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TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction SCENARIO A: Comune di Milano SCENARIO B: Release_MI SCENARIO C: A second bombing SCENARIO D: The potentials of invisible


APPROPRIATING MILAN - MILAN APPROPRIATED Milan is an anomaly among Italian cities. Milan doesn’t suffer under the clichés of the archetypical picturesque Italian city. Milan is the one city in Italy, which not burden with its historical past, has managed to rethink itself. It has since the rebuilding been the engine of Italy for good and bad. Originally as a result of its strength within art and design Milan has become known for its fairs and venues. Development has turned the city from a producer of ideas to an importer of ideas. The furniture are no longer designed in Milan, its star architects are imported (“New International Style”), the new peers in fashion are educated in London. We no longer travel to Milan, we travel to its fairs. Milan is ripe for a second rebirth. 1 million people live in Comune di Milano, 7 million people around the city; Milan reveals for us the collapse of the European centric city model. It has become inherently unsustainable. For the last 30 years Milan the population of Milan has declined. Simultaneously the surroundings has been sprawling. The sprawl has a density that should suggest urbanity, the region around Milan is one of the densest populated in Europe. The region of MiODQLVPRQRHQWULF&RPPXWHUWUDI¿FVXIIRFDWHV0LODQRQDGDLO\ basis. The city center is increasingly becoming a caricature of itself; brand shops, brand bars, brand hotels, brand brands. The city is becoming mono functional. The city cannot sustain its own cultural production; from diverse culture to consumer culture. Milan – the Galleria. If no action is taken Milan will be drained. Milan is shrinking in ideas, production, population, tax revenue and culture. Milan is discussing an ambitious plan to halt its decline and double its population in the coming years. The proposal suggests a shift from a land use of 0,65 to 1. The ambition is to do so only on already constructed land. Can Milan, as it did under its last rebuilding after the bombing, with its unique combination of Italian, international and Central European, once again show the way forward? The workshop will develop an Atlas of ideas for how to realize Milan’s ambitious plan. Each scenario will take a radically different idea as its starting point and project it into the future. Together forming an atlas of ideas for Milan.

Adam Kurdahl, August 2010


SCENARIOS: Since the eighties the population of Milan has declined by 25% / 450.000 inhabitants. The PGT outlines a plan to increase the population from today’s 1.300.000 to 2.000.000 in 2015 . An increase of 700.000 inhabitants equals the construction of 70.000.000m3 new built mass. It is envisioned that this increase should happen on former industrial sites and rail yards within the city border. The program would increase the average FAR of the city from 0,65 to 1. 7KH SURSRVDO KDV VSDUNHG D ¿HUFH SXEOLF GHEDWH UHJDUGLQJ WKH qualities and future of Milan; can this proposal be realized ZLWKRXW ¿OOLQJ DOO RI 0LODQ¶V RSHQ VSDFHV" +RZ ZLOO 0LODQ GHDO WKHWUDI¿FSUHVVXUHLQWKLVIXWXUHVFHQDULR":LOOWKHVXJJHVWHG increase form the collapse of the city? The workshop will investigate scenarios for doubling the city without consuming unbuild land. Scenario 0: What happens when no action is undertaken? The project will project the last 30 years of Milan decline and WKHFXUUHQWGHYHORSPHQWSODQLQWRWKHQH[W\HDUV+RZZLOO Milan develop under the current strategy?

Scenario 1: Nodal city Milan is on one hand a central player in an international economic network of cities and simultaneously the center of gravity for a local economy. Throughout history Milan has at critical moments reinvented itVHOIWRHQVXUHWKHFLW\¶VFRQWLQXHGDIÀXHQWIXWXUH7KH¿UVWELJ shift was with the demolition of the Spanish wall in the nineteenth century. Comune di Milano is 18km with a population of 1.3 mill inhabitants – down from 1.8 mill since 1980. The region of Lombardia and particular Provincia di Milano owes their success to the strength of Milan. While the population of Milan has been decreasing the province has been growing. Today one of the densest populated areas in Europe. Provincia di Milano consists of 134 commune’s making any coherent planning gestures impossible. Largely served by Autostradas the greater Milan is sprawling. Every day 800.000 cars enters the city of Milan from beyond the borders of the commune. Overcome the suffocation of Milan by strengthening its neighbors. Consolidate the province. Any plan for the development of Milan must include its greater Metropolitan area. The project will project future growth around the existing cities and villages around Milan. Strategies for containment and GHQVL¿FDWLRQZLOOIRUFHQHZFHQWHUV$QRGDOSODQLVGHYHORSHG Clustering around major infrastructure hubs and growing along the main arteries. Green corridors of equal importance and strength ZLOOGH¿QHWKHSODQ The scenario suggests making Provincia di Milano the new Comune di Milano.


Scenario 2: Milan revealed A new power structure - Corriere della Sera revealed The shadow council of Milan embodied in the Corriere della Sera shareholders are charged with betrayal against the nation. Milan appropriates their properties. Revealing an underlying invisible power structure in the city. The city can sell or they can use this as a new opportunity? A seemingly irrational pattern for development scattered throughout the city.

Scenario 3: A second bombing Imagine a new plan for Milan. Save the monuments. Save the major arteries. New grids, new fabrics. Dare we look critical at the current reading and functioning of RXURZQFLW\FHQWHUV"5HLPDJLQH+DXVPDQQPHHWV&HUGD Cartesian projection of new projects. A grid of new large super structures are overlaid with the city fabric. The project will project a “collage of grids� on Milan, designing a slow but radical transformation of the city.

Scenario 4: Invisible doubling The project will look at an invisible doubling of Milan’s density within it city borders. By careful incisions and replacements the proposal will project a 30 year development plan that will leave the city’s appearance un-changed while boosting its life. The project will locate voids in the existing city fabric and suggest new programs for them. (Voids; parking lots, uncompleted EORFNVG\VIXQFWLRQDOEXLOGLQJVVXEXUEDQGHQVL¿FDWLRQ

The project will illustrate and overall strategy by 5 zooms of 1km2.

1)2500000 in 2030


COMUNE DI MILANO


RELEASE_MI

GORGONE Ugo_GUSMINI Dario_LA PLACA Serena Maria_LISTA Silvia


Milan wants to double its populaƟon From 1.300.000 to 2.500.000 inhabita

THE PRACTICE the current densifying strategy aim to develo

Porta Nuova_Ex Fiera Milano_Varesine_Rogor sold by Comune di Milano to private

develope

those areas are not intended to host public funcƟons but to be transforme

Pumped build vol Big iconic projects InternaƟonal architects involve

caricatural luxury enclaves

WHATIF#?

what if we take back those

And if we build up the is it possible to ouline a

city center a

new Milan by filling the exisƟng voids and

Will new inhabitants bring new life and diversity to We want to rescue the city st THE

PROVOCATIONS we w


MANIFESTO

ants op the post-industrial

areas inside the city border

redo Santa Giulia: just a few examples of missed centrality

ers ed into

THE

SPECULATION

exclusive residenƟal seƫngs

umes No benefits for the city d great expectaƟons Huge earnings for a few Milanese entrepreneurs

s

e areas developing diīerently their enormous public potenƟals? llowing new people to live in it? expand the built mass starƟng from the historical urban fabric?

a monofuncƟonal business-brand oriented city? tarƟng from its core

want to live on top of the economical speculaƟon headquarters


CITY LIFE 9

s ard tow no ron Sa

CommiƩment CityLife Società partecipata da Generali ProperƟes, Gruppo Allianz, Immobiliare Lombarda-Gruppo Fondiaria SAI e Lamaro AppalƟ. Architects Zaha Hadid, Arata Isozaki, Daniel Libeskind, Pier Paolo Maggiora Project Data Project area CityLife owned area mq 255.000 areas of the Comune mq 111.000 areas given to the Comune mq 65.000 gross area mq 288.879 housing 51% terƟary 49% park and public areas park and public areas of CityLife mq 130.000 areas given to the Comune mq 65.000 public parking lots mq 27.000 parkings for residents mq147.000 parkings for oĸces and commercial mq 50.000 History compeƟƟon July 2004 construcƟon Time 2007 – 2014

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PORTA NUOVA 10 CommiƩment Hines Architects Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects, Kohn Pedersen Fox Architects, Boeri Studio Project data Surface area mq 515.793 Gross area mq 340.693 Green mq 160.000 Parking lots 3.300 History ConstrucƟon beginning 2007 ConstrucƟon ending 2012

CURRENT PROJECTS Citylife 9 Garibaldi-Repubblica 10 Palazzo della Regione 11 Rubaƫno 12 Portello 13 Polo Esterno Fiera Milano 14 Porta ViƩoria / BEIC 15 Bicocca 16 Santa Giulia 17

PLANNED PROJECTS Bovisa 1 San Siro 2 railway staƟons 3 farini 3.1 greco 3.2 bovisa 3.3 p.ta genova 3.4 san cristoforo 3.5 lambrate 3.6 p.ta romana 3.7 IsƟtuto neurologico Besta 4 CERBA 5 EXPO 2010 site 6 CiƩadella della GiusƟzia 7 Ponte Lambro 8

3.4 3.5

a nov s Ge ard tow


DENSIFYINGAREAS CommiƩment Regione Lombardia Architects Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Architects, Caputo Partnership e Sistema Duemila Project data Surface area mq 33.700 Gross Area mq 87.000 Green mq 27.700 Parking lots 718 History CompeƟƟon April 2004 ConstrucƟon beginning October 2006 ConstrucƟon ending July 2010

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towards Chiasso CH

SEDE REGIONE 11

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Milano SANTA GIULIA 17

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CommiƩment Risanamento S.p.A. Architects Foster & Partners, Caputo Partnership U.R.B.A.M., GiorgeƩa Project data Surface Area 1.200.000 mq Gross area 706.500 mq Green Green areas and public spaces 461.000 mq Urban park 316.000 mq Parking Lots 21.000 posƟ History Beginning of the project March 2002 Previewed ConstrucƟon works ending 2012

17

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CommiƩment Fondazione CERBA Architects Urban and Architectural project BOERI STUDIO / Stefano Boeri, Gianandrea Barreca, Giovanni La Varra Consultants LAND srl e Territorio srl Project data Surface Area mq 620.000 Gross Area mq 310.000 Green mq 310.000 Parking lots 4.500 History Beginning of the project 2008 Previewed ConstrucƟon works ending 2012


1 _ 2 0 03. T he city co unc il promotes a tende r fo r the development of the vacant areas leŌ aŌe r t h e d ism issal of F iera Milano C ity. The

ca l l

fo r

contra c to r

p re q u a l i fi caƟ o n

is

p u b l i shed 7_2003. Eight groups of private enterprises are s e l e cted 9 _ 2 0 03. City Co unc il validates the p ro g ra m co n c e r n i n g t h e s p e c i fi c va r i aƟ on o f the PRG re q u ested for the inter venƟ on. 6 _ 2 0 04. T hree entrepris es are s elec te d wi t h e ac h their proj ect.

Or i g i nal aims and requests : H i g h standars in terms of ac c es s ibilit y, l i fe q u al i t y and usability o f the area H i g h a rchitectural and enviro nmental qua l i t y S t ro n g idenƟ ty of the pro jec ts

A l l t h e ex pectaƟ ons are dis regarded! The fina l p ro je cts reveals its elf as the ul Ɵ mate eco no m i c s p e culaƟ on! N o public s pac e is leŌ to the ci t y, n o ac cessibility is granted to non res ide nt s a nd t h e architectural quality of the res idenƟ a l uni t s i s al s o quesƟ o n a b l e i n s p i te o f ver y h i g h co st s an d p resƟ g ious arc hitec tural fi rms involve d!


CITYLIFE CommiƩment CityLife (Generali ProperƟes) Gruppo Allianz, Immobiliare Lombarda-Gruppo Fondiaria SAI e Lamaro AppalƟ. Architects Zaha Hadid, Arata Isozaki, Daniel Libeskind, CityLife owned area mq 255.000 areas of the Comune mq 111.000 areas given to the Comune mq 65.000 compeƟƟon July 2004 construcƟon Time 2007 – 2014


SANTAGIULIA CommiƩment Risanamento S.p.A. Architects Foster & Partners, Caputo Partnership U.R.B.A.M., GiorgeƩa Surface Area 1.200.000 mq Beginning of the project March 2002 Works ending 2012


Po r t a N uov a has b e en a di ĸ c u l t v o i d i n M i l a n ’s u r b a n f ab r i c f o r m a ny y ea r s . S i n c e t h e F i Ō i e s t h e C i t y o f M i l a n h a s t r i e d t o r e d e s i g n t h e a r ea which was destroyed by bombs during the S e c o n d Wo r l d War. M o s t o f t h e m aj o r i t a l i a n a r c h i t e c t s h av e a n s we r e d t o t h e c a l l s d u r i n g t h e y ea r s b u t n o n e o f t h e p r o j e c t s h a s b e e n r ea l ize d . D u r in g t h e N i n e Ɵ e s a c a l l w a s l a u n c h e d t o d e v e l o p a n e w fi n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t b u t t h e TA R r e j e c te d t h e p r o p o s a l f o r a v ar i a Ɵ o n o f t h e PRG a n d t h e p r o j e c t s to p p e d . O nl y G a r i b a l d i Towe r s , o w n e d b y F e r r o v i e d e l l o St a t o, we r e b u i l t . T hi s project introduced for the first Ɵme the proposal for the CiƩà della Moda which is c u r r e n t l y o n i t s w ay t o b e b u i l t . I n 1 9 9 6 a n e w p r o p o s a l w a s s u b m i Ʃe d t o b u i l d s o c ia l h o u s i n g b u t , o n c e a g a i n , t h e TA R o p p o s e d t h e p r o j e c t . T h e g o a l i s n o w t o b u i l d i n t h e a r ea t h e n e w h ea d q u a r t e r s o f R e g i o n e L o m b a r d i a . T h e p r o p o s a l a l s a i n c l u d e s a p a r k , a l a r ge p a r k i n g a r ea a n d t h e C i Ʃ à d e l l a M o d a c o m p l e x . The c o m p a ny for the development of Garibaldi-Repubblica launches a new call and fi n a l l y s e l l s t h e a r ea t o t h e H i n e s I t a l i a enterprise , winner of the compeƟƟon with a m as t e r plan by C e s ar Pe lli . T h e n e w h ea d q u a r t e r s o f R e g i o n e L o m b a r d i a a r e m o v e d t o t h e a r ea o f P a r c o d i G i o i a a n d t h e c o m p e Ɵ Ɵ o n i s w o n b y Pei - C o b b A r c hi te c t s . H i n e s a n d F o n d i a r i a S A I c o m e t o a n a gr e e m e n t about CiƩà della Moda, 25 architects from 8 countries are called to enter proposal for an e x tensi ve sp e c ula Ɵ o n w h i c h i nv o l v e s a l l t h e a r ea s a d j a c e n t t o t h e p a r k .


PORTANUOVA CommiƩment Hines Architects Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects, Kohn Pedersen Fox Architects, Boeri Studio Project data Surface area mq 515.793 ConstrucƟon beginning 2007 ConstrucƟon ending 2012


S i n ce the E ig hƟ es S alvatore LigresƟ , thro ug h I m m o biliare

Costruzioni

S .p.a,

has

a cqui re d

h u ge ex tensions of agric ultural land in the Pa rco Sud area buying them piece by piece small areas f ro m local farmers . The City Council revises PGT assigning a virtual b u i l d ing index , approximately 0,2, to the a re a s of Parco Sud which were previously enƟ re l y d e si gned to be an agric ultural park with a n i ndex e q u al to 0.03. S inc e the index impos e d i s vi r t u al, a chance is o īered to land owners to take advantage of it elsewhere out of the area. Th e CE RBA foundaƟ o n , a n o - p ro fi t co m p a ny wh o ’s promo Ɵ ng the development of an ad vanced biomedical res earc h c enter, c ho o s e s L i gre sƟ ’s properƟ es to built the new project wh i ch include clinic and res earc h ac Ɵ vi Ɵ e s but al s o estate investments ! Ul Ɵ mately fi na nci a l b ac ke rs, are the s ame s hareholders o f C o r r i e re d e l l a Sera. T h e b ig quesƟ on is : s hould C ERBA nec e s s a r i l y r i s e on these sƟ ll agricutural areas owned by L i g re sƟ ? I s i t go i n g to b e j u st a n ex t ra o rd i n a r y i nte r venƟ on or the beginning of o t he r s p e culaƟ ons and abus es for o f an ins ane g ro wt h o f t h e city ?


CERBA CommiĆŠment Fondazione CERBA Architects Urban and Architectural project BOERI STUDIO / Stefano Boeri, Gianandrea Barreca, Giovanni La Varra Consultants LAND srl e Territorio srl Project data Surface Area mq 620.000 Beginning of the project 2008 works ending 2012


Maurizio Cattelan. The Middle Finger 2010

Mediobanca 14,2%

Fiat 10,5%

Giuseppe Rotelli 7,54%

Efiparind 7,75%

PandeƩe Finanza S.r.l

Della Valle 5,45%

Tronch

LigresƟ 5,46%

P

Dorint Holding S.A. Franco Tosi ItalcemenƟ S.r.l. S.p.A.

Societè de PartecipaƟon Financère Italmobiliare S.p.A.

Fondiaria SAI S.p.A.

Milano Assicurazioni

SainternaƟonal S.A.

Saifin S.p.A.

SIAT S.p.A.


THECLUB

Pagliaro

Della Valle

LigresƟ

Beltraƫ

Troncheƫ Provera

Rotelli

RCS SeƩe

City

Novella 2000 Ok la salute prima di tuƩo

heƫ Provera 5,16%

Pirelli&C. S.p.A.

Si.To Financiere S.A 5,14%

Brava Casa

Casa Amica

A

Gruppo BeneƩon Intesa San Paolo 5,06% 5,1%

Io Donna

Amica ViviMilano

Corriere della Sera

Assicurazioni Generali 3,95%

CorrierEconomia

Banco Popolare 3,63%

Edizione S.r.l. Banco di Napoli

Oggi

Banco IMI Generali Vie INA Assicurazioni Toro Assicurazioni S.A.

Sport Week

GazzeƩa dello Sport

Gruppo UBS 3,52%

Sinpar Società Gruppo Merloni 2,1% di InvesƟmenƟ e Partecipazioni S.p.A. 2,06% Merloni Invest S.p.A.


% Powerful enterprises in Milan are involved as funders in all the main real estate investments, building districts with a very high density index and mostly addressed to rich customers that demand luxurios lodgings. The prices for these new buildings are the same as for those in the city center. So why aīord such an expensive investment in these poorly designed luxury enclaves? The answer is that too oŌen shiny adverƟsing make up for lack of quality in the projects. If so, is architecture going to be just a booster for economic speculaƟon? The main financial companies and enterprises also own a considerable amount of properƟes spread in the most central, historical areas of the city where usually their Headquarters are located. What if we force these acƟviƟes outside of the center? The city center has a deep heritage of urbanity wriƩen inside it’s DNA whose potenƟal is far more powerful than in any larger area of development in the outskirts. This is why it needs to be repopulated!


PROPERTIES properĆ&#x;es owned by corriere della sera board of directors


new developement areas


COMPARISON properĆ&#x;es owned by corriere della sera board of directors


The city is energy to be reappropriated, entropy to be increased! We want people to live the city from every corner, driŌing in spaces,exchanging mulƟsen We want the city to be a free flux of events, unexpected, exciƟng, thrilling! We want architecture to be a


FLUXESOFENERGIES

nsorial experiences, enhancing relaƟons. a booster with true potenƟal which is not about fake eidola, spectacular images and speculaƟons. We want architecture to be an aƩractor for everybody.


TENYEARSFORECAST


THIRTYYEARSFORECAST


VISION


EXTRAVISION


THE POTENTIALS OF INVISIBLE

BARDELLI Benedetta_LULHI Virna_REGGIORI Giovanna_ROTA Elisabetta


P o t e n t i a l s

o f

t h e

I n v i s i b l e


I N D E X

-

Manifesto

-

Study cases

-

Study of Milan

-

Collected datas

-

Conclusions


M A N I F E S T O

We need to increase the density and find new spaces in the city: _ Can this happen without denaturalising the existing structure of the city ? _ Is it possible to increase the density without changing the of Milan ? _ What are the existing resources in Milan ?

We analyzed our city keeping in mind these questions and recognizing the void as a great possibility to fill the numerous empty spaces. Are the voids enough to answer the demand of necessary living area? By the characterization of the voids and the possibilities estimation that don’t change the city structure but let it grow.


the question

1.294.797_people

2

183.770.000 m

?

EXPO 2015_

700.000

?

70.000.000 m

3

_

area

3.333.333 m

2


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