. Rev. ed. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. *Grudem, Wayne A. The First Epistle of Peter. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Hort, F. J. A. The First Epistle of St. Peter, L 1-11. 1 Z London: Macmillan, 1898. *Kelly, J. N. D. A Commentary on the Epistles of Peter and Jude. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Mayor, J. B. The Epistle of St Jude and the Second Epistle of St. Peter: Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Comments. London: Macmillan, 1907. Michaels, J. Ramsey. 1 Peter. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1988. †Selwyn, E. G. The First Epistle of St. Peter. The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Essays. 2d ed. London: Macmillan, 1947. Wand, J. W. C. The General Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude. Westminster Commentaries. London: Methuen, 1934.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD JOHN †Brown, Raymond E. The Epistles of John. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NX: Doubleday, 1982. Brooke, A. E. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Johannine Epistles. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912. Dodd, C. H. The Johannine Epistles. Moffatt New Testament Commentary. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1946. Findlay, George G. Fellowship in the Life Eternal: An Exposition of the Epistles of St. John. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1909.


A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS AND BIBLICAL COMMENTARIES108

Law, Robert. The Tests of Life: A Study of the First Epistle of St. John Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909. *Marshall, 1. Howard. The Epistles of John. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978. Plummer, Alfred. The Epistles of St. John. Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1986. †Smalley, Stephen S. 1, 2, 3 John. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word, 1984. *Stott, John R. W. The Epistles of John. Revised edition. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988. Westcott, B. E The Epistles of St. John: The Greek Text with Notes. Introduction by F. F. Bruce. 4th ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966.

REVELATION †Beckwith, I. T. The Apocalypse of John: Studies in Introduction with a Critical and Exegetical Commentary. New York: Macmillan, 1919. Beasley-Murray, G. R. The Book of Revelation. New Century Bible. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1978. Caird, G. B. A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine. Harper's New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. Charles, R. H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1920. *Johnson, Alan F. "Revelation." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 12. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. Ladd, G. E. A Commentary on the Revelation of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972. Minear, Paul S. I Saw a New Earth: An Introduction to the Visions of the Apocalypse. Cleveland: Corpus Books, 1968. Morris, Leon. The Book of Revelation. Revised edition. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Mounce, Robert. The Book of Revelation. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977. *Newport, John P. The Lion and the Lamb. Nashville: Broadman, 1986. †Swete, H. B. The Apocalypse of St. John: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Indexes. 3d ed. London: Macmillan, 1908.

hermeneutics-notepack