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Acknowledgements: First and foremost we would like to thank all the respondents (change makers and their circles of influence) for sharing such in depth stories and personal journeys of change. It is this confidence in us and the work of WECAN that enabled completion of this report. Without them this would have been impossible. We would also like to thank the alliance partners particularly the district partners for making us feel at home and become a part of their work and their lives. The candid sharing of successes and not so successful activities not only deepened our understanding of the campaign work but also opened a window for us to understand their immense struggle and hard work in these communities. The research team in each province was the eyes and ears of this assessment. They worked under intense pressure of time and resources, in very hot climates and difficult terrains. Security constraints also did not serve as a deterrent. It is due to their hard work that made it possible to bring forth the voices and struggles of change makers. Many of them went through their own changes, re-living their own struggles, leaving family and children behind and personal issues yet they continued this work. The changes in the research team during this process of assessment have also been great and worthy of being acknowledged. We would also like to thank Oxfam Pakistan particularly Dr. Noreen Khalid, Ms. Hajera Pasha and Mr. Mabood (WECAN Secretariat) for constantly providing technical and logistical support as and when required. In many instances ‘urgent requests’ were entertained at a moment’s notice and this constant support made this journey possible. We would like to thank the Oxfam regional team particularly Ms. Mona ---- for their understanding and support whether for regional team meetings or extension of deadlines as we all went through a personal journey of deepening of change through this assessment. The regional team leads of each country Ms. Cayathri from Srilanka, Ms. Bishnu from Nepal, Mr. Rakib from Bangladesh and Ms. Swati from India for their support and input into the whole process. Working with all of them has been a learning and enlightening process. We all became friends during this assessment. We would particularly like to thank Ms. Anuradha Rajan the regional team lead. Her immense patience in dealing with such a diverse team, difficult circumstances and all our constraints and queries was amazing. She has indeed been the driving force behind this whole research facilitating and supporting us at any time it needed. For logistics we would like to thank Oxfam Pakistan and SPO Pakistan particularly the administration and finance team for assisting in all the field arrangements and regional travels. Last but not the least we would like to thank our families for being so tolerant of the intensive process of this assessment. We were indeed immersed in the assessment for nearly a year and the end seemed far away. Our families not only lived with our successes and achievements but prodded us on the path when we faltered.

Aamina Qadir Adham On behalf of QUEST for solutions

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Executive summary WECAN Campaign: The WE CAN campaign was launched as a regional campaign in five countries of South Asia (Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Srilanka and India) in 2005 and it completes its 6 years in March 2011. The underlying belief of the campaign is that “personal change becomes the agent for social change”. The Campaign has used the Stages of Change theory. It begins with changes in individual and then leads to changes in community. The campaign was implemented through national/local partners who enrolled community agents of change called change makers. These change makers were responsible for bringing about an attitudinal and behavioral change in themselves and in their circles of influence. The circle of influence constituted social systems mainly family, neighborhood, peer group, extended family and colleagues. In order to bring about this change the campaign used carefully designed communication material which was very popular; it served to link people to the campaign and elevated their status. The campaign was implemented in two phases in 41 districts of Pakistan and it enrolled 350,000 change makers during this process. WECAN – the strategy: A change maker is one who commits a) to personal change and b) to talk to 10 others about VAW, using the change maker kit provided to her /him. The strategy was to promote attitudinal change exponentially, through existing change makers, so that the change process deepens among change makers but also moves outwards among a broader set of people within the change makers sphere of influence, discontinuation of direct mobilization of change makers by alliance members, mobilization of new change makers was to happen through old change makers, nurturing networks of change makers to sustain change and strengthen an enabling environment. One of the most important strategic shifts in phase II of the campaign was the need to move away from direct mobilization of change makers to re-engaging with existing change makers, deepening change among them and motivating them to enlist new change makers. Change makers could also enlist those who wanted to sign up as change makers, deepening of change among existing change makers and building networks that sustain change Evaluation of WECAN Campaign: The end of campaign evaluation of campaign in Pakistan was dovetailed to the regional assessment of WE CAN Phase II being carried out in the five countries. This reduced the costs and the research team trained for the regional assessment initiative was used for this overall evaluation; hence effective utilization of resources the evaluation aimed at understanding.   

Whether change makers are experiencing a deepening of change as a result of engagement with the campaign and what is the nature of this change? Whether there has been a collective attitudinal shift in the communities and what is the nature of this attitudinal shift? What has been the role of the management of campaign?

Implications: a campaign evaluation is a recent field in the social sciences discipline. There are very few campaign evaluations available internationally and in South Asia region. It is hoped that this evaluation will feed into the larger arena of campaign evaluations and the methodology could also be modified for assessing other large scale behavioral change campaigns. It is also hoped that the findings of this assessment would feed into the overall behavior change strategy and bring to light the lessons learnt, Oxfam’s achievements and contribution towards gender equality and recommendations for future strategy of the campaign. New gender equality initiatives being designed could also adapt innovative approaches used by WE CAN Campaign. Conceptual Framework The assessment began with a broad definition of what the deepening of change entailed. Using the stories of change makers the concept of deepening of change became more clearly defined. The reason for using this ‘inductive’ approach has been the campaign’s non prescriptive approach to personal change. It does not aim to privilege certain kinds of changes over others but celebrates every behavioral change as a step towards reduced social acceptance to VAW. Deepening of change: Deepening of change implies a growth/journey in the change being experienced by the change maker. It entails a progressive movement from one point to another in the change process. Since the focus of the campaign was on awareness generation during phase I of the campaign, this implies a movement from awareness to “awareness +”. In other words the shift of individual CMs from where they were to the point where they stand now. It further draws attention to a sequence in the change process; the pattern of change that the change maker follows.

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Tipping Point: the theoretical premise of this research was drawn from Malcolm Gladwell’s concept of tipping point embedded in the whole systems thinking. A tipping point is the point where what has been recessive suddenly becomes dominant. In the context of WECAN, the tipping point would be when wide spread acceptance of domestic violence is replaced by its non-tolerance. Collective tipping point - Whole system change: Whole systems thinking aims to understand what systems constitute the context in which the individual lives and grows, how do these systems influence the individual and how do they influence each other. Individual change and change in their circle of influence however implies that different components influence and impact each other positively or negatively. This framework offers us a useful and interesting background to study social change. It enables us to put forward the proposition that social change is not an outcome of individual change only. Instead it is the combined product of individual change, its impact on others within the same system by virtue of the interrelationship and the reinterpretation of these ‘social facts’. Therefore to understand collective attitudinal shift leading to a collective tipping point in community the key questions of this evaluation included; how is the individual change among change makers impacting the context in which they are operating? To what extent is WECAN trying to impact individual behavior by changing the context? How are individual change and change in the change maker’s context supporting each other? For any individual to change what have been the incentives and disincentives within their own context and what has motivated them to continue with this change. Methodology: This evaluation seeks to understand people’s journey of change and the role played by the campaign in facilitating this journey. Hence, the focus was to capture data on how people have experienced the campaign from a small number of change makers (relative to the universe of change makers) using qualitative methods. However, significant care was taken to ensure that the sample is representative and randomly drawn from the existing pool of change makers, so that the results are not derived from a sample that is biased or purposive. Narrative inquiry techniques were applied to answer the key questions about WECAN Campaign that the assessment seeks to answer. These are best explored using qualitative methods that are participatory and elicit reflection and analysis by respondents. The focus being not on what happened but what meaning people derived from it. This research spanned over a year and extensive human and financial resources were spent to ensure capturing information. Regional meetings were held at regular intervals to coordinate efforts and learn from the experiences in each country. Tool Development: A combination of qualitative and quantitative tools was developed at a regional level. The tools were then pretested in the context of Pakistan; they were then translated into Urdu and pretested again to remove discrepancy and loss of information during translation. Research team; Composition and training: Research team comprised a team leader and field supervisor at national level and separate field research teams in each province. The provincial team in Punjab had 4 women and 2 men whereas in Baluchistan and KPK there were 4 men and 2 women. In Sindh there were 3 men and 3 women on the research team. Nearly 50% of the research team was change makers themselves whereas the others were researchers. These research teams and district alliance partners were extensively trained at a national workshop and refresher training was held before the second phase of data collection. Constant mentoring was provided through field visits, telephone and email feedback. Sample size: The site selection aimed at reflecting the diversity and variance in the districts so that the outcomes of the campaign could be measured across increased and limited degrees of direct contact with the change makers. The context in which the campaign had been rolled out- especially in terms of pre-existing programs, interventions and associations/collectives the change makers may have been part of, was taken into account during the selection of respondents as well as at the stage of analysis. It was based on the criteria of old and new districts and districts where the campaign was strong and weak. Hence Muzafargarh (Punjab) and Mardan (KPK) were old districts whereas Quetta (Baluchistan) and Jamshoro (Sindh) were new districts. A stratified random sample based on sex was drawn from the data base maintained by the WECAN secretariat. Other socio-economic elements like education, incomes etc were randomly spread over the sample and were taken into account during analysis. A total of 117 CMs were covered using narrative inquiry techniques. Campaign alliance members, secretariat staff and district partners were interviewed to understand the implementation mechanisms of the campaign. The CMs were asked to identify 10 people they feel have been influenced by the CM during the campaign work. The CMs gave a list of their Circle of Influence from different sub systems including family, extended family, neighborhood, friends and colleagues. A proportionate random sample based on the sub system

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was drawn from the list; hence a total of 260 COI were interviewed to understand the changes in the larger system of which a CM is a part. Tools of data collection: in-depth interviews with CMs were designed as workshops wherein open ended interview guide, social influence mapping and a structured interview schedule were administered by a team of two researchers with one respondent. Interviews of campaign secretariat staff and district alliance partners were also carried out. Group discussions were carried out with district and provincial partners. Simultaneously retrospective process documentation of the activities of campaign was done through discussions, interviews, review of reports. Data quality management: Ensuring quality of data collection was done through constant monitoring of research teams. Random checks of interview forms, corroborating information through spot checks and independent discussions with the respondents were also means of ensuring quality of data collection. Limitations: This study has only been carried out in four districts i.e. one district in each province which may not be completely representative of the CMs or the campaign Even though an attempt was made to make the sample representative of CMs, it is possible that certain strains and elements were missed out. The sample districts were primarily rural and highlight issues, mechanisms for negotiation and power dynamics in a particular cultural milieu. They do not represent the issues and coping mechanisms or networks in urban societies. The districts and sample were limited to those already being interviewed for the regional WECAN Phase II assessment which in itself was a limitation. Findings: Socio-economic background: From among the total population 49.6% are women. The maximum number of women (44.8%) is present in the age group of 20-29 which constitutes 22% of the total population. Furthermore unlike the men a substantial number of women (12%) are present in the age bracket of 16-19. The visible reasons for this could be that age of marriage for girls is low and these women (16-19) are married women whose status changes and they are targeted through vocational training institutions, the other category of girls is targeted in schools. Similarly men have been targeted at their workplace and from among the male CMs the sample of men in 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 age bracket is substantially high i.e. 36%, 25% and 17% respectively. The professions of CMs show that 23% of men and women are self-employed; data analysis shows that women are primarily home based workers and men are self-employed or own land. Furthermore the non-agriculture labor is higher than agriculture labor (primarily men). Similarly women are housewives and men are unemployed. Among the professionals more women respondents are teachers and health workers whereas more men are lawyers and NGO workers. In line with the age groups and marital status of women female student CMs are significantly large percentage of the population. The socio economic background varies by district but there is minimal difference between the CM and their COI. Average profile of a Change Maker: # 1.

Sex Female

Marital status Married

Profession Home based worker

2.

Female

Unmarried

Professional

3.

Male

Married

Professional/employed

4.

Male

Unmarried

Student

Education Matriculation 10 years of education Bachelors 14 years of education Bachelors 14 years of education 12-14 years of education

Age 20-29 20-29 30-39 20-29

Motivation to change: A substantially large number of CMs became aware of the issue of VAW through the WE CAN campaign. It is at that point that they sign up at CM. From the interviews the main reasons for people to become CM that are visible include:   

They have been victims of violence or witnessed VAW among their loved ones. (in most instances mother) They have been perpetrators of violence They have been unconventional, at odds with the mainstream society including their siblings and wanted to bring about a change.

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Deepening of change: According to the quantitative data 80% CMs perceive VAW as a serious issue, 11% also think that it is complicated. Furthermore 48% of respondents feel that to torture wife/women unnecessarily is the biggest form of violence. This is followed by restriction of rights, slapping and abusing, and sexual relations without consent. According to the respondents equal rights and decision making is the main criterion for a family to be designated as a violence free family. The most common examples of a violence free family in their environment include neighbors, family and colleagues/others they have interacted with. Quantitative data is indicative of the fact that a fairly large number of CMs show positive attitudes towards discrimination against women. This is particularly true for issues related to girls’ education and type of food given to children. Even on issues of early marriage and freedom of expression both the CMs and COI show similar responses. Whereas for most aspects CMs and many COI clearly talk of women’s rights; most CMs still feel that women’s mobility is at the discretion of men. As compared to other issues; on the issue of VAW the quantitative responses exhibit a lesser acceptance. Whereas a significant percentage of CMs (30%) feel that even if MIL abuses the DIL for not cooking properly it is a violence free home; the percentage of COI (93%) is much higher. On the other hand on the issue of occasional violence by husband the difference of opinion between the CM and COI is minimal; 47% of CMs and 45% of COI feel that an occasional abuse is acceptable and it would be a violence free home. When we relate these with the narratives we find that most CMs have moved towards individual actions and taken strong stands on various issues of VAW. The data exhibits the fact that CMs are at different vantage points on the continuum of change. The reasons for this difference is varied and embedded in the context of each individual it includes but is not limited to degree of personal motivation, status of environment and context, family background, age, level of exposure to issue, educational background or some other factors. Intensive review of the qualitative data reveals the following categories of CMs : 1

• • •

Change makers showing significant deepening of change Change makers showing some deepening of change but not to the extent to the group above Change makers who are where they were before or show very little movement.

CMs in Each Category of Deepening Of Change:

Jamshoro Mardan Muzafargarh Quetta Total

Category 1 Significant deepening of change 13 19 23 4 59

Category 2 Some deepening of change 11 11 7 11 40

Category 3 Awareness plus

Total Total in each site

6 12 18

30 30 30 27 117

The narratives from CMs also highlight the fact that individual attitudes have changed after their interaction with WE CAN campaign and the issue. A significantly large number of women CMs feel that they now have the arguments and logic to deal with VAW; their own attitude has changed and they no longer feel frustrated or angry. Another commonly cited change among CMs is related to mobility of women. Most men have said that they now ‘allow’ the women in their family to go to natal home, weddings and to visit neighbors. Women also feel that they are now more confident and feel that this is not wrong. Quantitative data is indicative of the fact that attitudes towards discrimination against women have reduced to a large extent. This is particularly true for issues related to girls’ education and type of food given to children. Towards a community of no violence against women the data indicates that the first sub system that the CM aims to change or have changed is the family. This is followed by other sub-systems whether neighborhood, friends, colleagues, extended family or any other. Becoming a CM was the first step which has resulted in individual’s awareness on issues of VAW. The second stage for moving towards ending VAW is to deepen the change and highlight new issues of VAW. Data shows two categories of individuals   1

People have continued to engage with the issue of VAW through WE CAN Campaign activities. People have continued to engage with the issue of VAW not necessarily through the campaign activities.

For detailed criterion of each category and analytical case studies see the complete report.

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Reviewing the campaign work, discussions with alliance partners and campaign secretariat, as well as process review show that the campaign has focused on two broad spectrums of topics of VAW; those which are the least controversial like girl’s right to equal food and education and the most controversial like honor killing and karo kari. The acceptability of these topics has been higher due to decades of intervention and awareness raising mechanisms. The more sensitive shades of gray are yet to be discussed in the communities. Such issues include but are not limited to psychological violence, marital rape, mobility, economic independence. Tipping point towards a community of no VAW; Collective attitudinal shift: An important component of WECAN was to build wider community intolerance for violence against women. There is evidence that change process has moved from individual to sub-systems and larger social system. This means that when changes within the change maker and others begin impacting behaviors among groups of people, beginning with the family, the sub-system changes. This process shows that not only does individual CM’s behavior impact other individuals, it also impacts sub-systems and that changes in the behaviors of one system impact the behaviors of other sub-systems and groups. The change maker is part of and is relating to, interacting with several sub-systems. The extent of influence of one sub-system over the other is based on how important they are to each other and how interdependent they are. However, this may be necessary but not a sufficient condition for one system to influence the other. The data from the narratives shows that once individuals’ conscience is pricked and they believe that VAW is wrong, they go through the process of change in attitude. Many individuals then start taking small actions to stop VAW. These actions begin with their own selves and/or families. These small actions contribute to an individual’s change in attitude, behavior and belief system. Once the individual changes s/he contributes to changing the subsystem; beginning with the family. At this point when the changed behavior of an individual gets accepted, the individual’s status is elevated within the sub system; thereby further increasing the acceptance of CM’s actions to stop VAW. Consequently the subsystem changes and the changed attitude is visible in the larger system. Gradually positive results from actions within the sub system- come to the forefront which also serves to enhance the status of the subsystem. This in turn causes other subsystems to aspire for the same, consequently the larger system starts changing, thereby reinforcing the message that VAW is wrong. Attribution to campaign activities: the level of attribution of attitudinal shift towards non acceptance of VAW cannot be assessed completely due to other uncontrolled factors- such as other organizations working on women’s rights, media and state awareness raising campaigns. However when we look at the percentage of CMs engaged directly with the campaign its contribution towards this issue cannot be undermined. Furthermore the influence of CMs in bringing about a change in their community has been immense. According to a significantly large number of COI (84%) they heard about WECAN campaign from the CMs. A fairly large number of COI have also heard of WECAN through a friend, neighbor or relative. Review of narratives of CMs and COI also shows that many of these friends, neighbors and relatives are CMs as well which elucidates the fact that CMs in any community have contributed enormously towards bringing about a change in attitudes on VAW. Campaign Management: During the six years of its implementation the campaign management has gone through extensive changes including issues of high turnover. Some senior level restructuring at Oxfam GB, as well as Campaign management changes have taken place with the view to improve the management of the Campaign. The campaign staff has primarily played a facilitative role for the campaign. Material provided for the Campaign has been useful in passing the message on VAW and encouraged interaction with local groups and communities. However the quantity of material was insufficient. The shifting of secretariat to a national alliance partner has posed many constraints and insufficient budget also instigated many challenges for the alliance partners. Conclusion: The findings of this evaluation indicate that WE CAN campaign activities have contributed in bringing about a shift in individual and collective attitudes. However the extent of influence is context specific and is influenced by role of other actors including the state, media and civil society. The data also exhibits that there are different deterrent and reinforcing factors in each area. Nonetheless there is evidence in many areas that WE CAN activities have contributed to tipping the balance towards EVAW but it may not have been the only factor. Recommendations:  

The material of the campaign should be country specific and in some contexts even region specific. The material should be prepared in larger quantities and its dissemination should be wide.

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   

 

In Pakistan the newsletter dissemination approach was innovative; the word was spread through connectors who used newsletters to illustrate the issues. Such innovative context specific approaches need to be honed for the campaign to carry forward the message. A network of active CMs should also be developed in order to enable people to share material, best practices and lessons learnt. Such local networks would serve to enhance deepening of change in attitude towards VAW. These networks (as is evident from different community examples) would also augment the collective attitudinal shift towards ending VAW. The database of CMs should be updated at district and provincial level. It is imperative for re-engaging these CMs for future work on issues of VAW. Such reengagement would not only strengthen the commitment to ending VAW but would also support the CMs in building a greater understanding on various issues of VAW. serve to Exit strategy of WE CAN campaign should include mechanisms to acknowledge the immense work and struggle of individual CMs as well as the alliance partners. Administrative issues of secretariat hosting and management should be resolved at the beginning of the campaign to avoid unnecessary delays and problems. During the second phase of the campaign emphasis should be laid on ‘filtering’ the real CMs from those who are inactive. The focus should shift from ‘number crunching’ to those who make a real difference. A mapping of existing resources available at district and provincial level should be carried out. This would include not only the financial and human resources but also the institutions providing assistance to women victims of violence. District and provincial alliance partners should be linked to these social services and institutions at the onset of the campaign as no campaign can work in isolation. The CM database should be shared with other organizations working on human rights in general and women’s rights in particular in order to continue the momentum created by the WE CAN campaign.

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Acronyms: BCC CM COI EVAW GoP KPK NWFP ORS OGB SDS UNICEF VAW

Behavior Change Communication Change Maker Circle of Influence Eliminating Violence Against Women Government of Pakistan Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa North West Frontier Province Oral Rehydration Salts Oxfam Great Britain Sindh Development Society United Nations Children Fund Violence Against Women

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Table of Contents Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................................... 2 Executive summary ............................................................................................................................................ 3 Acronyms:........................................................................................................................................................ 9 Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................................ 10 List of tables and figures: ................................................................................................................................. 12 1 Introduction: ......................................................................................................................................... 14 1.1 WECAN’s Campaign Strategy: ........................................................................................................ 14 1.1.1. Communication material of campaign: ...................................................................................... 14 1.2 Operational strategy of the campaign: .............................................................................................. 14 1.3 Phases of change: ........................................................................................................................... 14 1.4 Phase I of WECAN – the strategy .................................................................................................... 15 1.5 Phase II of WECAN – the strategy: .................................................................................................. 15 1.5.1 Activities and interventions under Phase II ................................................................................. 16 1.5.2 Outcomes and indicators for Phase II: ...................................................................................... 17 1.6 Assessment of WECAN Phase II: ...................................................................................................... 17 1.6.1 Key questions relevant to the assessment ................................................................................... 17 1.7. Implications: ............................................................................................................................... 18 2. Conceptual Framework: .......................................................................................................................... 19 2.1 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................... 19 2.2 Deepening of change: ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.3 Tipping Point: ................................................................................................................................. 20 2.3.1 Collective tipping point - Whole system change: ......................................................................... 20 2.4 Collective Attitudinal shift ................................................................................................................. 20 2.4.1 Tipping Point and the power of context: ..................................................................................... 21 2.4.2 Mending broken windows:....................................................................................................... 22 References: .................................................................................................................................................... 24 3 Literature Review .................................................................................................................................... 25 3.1 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Campaign evaluation mechanisms .................................................................................................... 25 3.3 Evaluation of campaigns: ................................................................................................................. 27 3.4 Baseline findings of VAW situation in Pakistan: .................................................................................. 28 3.4.1 Prevalence of violence: ............................................................................................................ 28 3.4.2 Understanding of women’s rights: ............................................................................................. 28 3.4.3 Avenues for help to women victims of violence: .......................................................................... 29 References: ................................................................................................................................................ 29 4 Methodology: ........................................................................................................................................ 30 4.1 Case study: .................................................................................................................................... 30 4.2 Measuring change and the challenges of attribution: .......................................................................... 30 4.3 The assessment methodology ............................................................................................................ 31 4.3.1 Tool development: ................................................................................................................... 31 4.3.2 Research team; composition and training: .................................................................................. 31 4.3.3 Process of data collection: ........................................................................................................ 32 4.3.4 Site selection: ......................................................................................................................... 32 4.4 National Campaign: ....................................................................................................................... 33 4.4.1 WE CAN Campaign roll out in Pakistan: ................................................................................... 34 4.5 Sample size: .................................................................................................................................. 35 4.5.1 Change Makers: ..................................................................................................................... 35 4.5.2 Circles of Influence: ................................................................................................................. 35 4.6 Tools of data collection: ................................................................................................................... 36 4.6.1 Narrative inquiry techniques: ................................................................................................... 36 4.7 Data quality management: ............................................................................................................... 38 4.8 Data analysis management: ................................................................................................................... 38 4.9 Constraints/challenges: ................................................................................................................... 38 4.10 Limitations: ................................................................................................................................. 39

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References ..................................................................................................................................................... 39 5 Findings ...................................................................................................................................................... 40 5.1 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................... 40 5.2: Socio economic background of the Respondents: ............................................................................ 40 5.3 Deepening of change: ..................................................................................................................... 43 5.3.1 What has motivated individuals to become Change Makers? ....................................................... 44 5.3.2 Change Makers- where they stand regarding the issue of VAW ................................................... 46 5.4 Reengagement with VAW: ........................................................................................................... 65 5.4.1 Reengagement with issue of VAW through WECAN Activities:..................................................... 65 5.4.2 Reengagement with the issue of VAW: ...................................................................................... 68 5.5 Tipping point towards a community of no violence against women: ...................................................... 69 5.5.1 Individual tipping point: ........................................................................................................... 69 5.5.2 Mending broken windows:....................................................................................................... 71 5.5.3 Collective attitudinal shift: ........................................................................................................ 72 5.4.4 Moving towards collective tipping point:.................................................................................... 75 6. Campaign management: ............................................................................................................................. 76 6.1 Role of National Campaign Secretariat: ........................................................................................... 76 6.1.1 Structure: ............................................................................................................................... 76 6.1.2 Budget and finances: ............................................................................................................... 76 6.1.3 Campaign Material: ................................................................................................................ 77 6.1.4 Campaign activities: ............................................................................................................... 77 6.1.5 Database management: ........................................................................................................... 77 7. Discussion and Conclusion: ..................................................................................................................... 78 7.1 Discussion ...................................................................................................................................... 78 7.2 Conclusion: .................................................................................................................................... 79 8. Recommendations: ................................................................................................................................. 80 8.1 WECAN Campaign: ....................................................................................................................... 80 8.2 For future: ...................................................................................................................................... 80 Annex 1: Outcomes And Indicators Of Phase II Of WE CAN Campaign ............................................................... 82 Annex 2 Terms of Reference ............................................................................................................................. 83 ToRs of Lead Researcher Pakistan ................................................................................................................. 83 Announcement For Field Supervisor .............................................................................................................. 84 Announcement For Field Investigators............................................................................................................ 85 Annex 3 Tools of data collection ....................................................................................................................... 86 Introduction to the workshop with Change Makers.......................................................................................... 86 In Depth Interview Guide for Interview with Change Makers ............................................................................ 87 Documentation Format In-Depth Interview With Change Makers ....................................................................... 92 Interview Schedule To Measure Change Maker’s Attitude Towards VAW .......................................................... 98 Social Influence Mapping Tool ................................................................................................................... 101 Documentation Format For Social Influence Mapping .................................................................................... 104 Interview Schedule For Change Makers Circle Of Influence ........................................................................... 107 Annex 4: notes for field research teams: .......................................................................................................... 118 Pointers And Instructions For Recorders ....................................................................................................... 118 Ethical Considerations And Practicality Of The Assessment ............................................................................ 119 Annex 5: Important Lessons of the Midterm Review March 2008 Rabia Khan ...................................................... 120

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List of tables and figures: Figures: Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 6.1

Framework of assessment The tipping point principle and its relevance to whole systems thinking Reinforcing loop Sex of Circle of Influence According to Age Marital status of COI according to sex Discussion topics for campaign Collective Attitudinal Shifts Process of deepening of change:

Tables: Table 3.1: Table 4.1 Table 4.2: Table 4.3: Table 4.4 Table 4.5: Table 5.1: Table 5.2: Table 5.3: Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 5.9: Table 5.10 Table 5.11a Table 5.11b Table 5.12a Table 5.12b Table 5.13a Table 5.13b Table 5.14a Table 5.14b Table 5.15a Table 5.15b Table 5.16a Table 5.16b Table 5.17 Table 5.18 Table 5.19 Table 5.20

Different Methods Associated With Different Evaluation Design District Research Teams List of Sites Selected For Assessment: Circle of Influence Listed By Change Makers: Sample of Respondents Tools Used For Research Age of Sample Change Makers and Circle of Influence Sex of the Change Maker and Circle of Influence According To Age Marital status of Change Maker and Circle of Influence according to sex Profession of Change Maker by sex Average profile of a Change Maker What Constitutes Violence Free Family? Percentage Response on Issue of Discrimination Percentage Attitude towards Women’s Rights Percentage Responses on Issue of VAW Against Women CMs in Each Category of Deepening Of Change Category 1 CM attitude towards VAW Category 1 CM Attitude towards VAW Category 1 CM Attitude towards Women’s Rights Category 1 CM Attitude towards Women’s Rights Category 2 CM attitude towards VAW Category 2 CM attitude towards VAW Category 2 CM attitude towards women’s rights Category 2 CM attitude towards women’s rights Category 3 CM attitude towards VAW Category 3 CM attitude towards VAW Category 3 CM attitude towards women’s rights Category 3 CM attitude towards women’s rights COI hearing about WECAN CM influence on COI Material Shown to COI Material Recalled By the Circle of Influence

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1 Introduction WECAN is a six year south Asia level campaign (2005-2011) on violence against women. Its goal is to reduce the social acceptance of violence against women in its different forms. It is currently running in six countries of South Asia- India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. It aims at reaching out to 50 million people, symbolic of the 50 million women who are missing in South Asia because of gender discriminatory practices.

1.1

WECAN’s Campaign Strategy:

WECAN is a campaign, in terms of its scale, outreach and strategy and it is a trigger for action. It veers away from a program approach which works with a specific target population or group through repeated, frequent interventions in the form of capacity building, services or other inputs. WECAN focuses strongly on nonacceptance of domestic violence in all its manifestations aiming at engaging public opinion on the issue of violence against women by building mass awareness on the issue and emphasizing that small actions can make a big contribution to addressing VAW. The underlying belief of the campaign is that personal change becomes the conduit for social change. Therefore it encourages people to reflect on their attitudes and take that first step of personal change - however big or small, it may be, that challenges gender discriminatory practices. The campaign emphasizes that equal relationships are violence free. Thus by taking steps that support women’s equality in one’s own life and relationship, one can actually contribute to reducing the social acceptance of VAW. According to the campaign, no change is insignificant and small changes open avenues for dialogue and larger changes.

1.1.1. Communication material of campaign: WECAN relied extensively on well-crafted communication material to engage and sustain people. The campaign was conceptualized in phases, beginning with awareness raising among people; leading to collective action, reenforcement of new values, multiple actions and broader institutional change. One of the key strategies employed by WECAN was the creation of well-crafted, communication material that prompted thinking, reflection and action. Given the scale on which the campaign worked, communication material was critical in many ways for the campaign: 1. 2. 3.

1.2

It enabled mass outreach The change maker kit served as a reference guide and motivator for change makers to talk to others as well as to look up from time to time for self-reference. It helped in building a sense of identity among change makers.

Operational strategy of the campaign:

The campaign has been operationalized through alliances or networks of organizations committed to addressing VAW. These alliances exist at different levels in each country and take the responsibility of implementing and overseeing the campaign. In India for example, alliances have been formed at the state and district levels. In Bangladesh, there is a national alliance, as well as district level alliances. In Nepal and Sri Lanka too, WECAN is being implemented through district alliances, whereas in Pakistan, the alliance has been formed at the provincial and district level.

1.3

Phases of change:

The Campaign has used the Stages of Change theory. The changes take place through various stages. It begins with changes in individual and then leads to changes in community. The first stage is the raising awareness and promoting reflection on violence against women through engaging, convincing and inspiring the community.

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The second stage is building networks by preparing the community members (who vow to take action against violence against woman) to take a stand and action in public on violence against woman. Third stage is the integration of action by collating the groups to work together to address the issue of violence against women. The fourth stage is to strengthen the community and organizational capacity to prevent violence against women through appropriate strategies and actions.

1.4

Phase I of WECAN – the strategy

The first phase of the campaign aimed at building people’s engagement with the issue of violence against women. It tried to make this issue relevant to people by helping them reflect on forms of gender inequality and discrimination that one faces in routine, daily life and offering a way to address this through personal change. Violence against women was explained in the context of small and large, visible and invisible, hidden and obvious forms of discrimination that deprive women of equal rights and opportunities. The campaign continuously emphasizes that equal relationships are violence free; since the problem is manifest in our lives in many ways, it is we who have to start the process of change. Small actions can lead to big change and therefore, through small changes, one can address VAW. During phase I, (2005-2007) well developed communication material was utilized in large scale public events held by alliance members in various states, to engage people on the issue of VAW. The events typically consisted of street plays, songs, public discussion and debate on the issue of gender inequality and VAW. The campaign material was distributed, discussed in detail and finally, those interested were asked to take a pledge on VAW and/or sign up as change makers. A change maker is one who commits a) to personal change and b) to talk to 10 others about VAW, using the change maker kit provided to her /him. Phase I of the campaign focused on building awareness about what constitutes domestic violence, its causes and impact as well as the role of personal change in reducing VAW. While the overall strategy of phase I has remained the same across South Asia, the campaign varies in terms of its operationalization in each country, depending on the development and social context. In many places (especially in India and to some extent in Nepal), contact with the change makers had been through onetime events. Repeated contact has not been possible as WECAN has been rolled out in a typical campaign mode on scale. However, in Bangladesh (given the density of NGO presence) and in Pakistan due to repeated social interventions, the degree of contact with change makers has been more frequent. 1.5

Phase II of WECAN – the strategy:

During the second phase, the focus has been on re-engaging old change makers (mobilized in phase I) and increasing the spread and intensity of the change triggered in phase I. The strategy was to promote attitudinal change exponentially, through existing change makers, so that the change process deepens among change makers but also moves outwards among a broader set of people within the change makers sphere of influence. With the

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objective, that by doing this, the process of change will begin to build an enabling environment where violence against women gets addressed in different ways. At the end of phase I, there was growing anecdotal evidence of change makers coming together to take action or to build community awareness. This collective action was encouraged in phase II as a way of sustaining communities of interest and shared values among change makers. Thus, the key elements of phase II include the following:

1.5.1

1.

Re-engaging old change makers through direct contact programs as well as mass outreach methods, in ways that established their identity as change makers as well as made them feel valued for their commitment to personal change.

2.

Discontinuation of direct mobilization of change makers by alliance members. Mobilization of new change makers was to happen through old change makers. The role of the alliance vs. a vs. change makers was to ensure a regular and timely supply of communication material to old change makers, ensuring the data base is up to date and to some extent orienting the change makers to the new messages and materials being rolled out under phase II. However, it was envisaged that their role would be more intense in promoting institutional change.

3.

Nurturing networks of change makers to sustain change and strengthen an enabling environment.

4.

Deepening/Intensifying change among existing change makers by motivating them to think of new actions, identifying new situations to apply the gender discrimination lens, new ways in which they can improve women’s situation.

5.

A collective attitudinal shift. In phase I, the change maker was the pivot of change and was expected to talk to 10 others about the issue of VAW. Phase II envisaged a situation where attitudinal shifts in change makers are sustained by and in turn, reinforce, an attitudinal shift among a broader set of people in the change makers sphere of influence. Thus, small and large shifts in individual attitudes and practices begin influencing broader social attitudes and beliefs around VAW; thereby creating an ‘enabling environment’.

6.

Promoting Institutional change, with a specific focus on schools and institutions of local governance. Change makers within these institutions were to be motivated to mobilize relevant decision makers and influential persons, so that small changes that support women and girls equality can be introduced in the these institutions. These initiatives were planned as a district level activity.

Activities and interventions under Phase II

Since the campaign was being taken forward by provincial/state alliance partners their clarity on objectives and purpose of Phase II has to be built through multiple rounds of discussions. One of the most important strategic shifts in phase II was the need to move away from direct mobilization of change makers to reengaging with existing change makers, deepening change among them and motivating them to enlist new change makers. Hence the roll out of Phase II started sporadically in October 2008. One of the first activities in this direction was encouraging existing change makers to hold small scale events using the change maker kits and materials distributed to them. Known as the thousand events, the intended plan was that in each district, 1000 events of such a nature would be held. A nominal amount was made available for hospitality and change makers held half day workshops/meetings with groups of 8-10 people, creating awareness about the issue of violence against women. Change makers could also enlist those who wanted to sign up as change makers. From May 2009 the new activities of Phase II started in most countries. Many common activities were planned across south Asia under phase II; nonetheless they were tailored according to the context of each country. Overall the activities and interventions being planned during the period July- December, 2009, included the following: 1.

Use of mobile vans and rickshaw vans to carry phase II campaign material and remain stationed for a short period at the block level. Street plays and cultural activities were also being planned at areas where

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the mobile vans were to be parked, to reach out to existing change makers and community members. Mobile vans were also a way of creating a ‘brand’ for the campaign. In Nepal, given the mountainous terrain, mobile vans were not a viable option. Hence, the change makers were to reach out to the community members through door to door contact programs. In Pakistan particularly in Sindh and Punjab the cultural events combined with mobile van activities proved very successful. 2.

3.

4.

1.5.2

Periodic newsletters were being distributed to all change makers mobilized under phase I to disseminate new messages about the issue as well as circulate stories of change. This was being done through postal mail services or through ‘connector change makers’ who would then distribute them to other change makers. The newsletters contained change maker stories underlining new messages and more information on VAW. Short orientation programs were planned for the connectors particularly in India and Pakistan. Hoardings, wall paintings and radio programs which reinforce the campaign messages. In Nepal, special radio programs and listeners clubs had been established but the effort under phase II was to increase the number of districts covered by the radio program. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, TV channels were targeted to host talk shows and serials which focused on violence against women. In Pakistan, cable TV was utilized extensively to disseminate messages about VAW and the campaign. Embedding change within institutions, with a special focus on schools and institutions of local governance such as Panchayat and Jirga in Pakistan, village committees in India to promote institutional change. Large meetings in districts proved very successful as local landlords, Sardars and political leaders were publicly able to show commitment to the cause of women and the campaign. Contact with lawyers’ associations, media, teachers’ associations and other such institutions proved quite successful in the phase II of campaign. Outcomes and indicators for Phase II : 2

The outcomes for Phase II can be conceptualized at two levels- those that are visible and those that are underlying. In the context of the campaign, a visible outcome is very similar in many ways to an indicator, a change that is apparent but is broader and more nebulous than an indicator. Visible outcomes have to be further defined more specifically into measurable indicators. An underlying outcome is in the nature of a broad, overarching resultant change expected from an intervention. It is better defined than a goal and many visible outcomes may fall within the rubric of a single underlying outcome. The underlying outcomes central to Phase II of the campaign are: 1. 2. 3.

1.6

Deepening of change among existing change makers and; Building networks that sustain change A collective attitudinal shift translating into the creation of an enabling environment for the issue of VAW to become more visible. Assessment of WECAN Phase II:

An assessment of WE CAN Phase II was designed to establish whether or not the outcomes envisaged under phase II have been met. This assessment was planned at the regional level and was carried out simultaneously in five countries- India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The assessment has a common methodology with some site specific components . Each country has generated a country specific report and one common regional report highlighting the overall regional assessment has also been prepared. 3

1.6.1

Key questions relevant to the assessment

This assessment was carried out without a pre-designed hypothesis based on the premise that campaigns are vast and there will be some unanticipated outcomes as well as the predictable ones. Hence keeping in view the objectives of WE CAN Campaign Phase II the key questions for this assessment included the following:

2 3

For detailed outcomes and indicators see Annex 1 For details see chapter 4 on methodology

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1. Whether existing change makers are experiencing a deepening of change as a result of re-engagement with the campaign 2. What is the nature of this change/ how is this change occurring? 3. Whether there is a collective shift in attitudes and beliefs within the change makers’ circle of influence. 4. What is the process and nature of this collective attitudinal shift? 5. Whether and how is the community’s perception on violence against women being influenced by the campaign?

1.7.

Implications:

As has been mentioned elsewhere a campaign evaluation is a recent field in the social sciences discipline. There are very few campaign evaluations available internationally and in South Asia region. The implications of this research we hope would be the following:  

  

This assessment would contribute to the larger arena of campaign evaluations in social sciences. The assessment tools have been designed in a manner as to incorporate the experiences and attitudinal shifts that any individual has experienced in their lives. The key questions and approaches used in these tools may be modified to assess other campaigns particularly on the issue of VAW. The Social Mapping tools as well as the overall narrative inquiry techniques are useful for other evaluations. Theoretical approaches and the concept of tipping points (individual and collective) would also feed into new campaigns being designed nationally and internationally. The findings of this assessment would also feed into the overall Behavior Change Communication (BCC) strategies developed to bring about attitudinal change in people. They would further support the existing work on women’s rights in general and VAW in particular. For Oxfam GB the campaign assessment not only highlights the lessons learnt but also OGB’s achievements and contribution towards gender equality. New gender equality initiatives being designed could also adopt such innovative approaches as the WE CAN Campaign. The campaign allies would be able to draw upon the lessons learnt from the campaign to design their strategy for carrying forward the WE CAN Campaign as OGB funding for this initiative ends in March 2011. Other stakeholders and international funding partners would also be able to utilize the innovative approach of this campaign as well as visualizing further opportunities to support such initiatives.

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2 Conceptual Framework 2.1

Introduction:

A conceptual framework is described as a set of broad ideas and principles taken from relevant fields of enquiry and used to structure a subsequent presentation (Reichel & Ramey, 1987). When clearly articulated, a conceptual framework has potential usefulness as a tool to scaffold research and, therefore, to assist a researcher to make meaning of subsequent findings. Such a framework should be intended as a starting point for reflection about the research and its context. The framework is a research tool intended to assist a researcher to develop awareness and understanding of the situation under scrutiny and to communicate this (Smith R. 2004) In other words, a conceptual framework provides the theoretical moorings for any research study. The key issues being studied by the assessment are the deepening of change among existing change makers and collective attitudinal shift among the change makers circle of influence. 2.2

Deepening of change:

Deepening of change implies a growth/journey in the change being experienced by the change maker. It entails the following: 

A progressive movement from one point to another in the change process.

Since the focus of the campaign was on awareness generation during phase I of the campaign, this implies a movement from awareness to “awareness +”. In other words the shift of individual CMs from where they were to the point where they stand now.

A sequence in the change process; the pattern of change that the CM follows.

The assessment began with this broad definition (mentioned above) of what the deepening of change entailed. Using the stories of change makers the concept of deepening of change became more clearly defined. The reason for using this ‘inductive’ approach has been the campaign’s non prescriptive approach to personal change. It does not aim to privilege certain kinds of changes over others but celebrates every behavioral change as a step towards reduced social acceptance to VAW. Therefore, the exact components of deepening of change have had to be defined by the change makers stories themselves. The primary purpose of employing the inductive approach was to allow research findings to emerge from the frequent, dominant or significant themes inherent in raw data, without the restraints imposed by structured methodologies. (Thomas, D.R. 2003) As the meaning of deepening of change has been derived from the stories of CMs the framework that has emerged is also based on the analytical categories emerging from the data. The framework being applied to this assessment is given below: Figure 2.1

Framework of assessment:

Point A (No awareness) Point B (Awareness) Understanding what is VAW; different forms of violence including inequality and discrimination; relating the issue to instances from one’s own life; small actions can make a big change, ending VAW is necessary This is what the assessment is measuring Point C (Awareness +) Deeper understanding about VAW; identifying violence in newer contexts and situations ; feeling more strongly on the issue; reaching out and engaging others; personal changes; taking actions vis a vis situations in others’ lives

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2.3

Tipping Point:

2.3.1

Collective tipping point - Whole system change:

Whole systems thinking tries to explore this context by looking at what systems constitute this context in which the individual lives and grows, how do these systems influence the individual and how do they influence each other. That is what is the relationship between different components within the system, how much do they influence each other and how do they act together in changing/influencing other systems. Individual change and change COI however different components influencing each other and impact each other positively or negatively. It was therefore important to ask the following questions during analysis:  How is the individual change among change makers impacting the context in which they are operating? Conversely, what is changing in the community and whether and how is that impacting individual behavior?  Therefore, to what extent is WECAN trying to impact individual behavior by changing the context, in phase II?  How are individual change and change in the change maker’s context supporting each other? How can we strengthen this interaction? It is clear that there are reinforcing agents which are incentives for people to change while there are things which serve as disincentives and will deter people from changing.

The key concepts of whole systems thinking that have informed the assessment are: • A system is a group of units related by a common purpose/interest • The character of a system is defined by the interrelationships between the units of a system. • Because of interdependence between different units, a change in any one unit impacts the other units in the system. • Change in any one system can potentially impact another system with which it shares a relationship.

2.4

Collective Attitudinal shift

The notion of collective attitudinal shift draw’s its conceptual framework from whole systems thinking and Malcolm Gladwell’s theory of the tipping point (Gladwell M. 2000).

Systems’ thinking is a method of analysis…..that looks at the interrelationships of the constituent parts of a system rather than narrowly focusing on the parts themselves . System’s thinking draws from structural functionalism and Durkheim’s theory of social facts and organic solidarity. Structure attempts to study the society as a structure/ a configuration with interrelated parts, whereas functionalism states that all parts are interdependent and the society functions as a whole. Therefore instead of studying the parts of a system (customs, traditions, social institutions) in isolation, it seeks to understand how the behavior of an individual unit in a given system is also influenced by the relationship that it shares with other units in the same system. Furthermore the systems approach allows us to study different subsystems within society as a larger system. A system is defined as an institution which has a structure, a mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of individuals within it and has a permanence which transcends individuals . At this point we also draw from Michael Foucault the concept of texts and sub texts i.e. each individual is like a text written by different life experiences and social facts. The social facts refer to the material (physical) and non-material (culture, norms and traditions) social structures which are beyond an individual’s control and each individual is influenced by the social facts existing in his/her environment. Each individual has a different interaction with these social facts which then contributes to the individual’s ‘text’. The social facts and individual texts contribute to accepting new ideas and interpolations. Consequently, messages like the WE CAN end violence against women have to be in line with the systems within which the social facts function. It is only when such intercessions do not cause a malaise within the system that they are accepted as a social fact. 4

5

This framework offers us a useful and interesting background to study social change. It enables us to put forward the proposition that social change is not an outcome of individual change only. Instead it is the combined product of individual change, its impact on others within the same system by virtue of the interrelationship and the reinterpretation of these ‘social facts’. It examines change from the lens of interconnectedness and interdependence

4 5

http://pathtree.com/whole-systems-living http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_functionalism

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of organs functioning within a system (organic solidarity); wherein all organs within each sub-system function independently and yet are dependent on each other for the performance of the overall sub-system. They work together to enable a sub-system’s effective functioning which in turn contributes to the overall functioning of the larger system. What this shows us is that for a given system to function effectively, each organ is dependent on the other and therefore impacted by changes in the other organ. It also tells us that each system depends on the other for its smooth functioning. Therefore, when we apply the systems thinking framework to the assessment, it means studying individual level changes, but also how this change impacts other groups the change maker is part of, because of the relationships among them. In the assessment this has been framed as collective attitudinal change. Drawing from systems thinking, one of the aspects of collective attitudinal shift that the assessment has tried to explore is the exponential impact of individual change as it impacts a system. That is, the “whole is more than the sum of its parts.” In other words, the impact of individuals changing within a system is more than a sum of change in each of them separately. Thus, changes within the change maker along with his/her family are leading to a change in the outlook and behavior of the family as a whole/ unit. 2.4.1

Tipping Point and the power of context:

An interesting application of whole systems thinking is visible in the theory of the “Tipping Point” (Gladwell M. 2000). A tipping point is the point where what has been recessive suddenly becomes dominant. In the context of WECAN, the tipping point would be when wide spread acceptance of domestic violence is replaced by its nontolerance. According to Gladwell, three principles underlie the attainment of a tipping point: 1.

2.

3.

The law of the few or who carries the message. There are essentially three kinds of ‘carriers”- ‘connectors’ who have a huge network of people; ‘mavens’ who are subject matter experts and gather a huge amount of information on any issue; ‘salespersons’ who are good at convincing and motivating people. The law of “stickiness”. What makes a message stick is repetitiveness of the message; its delivery using a dialogue based participatory method and identifying the one critical aspect that can have an exponential impact on how the message is being delivered. The power of context. The context theory states that individual behavior is much more a function of the context in which the individual lives, works and interacts, than a function of individual traits alone. Thus when the context is altered, individual behavior also begins to change.

Andrea Shapiro in her book Contagious Commitment (Shapiro 2003) explains these three principles of the tipping point; “carriers” (those who carry the message of the law of the few); “content” and “context”. According to her theory the extent of spread of an idea is a result of the right combination of these three elements. In the assessment, both deepening of change and collective attitudinal shift can be seen as contributing to the creation of a tipping point where VAW becomes unacceptable. Figure 2.2

The tipping point principle and its relevance to whole systems thinking:

Deepening of change

New ways of thinking and behaviors that don’t support VAW or smaller tipping points. Collective attitudinal shift

Pushing towards a larger tipping point where VAW becomes unacceptable.

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The power of context, one of the key principles in causing a tipping point to occur, is also an important element for the theoretical premise of this research. It essentially means that an individual’s propensity to behave in a certain way is reinforced or deterred by the context in which he operates. At the level of micro-analysis we have used Foucault’s concept of text which are constituted from the various contexts of an individual at the level of a system these individual contexts contribute to the formulation of social facts. For example, people in small cities of Pakistan do not wear seat belts while driving whereas when they are in Islamabad or Karachi everyone wears the seatbelt. The primary reason being that in the larger cities the overall context supports abiding by traffic rules. In other words, the context theory states that individual behavior is as much a function of the context in which the individual lives, works and interacts, than a function of individual traits alone. Whole systems thinking tries to explore this context by looking at how changes among individuals in a given sub-system impacts the behavior of the system as whole and how these sub-systems influence each other. That is what is the relationship between different components within the system, how much do they influence each other and how do they act together in changing/influencing other systems. Understanding these linkages can help in plotting whether and how the context is changing, and whether the change in this context has a bearing on individual behavior- in this case the behavior of the change maker. Thus the influence of the campaign is seen as constantly shifting between changing individual behavior to influencing the context in which this behavior gets reinforced. Hence re-engagement with the change makers could also amount to not just reaching out to the individual change maker but engaging with his/her environment and thereby reinforcing the change in him/her.

2.4.2

Mending broken windows:

Malcolm Gladwell has used the concept of broken windows to further flesh out the idea of the “power of context”. According to him, broken windows in a neighborhood send out a signal- no one What motivates conscience to become a cares, it’s no one’s responsibility and this kind of behavior is CM: acceptable in this area. In such a context it is very likely that acts A victim of violence of vandalism grow, become more violent, spread in the area and A perpetrator of violence move from public to private spaces. By fixing broken windows one A maverick or black sheep is trying to address a basic attitude of indifference. Similarly, in WECAN small actions are like mending broken windows. By fixing/addressing different forms of subtle and visible discriminations and violence, the change maker is sending out a message that this issue matters, it’s not acceptable and there is a need to dialogue on this issue. When several such broken windows start getting fixed, the broader culture of tolerating VAW is worn down. Gladwell talks about how “the impetus to change comes from a feature of the environment.” One of the ways to look at/understand the tipping point in this context is that it is a state when there are no or very few broken windows, the ones that get broken get mended very quickly and the good ones stay intact. However, what is the process through which this tipping point is reached and maintained? For any behavior change to be sustained at an individual and collective level, incentives and disincentives play a strong role. The questions emerging from this are:  

What are the incentives and disincentives for change? How are they propelling change?

The motivation that an individual has; firstly to become a CM and then to maintain the momentum depends upon the sub texts of the individual. Once the individual conscience is pricked and s/he becomes an agent of change they have to move towards visible actions. An individual faces maximum disincentives and resistance at the time when s/he seeks to bring about a change in attitude and behavior. Nonetheless the propelling of this change is also dependent upon the status and vantage point of the individual in society. Once individual actions show positive results an individual’s status is visibly changed within the sub-system. Once positive results of these actions are visible to other sub systems there is a change in the status of the sub system which is then able to influence other sub systems to change for the better. This reinforcing loop serves to reenergize and motivate the individual to continue the efforts to bring about a change in the community. Once the system starts changing for the better an individual’s position in society and the power s/he is able to wield increases along with the desire to learn about new and more critical/controversial issues of VAW.

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Figure 2.3 Reinforcing loop

Individual Change Desire to learn. Discussion on sensitive issues.

Actions taken

Individual Consciences

System Change

Change in other systems

SubSystem Status change

Positive results of actions within system

Actions Taken

Status change

These incentives and disincentives would be different for individuals and different for women and men. Identifying these ‘pressure points’ help in building what in systems thinking are called “reinforcing loops” and “balancing loops”- that is relationships that are reinforcing change and those that are inhibiting change. For the campaign it is valuable to identify these and address them in planning new activities.

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References:           

Clamour, J. 1983 Modern Anthropological Theory Cosmo Publications David. R.T. 2003 ‘A General Inductive Approach for Qualitative Data Analysis’ School of Population Health University of Auckland, New Zealand August 2003. England P 1993 ‘Sociological Theories in the Study of Gender’ in Theory on Gender Feminism on Theory England P Ed. Walter de Gruyter Press N.Y. Foucault M 1980 power/knowledge Gordon C Ed Routledge Press Foucault M 1993 two lectures ‘in culture/power/history Durks NB Eley G & Ortner S Ed Princeton university press Gladwell, M. Tipping Point; how little things can make a big difference Little Brown and Company 2000 Hayward, J.E.S. "Solidarist Syndicalism: Durkheim and DuGuit", Sociological Review, Vol. 8 (1960) Martin, Michael and Lee C. McIntyre. 1994. Readings in the Philosophy of Social Science. Boston: MIT press, Google Print p. 433 Shapiro, A 2003 Creating Contagious Commitment; Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change Strategy Perspective Publication 2003 Smyth, R. 2004. ‘Exploring the usefulness of a conceptual framework as a research tool: A researcher's reflections’ In Issues in Educational Research, 14(2), 167-180. http://www.iier.org.au/iier14/smyth.html) Thompson, K. 2002. Emile Durkheim. Rutledge Press London.

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3 Literature Review 3.1

Introduction:

Campaign evaluation is the systematic, analytical assessment of a proposed, ongoing or completed communication initiative. It is a forward-looking management tool and a process for learning and improvement (KINGHORN). The process of evaluation helps the campaign to refine and become more effective over periods. Evaluation of campaigns is a comparatively new concept in the development arena. However, evaluation has become the part of development activities as an increasing number of funding agencies and foundations are looking forward to see the result of their investment and demanding greater accountability from those funded to engage in policy change work. Many foundations now routinely request that grantees document what progress has been made or what results were achieved to show that investments were sound or that returns were acceptable. And, though more funders stress the importance of evaluation, many advocacy organizations also want to know whether they made strategic progress in their work and what level of progress constitutes a “win� social or change significant incremental accomplishment on the way to a longer-term policy or have goal communication.(Reisman, Gienapp and Stachowiak;2007 ).

3.2

Campaign evaluation mechanisms

According to the available literature of campaign evaluations there are two types of public communication campaigns –individual behavior change campaigns and public will and political change campaigns. By Individual behavior change campaign we understand that campaign which leads to change in individual behavior and increase social well-being, whereas the public will campaign tries to mobilize the community and brings change in policy. The outcomes of the two campaign are different but increasingly the public will change campaign is becoming more common and popular. According to Ethel Klein, public will change campaigns are sometime borne out of individual behavior change campaign. The aim of campaign evaluation is to explore whether people have changed their attitude and behavior after acquiring information on specific issue through it. Campaign evaluation is a relatively new area of research with limited examples and practical guidelines. Evaluation designs test specific points of the change theories on which a given campaign may be based. The most commonly adopted theories within campaigns include the Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory, the Health Belief Model, and Stages of Change Model. In the field of program evaluation there are many studies to show how to assess the impact of certain programs which bring change in attitude, behavior and knowledge However, the field of campaign evaluation is just growing and there is a scarcity of documents on tools and methodology. It is well understood that in many instances assessing the campaign outcome is difficult due to its subtle nature and various confounding factors in the environment. Moreover it is well accepted that only knowledge about an issue cannot change all the behavioral problems of society. This is why more campaigns are paying attention to context and linking their traditional media and behavior change strategies with on-the ground community action to make the social and policy environment more supportive of the desired campaign results (Coffman 2002). According to Gary Henry we are still at the early stage of how to evaluate such campaigns. For assessing change, both numerical and verbal data are required but quantitative evaluation methods are more defined and specified and used for most of the campaign evaluation in comparison to qualitative and participatory methods. The evaluation design depends on the stage of evaluation. While formative or front end evaluation is designed at the beginning of the campaign, the back end evaluation identifies and analyses the changes that occurred at individual, community and societal level. The back end evaluation compromises of process evaluation, outcome evaluation and impact evaluation. Among them the impact evaluation is referred as gold standard of evaluation and uses rigorous research design to ensure the certainty of its measurement. The most common methods that are used in campaign evaluation are focus group, interviews, surveys and polling. Besides these there are a few methods which are used depending on the type of evaluation.

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Table 3.1: Different Methods associated with different evaluation design

Process evaluation

Outcome evaluation

Newspaper tracking Television tracking Radio tracking Website monitoring Ad assessment Case studies

Direct response tracking Framing analysis Rolling sample survey

For any evaluation to be effective and successful, its design should have been incorporated in the campaign or program from the very beginning. Impact evaluation designs are generally experimental by nature which is difficult to use; alternately quasi experimental evaluation design is used. Nevertheless, there are examples, wherein evaluations are unable to use a control or comparison group due to a number of reasons. In recent times planning of most international development impact evaluations does not start until the program or campaign is well advanced. More over most of the evaluations are carried out under time, resource and data constraints. To address these issues recently the Shoestring Evaluation approach has come into practice; wherein many basic principles of impact evaluation design like comparable pretest-post test design, control group, instrument development and testing, random sample selection, control for researcher bias etc. are sacrificed for the time, money and data constraint. In such instances the "Shoestring Evaluation" approach is used to provide tools for ensuring the highest quality evaluation possible under such circumstances. This approach follows 6 steps for a robust evaluation design:  Planning and scoping the evaluation- this includes identifying client needs, the change model that informs the intervention and being cognizant of the data and resource constraints within which the evaluation must work  Addressing the budget constraints- reviewing alternative evaluation designs and adopting or adapting the strongest available model in a given context. Budget constraints also include ways of reducing the sample size without compromising on the quality of statistical rigor.  Addressing time constraints- by conducting preliminary studies that complement the work being undertaken by resource intensive consultants. This phase could also include optical scanning of documents to reduce data input time.  Addressing data constraints- such as identifying secondary data sources that can provide baseline information or using recall to build a baseline. However, since this could be biased and is highly subjective, triangulating this information with at least two independent sources.  Addressing threats to the validity and adequacy of the evaluation design and conclusion- this includes checking the evaluation design against various parameters of validity such as being able to establish a causal relationship, the appropriateness of statistical analysis, generalizability and clarity around theoretical constructs that have informed the intervention.  Addressing identified weaknesses and strengthening evaluation design and analysis- this step includes taking the most feasible measures to address threats to validity. If it is not possible to address the identified weaknesses, the limitations of the evaluation design should be clearly spelt out as also what has informed the adoption of a particular evaluation design over the other. This step also entails articulating the assumptions and premises on which the evaluation design has been developed. The purpose of this approach is to provide the evaluation design with a robust methodology which can address the existing weakness of the design and support to produce useful evaluation findings while working under the real world constraints. An impact evaluation design which cannot provide any control group at the outset of the evaluation can use the following methods to solve the problem. (Coffman) 1. Repeated Measures-Individual, household and community can be used as their own comparison if repeated measures are taken over a period of time 2. Staged Implementation—when a campaign is rolled out in different phases with adequate time lag then areas which were exposed earlier can be compared to areas where campaign is yet to be rolled out. 3. Natural variation in treatment—For a complex campaign rolled out in non-uniform areas and in certain places it is bound to fail—these can be tracked and used as comparison. 4. Self-determination of exposure---some individual in targeted areas will not be exposed to the campaign for certain reasons. They can be used as a comparison group against those who are exposed to campaign.

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As has already been mentioned, public will campaign evaluation is a very difficult area and people involved in it are still struggling to come up with effective evaluation methodology. An investment in evaluation to tackle these issues in an environment that encourages some degree of risk-taking and exploration could go a long way toward moving the field forward. As Gary Henry put it, "I think we should be undaunted by the challenge of systematic measurement of the impacts of these kinds of programs. We have to push ahead; we have to try some things." (Coffman, 2002)

3.3

Evaluation of campaigns:

As has been mentioned earlier evaluation of campaigns is a relatively new phenomenon which requires extensive resources and well-designed tools. In many instances a combination of qualitative and quantitative tools are used and in some cases campaign assessments are built into the design of the campaign. The government of Scotland implemented a campaign on alcohol misuse and its problems. For this purpose a pre campaign assessment of alcohol users was carried out as baseline. At the end of the campaign an impact assessment was carried out. The assessment combined qualitative and quantitative tools; closed ended quantitative survey was carried out to assess attitudes and in-depth interviews and life histories were conducted for understanding people’s context. On the other hand the Uganda campaign to increase breastfeeding practices among women drew upon previous socio demographic survey including information on breastfeeding utilizing two stage multi-cluster sampling. The qualitative tools were designed to interview men and women from within this sample of survey. A ‘generalized estimation equation’ (GEE) was used for taking into account the hierarchically nested structure of data set (individual and cluster) which allowed control for intra-cluster correlation in population average models. However the correlation between exposure to Behavior Change Communication (BCC) messages and knowledge and practice were carefully drawn as other factors in an individual’s life may have contributed to positive change in attitude. ActionAid International carried out an Education Campaign ELIMU which was assessed in 2002. The backbone of the evaluation process was national “self-assessments”, in Brazil, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Ghana, Gambia, Nigeria, Malawi and Uganda. The methodology of the assessment was primarily qualitative where workshops were held with campaign staff and allies to discuss successes and lessons learnt. It also looked at international advocacy and network building efforts and their contribution to the campaign. International researchers were then recruited to carry out a scoping study in 15 countries wherein telephonic and email interviews were carried out with all stakeholders. The research team also carried out national and international desk reviews, retrospective recording of events and analysis of the organizational structures supporting Elimu campaign. Quantitative selfassessment guidelines were also developed which all key stakeholders were asked to fill out. Such methodology allowed the research team to evaluate the campaign in a large number of countries with minimal time and monetary resources. The Council of Europe ‘task force to combat violence against women’ was set up to advocate VAW issues within Europe. The appraisal of individual country initiatives to combat VAW was carried out through group discussions and literature review. The findings revealed that international and national policy commitments and political will contribute positively towards implementing initiatives on VAW. Amnesty International attempted to assess its campaign on VAW in all the countries where it had a presence; to understand what had changed in terms of attitudes and behaviors as well as at policy level for women experiencing violence as well as the organizational structures. One of the major constraints in this assessment was lack of a central database and limited documentation of monitoring across the campaign. The assessment adopted a case study approach and delved into country specific case studies to build an understanding, gather evidence and analysis of the stop VAW campaign. Kenya, Venezuela, Nepal and Uganda were the sample countries chosen for this process. Country case study was supported by interviews, questionnaires and group discussions as well as participant observation and desk review. An active international advisory group of the organization facilitated the process. A review of campaign evaluations in Pakistan is indicative of the fact that the evaluations of behavior change campaigns are primarily carried out for large scale health issues (polio eradication, ORS utilization) or decentralization and political participation. UNICEF Pakistan in collaboration with GoP carried out an impact evaluation of the advocacy and social mobilization strategy of UNICEF for creating women and children friendly

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policies. The evaluation examined the advocacy strategy in UNICEF program areas as well as non-program areas which served as a control group. Furthermore the evaluation also studied the organizational context in which the campaign was carried out. Keeping a flexible approach it adopted a utilization focused model wherein the evaluator ‘facilitates judgment and decision making by intended users, rather than acting as a distant, independent judge’ (Patton 1996 pp 21). The key constraints in the evaluation included absence of standard definitions and tools for campaign assessments, difficulty in narrowing the scope of evaluation as advocacy and awareness raising is an integral part of the process of any program and problems in delineating program activities from campaign activities. An evaluation of ‘major barriers to interrupting Poliovirus transmission’ in Pakistan employed desk review, in-depth interviews and interactive discussions with stakeholders, in-depth interviews with community members and service providers. The evaluation team also used participant observation to corroborate the information.

3.4

Baseline findings of VAW situation in Pakistan:

Pakistan is a country with extremely diverse geographical terrain with high mountains in KPK and vast desserts in Sindh and Baluchistan. It also has extremely fertile lands and vast rivers. The culture of Pakistan is as diverse as its terrain. KPK is also known as the land of Pashtuns and Baluchistan has a mix of Pashtuns and Baluchs. These are tribal societies governed by local para-legal indigenous systems. The tribal system is extremely egalitarian for families but for women it is governed by extreme laws and practices which ensure control over women. Bride price or vulvar is prevalent in these societies. Sindh and Punjab are fertile lands and cultural bases of the country. However southern Punjab and lower Sindh are primarily vast land holdings and majority of poor people are tenants or bonded labor on the lands of these landlords. Extreme forms of violence are rampant in these areas. Baseline assessment on VAW shows that the difference in prevalence between urban and rural settings is minimal (51% & 52% respectively) which elucidates the fact that women are structurally disadvantaged in society due to social, economic and legal discrimination as well as cultural and social norms and values. 6

3.4.1

Prevalence of violence:

According to the baseline assessment violence is highly prevalent; the female victims of violence are 27% children, 26% adolescent (9-14 years) and 47% adult. In Baluchistan 80% adult women are victims of violence, in KPK27%, in Punjab 46% and in Sindh 40% of the victims of violence are adult women. The reported prevalence of violence is highly dependent on education level of individuals. Whereas 44% of people with no formal education report violence only 11% of those educated till graduate level report VAW. In Baluchistan 73%, Sindh 42%, Punjab 39% and KPK 37% of the respondents with no formal education report violence. Slapping, beating and shouting/yelling are the most dominant forms of physical abuse. In Punjab 40% women face beating, 15% report slapping and 23% report verbal abuse. In Sindh 44% women report beating, 5% slapping, while 19% report yelling/shouting and 16% report verbal threats. In KPK beating and slapping is reported by 38% and 25% respondents respectively. Whereas psychological abuse is the highest in KPK with 50% women reporting abusive language, 38% report shouting/yelling, 34% report taunting and 20% report false allegations. On the other hand in Baluchistan 49% report slapping and 40% report beating and psychological abuse is less with only 15% of women reporting abusive language. According to the survey VAW is extremely prevalent in poor households and women in households with income of Rs. 20,000 or above have more opportunity for education and employment. However this may not hold true for totally urban settings (Lahore Karachi). Husbands are the highest perpetrators of violence; in Baluchistan 81% and in other provinces more than 40% husbands are perpetrators. With the exception of KPK; in all instances customs and family feuds are cited as the key reasons for violence. In KPK poverty is identified as the main reason for prevalence of violence. 3.4.2

Understanding of women’s rights:

The perception of beliefs, values and the consequent attitudes and practices related to VAW are entrenched in the understanding of women’s rights. In Punjab more than 60% women and less than 30% men are aware of their right to education, mobility, health care and decision making. In Baluchistan and KPK less than 5% men acknowledge women’s right to mobility and decision making but the proportion of men who recognize women’s right to education and health care is much higher. In all instances decision making remains with men.

6

Oxfam baseline assessment on Violence Against Women 2006

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3.4.3

Avenues for help to women victims of violence:

As per social customs domestic violence is considered as a personal matter within the domain of the house. Very few women ever seek legal redressal; according to the baseline assessment less than 1% was able to seek redressal. Thus, barring rare exceptions, domestic violence cases were virtually never investigated or prosecuted. The overwhelming majority of victims of violence sought help from family members (83%). The four districts chosen for this assessment are also representative of the provincial picture of VAW given above. These districts are primarily rural wherein joint family system, traditions and cultural norms are predominantly used to control women. The common discourse is patriarchal, aiming to use women as a symbol of honor and commodity.

References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12. 13.

Action Aid International Review of the Elimu Campaign May 2002. Alcohol misuse 2006 campaign evaluation Scottish Executive Social Research 2007; www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch. Bamberger, M. 2004 Shoestring Evaluation: Designing Impact Evaluations under Budget, Time and Data Constraints, American Journal of Evaluation, Vol. 25, No. 1, 5-37 (2004) Blundell, R. & Costa Dias M. 2000 Evaluation methods for non-experimental Data: Fiscal Studies (2000) vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 427–468 Council of Europe report of ‘Task Force to Combat VAW including Domestic Violence’; Gender Equality and Anti Trafficking Division Directorate of Human Rights and Legal Affairs Strasbourg 2008. Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1997; a plan of Action for combating VAW final report of activities. Coffman, J. 2002 ‘Public campaign communication evaluation—an environmental scan of challenges, criticisms, Practices and Opportunities’. Harvard Family Research Project ,May 2002 Fisher H. Building Promising Practices: campaigning, awareness-raising and capacity building to combat VAW-a human rights approach, expert paper prepared for the expert group meeting on ‘VAW: Good Practices in combating and eliminating VAW’ organized by UN Division for advancement of women in collaboration with the UN office on drugs and crime (Vienna, Austria 17-20 May 2005) Gupta N, C. Katende, R. Bessinger; ‘An Evaluation of Post-campaign Knowledge and Practices of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda’ Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2004 December; 22 (4) p.p. 429-439. Henderson, S. 2002 Evaluation of the Zero Tolerance Respect pilot project, Reid-Howie Associates; 2002 Kinghorn, F. 2006, A Review of Campaign Evaluation and Its Role in Communication For Development 2006 Kumar Y. Monitoring and Evaluation of advocacy campaigns opportunities and challenges. Paper presented on workshop New Delhi Mc.Guire WJ Theoretical Foundations of Campaigns. In: Rice RE Atkins CK eds. Public Communication Campaigns 2 ED. Newbury Park Sage Publication 1989. Patton, M. (1997). Utilization-Focused Evaluation. 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Reisman, J. A. Gienapp & S. Stachowiak, 2007 A guide to measuring advocacy and policy Rogers E.M. Diffusion of Innovations New York Free Press 1995 Soul city 4, Evaluation Methodology, Volume 1;2001 Stiles M. J. Evaluation of the Government of Pakistan- UNICEF Advocacy and Social Mobilization Strategy January 1999- June 2001. UNICEF 2002 Tangcharoensathien V. et. El. Independent Evaluation of Major Barriers to Interrupting Poliovirus Transmission in Pakistan Final Report October 2009 Wallace T. & H. Banos, A synthesis of the learning from the stop violence against women campaign 2004-10. Amnesty International publication 2010. nd

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

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4 Methodology: 4.1

Case study:

This research is presented in the form of a case study which is defined as ‘an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon, within its real life context; when the boundaries between the context and phenomenon are not clearly evident, and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. (Yin 1984 pp. 23, Yin 2005). Case study method continues to ask questions of how why and what which according to Yin are beyond the control of the investigator. The key questions of this research are  What is the deepening of change in the context of CM?  To what extent is the deepening of change happening?  What factors have contributed to the deepening of change?  Is there a collective attitudinal shift in a given community?  What factors have contributed to this collective attitudinal shift?  What is the net result of this attitudinal shift? Keeping in view these questions the case study method allows the investigators to ensconce individual reality in the context and cultural reality and provides space not to dissociate these key factors. Sufficiently large case studies are generalizable to theoretical propositions and not to populations. In this sense, the case study, does not necessarily represent a sample; the investigator’s goal is to expand and generalize theories (analytical generalizations) and not to enumerate frequencies (statistical generalizations) (Yin 1985, Yin 2005). Hence these questions will be answered in the context of Pakistan and not limited to the four districts or locations. This type of case study is often referred to in literature as embedded case study; a study in which there is more than one unit of analysis. Different social science researches have used such methods and Haque explains it as a situation where multiple levels of analysis are used and the basic case or analytical unit is broken up into multiple sub units of analysis. Case study relies on most of the same techniques as life histories while adding two important tools; observation and interviews . Whereas case studies are often used as tools of data collection presentation of research as case study is a recent discipline in social science research in Pakistan. 7

4.2

Measuring change and the challenges of attribution:

There are 2.5 million change makers who have joined the WECAN campaign. It is running in 6 countries, covering tens of states and hundreds of districts. In Pakistan the campaign has covered 41 districts and more than 350,000 change makers have been enrolled in this process. Any attempt to draw generalizations about the effect of a campaign which is so wide spread and diverse is highly challenging both methodologically and in terms of resources. What the assessment seeks to understand is people’s journey of change and the role played by the campaign in facilitating this journey. Hence, the focus was to capture data on how people have experienced the campaign (N=100) from a small number of change makers (relative to the universe of change makers) using qualitative methods. However, significant care was taken to ensure that the sample is representative and randomly drawn from the existing pool of change makers, so that the results are not derived from a sample that is biased or purposive. In recent times, evaluation researchers have begun questioning the validity of establishing linear relationships between cause and effect within social change processes (see Sarah Earl, Fred Carden and Terry Smutylo, Outcome mapping, IDRC, 2001). People’s increasing access to information and technology means that social interventions can seldom hope to start on a ‘blank slate’ and ‘subtexts’ of individuals vary. Michael Foucault has argued that every person is a text in society, and that each text comprises various sub texts based on the person’s experiences in life. Social change interventions take place in an existing social and political context. Similarly, people’s own life experiences and ‘subtexts’ are yet another context in which social change interventions are received. Against this backdrop it is important to recognize that in some countries of South Asia where WECAN is operating, notably India and Bangladesh, there has been significant social mobilization on several issues since the 70’s. Apart from people’s movements, the women’s movement in all the five south Asian countries being covered by the assessment, has played a significant role in mobilizing women and shaping public policy and opinion on issues affecting women, including violence against women. In Pakistan, women’s movement in the last two decades 7

For details see tools of data collection.

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has led to the advent of women protection bill 2009, domestic violence bill and Sexual Harassment Bill 2010. Furthermore the mainstream electronic media has alternative discourse channels sensitizing public to issues of violence against women. Hence, the campaign is being implemented in a context where the strategy and approach of WECAN is novel but the issue of VAW itself has been within the arena of policy change and public debate, for several years. At the same time, in many places, WECAN has been ‘layered’ into existing projects and programs, though not necessarily on violence against women. Against such a background, a campaign based intervention such as WECAN should be viewed as a contributor, a catalyst for change. 4.3

The assessment methodology

The key questions about WE CAN Campaign phase II that the assessment seeks to answer are best explored using qualitative methods that are participatory and elicit reflection and analysis by respondents. For this purpose narrative inquiry technique was applied. Narrative inquiry emerged as a discipline within the broader field of qualitative research in order to understand the way people make meaning of their lives. The focus being not on what happened but what meaning people derived from it. According to D. Clandinin and F. Connelly, Narrative Inquiry is an understanding of “narrative as both phenomena under study and method of study . 8

This research spanned over a year and extensive human and financial resources were spent to ensure capturing information through narrative inquiry techniques within the realm of systems thinking approach. Regional meetings were held at regular intervals to coordinate efforts and learn from the experiences in each country. 4.3.1

Tool development:

According to the recent social science approaches narrative inquiry techniques are preferably a combination of qualitative and quantitative tools. Massive time and resource were spent to develop these tools at a regional level. The tools were then pretested in the context of Pakistan; they were then translated into Urdu and pretested again to remove discrepancy and loss of information during translation. 4.3.2

Research team; composition and training:

Research team in Pakistan comprised a team leader and research supervisor at national level and research teams were identified in each province with the support of the district and provincial alliance partners. The province specific teams were familiar with the context and language; many of them were Change Makers themselves . The team leader was responsible for coordinating with the Asia regional team leader to ensure that the research was in line with the regional initiative. 9

Table 4.1 District research teams # District Female Male 1. Muzafargarh 4 2 2.

Mardan

2

4

3.

Quetta

2

4

4.

Jamshoro

3

3

Time was also spent to identify the research teams in each province. Each provincial team comprised 6 researchers working in 3 pairs. The provincial team in Punjab had 4 women and 2 men whereas in Baluchistan and KPK there were 4 men and 2 women. In Sindh there were 3 men and 3 women on the research team. The male female distribution of teams was based on the proportion of CM in the district. Nearly 50% of the research team was change makers themselves whereas the others were researchers. A training module was designed for the research teams and a national level training was held in Islamabad for 5 days. The district alliance partners were also included in this training as they were responsible for logistics and coordination for research in their districts. The training focused on research tools and the team was paired during the training. Each pair then had a chance to practice the tools with CMs invited from neighboring districts. A refresher training of the research team was also held after the first round of data collection was completed . This allowed the team to learn from their mistakes and hone their research skills. They were also introduced to the tools for the second round of data collection. 10

Whereas the team leader was a female the field supervisor was a male to ensure gender balance at all levels. The team leader and field supervisor provided regular feedback and mentoring to the research teams particularly 8

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narrative_inquiry See annex 2 for terms of reference of team leader and research team. 10 For details see the process of data collection 9

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during the first round of data collection. Evening feedback sessions, practice sessions and discussions were held every evening during data collection. Support was also provided through email and telephonically.

4.3.3

Process of data collection:

Data collection was designed in two rounds. During the first round the research team held interviews with the CMs . These interviews were designed through narrative inquiry techniques utilizing both qualitative and quantitative tools. Each interview spanned over 8 hours. The minimum amount of time on an interview was 6 hours and maximum was 16 hours. The time for each interview was fixed earlier with the support of district alliance partner. The interview pair (one interviewer and one recorder) interviewed one CM at a time, hence 3 interviews were held simultaneously in a district. These interviews were held at the district alliance partner’s office which provided logistical support as well. Evening meetings and mentoring/feedback sessions were also held in the office. Teams worked diligently under extremely harsh conditions (excruciating heat and lack of electricity). The first round of data collection started in April and concluded in May 2010. Research was carried out in two districts simultaneously which allowed effective supervision and mentoring. 11

After round one of the data collection was completed a regional meeting was held in Bangladesh in May 2010 to discuss the process and the challenges faced. The tools for round 2 of research were also discussed and samples were clarified during this meeting. In first week of June refresher training was held for the research team. During this training the lessons learnt during the first round were discussed, the sample for round 2 of data collection was shared and the tools were shared. The team was able to familiarize themselves with the tools during this two day training. Round two of data collection was conducted during June and July and research was carried out in two districts simultaneously. Round two focused on Circles of Influence (COI) of the change makers and sample was drawn from the list of COI provided by each CM. These interviews spanned over 2-3 hours and were held at the community; residence/workplace of respondent. A regional meeting was held in August at Dhaka to discuss the preliminary findings and plan the analysis of the research. The preliminary findings were also shared with campaign secretariats/leads of each country and their feedback sought. The final regional meeting to discuss the analysis framework and structuring of findings was held in October also in Dhaka.

4.3.4

The research teams independently took the initiative to ask respondents for feedback at the conclusion of their interview in round 1. This allowed them to improve their own research skills as well as to understand the perceptions of CMs. The CMs were extremely pleased with the research as well as the process of feedback. They felt this was the first time that they had been given a chance to share their experiences, struggles and achievements. In this sense the assessment itself became a tool for reengagement.

Site selection:

The campaign was not being implemented in the same way in every country in the region. In some countries such as Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the campaign had been layered on to existing community level programs. Therefore, the implementing partners were in touch with the change makers on a fairly regular basis and were able to continuously reinforce campaign messages. In most areas, these change makers were members of an existing group/ collective. However, in Pakistan, the campaign was being implemented on a very large scale in areas where the implementing partners, most often did not have any other project. Therefore, regular interaction with the change makers was not feasible and tended to be sporadic. The site selection aimed at reflecting this variance, so that the outcomes of the campaign could be measured across increased and limited degrees of direct contact with the change makers. At the same time, the context in which the campaign had been rolled out- especially in terms of pre-existing programs, interventions and associations/collectives the change makers may have been part of, was taken into account during the selection of respondents as well as at the stage of analysis.

11

For details see the tools for data collection

32


Hence an attempt was made to draw the sample of 100 change makers from four provinces in Pakistan and one district was selected from each province after consultation with the provincial alliance partners. Sites matching the following criteria were selected for drawing the sample for the assessment: Sites which broadly represented a geographical zone A mix of sites where the campaign was old and new A mix of sites where the campaign was strong and weak

  

Therefore the following sites were selected: Table 4.2: List of sites selected for assessment: # 1. 2. 3. 4.

4.4

Province Punjab Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Baluchistan Sindh

District Muzafargarh Mardan Quetta Jamshoro

Time of campaign Old Old New New

Strength Strong Weak Weak Strong

National Campaign:

The WECAN campaign was designed in a manner that managing the implementation of the Campaign at the District and provincial level was through NGO/CBOs based within the said Districts and provinces. These civil society organizations or district allies raised awareness and recruited volunteer change makers. In Nov. 2007 the Campaign progressed into the second phase where networks and coordination mechanisms for the respective district were established towards building a national Alliance. Managing such diverse alliance partners and implementation was a challenge. The geographical focus for the initial phases of the Campaign was extensive, primarily in those regions of Pakistan which are back ward; least developed and have the highest reported incidence of extreme forms of violence against women. Hence the issues of VAW in Pakistani society are entrenched in these districts and human rights activists have been persistently fighting them. Efforts to stop VAW in these regions can be very sensitive and dangerous. There are very few support structures available and, at times, the government in these areas is very biased for the status quo and supports vested interests. In these backward areas VAW like child marriages, ‘watta satta’, forced marriages, marrying young girls to much older men, marrying girls to a rival family to settle family disputes, vani, sawara are considered customary. Domestic violence has been also reported and examples were given of wives and young girls committing suicide to avoid this torture. The writ of the state is weak or manipulated by local influential to keep their hold on the community. The local communities trust their local feudal, tribal leader or jirga more than the state apparatus/law enforcement system. They use the non-state apparatus to settle their disputes which are often times settled by exchanging women/girls. The state has initiated various pro women legislation and polices after years of Campaigning by civil society organizations. However, these initiatives are still not effective enough to provide the support and protection women need as survivors or as equal citizens of the state. Discriminatory legislations like the Hadood ordinances are still applicable, there have been amendments to make them less dangerous towards women however there is no evidence to show that these amendments are having the desired result. Similarly the Women’s Protection Bill has also not been passed by the federal legislatures. At the District level, women crisis centers are mostly not operational; they have been made subservient to District Local Body budgets and management which still requires a lot of strengthening to be effective. Government sponsored Women Shelters or Dar-ul-Amans are still considered as jails for women. There are only a handful of privately managed women shelters in major urban centers. However, they are very far from the areas where extreme forms of VAW are committed. There are a number of national, provincial level and local civil society organizations (NGOs/CBOs) across the country that have on their agenda the issue of VAW and are working at various levels of intensity on these issues. There are a number of groups and institutions being targeted by these civil society organizations including but not limited to sensitizing the media, policy makers, judicial community, political party workers, local body members, civil service training academies, the larger communities. At another level pressure and lobbying is being done to

33


revoke and revise discriminatory legislation and introduce progressive laws and procedures. There are larger NGOs that provide the support and cover to the smaller NGOs working in the Campaign’s target areas. At the same time the smaller NGOs are part of the larger NGO initiated networks and support them at the provincial and federal levels. Examples include:   

DCHD is working with local NGOs in Sindh and Southern Punjab against child marriages, SPARC has a network of NGOs who are working on child rights, HRCP has a local membership base of activists who are vigilant about human rights violations which include VAW and mobilize country wide support to stop it.

Other national based NGOs like; SAP Pk, SPO, Shirkat Gah and Aurat Foundation also have support networks and are linked to some of the same NGOs/CBOs that are working with the We Can Campaign. This is useful reinforcement of resources. As no one organization can take on this huge and challenging task on its own . 12

4.4.1

WE CAN Campaign roll out in Pakistan:

The Pakistan campaign initially focused on engaging directly with over 65 District based NGOs or Campaign allies, who are doing awareness raising and undertaking the process of recruiting voluntary change makers. These are mostly rural based, small and medium in sized NGOs working in the least developed regions of Pakistan which are known for honor killings and other issues related to violence against women. The activists working as allies became the first change makers because they were already engaged with the issue and had a certain degree of clarity about the change maker concept. These partners subsequently and successfully motivated the second tier of change makers within their families, or in their area of work either by engaging with other NGOs/CBOs or other community activists. Furthermore these CMs also motivated and recruited change makers from the local professional and youth groups including journalists, lawyers, teachers, students and LHWs. During the first phase of the campaign the activities undertaken by these partners have been similar, yet tailored to their own context. Some of the key activities included corner/Group meetings/dialogues, seminars, school events like debates, Community Theater, large seminars or melas, boys’ sports events etc. These have resulted in motivating a number of men and women to take on the role of change makers. A large amount of resource material developed regionally was also contextualized and circulated in all districts . Initially the campaign was rolled out in 20 districts, followed by another 21 districts. Mardan and Muzafargarh were included in the first phase of the campaign roll out. Jamshoro and Quetta were in round II of the campaign roll out. 13

The second phase of the campaign focused on alliance building and consolidating the existing resources available for ending VAW. The individuals who had signed up as CMs in phase I were re-engaged/ involved through activities of the campaign. These activities focused on intensifying the changes, highlighting new forms of VAW and focusing on the CM carrying the message within community to recruit others. Besides workshops and seminars the key activities during this phase included mobile vans, theatre, newsletters and CM courts/kacheris. Newsletters and study circles; an innovative method: Another innovative technique called study circles was also used during this phase. From among the CMs re-engaged through Phase II activities some were identified as ‘connectors’ these connectors were trained intensively on gender and VAW. They were then asked to carry out study circles with community members. In Pakistan the newsletter was distributed through these connectors and study circles. Hence people had a chance to really see and comprehend the issues highlighted in the newsletters. This also ensured outreach and reading of the newsletters. The CMs were also exposed to other areas where they could see good practices for eliminating VAW. The exposure visits were not limited to interprovincial exchange but also to other countries in the region where the campaign was being implemented. OGB Pakistan also enhanced the capacity of some of the active CMs by sending them to trainings in Pakistan and in the region. Furthermore the provincial and national CM assemblies held annually also contributed to the reinforcement of the messages and commitment to eliminate VAW. All four districts included in the sample have actively participated in these activities.

12 13

Drawn from WE CAN Midterm review March 15 2008 leaflets, posters, T-shirts, caps, key chains, badges, calendars, stickers, banners, bags

34


The campaign materials have been found to be a huge success, well received and heavily used. They have enabled difficult messages to be widely accessible without being overwhelming - in spite of the complexity and sensitivity of the issues involved.

4.5

Sample size:

The total number of change makers per country is very large (between 65,000 to 25, 00000). The assessment included a maximum sample size of 400 respondents per country, to allow for a 5% margin of error at a confidence level of 95%. The WECAN secretariat in each country maintains a data base of change makers. The sample of change makers to gather narratives was chosen randomly using the database from selected sites. The list of CM from which the sample was to be drawn from was based on the criteria that these CMs were ‘reengaged’ through any one activity of the Phase II of campaign. The cleaning of data for this purpose was a challenging task as many CMs had been part of large events (seminars/mobile van activities/street theatre) but there was no record of this. Hence a minimum number of 500 CMs were identified in each district where more than 2000 CMs had been engaged in the WE CAN Campaign. These CMs had been part of the Phase II activities. These lists had to be prepared manually which was a time consuming task. From within the sampling frame of 500 CMs in each district a stratified random sample was drawn. The strata were defined on the basis of sex and the proportion of each stratum was calculated within the sampling frame of each district. It was found that in Muzafargarh and Jamshoro (Punjab and Sindh) the proportion of women CM was much higher than men whereas it was the opposite in Mardan and Quetta (KPK and Baluchistan). An accidental sample for age, sex and educational background was drawn which was taken into account during analysis. 4.5.1

Change Makers:

100 change makers to be covered using the narrative inquiry technique. The CMs data was over sampled to ensure minimal bias and maximum representation of the CMs.  Stratified random sample on the basis of sex.  Education, location, profession are randomly distributed.  A total sample of 30 CMs reengaged during Phase II of campaign was chosen from each district.  Whereas 27 respondents were selected through stratified random sample 3 were selected through purposive sampling. Each district alliance partner was asked to do purposive sample of 3 active CMs. This allowed the district alliance to represent their success stories.  3 non reengaged CM in each district (except Quetta) were randomly interviewed. Quetta was a new district and all the CMs were new hence reengagement as a criterion was not applicable to this district . 14

.Sample comprises:  25 females and 5 males in Muzafargarh and Jamshoro as proportion of female CMs was very high  25 males and 5 females in Mardan and Quetta as proportion of male CMs was very high

4.5.2

Circles of Influence:

In order to measure changes within the change maker’s circle of influence each CM was asked to identify up to 10 people whom they felt they had influenced as CM. The key systems that had been identified by CMs included family, neighborhood, extended family/relatives, peer group.

14

In Baluchistan no other district could be chosen due to security constraints.

35


Table 4.3: Circle of Influence listed by change makers: r/ship of COI with CM

Female

Males

Total

Family

13.9 %

10.5%

12.1%

Friend

28.7%

49.3%

40.5%

Neighbors

18.2%

10.9%

13.8%

Extended family

33%

22.7%

27.2%

Colleague

0.6%

0.7%

0.7%

Others (acquaintance)

5.7%

6%

5.9%

Using proportionate random sampling techniques a sample was drawn from within each stratum of COI. The proportion of sample was based on the total proportion of each stratum; hence 40% of the sample of COI is drawn from friends. Sex, age and occupation were accidentally distributed in the sample and were taken into account during analysis. Table 4.4 Sample of respondents The total sample of COI was designed to be 300 Sampling frame Number of sample to be wherein 250 were to be captured through interviews covered under each and 50 through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). technique) However the FGDs could not be held in Pakistan due to Change makers 117 the flood which caused extreme devastation in all Circles of Influence 260 provinces. Therefore the sample of COI in Pakistan was Total 377 260 as 65 people had been interviewed with the assumption that in a way that approximately half (N=130) of the respondents would be drawn from the sample of people over whom the change maker has exercised a high degree of influence and half would be drawn from a sample of those who fall within the group that the change maker thinks has been relatively less influenced. In this process, special attention was given to including women who have been offered support and/or assistance by the change makers in addressing domestic violence in their relationships. This was done to tap into whether and how survivors of domestic violence are experiencing changes within the community’s tolerance to domestic violence. 4.6

Tools of data collection:

The assessment essentially followed narrative inquiry techniques and the tools are primarily qualitative and some quantification particularly for measuring attitudes was also necessary. Hence the tools for this research are a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures. 4.6.1

Narrative inquiry techniques:

Narrative interview: A narrative interview is organized to facilitate narrative analysis and is mainly featured around the research question and the theory of narrative being used. A narrative interview allows respondents to narrate their experiences; they select and order events in a manner that reflects their own understanding and communicates this meaning to the interviewer rather than tailor it according to preordained structure. The decision about relevancy of information is made by the respondent in collaboration with the researcher during the course of the interview, however no information is considered irrelevant prior to the interview. (Sage encyclopedia 2008). The research team (interviewer and reporter) interviewed one CM at a time using these narrative inquiry techniques comprising exercises, social influence mapping, structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews . 15

15

See Annex 4 for dos and don’ts of research and notes for recorders

36


Objectives of these tools:  To explore if and what has been the process of change among change makers, from the time they became change makers to the present.  To explore the impact of this change on other actors and systems within the change makers sphere of influence.  To understand the perceptions of change makers and people from systems within their circle of influence, on VAW.  To explore how actors within the systems in the circle of influence have been impacted by the campaign. 4.6.1a

In-depth interview:

In order to explore change makers’ experiences and journeys of change in-depth interviews guidelines were designed. Indepth interview aimed at measuring the ‘deepening of change’. Using a quasi life history approach it explored several domains of CMs experiences as change-makers and the ways in which the campaign and the issue have impacted them. Some illustrative domains included the following:      

4.6.1b

motivation for having become a change maker value derived by becoming a change maker views and perceptions about WECAN Journeys of personal change, both in terms of thinking and actions Challenges and hurdles in making this journey How these have been dealt

The objectives served by in-depth interview and structured interview schedule were:  To measure the extent of

personal change among change makers engaged through the WECAN campaign 

To assess how and in what way has the process of personal change deepened due to reengagement of change makers with the campaign and the issue of VAW

Structured interview:

The structured interview schedule was primarily a closed ended questionnaire to measure attitudes towards VAW. These schedules were administered to both the CM and the COI which allowed comparison of attitudes as well.

4.6.1c

Social influence mapping tool:

Building networks or reference groups and collective attitudinal shift within this reference group (the change maker’s circle of influence) is viewed as the campaign as an important intermediate step in building wider community intolerance for violence against women. Measuring this collective attitudinal shift involved establishing who/what constitutes the change makers circle of influence. Using a participatory tool on mapping social networks, change makers were asked to plot those they think they have influenced to varying degrees, on the issue of VAW. The circle of influence so identified represented people influenced to varying degrees, from those who have been influenced most at the core and moving out to those at the periphery. The broad domains covered through the social influence mapping tool included the following:   

4.6.1d

Engagement with the community on this issue Understanding one’s circle of influence Personal values about beliefs about gender norms

Structured interview schedule for Circle of Influence:

A representative sample of actors identified within varying degrees of the change maker’s circle of influence was then interviewed. The broad domains of inquiry included:   

How they have experienced the campaign Interactions with the change maker Awareness about various dimensions of VAW

37


   

Perceptions and beliefs on gender norms Their engagement with the issue of VAW Factors that have influenced them to change Changes that has happened because of campaign

Table 4.5: tools used for research # 1. 2. 3. 4. 4.6.1e

Tool In depth interview Structured interview Structured interview to measure attitudes Social influence mapping

Respondent CM COI CM & COI CM

Process documentation to capture the context of WECAN Phase II:

The outcomes being measured by the assessment have to be understood in the context of campaign inputs. Thus a process documentation of key campaign activities was also undertaken. In Pakistan at the advent of this research a major portion of the Phase II activities had already concluded. Hence process documentation was only done for certain activities which were being carried out and culminated in the national CM assembly in Karachi. For other activities retrospective documentation was done by carrying out group discussions with CMs, provincial and district alliance partners as well as desk review of reports. 4.7

Data quality management:  

Ensuring quality of data collection was done through constant monitoring of research teams. The field supervisor and team leader provided constant support and mentoring to the field teams. Random checks of forms, corroborating information through spot checks and independent discussions with the respondents were also means of ensuring quality of data collection.

4.8 Data analysis management: The challenging part was to clean the data and ascertain that the data is cleaned and maintained in a manner that is easily accessible to not only the researcher but also to Oxfam WE CAN secretariat.  

4.9

For this purpose the quantitative data was entered in SPSS. The data was cleaned and checked for discrepancies. Excel sheet formats were developed for qualitative information which incorporated information from both the CM and COI data. This enabled the research team to carry out in-depth analysis of the situation of one CM and his/her life. (Horizontal view). At the same time it allowed us to study the vertical patterns for theoretical exposition and look for archetypical examples of deepening of change and collective attitudinal shift. Constraints/challenges:

Like any social science research of such vast nature and diversity this research had certain expected and unexpected challenges and constraints which had to be dealt with during the course of this research. 

 

Recruiting the research team posed a big challenge as the desire was to find people from within the cultural context with experience of research, VAW and good interview skills. The criteria were then kept flexible and the training of research team was designed to include gender sensitization along with research and interview techniques. Compilation of accurate lists of old CMs was a challenge; getting updated contact information of many CMs was also difficult. The tools once designed and pretested had to be translated in Urdu for them to be used by the team. The translation of tools to ensure that essence of content is not lost posed a challenge and repetitive meetings had to be held with the translator. The translated tools were also pretested before finalization. For the CMs sparing one complete day from their work and home without any compensation was also difficult. For many maintaining concentration and severing contact (switching of mobiles) for such lengthy interviews was also a challenge. In the field the research team was always assumed to be representatives of OGB and drawing a distinction between the independent research team and OGB staff was difficult.

38


  

4.10   

 

Maintaining emotional detachment during such heart rending stories was also difficult. Recording names of COI in some areas was difficult due to security constraints. Political instability, security and natural calamities were constraints beyond the research and posed challenged during the work. Limitations: This study has only been carried out in four districts i.e. one district in each province which may not be completely representative of the CMs or the campaign. To some extent the re-engagement process of Phase II overlapped with the Phase I of campaign. The delineation between old and new CMs was difficult in many instances. The lists of CMs engaged in phase II were created retrospectively which in itself was a limitation as these CMs were the ones likely to be recalled by the alliance partners. Though an attempt was made to minimize this bias and each district provided names of minimum 500 CMs. Even though an attempt was made to make the sample representative of CMs, it is possible that certain strains and elements were missed out. The sample districts were primarily rural and highlight issues, mechanisms for negotiation and power dynamics in a particular cultural milieu. They do not represent the issues and coping mechanisms or networks in urban societies.

References:         

Barnard, R. Research Methods in Anthropology: qualitative and quantitative approaches ALTAMIRA press Sage Publication New Delhi 1994 Connelley, F.M. and Clandinin D. J. 1990 ‘stories of experience and narrative inquiry’ In Educational Researcher Vol 19. No 5 p.p. 2-14 Dixon, B.R. Bouna, G.D. & Atkinson, GBJ 1988 A Handbook of Social Science Research Oxford University Press Hervik P 1994 ‘Shared Reasoning in the Field of Reflexivity; Beyond the Author in Social Experience and Anthropological Knowledge’ Hastrup K & Hervik P eds. Routledge Press London Given, Lisa M (Ed); Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods Volume 1 & 2, Sage reference publication 2008 Manheim H.l. Sociological research: philosophy and methods Dorsey press Pelto PJ & Pelto G.H. 1978 Anthropological Research: the Structure of Inquiry Cambridge University press Robert K. Yin. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Fourth Edition. SAGE Publications. California, 2009 Zajano NC & Edelesberg C.M. 1993 ‘living and writing the researcher-researched relationships in Qualitative Studies in Education Vol 6 no 2 pp 143-157

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5 Findings 5.1

Introduction:

This research is being presented as an embedded case study which implies that it is an empirical inquiry investigating a contemporary phenomenon in its real context. ‘A how or why question is being asked about a contemporary set of events, over which the investigator has little or no control’. (Yin 1984, 2000). For the purpose of this assessment the key questions are   

Why have individual CMs changed? Has there been a deepening of change among existing change makers since they joined the campaign? What has been the deepening of change? How has the change come about, how has collective attitudinal shift taken place? / Has collective attitudinal shift taken place in the change maker’s circle of influence? That is has attitudinal and behavioral change, moved beyond the change maker to his/her reference groups as well?

Qualitative and quantitative information is combined to present the findings. The first section presents the profiles and context of CMs and COI so that the readers are able to embed themselves in the reality of these respondents. The second section of the chapter deals with the first question i.e. what has been the deepening of change. The third section of findings presents the second question i.e. whether and how has the collective attitudinal shift taken place. The ideas presented are supported by statistics as well as excerpts from narratives to illustrate points. The names of respondents have been changed to maintain confidentiality and the quotes are verbatim translation from Urdu. However the information is drawn from all four sites of research and variations or differences are highlighted where applicable. Furthermore composite case studies to highlight a particular point or situation are inserted where necessary. 16

5.2

Socio economic background of the Respondents:

The sample of CMs according to the age is given below. The statistics show that less than 5% of the total sample was below the age of 15 and the largest cohort was in the age bracket of 20-29 whereas the age group of 20-29 and 30-39 are 17% of the total population . In Mardan however the maximum respondents are from age group of 30-39. 17

Table 5.1: Age of sample change makers and Circle of Influence Age bracket

CM

COI

below 15

4.3

1.6

16-19

9.4

14.6

20-29

40.2

32.3

30-39

17.1

27.6

40-49

17.9

16.1

50-59

6.0

5.9

60 above

5.1

2.0

A similar pattern is visible in Mardan for the COI respondents; the maximum number of respondents is in the age bracket 30-39 and 40-49 respectively. Overall the largest percentage remains within age bracket of 20-29 and the below 15 and above 60 category is minimal. It is also interesting that in Jamshoro the percentage of COI respondents (like CM) in age brackets 16-19 and 20-29 are considerably higher as compared to other sites. However, the maximum percentage of COI in Quetta and Muzafargarh remain in the age bracket of 20-29. From among the total population 49.6% are women. The maximum number of women (44.8%) is present in the age group of 20-29 which constitutes 22.2% of the total population. Furthermore unlike the men a substantial

16 17

As a tool of research In this chapter population implies sample of population drawn for this assessment.

40


number of women (12%) are present in the age bracket of 16-19. The visible reasons for this could be that age of marriage for girls is low and these women (16-19) are married women whose status changes and they are targeted through vocational training institutions, the other category of girls is targeted in schools. Similarly men have been targeted at their workplace and from among the male CMs the sample of men in 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 age bracket is substantially high i.e. 35.6%, 25,4% and 17% respectively.

Table 5.2: Sex of the Change Maker and Circle of Influence according to age: Age of the change maker Sex

%age

>15

16-19

20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60 >

Women CM Women COI

% within women change makers % within female COI

7%

12%

45%

9%

19%

5%

3%

2%

22%

36%

19%

13%

6%

3%

Men CM

% within Men change maker

2%

7%

36%

25%

17%

7%

7%

Men COI

% within male COI

1%

7%

29%

36%

20%

6%

1%

The analysis of COI also reveals a similar pattern i.e. below 15 and above 60 years of age people are less than 5%. Furthermore the percentage of16-19 year old and 20-29 year old women are substantially high. On the other hand male COI are higher in the age bracket of 20-29 and 30-39. The maximum number of respondents both in COI and CM categories remain within the productive age (16-49).

Fig 5.1: Age group of Circle of Influence According to site

The data in the context of marital status of CMs indicates that a nominal percentage of women are divorced/widowed/separated whereas no men CMs are present in these categories. The maximum number of men are married (higher age brackets) and as the younger women are higher in number there is a substantial percentage of the women who have never been married.

41


Table 5.3: Marital status of Change Maker and Circle of Influence according to sex Marital status of change maker Sex of the change maker Women CM Women COI Men CM Men COI

%age

Never married

married

widow/ widower 3%

deserted

43%

divorcee/ separated 2%

% within women change maker % within women COI % within men change maker % within men COI

50% 53%

42%

2%

4%

0%

54%

46%

.0%

.0%

.0%

35%

63%

0%

2%

0%

2%

The percentage of married and single men and women is even higher in the COI as compared to the CM.

Fig 5.2: Marital status of COI according to sex

Sex of the COI

80

Female Male

Count

60

40

20

0 Never married married

divorcee/separated widow/wodower

Marital status of COI

The professions of CMs show that 23% of men and women are self-employed; data analysis shows that women are primarily home based workers and men are self-employed or own land. Furthermore the non-agriculture labor is higher than agriculture labor (primarily men). Similarly women are housewives and men are unemployed. Among the professionals more women respondents are teachers and health workers whereas more men are lawyers and NGO workers. In line with the age groups and marital status of women female student CMs are significantly large percentage of the population.

42


Table 5.4 Profession of Change Maker by sex Profession

Sex

Category %age

Women CM Women COI Men CM

% within women CM % within women COI % within men CM

Men COI

% within men COI

Selfemployed /own cultivation /home based worker 23%

Labor (agricultur e and nonagriculture )

Professionals (NGO, teachers, health workers, lawyers)

Employe d (govt. Private)

Student

House wife/ unemploy ed

11%

30%

4%

21%

12%

13%

17%

13%

6%

24%

28%

22%

14%

24%

19%

19%

3%

27%

11%

16%

30%

13%

2%

It is interesting that the maximum percentage of women is housewives whereas men are government or private employees. Self-employed men are considerably higher than women and women laborers are significantly more in number than men. In Quetta as has been mentioned earlier the phase 1 & 2 of the campaign has overlapped to a great extent. In order to enroll a substantial number of CMs and institutionalize the campaign as well as due to security reasons the campaign was carried out in institutions particularly schools and colleges. Therefore the number of students (particularly men) is significantly higher in Quetta as compared to other places.

Table 5.5 Average profile of a Change Maker: # 1. 2. 3. 4.

Sex Female Female Male Male

Marital status Married Unmarried Married Unmarried

Profession Home based worker Professional Professional/employed Student

Education Matriculation 10 years of education Bachelors 14 years of education Bachelors 14 years of education 12-14 years of education

Age 20-29 20-29 30-39 20-29

The profile of the COI is very similar to the profile of a CM. however there are some noteworthy differences. For instance whereas the maximum number of female CMs are clearly in the age bracket of 20-29 a significant number of female COI are in the 16-19 and 30-39 age brackets. Whereas the female CMs are concentrated in the professional category the female COI span over all professions. It is interesting to note that women are higher in number as teachers and home based workers. The narratives also show that women in the public sphere are easier to access. In a similar manner more male COI are married and employed (public private/self) as compared to the male CMs. However the number of students enrolled as CMs and COI and their profile is similar which indicates that students who have become CM are now influencing their friends to become CMs.

5.3

Deepening of change:

The data is indicative of the fact that during Phase II the CMs have become aware of the issue to varying degrees. As has been mentioned in the framework individuals have continued to reconnect with the issue of VAW to varying degrees. The level of engagement and the reasons depend largely on their context and background. The intertextuality of their life experiences cannot be denied and is in fact brought to light in this narration of findings.

43


5.3.1

What has motivated individuals to become Change Makers?

A substantially large number of CMs became aware of the issue of VAW through the WE CAN campaign. It is at that point that they sign up at CM. There are three main reasons for people to become CM. They have been victims of violence or witnessed VAW among their loved ones. (in most instances mother) They have committed violence in some form They have been unconventional, at odds with the mainstream society including their siblings and wanted to bring about a change.

  

Reviewing the narratives of CMs eludes to the fact that change makers from category 1 and 3 are those who have always felt an inherent discomfort about the issue but did not know what to do about it so the campaign allayed their discomfort, whereas category 2 are those who were indulging in discriminatory practices and were unaware- where the discomfort was created because of the campaign. 5.3.1a Victims of violence:

‘When I was in class 7 there was a boy in our school who used to have sexual relations with other boys I didn’t have the courage to tell anyone; he had threatened me. Teachers also did that. Once I went to my teacher to give a leave application. He told me to come in the evening. When I went to him in evening he said he wanted to have sexual relationship with me. I tried to run away’ ……. He broke down uncontrollably. Sher Khan 22 year old male Quetta th

As has been mentioned earlier contrary to the situation in other countries of the region Pakistan has a significantly high number of male CMs. The majority of CMs in Quetta and Mardan (Baluchistan and KPK) are men which not only served to highlight issues, perceptions and attitudes of men but also contributed to the success of the campaign. Male CMs in Mardan and Quetta have mentioned how they faced violence as children (child sexual abuse) and how their mothers faced VAW which they always resented. Mohamad Khan from Mardan was lucky he says ‘when I was studying in class 9 I encountered a problem. We were very poor and my family was not able to pay my tuition fee, I talked to my teacher that I wanted to study but I can’t give you fee. He told me to come every evening. My friend told me to be careful. First he made me monitor, then he invited me for late evening sittings at home and then he attempted to molest me ….. I ran away. I was lucky I wanted to complain to the principal but everyone told me not to. So I decided that I want to tell parents and request them that they should give confidence to their children so that if any bad thing happens children should share it with parents. Becoming a CM was also one part of this motivation.’ th

‘My friend Afia was 8 years old when she was given into marriage to a 30 year old man who’s son had been beaten by Afia’s uncle. There were reports of repeated molestation of Afia and she died 5 years later. I was not even allowed to go to her funeral. But I cried a lot’. Woman Jamshoro

On the other hand Ismail from Mardan was unaware of a lot of social issues before he joined WE CAN. He had always seen his father be violent with his mother. ‘I hated it (tears in his eyes) I didn’t know what to do. Now I feel that after becoming change maker I am better able to make my father understand that this is bad and he should not be violent.’ Ibrahim from Jamshoro says that his brothers were very harsh towards their wives, did not give them much freedom, and would occasionally beat them up. ‘I hated this and felt that they were being unfair in venting their anger on their wives.’ After becoming change maker he was able to make them understand why this was wrong and bring greater peace and harmony to his household. Ishaq from Muzafargarh says that sending girls to school was not very common in his family. ‘after I became CM I was able to understand that this was wrong I always tried to argue that my sister should be sent to school but my father said I was too young to understand the issue.’ Now with his persuasion his nieces are now being allowed to pursue secondary and higher education. Salma’s mother was married at the age of 12 and she was a victim of violence by husband and in laws. Salma is from Muzafargarh where child marriage is prevalent. She was married at the age of 12 and had no choice. ‘I initially had a very hard time with my in-laws, I tried my best to get them to like me but they were very harsh because my husband never beat me. I was often beaten by them when my husband was not home. Becoming a CM helped me in talking to my husband and in-laws. Now things are better, I will never get my daughters married at a young age’.

44


Many women and men have faced violence particularly on the issue of marriage by choice. For most young men age was a disadvantage due to which they had to compromise particularly on issue of marriage by choice. However young women were controlled not only because they were young but also because they were women. Different power dynamics have been at play for both. Common discrimination issues include child marriage, deprivation of education and discrimination in food. Asim says that his biggest challenge was to convince his family that he had a right to marry a girl of choice. ‘I got married to her ultimately but we could never live with my family. My wife is still taunted and abused by my mother and sisters.’ For Javaid watching VAW and not being able to do anything about it was the most painful thing. ‘My father married a second time without telling my mother. I was 12 and it was bad. My mother cried a lot’.

5.3.1b Those who committed some form of violence: The second kind of CMs includes those who have themselves been perpetrators of violence. Jamil feels he himself has become more sympathetic towards the rights of women. ‘I used to be quite averse to letting the women of my house (wife, sisters) out of the house. I never believed in giving them much freedom, but now I have changed my views.’ Women have also been equally responsible for committing VAW and have exerted power based on age, status and position. Sakina is 50 years old (from Muzafargarh) and she started crying when she talked about her own daughters. She says ‘I have been harsh with my daughters. Now when I see them struggling with children and housework I feel I have been unfair to have burdened them with such responsibility at a young age. I was married at 11 and I got my daughters married at 13 which I felt was the right age. It was only after I listened to the WECAN people that I began to understand that I have been unfair. I wish I could go back in time’.

‘My grandmother always preferred my brothers to us girls, my mother did it too. When I got married I did the same. I prayed for a boy. I had 3 daughters and I hated them. Every bite they took hurt me. When I had a son I wanted to do everything for him. Now I hate myself for this.’ Zohra Jamshoro

5.3.1c Unconventional; Maverick or black sheep: The third category of CMs that emerges from the data is those who have been unconventional and different from the rest of the society. They have been the rebels deviating from conventional norms and behaviors. In most instances these individuals have resented discrimination meted out by society and have had to pay a price for it. Naseer a 22 year old man from Quetta says ‘I wanted to serve people from my childhood, when I was in matriculation; I and my 3 friends started a group. We tried to help everyone who needed support and we resolved many problems of our community. Then my brother gave me a suggestion to perform a tableau as he is also a writer and we performed a tableau named "Aakhri takrao"(last clash). In this we told people how to eliminate evils of society. We recorded that drama then distributed its copies all over the community. I think it helped people a lot.’ Similarly Nisar from Mardan says ‘From my childhood I had a dream to teach and open my own institute which I will open soon. I have a good position and status in society, whenever we encounter a problem, our Nazim (mayor) and his son use to call me and we solve our issues with consent. In the beginning it was difficult people told me I was being silly. WE CAN messages made sense because they gave me arguments for what I always believed was wrong’. Women respondents have shared similar experiences. Rabia is a 22 year old unmarried girl from Mardan. ‘I used to run away from school. I never wanted to study. It was unthinkable for girls to do this. Once my brother found out and he beat me. I hated it I knew he frequently bunked school so what was the issue if I did so?’ Yasmeen on the other hand says ‘my uncle wanted me to get married to his son; he threatened to break all relations with our family. My family asked for my opinion, I refused and they respected my decision.’ For Madeeha the biggest incident in the

For Yosuf witnessing a ‘honor killing’ as a 14 year old child left a lasting impression and he still grieves. ‘my father told me to be a man. This is part of our society and culture but I kept thinking that all those two wanted was to get married. Isn’t that what Islam says so what was wrong?’

Karim saw his father being very strict and harsh particularly with women of the house. ‘I used to be very stern and stand-offish like my father and I believed that women are like slippers (apologetically). But that was before I got involved with WECAN. I am now more approachable and relaxed and I have come to recognize that a friendly approach brings the family closer.

45


village was when a young girl was given as peace building between families. The families had been feuding for generations. Now the Jirga decided to give this 11 year old girl as peace building (swara). She was really maltreated. She cried when she was married and her mother cried for years after that because no one from her natal family could go and see her. No one knew how she was doing. I had a big argument with my father on this. I couldn’t understand why the Jirga had done this. I was 15 or 16 and my father was part of the Jirga. I refused to eat or talk to him for a long time. I still remember that.’ What these narratives show us is that for those from category 1 and 3, strong motivational factors have compelled people to sign up as change makers. For them it appears that association with the campaign is about fulfilling a sense of purpose. In a sense the change had been initiated even before the campaign came on to the scene. It enabled them to find a way to deal with this change in a constructive way.

‘I was always the apple of my father’s eye. Being the youngest I could get away with anything. My father always told me I was different and he somehow indulged me in everything. My sisters were married after primary school, my brother never wanted to study. But when I refused a cousin’s proposal and told my father that I wanted to study he agreed. My mother didn’t like it she said you are

making her a boy.’ Mariam Muzafargarh

The initial takers of a campaigns and indeed any intervention programme are usually from this lot- those who have a sense of unhappiness about the current situation and want to move to a new desired situation. Therefore a process of selfselection is inherent in any volunteer based intervention such as WECAN. 5.3.2

Change Makers- where they stand regarding the issue of VAW

According to the quantitative data 80% CMs perceive VAW as a serious issue, 11% also think that it is complicated. Furthermore 48% of respondents feel that to torture wife/women unnecessarily is the most serious and biggest form of violence. This is followed by restriction of rights, slapping and abusing, and sexual relations without consent. According to the respondents equal rights and decision making is the main criterion for a family to be designated as a violence free family. The most common examples of a violence free family in their environment include neighbors, family and colleagues/others they have interacted with. Table 5.6: what constitutes a violence free family? What is a violence free family

Percent

Examples of a violence free family

Percent

Good relations with husband, in laws no fight / quarrel

12 20

Family Friend

24.8 7.7

Equal decision making and equal rights

29.8

Neighbor

35.0

Educating/fulfilling needs of both sons and daughters

6.1

Relative

6.0

understanding/trust/love

17

Colleagues/peer group/others

22.2

Give rights according to religion

3.4

Table 5.7: percentage response on issue of discrimination Resp onse

All the children are sent to school

Boys and girls get the same kind of food

Daughter is married off before the age of 18 yrs if the family finds a good match Change Makers

All family members can express their opinion freely

Yes

87

81

32

92

No

13

19

67 Circle of Influence

Yes

89

47

32

86

No

11

52

68

13

8

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Quantitative data is indicative of the fact that a fairly large number of CMs show positive attitudes towards discrimination against women. This is particularly true for issues related to girls’ education and type of food given to children. Even on issues of early marriage and freedom of expression both the CMs and COI show similar responses. Table 5.8: percentage attitude towards women’s rights Response

Husband and wife take all the major decisions together

Wife cannot go out of the village/community without asking her husband Change Makers

Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything

Yes

94

48

27

No

6

51

72

Circle of Influence Yes

90 10

No

47 52

16 84

Whereas for most aspects CMs clearly talk of women’s rights; most CMs still feel that women’s mobility is at the discretion of men. The CoI have also given a similar response. It is interesting to note that the arguments for taking major decisions include; joint decisions are good decisions, less chances of mistakes, family means both, Islam gives equal rights to both. On the other hand on the issue of mobility they argue that a woman should take permission, should inform husband, he is her guardian and religion prohibits women from going out unless husband gives permission. As compared to other aspects, on the issue of VAW the quantitative responses exhibit a lesser degree of acceptance of VAW. A significant percentage of CMs (30%) and COI (28%) feel that even if MIL abuses the DIL for not cooking properly it is a violence free home. Similarly on the issue of occasional violence by husband the difference of opinion between the CM and COI is minimal; 47% of CMs and 45% of COI feel that an occasional abuse is acceptable and it would be a violence free home. When we relate these with the narratives we find that while most CMs have moved towards individual actions and taken strong stands on various issues of VAW, it is possible that for many individuals the meta-discourse (larger cultural discourse) does not recognize this as an issue yet. Furthermore within their own sub texts and texts individuals are not only able to relate to these ‘acceptable’ power dynamics and/or are able to deal with them. This also shows that: a) While individuals may be taking actions to address VAW, they are also part of the broader cultural context where occasional abuse is not seen as violence against women. Therefore, individual change, while deeply significant is also deeply influenced by the context in which they live and survive. To move from a point where violence is occasionally acceptable to a situation where it is totally unacceptable requires change at an individual level and a change in the context.

Table 5.9: percentage responses on issue of VAW against women Response

Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly.

Husband abuses his wife occasionally

CM

COI

CM

COI

Yes

30

28

47

45

No

69

72

53

54

Intensive review of the qualitative data reveals the following categories of CMs: • • •

Change makers showing significant deepening of change Change makers showing some deepening of change but not to the extent to the group above Change makers who are where they were before or show very little movement.

After having studied the narratives in detail each CM has been placed in one of the three categories.

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Table 5.10 CMs In Each Category Of Deepening Of Change:

Jamshoro Mardan Muzafargarh Quetta Total

Category 1 Significant deepening of change 13 19 23 4 59

Category 2 Some deepening of change 11 11 7 11 40

Category 3 Awareness plus

Total Total in each site

6 12 18

30 30 30 27 117

The data brings to light the significance of time and intensity of campaign. As has been mentioned earlier Quetta was a more recent induction into the campaign, furthermore political and security issues have been hampering campaign implementation. Hence in Quetta there is a visible range of categories and a significant proportion is in the awareness plus category. Another element in Quetta has been the various district alliance partners engaged in the process at different times. Muzafargarh and Mardan on the other hand have been some of the oldest districts with one alliance partner and both show significant changes among CMs. It is interesting to note at this point that the CMs in Muzafargarh were primarily women while in Mardan they were primarily men. In Mardan the access to women is limited and discussion on women’s rights is extremely difficult. On the other hand even though Muzafargarh has extremely high prevalence of VAW the women are easier to access. Women’s rights are now being talked about in Muzafargarh and various CSOs are working for women’s rights; hence the acceptance of this topic is much higher. This brings forth the fact that the gender dimension in acceptance of women’s rights within the cultural milieu also plays a strong role in acceptance of the campaign. Jamshoro shows a spread over all three categories but it is interesting because it is a new district with the sample constituting primarily women. The campaign has been intense in Jamshoro and the spillover effect of the campaign activities in Hyderabad (the neighboring district) cannot be undermined. The data shows the presence of more change makers in the category of significant deepening of change among older districts- Mardan and Muzafagarh. Whereas in the newer districts there are more change makers in the category of somewhat deepening of change and those showing greater awareness. Thus the duration of the campaign seems to have impacted the process of deepening of change.

5.3.2a

change makers showing significant deepening of change:

The CMs included in this category are those who have not only brought about a change in themselves vis. a vis. VAW but have had to struggle hard for the change to be acceptable. Though the changes may seem small and insignificant to outsiders these small steps have been taken after arduous struggle. Such CMs have not only taken a hard stand to get their own rights but have also supported others to fight VAW. Change makers showing significant deepening of change are those who meet the following criteria: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Deeper understanding about VAW, which is, identifying newer forms of violence, in newer contexts, a sense of feeling more strongly about the issue of VAW Engaging others on the issue in terms of talking to them, sensitising them and convincing them to relate to the issue. Examples of actions/ behaviour change in one’s own life and a sense of continuity in taking actions Examples of taking actions vis. vis. situations involving other people and a sense of continuity in doing this.

Most CMs in this category are lucid and articulate in their narratives, they are generally conscious of their struggles and refer to changes that have been brought about. The case studies given below elucidate the struggles and changes that individuals have gone through after becoming CMs and bring forth the key factors due to which they have been placed in this category.

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Struggle continues………. Safia from Jamshoro is uneducated married woman 29 years old, works as home based worker. ‘My father beat my mother constantly. He would come home and beat my mother. He was a laborer and it took me a while to realize that when he didn’t get any work he would come home and vent anger on my mother. I remember my mother being totally beaten. At times her bruises would show for days. Everyone in our neighbourhood was aware that my father beat my mother. He didn’t care what the world thought and I knew that at times my mother’s screams could be heard on the streets.’ (cries and tries to control herself) Sniffing she goes on ‘I felt really angry and helpless. I didn’t want to end up with the same fate (Kismat) but I did. My (mother’s sister) aunt’s in laws were well off and her brother in law (husband’s brother) was educated and on a job. They asked for my hand in marriage. I was excited thinking that God had heard me and my prayers. I wanted to get married there.’ Her hopes were totally shattered when she heard her parents arguing that night. ‘ my father refused because he said that we couldn’t give their level of dowry. I couldn’t say anything. My mother kept on saying that they don’t want anything. But he said no. I think his real reason was that this was my maternal side and he didn’t want to lower his ego by giving his daughter to them. Safia married to Amjad who was also a laborer. Amjad worked with her father and he was wanting to get married again after his first wife had died in labour. He wanted to get married to a rich girl but couldn’t afford it. ‘I remember how he mocked me when we got married. I couldn’t explain it but I felt so so so so (sobbing) naked as if someone had pulled my clothes off. He was violent with me. Every day… and I could go to no one. I thought that was the lot of my life my kismet. I had four daughters one after the other and that added to the continuous violence by my MIL and husband.’ Every day Safia was told that she doesn’t even die during child birth. ‘ Every day my MIL would tell me that she was going to get him re-married for a son. Living with this uncertainty and insecurity was very scary. I would hold my daughters and wonder where I would go if my husband remarried’. At this point Safia started stitching and embroidery to earn a living. ‘I used to get some income from this, atleast to pay for my children’s food. I hid some money from my husband but when he needed money he used to beat me. My daughters were growing up with the same fear that I had seen in my childhood.’ One day her neighbor Ghazala (name changed) who was a CM invited her to a gathering at her place. It was a discussion on VAW and how women also have a right to education, equal food, not be killed in the name of honor. They also talked about the right to take decision for marriage and dowry as a form of violence. My neighbor asked me to become a CM. I didn’t want to tell anyone. But now I feel that I can argue for my rights and the rights of my daughters.’ She broke down and cried. For the first time I felt that the arguments made sense. They also gave me the arguments to fight for my rights. Ghazala asked me to become a CM. ‘I didn’t want to tell anyone, I remember I spent the whole night thinking about it but I think I knew from the moment I heard the talk that I will become a CM. I asked Ghazala to fill out my form.’ For a few weeks no one knew that Safia was a CM. ‘I knew that I will have to disclose it sometime because being a CM has no meaning if I just kept quiet. Plus I also had to talk to my husband about educating the girls.’ Safia finally got the courage to talk to her husband. He beat her black and blue and locked her up for days. He went to his mother’s house and refused to come back to her. Amjad’s mother lived in the same neighbourhood. The girls went to beg their grandmother for food but she refused. Amjad (their father) threw a shoe at them and told them to go to their mother. The neighbours fed the girls and after a few days Ghazala came and broke the lock of the room in which Safia was locked. The next morning Safia went to the government school in the vicinity and told the principle that she had to put her daughters in school. The money that she had hidden away was used to pay for their admission and books. She had no money for uniforms. She borrowed money from a neighbor and stitched the clothes overnight. The next day her husband came home and beat her again. ‘I refused to take the girls out of school. I knew I was not doing anything wrong. I think it was my stubbornness (zidd) that forced him listen to me.’ He heard her arguments and finally agreed that the girls could remain in school. However the violence did not stop. He continued to beat her regularly.

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Finally Safia felt that she had had enough. ‘I decided that if I am a CM I have to stop this VAW on myself. I refused to let my MIL in my house. She had not given food to a 5 year old girl who was her own granddaughter. She stood on the street and cursed me and my daughters. I was scared but I didn’t open the door. I knew everyone on the streets was hearing her shouting and abusing.’ Finally she talked to her husband and told him that this VAW was bad and there was no reason for her to tolerate it. ‘I think it was not only me but the fact that two other women who were CMs (ghazala and another friend) came and brought their husbands to talk about VAW. Finally he stopped… he screams and still does but it has decreased.’ Now Safia has a pleasanter life. Her daughters are going to school. Her husband has stopped beating her and tries not to scream at her. She earns her living from the stitching to feed her daughters. She has become a very active CM. she goes to every CM meeting seminar and event. She has enrolled 30 more CMs. She regularly discusses the issues of girls education, right to food and no VAW with her neighbours. As a result of her struggles others have fought with their husbands and sent their daughters to school. Nosheen her neighbor and COI says ‘Safia came to my house and talked to me about the importance of girls education. We all knew how she used to be beaten by her husband. We had heard her mother in law also. Seeing her struggles gave me strength. My husband was not violent like Safia’s but he was strict. I asked Safia and Ghazala to come and talk to him. He got convinced and agreed to send our daughters to school. I still have to struggle when they get beyond the primary school’. Safia says very proudly ‘now I feel that I can argue for my rights and the rights of my daughters. My MIL no longer comes to my house. My husband has softened too. If it hadn’t been for the WE CAN Campaign and my becoming a CM I don’t think that this change would have come about. All those people who used to look down on me because I took a stand against VAW now feel proud that they know me. I am invited to all seminars and I don’t miss any. Women even come to me to ask for advice.’ The struggles that Safia had to go through all her life were immense. She broke down repeatedly while narrating her story. She has taken a stand and now her daughters are studying. Her whole community (mohala) respects her now and many have followed suit. Her case shows heightened sensitivity to the issue, struggle to get her point across and she has also taken actions for stopping VAW.

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Rozeena from Muzafargarh is a 33 year’s old married woman who studied till matriculation This story that I am relating is my own. I was a student of matriculation when my father suddenly decided that I was to get married. This marriage was fixed on the basis of watta satta (exchange marriage). I begged him to let me finish my studies and after a lot of struggle my father agreed that he would request my in laws for delaying the marriage by a few months. He used the pretext of marriage preparations and dowry. They agreed. Everyone was happy because my husband was educated and working so all my friends and cousins thought I was very lucky. But that was not the case. My marriage began with the tana (taunt) of not enough dowries. My father had never claimed that we were rich but he had gone beyond his capacity, even taken loan from loansharks to get me a very good dowry and a wedding reception. They told us they would bring 100 people for the wedding reception and they brought 200. How my parents managed the food and everything else I don’t know. But I do know that everything was grand. But they (my inlaws) did not seem satisfied. I had thought marriage was going to be wonderful but life at my inlaws became hell. Every day I used to get beaten up by someone. My SIL and MIL were really harsh and my FIL refused to say anything to them. My husband was a teacher in a far off school and he would come after 15 days. He would listen to his family and beat me up and go back. I used to wonder why; even though he was educated he never listened to me. I was educated but I was not able to convince him nor was I able to get my rights. I know that the reason for this was because I had no support from anywhere. I tried going to my parents but they told me that my husband had a right over me and now that I was married they (my in laws) had a right to do whatever they chose. I had no platform to talk at, to share my pain or to get advice. I started feeling that I was wrong and everyone else was right. I didn’t step out of the house nor did I interact with anyone outside the house but the beating still continued. One day Saira (name changed) a CM came to my house and she talked to me. She told me about the WE CAN campaign and the fact that an organization was fighting VAW. She gave me material including rubaru (newsletter). I was really pleased I signed up immediately. That day I vowed to myself that I was never going to let anyone be violent to me nor was I going to let others face VAW. I read the rubaru which not only had stories of VAW but also pictures. It left a deep impression on me. I waited for my husband to come back over the weekend. I didn’t want to talk to my in laws without talking to him. I tried very hard so that no one would have complaints against me this time. When he came I sat down with him and showed him the newsletter. He also read it and was deeply shaken. He said that he would not be violent again. I kept giving him arguments, for the first time I had arguments and he listened too. This made such a difference. He agreed to let me become a CM and he told his family about it too. They were very angry. They kept saying that I had done magic on him which is why he had become like this. My MIL and my SIL kept abusing me verbally but I was happy.’ At this point Rozeena was pregnant and she soon gave birth to a baby girl. This was very difficult time. My MIL and SIL constantly cursed me and abused me though they did not beat me physically. They were scared that I would tell my husband. I went to the meetings of WECAN and took my little baby with me. My husband was happy that we had a baby and he said that he didn’t have an issue if this was not a boy. I used this acceptability to talk to him about VAW and how girls in our society had to face it. Of course it made a difference now because he had his own daughter that he was thinking off. He became a CM. (very proudly) I think that was one of the happiest times of my life. I became more confident about what I was doing and I decided to start the campaign on VAW actively. I had to start at home. One of the biggest issues that was causing problems for me was the fact that I had a watta satta (exchange marriage). My SIL was yet to get married to my brother. So I went to my husband and told him we have to stop this. He agreed. I took the rubaru to my father. I told him that watta satta is bad. He read the newsletter as well. I had to argue with him htat this watta satta should be broken i.e. my SIL should not be married to my brother. The consequences are bad for all of us and we women suffer due to this. He almost got convinced but my uncle; his brother and my mother were totally against it. It took me a long time to convince my father. He finally agreed. I made him promise that he wouldn’t agree on watta satta for my other sisters also. When they decided to break it up I was scared that my MIL would be angry but she wasn’t. My SIL thanked me and said that she had been dreading this marriage and she hated me for only this reason. She apologized and asked for forgiveness because she had been violent towards me. She also said that she would talk to her friends how bad this is. Now her SIL is also a CM and her MIL has also recently become a CM. My MIL praised me and WECAN because they had brought sense to the whole family. She also said that she was grateful to WECAN because that gave me (Rozeena) the courage to fight VAW. She said that now I have to find a good match for my SIL. She said that they couldn’t afford giving a lot of dowry which should be made clear to the people who want to get married to my SIL. I told her not to worry and we would find a match for my SIL where she would be very happy.

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My respect within the family increased a lot. I am now a respected bahu (daughter in law) and everyone asks me for advice. Even the neighbours come to me. I regularly go and talk to people in the community on VAW issues. One of our neighbours has 4 daughters and no one was married because people asked for a lot of dowry and they were very poor. He had two sons and they were both not getting married because their father was asking for a lot of dowry. I went and talked to him that our Prophet had also given his daughter minimal things your daughters will remain unmarried like this. Do not insist on dowry for your son and get your sons married. God will find good matches for your daughters too. I told him that the person who gives a daughter gives everything. Don’t ask for anything else. He got convinced. He got his sons married and didn’t take dowry. Now two of his daughters are married too and the groom’s side has not taken any dowry either. I felt really proud. People in the community see the husband and wife working together as CMs and that has also elevated their status further. With all the active participation at WECAN they invited me to go to the exposure visit and training. I left my one and a half year daughter and six months old son with my husband. He took leave from office and has taken care of them while I was away. I feel so happy and proud. I don’t know of many men even in urban communities who would do this. I know he got teased by some friends also but now he doesn’t care. I can safely say that now my home is an exemplary home free of violence. Rozeena’s case shows not only the struggles and hardships but also visible stand to fight against VAW herself. She has changed her own attitude, the attitude of her family and contributing towards change in the community. She has also taken actions to bring about changes in the community.

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Shahid 20 year old male studying in grade 14, Mardan Shahid’s first memory as a 5 years old child is of his mother screaming. He hid behind the door and saw his mother being thrashed by his father. ‘This was a constant routine. I used to see my mother being beaten up (tears in his eyes) and wonder when I would grow up and be able to stop my father. My younger brother and sister used to hide under the bed and the elder ones just pretended they had not heard anything. My father was a terror every one of us was scared of him.’ Shahid’s father was a shop keeper ‘sometimes he would be in a pleasant mood and come home calm and quiet. But we would still not dare say anything in front of him. My mother was always tense and in a hurry to give him hot food. He was very particular about our studies. I remember the worst beatings we got from him were due to bunking school. He wanted all of us to study. My two sisters were put in the public school while we went to the private school. They were taken out of school after grade 5 because my father said that for girls this was enough education. They didn’t need any more and they should just be home and help our mother in housework which is what they will be expected to do when they get married.’ Shahid’s elder sister was married at the age of 13, his elder brother was married at the age of 17 to a 13 year old cousin. ‘I remember one day I was walking back from school when three boys gathered around me. They were bigger and were from my school. I knew that most boys were scared of them. One of them was the deputy mayor’s son and very influential. They were known to harass younger boys. Many friends of mine had faced this issue and I know that some had even not been saved from them. They would not only restrict themselves to touching our private parts but also hurt us. (He was embarrassed and didn’t want to say more on this). So when they approached me I was really scared. I didn’t know what to do but I didn’t want them to touch me anymore. I had been touched by them many times in school and they were gesturing that I should just come to them. I knew that this was more dangerous. I was 13 at that time. I saw a stone (quite big) and picked it up. I threw it at one of the boys. It hit him and I ran. I went home scared and I didn’t tell anyone. In the evening his father came to our house to talk to my father. My father was very angry with me. He beat me up but I finally told him why I did this. He was so angry he took out his gun and went to their house. He was going to shoot that boy. My uncle who had gone with him managed to stop him. But he beat that boy and his father. For the first time I was proud of my father’s anger and aggression.’ Shahid managed to complete his Matriculation education and got admission in college. By that time his younger sister had also been married. He knew that both his sisters’ husbands were violent and hated that feeling. His mother always told him not to go to their house or interfere in their family matters. We had a seminar in college one day where these WECAN people came to talk to us about VAW issues. I heard it with a lot of interest like many of the other boys because I saw it in my own house every day like they did. My friends and I immediately signed up for the campaign as CMs. We were given the campaign material. I went home and read all the material. I knew that I had to fight against VAW. As if my father wasn’t enough my elder brother does the same with his wife. He beats her regularly. But she answers back and tells him this is not right. He shouldn’t be beating her. She doesn’t realize that this makes him angrier and he then beats her even more. I tried to take their children in my room sometimes I could manage it. I remember seeing my mother beaten up and feeling helpless. So I didn’t want these kids to see that. But when I became a CM I sat with my father and brother and told them about the seminar and what they had said. My father was very angry. He kept saying this is a western agenda now they are trying to get to our youth in schools. My brother laughed at me and cursed me for being such a soft non macho (na mard).

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It was only after repeated discussions and constant arguments about what religion says that I was able to get them to understand. I then took my father with me to one of the WECAN events where many famous people of our district were present. My father was impressed with their discussions and finally appreciated this point. He became a CM (very proudly) and now my brother also has stopped beating his wife. Shahid went to my best friend whose father was known to be very strict. His sister had just been divorced by her husband. He talked to Baz Khan (his friend) about VAW, WE CAN and women’s rights. Together they tried to convince Baz Khan’s father to give her sister her inheritance so that she could live comfortably. He was infuriated that girls do not have such rights. Shahid then told Baz Khan to take his own initiative. Baz Khan quietly gave his sister part of his own inheritance and she is living comfortably. Another friend of Shahid was Anwar who was very strict with his sisters. Shahid convinced his friend that this is also VAW and women have rights. ‘Shahid has taught me a lot about women’s rights and opened my mind to a sea of new ideas and viewpoints. I now realize that alot of my views were outdated and rigid.’ He has become a CM, he now discusses matters like VAW with others and feels that he is playing his part contributing to an equal society.

Shahid has taken actions not only in his own family but also in the community. His own understanding of VAW has been intense and a significant change is visible in him and his COI

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It is evident from the case studies that the first sub system that the CM aims to change is the family. This is followed by other sub-systems whether neighborhood, friends, colleagues, extended family or any other. The CMs in this category are primarily those who have not only managed to bring about a change in their families but have also taken actions which have affected other sub systems as well. It is interesting to note that a very high percentage (86%) feel that VAW in any form is wrong. Table 5.11a Category 1 CM Attitude Towards VAW #

Statements

1

An occasional slap by the husband does not amount to domestic violence A man is never justified in hitting his wife

2

Strongly agree 32%

Somewhat Agree 17%

No opinion 2%

Somewhat disagree 3%

Strongly disagree 46%

39%

15%

5%

9%

32%

3

Women should tolerate domestic violence as it is their responsibility to keep the family together

20%

22%

2%

5%

51%

4

Violence in any form is unacceptable

86%

2%

5%

0%

7%

In the other questions it is evident that 49% believe that if husband abuses wife occasionally it is not considered VAW while 29% feel that if MIL abuses the DIL it is not considered violence. The reasons given for this include that women must know how to cook, MIL may be teaching DIL a lesson, husband may be angry or he may have been given reason to beat his wife. Those CMs in this category who argue on the contrary state that if a husband beats his wife once he will continue it and/or VAW in any form at any time is wrong. Table 5.11b Category 1 CM Attitude towards VAW # 1 2

statements Husband abuses his wife occasionally Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly

Yes 49% 29%

No 51% 70 %

While we look at the attitude towards women’s rights we see that on the issue of consensual sex there is a varied response whereas for the other two aspects on access to money and equal rights the CMs have a strongly positive response. The reasons for feeling that denying money to wife is a form of violence include the fact that women may need money for their own needs, children’s needs and in emergency. Similarly on equal rights the most common reasons include ‘men and women have equal rights’ and religion gives them equal rights. However it is interesting that at the same time they feel that those who support the idea that men can demand sex from wife at any time argue that it is a man’s right and his need. On the other hand those who feel that this is a form of violence argue that woman may not desire sex at that time or she may be unwell and therefore they consider it a form of violence. Table 5.12a Category 1 CM Attitude towards Women’s Rights #

statements

Strongly agree 80%

Somewhat Agree 10%

No opinion

1

Denying money to your wife is a form of domestic violence

2

3

0%

Somewhat disagree 3%

Strongly disagree 7%

Husband can demand sex from wife whenever he wants

44%

20%

7%

0%

48%

Men deserve more rights than women

15%

9%

0%

3%

73%

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When we study the other questions in the attitude schedule we see that 97% of the respondents in this category feel that husband and wife should take major decisions together. While only 46% believe that wife does not have a right to go out without asking her husband and 75% believe that denying wife money is wrong. These attitudes towards women’s rights when compared to the CMs in the third category show a distinct difference however the difference in attitude of CMs in category one and two is minimal. Table 5.12b Category 1 CM Attitude towards Women’s Rights # 1 2 3

statements Husband and wife take all the major decisions together Wife cannot go out of the village/community without asking her husband Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything

Yes 97% 46% 25%

No 3% 53% 75%

The arguments given by CMs who support the idea that these are forms of violence include that husband and wife trust each other and therefore it is not an issue for a woman to go out, it is her right, she may have to go out in emergency. For access to money they argue that it is a woman’s basic right (drawing from Islam), she may have personal and/or familial needs and she is responsible for running the house so she should have access to money. In line with this they argue that joint decisions are better decisions, it is the responsibility of both and there is less chance of an argument if decisions are taken together. It is interesting to note that those CMs who show significant deepening of change argue in the light of religion and human rights. People in Pakistan draw their beliefs from the cultural religious discourse i.e. providing for a wife is a man’s responsibility which includes giving her access to money. On the other hand reading the data in tandem with the narratives also shows that these CMs have moved towards accepting the fact that VAW in any form is wrong which is why they argue that if a man slaps his wife once he can do it frequently. Furthermore they argue that if women keep quiet about their experiences of domestic violence then men will continue and violence will increase, women should not tolerate VAW and it is a man’s responsibility to stop VAW. A fairly large number also state that the woman should talk to family/ community as it is the responsibility of the community to stop VAW. It is also interesting to note that a very high percentage (90%) feel that men should share housework because it is the responsibility of both husband and wife and they are both capable of doing housework. The responses of CMs in the first two categories are similar in these aspects.

5.3.2b Change makers showing some deepening of change The CMs in this category show some deepening of change but not to the extent to the group above. Based on the narratives the following criterion has been devised for these CMs:  Deeper understanding about VAW, which is, identifying newer forms of violence, in newer contexts, a sense of feeling more strongly about the issue of VAW  Examples of actions are present but are very few / very few actions visible The narratives from CMs also highlight the fact that individual attitudes have changed after their interaction with WE CAN campaign and the issue. Nasir feels he has become closer to womenfolk in his family after becoming change maker. ‘My sisters now talk more openly with me, they share their problems. I used to be against women getting too much independence or making their own decisions but now I feel that I am a changed man and will support his wife and daughters in all their endeavors.’ Iqbal and his brothers were educated but their sisters were not allowed to go to school. ‘My father used to be very strict towards women but has changed since he has become a CM.’ Both his parents are also CMs. He feels that the most profound effect that he can see as a result of him and his other family ‘I know that I am short tempered. members becoming change makers is on his father. ‘My father has But I am trying to improve myself. softened as a person more than I could ever have imagined. I now feel I now try not to get angry with my that women should be educated, and this is one change I want to bring wife. I know I still have to go a about in my family-make sure girls are educated.’ Fareed from Jamshoro long way but I am trying. One feels that he was quite rebellious but becoming a change maker has thing I have managed to do is to helped him be more calm and understanding. ‘I now recognize that put my daughters in school.’ women have rights too, which is why I am encouraging my wife to Qadeer Muzafargarh become a change maker as well. We are both working to raise awareness about VAW.’

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A significantly large number of women CMs feel that they now have the arguments and logic to deal with VAW; their own attitude has changed and they no longer feel frustrated or angry. Nasira says the first thing she did when she became CM was to put her daughters in school. Mahira says ‘I am now better able to deal with my husband and my in-laws. They were always violent but I never knew how to deal with it. Becoming a CM has given me the arguments to reason and the tolerance not to shout and take my anger out on my own children for that is violence too.’ Zahida feels that the program made her understand the importance of raising your voice against violence. ‘I became more confident, realized that men and women have equal rights.’ Another commonly cited change among CMs is related to mobility of women. Most men have said that they now ‘allow’ the women in their family to go to natal home, weddings and to visit neighbors. Women also feel that they are now more confident and feel that this is not wrong. Whereas previously the cultural discourse maintained that women’s mobility was wrong. Naseema says ‘I am not afraid of my husband anymore; I now stand up to him. I go out of the house with a lot more confidence than before and I think I can stand up for my rights. My own life experiences were very painful (tears in her eyes) and I used to get very upset. I am happy to help other people and I do not expect any rewards for it.'

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Khadija bibi Muzafargarh married 42 years old female educated till primary. One of the happiest memories that Khadija has of her childhood is getting her doll married. She invited her friends, they cooked food and another friend brought the groom and the barat for marriage. ‘I remember I was so silly. I wanted them to give 1 rupee plus three suits and bangles to my doll for marriage. But the groom’s side hadn’t brought all this. They had only gotten the clothes. So I said I was not going to get my doll married but then my other friends convinced me that I should get her married because this was a watta satta (exchange marriage) arrangement. I had to take my groom next day to get him married to my friend’s doll. I would then have to take the same amount of stuff. So I said alright. Now when I think in reality about the consequences of exchange marriage and such issues of material/jewelry for the girl I feel bad but this is how we have all learnt such things.’ Khadija studied till grade 5 because she was keen to study, while her sisters only read the Quran. All the girls helped their mother in housework and as seasonal laborer in the landlord’s fields. Her brothers studied till grade 8 and then due to economic reasons they started working. She got married at the age of 15 to her cousin. th

‘for me it was a love marriage. I had been in love with him and I was happy. Though no one asked me at the time of marriage as that is not a norm in our family. We began a very happy married life but my MIL and SIL hated it. They hated to see us happy. I had to bear with their constant torture because they couldn’t tolerate the fact that we were happy.’ For Khadija things started getting bad after she gave birth to her first daughter. Her husband was a wage laborer and he was having difficulties in finding work. ‘I don’t know why the distance between us started increasing. Suddenly he became violent. Previously he never lifted a hand on me and I mean never. But then he would come home angry and start yelling. He even beat me and I am not saying only an occasional slap but harsh beatings. My SIL was delighted with this. She stood in the window watching him thrash me. I hated it.’ Every year Khadija gave birth to a child. She has 3 daughters and 2 sons after which she got her tuber ligation. I told the doctor to do this and say to my husband that I had no choice but to get this. I didn’t want any more children. My husband was upset but he accepted it.’ Khadija’s life became hell and she had to bear all sorts of violence. She started working to meet the basic needs of the family. She is still a seasonal farm worker. Khadija was also invited to the local adult education committee being formed by a NGO. She was working with the committee for nearly a year when one day the WECAN district partner came to their meeting. They talked about VAW and the campaign. ‘they told us that we can become CM and we would be like the tree that stands and bears the hot sunlight but gives shadow to others. I loved the concept. I wanted to be like that. I decided to become that tree. I wanted to work on the issue of VAW and stop it for myself and others.’ Khadija became a CM. she went and talked to her husband about the campaign and VAW. She started attending meetings of WECAN regularly.

‘The meetings were at a neighbor’s house so I could easily go and attend them. We heard talk of VAW, girls right to marriage, education, equal food. I asked questions on abuse and mental torture and realized from the discussion that not just this but economic exploitation is also violence.’ The next day Khadija went and talked to the adulthood education committee women as well. Everyone was interested and many wanted to become CM. ‘They all wanted to do something. This was an issue close to everyone’s heart. We as women face this all the time. I told my husband about all this also. My status in the community had already increased because I was a committee member for the adult education program. My husband and in laws knew that I interacted with other women. I had a group that I worked with and I had respect in the community. My husband agreed to put our daughters in school. The neighbor’s/friends who had signed up as CM all started working the community and the word got around that VAW is bad and has to be stopped.’

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Khadija started going to all WECAN events and activities. ‘I asked them to invite me to the events. Now people know I am a member of WECAN and I get to participate in many activities. My status in society has elevated. The biggest thing that WECAN has given me is an awareness of the issues. I didn’t know many things which were VAW, like not giving my daughters equal food or not sending them to school. But I know now. I knew deep down that many such things were wrong but they were a norm in our society so I think we all just take it like that. ……. My being part of this self-help adulthood education group also helped. I believed in helping people as much as I could. But WECAN has been special because it talked of things that I am facing myself. It talked of violence. The WE CAN has given me the right clarity of concept and terminology to argue on the issue of VAW. Other organizations talked generally about people’s rights and development but here the discussion was systematic and organized, it talked of VAW.’ Khadija’s husband has also improved, he tries to cooperate and not be violent towards her.

‘getting angry once in a while is ok. He only occasionally hits me. Life has become pleasant and comfortable. Though I have had tough times. Now my aim is to get my husband to become a CM as well. We would both be able to fight this thing together. I still have to convince him of this.’ The reason for putting this case study into this category is that Khadija has become aware about all the type of violence, she also knows about various possible solution and importance and rights of women. Though visible actions are few she has started moving towards deepening and intensifying the change that has come about in her.

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While analyzing the quantitative information on attitudes of the CMs included in this category the data shows that a very large percentage of CMs (60%) believe that even an occasional slap amounts to violence and to a great extent (66%) they believe that a man is never justified in hitting his wife. As in the first category the CMs feel strongly that VAW is unacceptable (85%). However a smaller number feel that women should not tolerate VAW (50%) and the key reasons given include that she should be tolerant, sometimes husband may be angry and wife should tolerate. It also shows that whereas to some extent the deepening of change in attitude has taken place it is yet to be further enhanced. Table 5.13a Category 2 CM attitude towards VAW #

Statements

1

An occasional slap by the husband does not amount to domestic violence A man is never justified in hitting his wife Women should tolerate domestic violence as it is their responsibility to keep the family together Violence in any form is unacceptable

2 3

4

Strongly agree 40%

Somewhat Agree 20%

No opinion 0%

Somewhat disagree 3%

Strongly disagree 38%

53%

13%

8%

0%

25%

15%

30%

3%

3%

50%

85%

3%

3%

0%

10%

While comparing it to responses on other questions (above) it is interesting to note that on questions of occasional abuse (not slap) 50% CMs feel that it is acceptable and 38% feel that if MIL abuses DIL for not cooking properly it is also not violence. However this number is significantly less as compared to the third category. Table 5.13b Category 2 CM attitude towards VAW # 1 2

Statements Husband abuses his wife occasionally Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly

Yes 50% 38%

No 50% 63 %

Unlike the third category of CMs here we see that a large proportion (70%) of CMs feel that men neither have more rights than women. However on issue of husband demanding sex from wife the responses are similar to the first category. Furthermore a significant number of CMs (73%) also believe that denying money to wife is a form of violence. Table 5.14a Category 2 CM attitude towards women’s rights #

Statements

1

Denying money to your wife is a form of domestic violence Husband can demand sex from wife whenever he wants Men deserve more rights than women

2 3

Strongly agree 73%

Somewhat Agree 5%

No opinion 3%

Somewhat disagree 0%

Strongly disagree 20%

35%

10%

0%

0%

48%

10%

10%

5%

5%

70%

When we study the other questions in the attitude schedule we see that 90% of the respondents in this category feel that husband and wife should take major decisions together. While only 55% believe that wife has a right to go out without asking her husband and 75% believed that denying wife money is wrong. These attitudes when compared to the CMs in the third category show a distinct difference which brings to light their attitude towards various forms of VAW.

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Table 5.14b Category 2 CM attitude towards women’s rights # 1 2 3

Statements Husband and wife take all the major decisions together Wife cannot go out of the village/community without asking her husband Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything

Yes 90% 55% 23%

No 10% 45% 75%

The arguments given by CMs who support the idea that these are forms of violence include that husband and wife trust each other and therefore it is not an issue for a woman to go out, it is her right, she may have to go out in emergency. For access to money they argue that it is a woman’s basic right (drawing from Islam), she may have personal and/or familial needs and she is responsible for running the house so she should have access to money. In line with this they argue that joint decisions are better decisions, it is the responsibility of both and there is less chance of an argument if decisions are taken together. It is interesting to note that those CMs who show significant deepening of change argue in the light of religion and human rights. People in Pakistan draw their beliefs from the cultural religious discourse i.e. providing for a wife is a man’s responsibility which includes giving her access to money. On the other hand reading the data in tandem with the narratives also shows that these CMs have moved towards accepting the fact that VAW in any form is wrong which is why they argue that if a man slaps his wife once he can do it frequently. As has been discussed in the preceding category the CMs in this category also feel strongly that women should talk about their experience of domestic violence and it is the responsibility of the community to resolve them. 5.3.2c change makers who have moved to awareness plus: The CMs in this category are those who have gotten the awareness that VAW is wrong. The reason for their motivation could be any one of the three reasons stated above (section 5.3.1) but they are now convinced that this is wrong. For most of these CMs the change is attitudinal, and in many instances subliminal.  

CM shows change in awareness level or shows a maintenance of same awareness level No evidence of actions at all

The case studies given below illustrate the above mentioned criteria. The individuals are also not very articulate in their beliefs nor do they show many visible signs of change. In the Pakistan sample this number is fairly small yet existent.

Fareeha is a government employee she says ‘I used to go out before also but since I became CM I am more confident. I have become more self-assured. I know how to

deal with men if they try to harm me. I know I have a right to go out and I am not doing anything wrong.

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Asad a 35 year old man from Quetta married 2 children works in a private firm. Asad has 4 brothers and 2 sisters and 4 siblings were older than him. Asad’s father was a small land owner who moved to the city due to family disputes over land. He continued to live in the city for the children’s education. Asad’s sisters were married after matriculation to their cousins in the village as was the family norm. His father neither asked them about their choice in marriage nor was it deemed necessary. Two of his elder brothers completed their bachelors and were also married to cousins. They both work in small offices in Quetta. Asad insisted that he wanted to complete his masters and his father agreed. Asad’s father was very strict and he had a violent temper. Everyone was scared when he was in the house. Asad and his younger brother were the only two who would have the courage to ask their father for money or make other requests. His father was often angry and violent towards his mother. ‘I didn’t like it. It always felt wrong. Mother was a quiet person and father rarely had reason for his anger. He just took it out on her. I never remember them sitting and laughing together, nor do I ever remember him taking my mother or sisters to the market. They always stayed at home and he would get things that they needed. He would get them material for clothes, even bangles for Eid. I didn’t realize that this was wrong. Though I sometimes thought that this was not fully right. But then most girls in our environment did not go out.’ Asad’s father passed away soon after he completed his bachelors. He did his masters from the university in Quetta. He saw a girl at the university and he wanted to marry her. For two years he used to see her in the university but he never talked to her. ‘I knew this was the girl that I wanted to marry. My father was a harsh and strict person none of us had the courage to talk to him about such things if he had been alive I don’t know what I would have done. I think it was then that I started respecting women more. I went directly to my wife’s parent’s house and asked them that I wanted to marry their daughter. They were taken aback and they thought I was some loose character person. Two of her brothers wanted to beat me. (says smilingly) but her youngest brother stopped them. He was the only one who supported this marriage. My family hated me. My brothers and their wives all cursed me that I had not kept the family honor and I had also not married in the family. I kept trying to explain my point of view. I think my brothers’ wives basically resented that I should have a love marriage.’ Asad got married to the girl he loved. His mother agreed that they should all participate in the marriage. ‘My wife was very reserved and timid at first; she had no idea that I loved her so much. I didn’t want to hurt my wife so I gave her all the time she needed to adjust. (very proudly) I didn’t even force myself on her the first night.’ Asad attended a WE CAN assembly with theatre and mobile van. He listened to the discussion and decided to sign up as CM. ‘I came back and told my wife. She was impressed not only by the fact that I had gotten it but also that there are people talking about it.’ ‘I try to give my wife all her rights but after reading the WECAN material I realized that what I was doing was not enough. Just because I let my wife go to her parents’ house when she asked doesn’t mean that I have given her all the rights. But my brothers didn’t even do that. They never believed in giving freedom to their wives. . ‘They are conservative and did not let their wives visit their parents' house often. When their wives saw me take my wife and children out for outings every month they would fight with their husbands. Sometimes my brothers mocked at me but I tried to explain that they (wife and children) are locked up inside all day long and taking them out occasionally is not such a big deal. I also enjoy being with my family’. WECAN gave me the arguments to talk about VAW. I try and explain this to my brothers that they need to give their wives rights which Islam has given women. But they still haven’t agreed.’ Nevertheless Asad tries very hard to be a good husband ‘Today me and my wife are equal partners in life and love each other a lot. I always consult her before taking a decision’. The reason for putting this case study into the third category is that even though Asad has moved from a point of no awareness of VAW to a point of awareness there is no further action. He continues to maintain that state of change in attitude.

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Fareeha is a 33 years old female government servant Masters in Education from Jamshoro Fareeha belonged to an educated family where education was emphasized. She had no trouble in getting admissions in school. In fact her father a government servant tried to ensure that all his children went to private English medium schools. “As a child I hated school. My mother kept trying to convince me to study but I didn’t want to do that. I used to get a lot of beatings from her due to my lack of interest in education. I started studying hard when I went to college.” Fareeha and her family lived in government accommodation and her childhood memories include playing cricket in the lawn with her brothers. “My brothers used to play dolls with me as well. We used to have fun but I think over time between my mother and our peer group slowly my brothers didn’t want me to play with them. My mother also found that uncomfortable. My sisters and I was asked to stay inside the house to help our mother with the housework. I remember I was 13 and I had gone out to take clothes off the washing line. In this house the walls were lower. Two boys were cycling on the road and when they saw me they stopped, stared and whistled. At that time my brothers were coming back from college. They saw these boys and ran towards them. There was a huge fight. I just stood there frozen I couldn’t move. My brothers got hurt also but those boys were beaten up as well. When my brothers came back and saw me standing there they dragged me inside and my eldest brother for the first time in my life slapped me. I can still feel it.” They accused Fareeha and felt that this was her fault. From that day onwards Fareeha only went to school and back. She never went out to friends’ homes or shopping. It was only when she finished her Bachelors that her father fell sick and died. Due to financial conditions she privately completed her masters and then joined government service. Fareeha was married at the age of 24 (late by their standards) to a man known to her brother. He has a private job and was settled in Jamshoro as well. “My mother was happy. She was worried that I had joined office and therefore I would not get married. When I started working my mother told me that you now have the family honor in your hands you have to be careful. And I was very careful. I didn’t want the same thing to happen now because I knew that if something happened my brothers would kill me.” My husband also hated the idea that his wife would work and step out of the house. He kept saying my friends may see you. I couldn’t afford to stop working because his private job was not permanent. Due to my father’s old contacts I had been given a government accomodation and so we lived comfortably. But I never went to the market or any other place. I just used to go to the office and come back. Every morning was an ordeal that someone might look at me and someone might be known to my husband and then what. How will he react. …..” Fareeha’s husband was often violent towards her screaming and abusing at small things. She gave birth to a daughter and then a son. “When my daughter was born my mother was very worried she kept praying that I would have a son soon. When my son was born she felt that now I was safe. Now my husband would not have any complaint. I used to leave the children with my mother every morning and pick them up on the way back. My husband came home in the evening.” The WE CAN people came to her office and they talked to the people about VAW. “I took the material and read it that night. It made sense what they said regarding women’s rights in Islam and how even verbal abuse is violence. I realized that even though my husband never beat me a slap once in a while is not beating really. I know of women who have had to face much worse. But this was also considered violence. I didn’t show the material to my husband because he would not have tolerated it. But I kept thinking about it.” Fareeha also attended two seminars of WECAN and gathered information about the various kinds of VAW. “I knew that I was living in violence and it is not fair. I finally talked to my husband. He was very angry. He forbid me to attend any other seminar on this subject and kept saying that it was because I was a working woman. But I realize that I am not doing anything wrong if I am working. I had started feeling that I was wrong and that it is a sin to go out. But women also have a right to go out. It is thanks to WECAN that I now feel more confident. I am not afraid of men on the streets. I know I have a right to go out and work as well. I want my daughter to have this confidence to go out. It is not her fault that men tease and stare.” Even though Fareeha is aware of VAW she has as yet been unable to take action. Her awareness came two years ago and yet there are no visible actions beyond her conviction that this is bad. She maintains awareness that VAW is bad.

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As compared to the other two categories the change in attitude in these CMs is less. They show that 39% believe an occasional slap by husband is acceptable and a man may be justified in hitting his wife. The reasons given include that women may have done something wrong, the man might be angry and others. However a significantly large number (83%) do not agree that women should tolerate VAW to keep the family together. These CMs are primarily the ones who have engaged with the campaign or issue to a lesser degree or are more recent inductees into the campaign nonetheless their attitudes are positive and but they are yet to change their own behaviors and take actions. Table 5.15a Category 3 CM attitude towards VAW #

Statements

1

An occasional slap by the husband does not amount to domestic violence A man is never justified in hitting his wife Women should tolerate domestic violence as it is their responsibility to keep the family together Violence in any form is unacceptable

2 3

4

Strongly agree 39%

Somewhat Agree 17%

No opinion 0%

Somewhat disagree 6%

Strongly disagree 39%

56%

11%

0%

6%

28%

11%

0%

0%

6%

83%

72%

0%

0%

6%

22%

The attitudes towards VAW given below also exhibit the same trend as in the previous categories i.e. occasional abuse is not considered VAW by a large proportion of the CMs (67%). While a larger percentage of respondents (53%) feel that the MIL’s abuse towards a DIL if she doesn’t cook properly is not considered violence. Table 5.15b Category 3 CM attitude towards VAW # 1 2

Statements Husband abuses his wife occasionally Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly

Yes 33% 47%

No 67% 53%

Similarly a significantly large number of CMs in this category consider that denying money to wife is a form of violence (84%). However on the issue of husband demanding sex from wife whenever he wants the response is varied however the trend remains the same as in the other two categories and the reasoning in all three categories is in the light of Islam. On the contrary a fairly large number (67%) also feel that men do not deserve more rights than women and their reasoning is also primarily in the light of Islam. These contradictory attitudes highlight the fact that they require momentous deepening of change and are yet to look beyond the prevalent social facts and norms of society. Table 5.16a Category 3 CM attitude towards women’s rights # Statements Strongly Somewhat agree Agree 1 Denying money to your wife is a form 78% 6% of domestic violence 2 Husband can demand sex from wife 28% 6% whenever he wants 3 Men deserve more rights than women 22% 11%

No opinion 11%

Somewhat disagree 0%

Strongly disagree 6%

6%

6%

44%

0%

0%

67%

When the responses of CMs in this category are compared with the other questions we find that whereas on the issue of decision making and access to money the CMs largely feel that women have a right (94% and 56%) but on mobility a large number of respondents in this category feel that it is not violence if wife cannot go out without asking her husband (39%).

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Table 5.16b Category 3 CM attitude towards women’s rights # 1 2 3

Statements Husband and wife take all the major decisions together Wife cannot go out of the village/community without asking her husband Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything

Yes 94% 39% 44%

No 6% 61% 56%

The qualitative data also indicates that for less controversial aspects the acceptance in attitude is more clearly visible for the respondents in this category. The attitude section of the first category shows that as compared to other categories- a fairly large portion of CMs feel that an occasional slap amounts to VAW. However according to many, (nearly 50%) the man may have reason for hitting his wife and some even agree (30%) that women should tolerate domestic violence. The data in the preceding sections also shows interesting trends in terms of attitudes reflected in each categorization of CMs. It elucidates the fact that those CMs who show significant deepening of change or some deepening of change show positive attitudes towards ending VAW. Reading the quantitative responses in line with the qualitative data it can therefore be argued that the deepening of change has resulted in more positive attitudes and the most positive attitudes are exhibited by those CMs who show the most significant deepening of change. Furthermore the attribution of this deepening of change to the WECAN campaign can also not be undermined. The data presented in the above three categories exhibits the fact that CMs are at different vantage points on the continuum of change. The reasons for this difference is varied and embedded in the context of each individual it includes but is not limited to degree of personal motivation, status of environment and context, family background, age, level of exposure to issue, educational background or some other factors.

5.4

Reengagement with VAW:

People have become CMs and moved from a point of no awareness to being aware about issues of VAW. The second phase of WE CAN Campaign focused on re-engaging these CMs with the issue to deepen the change and highlight new issues of VAW. Looking at the findings of this assessment two broad categories of reengaged CMs are visible.  

5.4.1

People have continued to re-engage with the issue of VAW through WE CAN Campaign activities. People have continued to re-engage with the issue of VAW not necessarily through the campaign activities.

Reengagement with issue of VAW through WECAN Activities:

Reviewing the campaign work, discussions with alliance partners and campaign secretariat, as well as process review show that the major topics under VAW that have been covered during the campaign include two major categories illustrated below. Each country took up context specific messages on the issue of VAW. For Pakistan the topics included girls’ education, equal right to food and consent before marriage and girl child marriage. These are the least controversial topics on the issue of women’s rights. Figure 5.3 Discussion topics for campaign Shades of grey

Most extreme forms of violence

Least controversial forms of violence

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Over the last decade many organizations have been working on these issues, government and international agencies have carried out public awareness campaigns and programs for increasing girls’ enrollment rates, equal access to food and other such issues. The mainstream media has also run many programs/dramas to address these issues. Hence public is sensitized to these issues, the meta- discourse is conducive to discuss such matters. These topics do not shake the power dynamics and are therefore less threatening. The campaign has used these to make inroads into communities. The other end of the spectrum include the most controversial and sensitive topics of extreme forms of violence including Swara, Wani, honor killing, acid throwing, Karo Kari have also been discussed by the campaign. These extreme forms of violence are discussed in the media, in the recent past implementation of government policies and laws regarding these issues have also become strict, judiciary has taken suo moto notice of various such acts. Hence the public is not only aware of these issues but the discursive practices in communities now include such topics and legitimize discussion on role of Jirga/Panchait on these problems.

Issues of VAW in which collective attitudinal shift have taken place towards a community of no VAW: Education of girls Girl child marriage Equal right in food

The campaign has been able to initiate discussions and activities around subjects which are at the two broad ends of the spectrum. The intermediate ‘shades of gray’ including mobility, equal rights in marriage, consensual sex are rarely discussed. One major reason for this is that phase II of campaign started in 2008 and deepening of change is a long process after which these issues which are close to home can be discussed. In Quetta as has been mentioned earlier the reengagement process has been intertwined with the awareness raising process therefore there is no clear demarcation between the two phases. A fairly large proportion of CMs have only been engaged with the issue of VAW through the campaign activities. This also implies that their deepening of change is primarily dependent upon the campaign activities. However as has been mentioned earlier the extent of contribution of WE CAN campaign cannot be gauged due to many other uncontrolled social facts present in the community. Nasira says ‘the first seminar held by Sanjh Foundation (Muzafargarh) was very useful. We got to know about a lot of issues and the community wanted more such events.’ Khalid from Jamshoro says ‘I never miss any event being held by the WE CAN campaign. I carry my material with me and show that I am an active member of the campaign. I always learn more about VAW from these events.’ In Mardan a very large percentage of CMs have only worked with WECAN campaign hence the change among CMs can be attributed to a great extent to the campaign. In Jamshoro and Muzafargarh the attribution to campaign is limited . 18

5.4.2 Attribution to campaign activities: As has been mentioned earlier the level of attribution of attitudinal shift towards non acceptance of VAW cannot be assessed completely due to other uncontrolled factors. However when we look at the percentage of CMs engaged directly with the campaign it, its contribution towards this issue cannot be undermined. Furthermore the influence of CMs in bringing about a change in their community has been immense. All COI report that they recall their discussion with the CM. According to a significantly large number of COI (84%) they heard about WECAN campaign from the CMs. A fairly large number of COI have also heard of WECAN through a friend, neighbor or relative. Review of narratives of CMs also shows that many of these friends, neighbors and relatives are CMs as well which elucidates the fact that CMs in any community have contributed enormously towards bringing about a change in attitudes on VAW.

18

Level of reengagement of CM:  Jamshoro and Muzafargarh 23% CM and Mardan 67% CMs have not been engaged with any other organization except WE CAN.  Jamshoro and Muzafargarh 46.7% have not been reengaged through any activities of WE CAN.  Quetta the phase I & II of campaign overlap.

Discussed in 5.4.2

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Table 5.17: COI Hearing About WECAN From where did COI hear about WECAN campaign

Responses N

Percent

COI who heard from TV COI who heard from radio COI who heard from newspaper

70 26 75

27.6% 10.2% 29.5%

COI who heard from change maker

214

84.3%

COI who heard from community activity COI who heard from neighbor/community

81 75

31.9% 29.5%

COI who heard from relatives COI who heard from friend

91 102

35.8% 40.2%

Table 5.18 CM Influence on COIHeard about VAW from TV

Heard about VAW from radio

Heard about VAW from newspaper

Heard about VAW from change maker

Heard about VAW from commu nity activity

Heard about VAW from neighbo r/comm unity

Heard about VAW from relative s

Heard about VAW from friend

Total not including those who remember discussion

Mardan

COI who can remember the discussion with CM 65

19

0

11

54

16

13

29

37

179

Jamshoro

71

5

19

44

55

24

30

34

41

252

Quetta

53

1

5

16

41

4

5

4

12

88

65

25

5

4

64

37

27

24

12

198

254

70

29

75

214

81

75

91

102

Muzafargarh Total

-

On average each CM has spent one hour with the COI and repeated visits have not been common (>5%). The most commonly used material includes newsletter and posters, followed by calendars and comics and workbooks. Table 5.19 Material Shown to COI that COI recall Material shown

N

Percent

Showed comics

118

46.5%

Showed poster Showed workbook

174 63

68.5% 24.8%

Showed wallpaper Showed newsletter

5 166

2.0% 65.4%

Showed flip chart Showed calendar

10 84

3.9% 33.1%

Showed greetings card Showed other things

5 3

2.0% 1.2%

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By site analysis shows that in Quetta minimal material has been used for discussions. Many factors have contributed to this including the fact that Quetta was one of the most recent districts to be included in the campaign and the material circulated was insufficient. Whereas posters have not been used in Quetta, workbooks have only been utilized in Mardan and Quetta and flip charts have only been used in Jamshoro and Muzafargarh. The context of each district is also important in terms of what material could be used in the communities. Mardan and Quetta are essentially Pakhtun areas and in the recent past there have been political unrest and security issues.

How COI perceive the campaign: Message that I took from the discussion with CM: ‘I felt motivated to stop VAW’ 85% of COI consider themselves CM. My reasons for becoming CM: To remove social evil of VAW Definition of a CM: Someone who motivates to stop VAW One who changes herself/himself and then changes others.

Table 5.20: Material Recalled By The Circle Of Influence Site

Posters

Workbooks

Mardan

Showed comics 47

0

32

Jamshoro

2

2

Quetta

53

0

31

Muzafarg arh Total

1 103

0 118

Wall paper 2

Newsletter

1

63

Calendars

35

Flip charts -

23

Greeting card 2

61

4

9

2

1

15

1

1

1

54

6

51

-

5

165

84

5

10

The most common response to what motivated a COI during the discussion with CM is ‘I felt motivated to stop VAW’ and the three common messages extracted/recalled from the discussion include everything was relevant, we should stop VAW and men and women have equal rights. All COI respondents knew of CMs. 19

It is interesting to note that 85% of the COI feel that they are CM. The COI also feel that they can contribute positively towards VAW. They feel that they have been motivated to bring about a change and stop VAW. This not only eludes to the fact that the CMs have really worked very hard in motivating their COI which also implies that they believed in this issue very strongly and their commitment to the cause was communicated to other members of their community. This is an important indicator which may have been a key reason in the success of the WECAN Campaign in Pakistan particularly in bringing about a collective attitudinal shift. This also indicates that the campaign has had extreme relevance in these particular districts and in Pakistan.

5.4.2

Reengagement with the issue of VAW:

As has been mentioned earlier it is difficult to gauge the exact contribution of the campaign in bringing about a change in attitudes and behaviors towards VAW. There is evidence for instance in Jamshoro that other organizations have been running programs on VAW. The neighboring district Hyderabad was one of the first districts where the campaign was started in Sindh. In Hyderabad organizations have been very active on this issue of Karo Kari. SDC (NGO based in Hyderabad) is the provincial partner which has held many events on VAW. The spillover effect on Jamshoro cannot be undermined. Similarly Muzafargarh in Punjab has one of the highest rates of VAW including rape and media coverage of incidents of VAW in Muzafargarh has been very high. Furthermore many organizations have been working on this issue in Muzafargarh and neighboring districts of Bahawalpur and Multan. Hence the local’s institutions as well as individuals have been repetitively hearing about these issues in their meta-discourse. Both Sindh and Southern Punjab are regions where big land holdings are prevalent and landlords control complete villages. In such instances challenging patriarchy and power simultaneously is extremely difficult. Nonetheless these areas exhibit a high degree of deepening of change. Mardan in KPK is also one of the oldest districts of the campaign where Aurat Foundation and Noor Foundation (NGOs) have been extremely active on women’s rights issues. Many CMs have been part of Aurat Foundation activities and initiatives including community 19

All other responses in this case are less than 10 in number i.e. less than 5% and have not been mentioned.

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networks. Noor Foundation has also run various events on VAW in the district. Mardan is also the district of the Chief Minister and Minister for Social Welfare and Women’s rights; it is also one of the two districts in the province where a shelter home for women victims of violence is functional. Therefore different individuals have had an interaction with the issue of VAW to varying degrees. Quetta, on the other hand, is the capital of Baluchistan and all development activities in Baluchistan are initiated from Quetta. It is also the only district which has medical college, universities and a large number of educational institutions. Students from all over the province come to Quetta for education. Therefore the awareness level in Quetta is higher than in other areas. Nonetheless the extent of engagement with issue of VAW varies among the CMs. This is not only due to the district context but also on their individual sub-texts and realities. Many CMs have been engaged with the issue of VAW through other activities, events and initiatives without regularly being part of the WE CAN activities. These CMs have enrolled others; who have been part of their COI . There is also evidence that these COI members have continued to be part of the WECAN activities whereas the original CMs are no longer directly engaged with these activities. Qamar from Muzafargarh says ‘I only went to the first two seminars of WECAN. I don’t have the time to attend these activities again though I would like to. But this does not mean that I am not continuously thinking of these issues. The issue of VAW is close to my heart. I am educated and I read a lot too.’ Similarly Asifa from Jamshoro says ‘I really liked the discussions held on VAW by WECAN and tried to go regularly initially but I don’t go now. My sister and my sister in law go regularly and they tell me about the new issues that WECAN has discussed.’ M. Khan from Quetta has a totally different experience ‘I became a CM when my friend came to my home and talked to me. I have never been engaged with any CSO or development organization. I didn’t go to any event of WECAN. I am a progressive person, I went to university. Education 'opens up your mind' and makes you look at things differently.’ CM goes on to say that it is because he is educated that he is able to appreciate programs like WECAN which can help improve the society. ‘As an educated and responsible individual of community it is my duty to help in spreading awareness regarding VAW. I do that through my own circle. I talk to people particularly men and convince them that VAW is bad.’ 20

5.5

Tipping point towards a community of no violence against women : 21

This section begins with the journey of individuals and what causes the balance to tip towards changing individual behavior. There are certainly multiple tipping points for an individual and reinforcing agents for any individual depends a lot upon the individual context; the sub texts of a person. This is followed by a discussion on mending broken window phenomenon where individual acts contribute to changing a sub-system and VAW gets unacceptable in that particular sub system. The individuals and sub systems contribute to changing the social facts for any system at large. The third part of this section discusses how collective tipping point has been achieved and it also attempts to elucidate some of the key factors contributing to collective attitudinal shift causing a collective tipping towards a community of no VAW. 5.5.1

‘I never went to any seminar except the one in which I signed as CM. But I work with NGO and I constantly come across such issues. Women’s rights are at the back of my mind constantly. I think I would like to know more about how to deal with some critical issues, negotiate with government within the context and reality in which we live.’ Female Mardan 1

Individual tipping point:

There is certainly evidence that there are individuals who have experienced a point where they have moved towards ending VAW by not only changing their own behavior but also taking action against others who are prone to violence. Rashida says ‘I was always different. I don’t know why I didn’t like many things that were happening around me. When my brother got married and he didn’t let my SIL study I was angry with him and I fought with my mother. She said you are too young to understand this. She is now a wife and she has to do what her husband says. I then told her why is she not a human being? And I remember that my mother slapped me. I didn’t have food the whole day because I was so angry….. When I became a CM I started feeling more motivated to talk of women's rights. I used to see these unfair things all around me and feel frustrated. When I heard the WE CAN arguments I was able to get words to argue and see that I don’t like what is happening. Things started changing slowly. My father didn’t agree originally but then I kept bringing back arguments to him that I learnt in WE CAN. He became a CM, now both my brother and SIL are CMs. Now even our neighbors come to my house to ask me for help. They see the difference in my house.’

20 21

Discussed in subsequent sections. The journey of change are examples and composite case studies.

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Sana says ‘we all respect each other in the family and cooperate with each other, discuss things before taking a decision. I particularly discuss it with my husband. Now we understand each other and solve our problems through negotiation. Now there is no violence and victimization in my home. My house has become the exemplary house in the neighborhood. My husband has also become a CM. Even my husband’s sisters now come to me for advice.’

Journey of a female CM: ‘I became CM in metric. I was engaged to be married at age 5 with a cousin. My father wanted me to marry him. I was always my father’s darling special baby maybe because I was the youngest. I wanted to study. My fiancé said that I was not to go to school. My principle and teacher came with the local councilor so my father said I could study in grade 6. My aunt came and broke the engagement (crying uncontrollably) they said that their izzat (honor) cannot be seen on the roads. I studied and when I was in Matriculation I was one of the leading girls. One day there was a seminar in our school (after school hours) and I was asked to help in the arrangements. I heard the people talk about VAW and how it should be stopped. I wanted to become a CM. I took the forms from my teacher and went home. The next day the local female councilor, teachers and others come to my house and asked my father to let me become a CM. They really talked well of me. My father was impressed and he willingly agreed to let me sign up. I then started going to all the meetings. My father took me initially and realized that there was nothing to worry about. I started talking to my family about VAW. My sister is uneducated and is having problems with her marriage. Her husband doesn’t earn enough and the kids cannot go to school. My parents now realize that it is important for women to be educated. My brother was engaged to be married to a cousin who was studying in 9 class. She wanted to study but my parents wanted them to get married. I talked to my father. He always listened to me and after having gone with me to many meetings he knew what I was saying and was more open. So he agreed, my SIL completed her Matriculation before she got married. She soon had a son and so she couldn’t continue her education. My mother always said she is a married woman with duties but I kept saying she is my age and if I can study so can she. So now I have helped her get admission in college and she will take her exams privately.’ Over time Raheela started getting offers to work on development issues for NGOs. She was soon employed with various NGOs in their campaigns and activities for community mobilization. It was with this money that she supported her SIL and her sister’s children’s education. Then my neighbor was beating his wife and I went and talked to him. He and his mother realized when I went and they changed. Then my position in the neighborhood changed. I started being invited to local elders meetings. The NGOs which needed to engage with women started coming and asking me for help. I started getting more acceptability. At this point she also convinced her father to become a CM. It was a source of pride for my father that I used to get invited to different seminars and well known people came to see me. The neighborhood also felt proud of me because all these big cars used to come to pick me up for meetings. th

The turning point for me was when I went with my father to the hospital. My mother needed treatment in emergency and when the doctor saw me he left everything and focused on my mother. He said she is such a key leader of our community that we are proud of her. For the first time my parents were referred to with my name and that was an unusual experience for them. Now my father is a CM and he also works to stop VAW.’ Raheela age 23 unmarried 3 sisters and 2 brothers all married. Mardan Analysis: there are multiple tipping points for Raheela. The first tipping point visible in this case is when her teachers requested her father to let her continue her education. The second visible tipping point is when the local councilor asks her to become a CM. the elevated status also plays a key role. Another element visible in this case study is the fact that her engagement was broken because she was studying. If it hadn’t been for that she might have been another girl sitting at home and bearing children. The status and position which changed because of her interaction with development sector and her becoming a social mobilizer also contributed to the work as a CM. these positive reinforcing factors constituted the loop which managed to sustain her motivation as a CM. the last tipping point visible in this case study is when her parents get benefits at the hospital. This case study in interesting because highlights multiple tipping points, the power of context and the reinforcing loop in one individual’s life. Who changes first also tips the scale; the fact that her father changed first also contributed positively in bringing about the change. This is a very important though not the only condition for change.

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The journey of a male CM: Mansoor Khan 70 year old male agriculture worker: He has a wife, 2 sons and 5 daughters. ‘I had a love marriage and parents took time to accept my wife. I went abroad for work while she stayed with them. I never bothered to ask her how she was. All I cared about was that my family would be happy with her. ‘my eldest daughter used to go to school and someone harassed her. I have a violent temper and I killed that man. I had to go away from my native community for more than 5 years. I have never sent my daughters or granddaughters to school.’ How I became a CM: ‘My neighbor also relative is a CM and he used to talk to me about VAW because I am a hard man with a bad temper. One day there was an event in the community town hall where he took me and I heard all the discussions about VAW. There were many well-known people at the seminar and I heard them talk on these issues. That changed me. I try and am soft now; I also send my grandchildren (boys and girls) to school. I don’t know of any other event, community organization working on VAW. But for me it was a wonderful experience to be part of such a high profile event. Personal journey of change: The grand children: daughters and sons are all studying now. ‘This has been a strange thing for the neighborhood. People saw that I who didn’t believe in educating girls am doing this so they started changing too. The change in family and my attitude has also made my neighbors think and change. The same has happened with the extended families. I have a status in my own community but after becoming CM now I have a higher status. I am invited to all WE CAN events. I always try and attend them.’ Analysis: Mansoor belongs to a tribal area where 50 years ago being macho was a norm. it was not only accepted but expected that a man will fight for his honor (mainly women) and even kill a person. Mansoor had the same pressures where he killed a man who was teasing his daughter. He may not have liked it but he doesn’t say that. As a consequence he never sent his daughters to school. These negative deterrent loops and social facts also reinforced the belief in his extended family and no girl was sent to school. What really caused him to change is something we can ponder about. The narratives show that despite repeated questions he is unable to answer this. The narratives also give us a sense that he has probably not been conscious of what has triggered this change. However one element visible from his narratives is the importance of status in his life. The fact that well known people talked about VAW, the fact that he has now become a well-respected member of the community have all touched those emotional buttons which have contributed to the positive reinforcing loop in his case.

It is clear that there are reinforcing agents which are incentives for people to change while there are things which serve as disincentives and will deter people from changing. For some this loop is stronger than it is for others. However any reinforcing loop has the following key elements. The data from the narratives shows that once individuals’ conscience is pricked and they believe in changing they go through the process of change in attitude . Many individuals then start taking small actions to stop VAW. These actions begin with their own selves and/or families. These small actions move towards an individual tipping point which also slowly leads to change in sub-systems. It is at this point that individual status changes which also serves to increase the acceptance of CM’s actions to stop VAW. Gradually positive results from actions within the system come to the forefront which also serves to enhance the status of the subsystem. This in turn causes other subsystems to aspire for the same. Consequently the meta-discourse changes and reinforces individual CMs and their subsystems message that there should be no VAW. 22

5.5.2

Mending broken windows:

By fixing broken windows one is trying to address a basic attitude of indifference. Similarly, in WECAN small actions are like mending broken windows. By fixing/addressing different forms of subtle and visible discriminations and violence, the change maker is sending out a message that this issue matters, it is not acceptable and there is a need to dialogue on this issue. When several such broken windows start getting fixed, the broader culture of tolerating VAW is worn down. It is important to understand the process through which this tipping point is reached and maintained.

22

Discussed in preceding sections.

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For Jahanzeb ‘the change has been brought about due to change in my family. My father, mother elder brother and elder sister have all changed and so the change is visible for the extended family too. The relatives are also from the same neighborhood and they want to bring about a change when they see the change happening in their own environments. They also find a social status by association with the campaign.’ For Rabia the campaign has not only been an avenue for moving out of the house but also an opportunity to learn arguments for her own case. ‘When I became a CM I was apprehensive and my husband was not keen. But the local Nazim (mayor) and local councilors came to ask him to let me sign up. My husband was very strict but he couldn’t refuse because the Nazim came himself. So he agreed. Now well-known people, political figures come to our house and I am invited to functions where they are present they know me by name and face. This is also an important element for my husband, he now feels proud….. When I go to talk to people particularly men I tell them if I am doing it and my husband who is very strict is tolerating it then you can do it too, there is no harm in it. I am also not the only one who is CM so they listen.’

‘We all live in the same community and the word spreads around. When the people see that individual households have started changing and nothing negative has happened. They feel they want to do this. Being a CM is also elevating status. The organizations call you for seminars and events which also highlight your importance in the neighborhood and extended

family.’ Kaneez bibi 40 year old woman Jamshoro

Sohail a COI and now a CM says ‘I was resisting change I didn’t want my wife to become a CM. but I couldn’t refuse when so many of the community women signed as CM. I used to take her to seminars. At one of these seminars I went inside and for the first time in my life I was referred to as Nasreen’s husband. I had thought I would not like it but I felt proud everyone told me what good work my wife was doing. I then became a CM…… now we go to meetings together. People know us and they are not negative in fact they say proudly this couple is from our community.’ Azeem is a 42 years old man who is a COI and CM. He has always maintained a very harsh and strict environment at home. ‘Sohail and Naila first talked to my wife, mother and sisters. My mother and sisters immediately became CMs too. I saw the change in them and I wanted to bring about a change in myself. I was ashamed of the fact that I should have been the one to pioneer this change not Sohail and Naila; but I am an uneducated man. I used to see a man across my shop be violent to his wife and I felt bad about it. Now I feel I can take action on such things. I now talk to people who come into my shop and I can see that they also want to change. The word is getting around and we who belong to conventional strict environments also want to change. I am trying to convince my wife to become a CM too then we can also be like Sohail and Naila.’ 5.5.3

Collective attitudinal shift:

Whole systems thinking tries to explore the context by looking at What constitutes sub-systems influenced what is the relationship between different components within the by CMs? system, how much do they influence each other and how do they act together in changing/influencing other systems. Individuals  COI comprises family, neighbors, change and change COI however different elements of a context extended family and friends. influence each other and impact each other positively or  In many instances friends overlap with negatively. It was therefore important to ask the following family, extended family and questions during analysis: neighbors. Particularly for women.  How is the individual change among change makers  All categories of COI in the sampling impacting the context in which they are operating? frame have not been sampled for Conversely, what is changing in the community and each CM. whether and how is that impacting individual behavior?  How are individual change and change in the change maker’s context supporting each other? How can this interaction be strengthened? Many COI have also become CMs which has served as a strong link in the reinforcing loop.

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Reinforcing loop for each CM

COI Family member of CM1 who has become CM

CM 2

CM 1

COI Friend of CM1 and extended family of CM2 who has become CM

COI neighbour of CM1 and family of CM 2 who has become CM

Gul Khan a COI ‘I have now become a CM. I heard my brother talk about these things and I now realize that I will ask my children their choice in marriage and give them a right to choose their partner. This is what Islam teaches us. We have created the difference ourselves. I am now a changed person. One incident in our neighborhood created a major impact on our lives. A young boy and girl wanted to get married. The girl's family wasn’t willing so the boy kidnapped her and took her to his sister's house. The girl's family came to get her. They took her back and then killed her. They made friends with the boy's family later and the boy’s younger sister was given to the girl’s family as compensation. I couldn’t understand why it was only the girl who was blamed. Having heard the campaign seminars and events now I feel strongly about it and I want to bring about the change. The change has started coming about.’ Mardan, Muzafargarh and Jamshoro all show examples of collective attitudinal shift in community where the sub systems have changed to an extent that the meta discourse now considers these elements of VAW unacceptable. It has to be borne in mind that the community implies their own sphere of influence, where they live whether a mohala, a town, village or a small society.

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Composite case study on collective attitudinal shift: The district allie carried out extensive activities in the first phase wherein a large number of individuals were enrolled as CMs. When the campaign moved into phase II the focus was on institutions and intensifying the change. Hence they worked further with active CMs to build awareness about multiple forms of violence and to support them in changing community attitude towards VAW. The events included mobile van, wall chalking, seminars, theatre and the newsletter. A very large percentage of CMs in Muzafargarh, Mardan and Jamshoro mention utilizing the newsletter to generate discussions and augment awareness of VAW. The intense deepening of change and the collective attitudinal shift is visible from the narratives below. Jabar says ‘I have put all my children in government schools. The boys don’t go to private schools. My extended family has also started doing the same. The neighborhood is also now following this example that all children go to the same school. ……… when I became a CM everyone used to tell me I have gone mad….. but I kept arguing that this is not wrong…..now our neighbours proudly say that they send their daughters to school. There is no discrimination on the basis of sex. All children get equal food and the same food. Now people come to me when they want help.’ Gul Khan is Jabbar’s brother who later became a CM ‘I will educate my daughters till the time that they want to study and not differentiate between my children….. I didn’t get so much resistance because my brother had already started sending his daughters to school. Other people also give their children equal food and take both son and daughter to the doctor when they are sick….. the acceptance is coming’. Gul Khan’s neighbor Sadia says ‘I am also able to send my daughters to school. It is because of people like Gul Khan bhai and others like him that now we are able to take such initiatives without being ostracized.’ Another neighbor and an extended relative Gulnaz who has also became a CM says ‘I was never educated because my father didn’t believe in girl’s education. I wish I had been educated and then I would have had a job instead of doing domestic labour. I am grateful to Gul Khan bhai (brother) for talking to me about the rights of girls. I will now educate my daughters. I don’t want them to lead the same life that I am leading. I always knew about the problems and I wanted to send my daughters to school but I couldn’t do that because society wouldn’t accept it. I am a widow and I don’t have a man to protect me. But now most girls in the community are going to school.’ Jamila and Fazeela are neighbors of Jabbar and their husbands are well known to Jabbar. Fazeela runs a stitching school at home where the local allie came to hold meetings. Jamila says ‘I became a CM in 2008 when a friend took me to a corner meeting event. The discussion was on VAW and girls right to education. This motivated me and then I came home and talked to my family about it. Then a neighbor girl was facing issues. Her parents were not allowing her to study beyond primary school. On my intervention this girl got permission to study further. Now she is more motivated and works for the rights of women in her community. This resulted in my neighbours, extended family accepting that what I was talking about was not wrong.’ Mukhtiar Khan is an uncle of Jabbar and Gul Khan and a neighbor. He is 65 years old man who became a CM after repeated efforts by both the brothers. ‘After I became a CM we all started respecting each other in the family and I now discuss things before taking a decision. … Slowly others started accepting it too. ….. I am not saying that this is all because of me. But I was famous in the community for my harsh temper and controlling temperament. When people saw me change they were shocked. ….There are quite a few CMs in our community who have talked about these issues. First we were less now more people are becoming CM. People have accepted that we will talk about women’s rights. We are not doing anything wrong. These are rights that Islam gives us…’ A very large number of people in the same community have reported that girls have a right to education and equal food which leads us to assume that there has been a collective attitudinal shift.

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5.4.4

Moving towards collective tipping point:

An important component of WECAN Phase II was to build wider community intolerance for violence against women. This can only happen when the change process moves from individual to sub-systems and meta-discourse. This means that when changes within the change maker and others begin impacting behaviors among groups of people, beginning with the family, the sub-system changes. This process implies that not only does individual behavior impact other individuals, it also impacts sub-systems and that changes in the behaviors of one system impact the behaviors of other sub-systems and groups (see figure 5.4). The change maker is part of and is relating to, interacting with several sub-systems. Changes in one sub-system are impacting other sub-systems. The figure below also illustrates the fact that CM influences the family as the first sub system and consequently other sub systems are influenced. The extent of influence of one sub-system over the other is based on how important they are to each other and how interdependent they are. However, this may be necessary but not a sufficient condition for one system to influence the other. The figure also demonstrates that collective attitudinal shift is possible when all the sub systems are influenced and a collective tipping point is reached which causes a collective attitudinal shift. Figure 5.4 Collective Attitudinal Shift-

CM family

neighborhood

relatives friends

Evidence from the data (given in preceding sections) indicates that in Jamshoro and Muzafargarh to a great extent and in Mardan to some extent collective attitudinal shift has taken place. Collective attitudinal shift is visible on issues which are less controversial.

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6 Campaign Management During the six years of its implementation the campaign management has gone through extensive changes including issues of high turnover. Some senior level restructuring at Oxfam GB, as well as Campaign management changes have taken place with the view to improve the management of the Campaign. The overall coordination and facilitation for Campaign management was being undertaken by dedicated Campaign staff based at Oxfam GB, Islamabad. They were supervised by the Program Manager Gender Equality and were strategically managed by the Program Coordinator who also had regular support and guidance from the Regional Campaign office in India. For sustainability purposes, in the last two years of the campaign the secretariat was housed in the national NGO Strengthening Participatory Organization (SPO) which is an active member of the national alliance. The budget of the campaign was provided to SPO; however logistics and management were the responsibilities of SPO and the national alliance. At this stage the national secretariat staff was limited to a national program officer and an administration and finance officer. This setup proved to have many lacunae which had not been envisaged at the beginning of this arrangement. Field support and facilitation was initially provided through the Islamabad based Campaign officers who had a high turnover rate. Attempts were made to recruit more than one campaign officers for purposes of communications, providing facilitation and technical support as well as monitoring field activities. This was envisaged to improve the quality of facilitation provided to the allies, compared to the facilitation provided by field based Campaign Officers in phase I of the campaign. At the field level logistical and administrative support for the Campaign was provided by Program Associates for each province.

6.1 6.1.1

Role of National Campaign Secretariat : 23

Structure:

The presence of Provincial Campaign officers in the initial stages of the campaign was useful to some extent for providing feedback on the various activities undertaken by the District allies. The campaign staff has primarily played a facilitative role for the campaign. This is visibly demonstrated through the ownership of campaign by provincial and district partners. They are effectively viewing the Campaign as their agenda and have sought support for VAW activities from other partners as well. Furthermore the provincial partners are not depended upon WE CAN for all their activities; they have funding for other activities including education, microcredit, health etc and in many instances have carried out VAW activities with their own budgets. Nonetheless the alliance partners required extensive and intensive technical support which has not been substantial in Phase II of the campaign. The major reasons include  Shifting the secretariat to the local partner’s office,  Restructuring in OGB Pakistan office which resulted in missing a tier of senior gender manager.  Consequent lack of technical assistance and support to the alliance partners.  Limited staff at the national secretariat also resulted in minimal monitoring and mentoring visits to districts.  Security constraints and political instability. Partners/allies have also expressed a need for informed and timely decision making by Campaign managers. They also feel that the planning process is too short and insufficient; planning mechanisms could have been strengthened. Also there appears to weak supervision of material distribution which has caused some confusion and shortages.

6.1.2

Budget and finances:

The Campaign management has shown flexibility in the budgets. The alliance partners had the freedom to decide and carry out the activities relevant in the area. However the provincial and district alliance partners as well as secretariat office have raised concerns about the limited resources available to implement activities. More than 100% inflation in the last two years has also increased prices which have led to further constraint of resources. There should have been sufficient increase in budget resources over time. Cuts in individual budgets of Allies by

The Midterm review 2008 has also highlighted lessons learnt which are valid even today. Please see Annex 5 for these lessons. 23

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Campaign management without adjustments to the plans/agreements and then delays in approval and transfer of funds have severely affected the continuity of the work of many Allies on the Campaign.

6.1.3

Campaign Material:

Material provided for the Campaign has been useful in passing the message on VAW and encouraged interaction with local groups and communities. T-shirts are popular and have been worn by young sportsmen and journalists. One young change maker/activists felt his attitude and behavior improve; he says that whenever he wears the Tshirt it reminds him of how not to behave with women . In Phase II the campaign material particularly posters and newsletter (rubaru) have been found very useful. These have served to generate discussions on VAW in general and broach sensitive topics which had not been dealt with so far. However the material was insufficient and the allies had to constantly grapple with circulating this limited resource strategically. The material (particularly) newsletter has also not reached many districts in time. There have been management/administrative delays as well as delays in designing/developing of material at regional level. Such delays have also affected campaign activities and networks at district level. Campaign material has been developed regionally and alliance partners have shared a concern that many pictures were not specific to the context of Pakistan or the province. The acceptance of this material would have increased immensely if they had been tailored to the context. Material developed for the Campaign needs to be updated to stay relevant with the awareness levels achieved. For instance, there is a need to challenge the comfort level of change makers who prefer to deal with stopping violence against ‘innocent’ women instead of the human rights of women. 24

6.1.4

Campaign activities:

Guidelines/awareness raising, through resource persons, exposure visits both internally and in the Region have been useful, especially to male change makers, as they needed to develop their conceptual thinking on the dimensions of VAW and on how to undertake the process of change makers. Signature campaign, rikshaw campaign and mobile van have proven very useful at engaging and re-engaging with the various aspects of VAW. However the activity reports and discussions with partners also reveal the fact that district partners required further clarity on re-engagement and deepening of change. If this clarity and technical assistance had been provided to them these activities may have had a greater impact.

6.1.5

Database management:

Software for database of CMs was not sufficiently pre-tested and it developed limitations that has not been verified or shared with the District allies. This caused delay in follow up with the CMs. Furthermore the capacity of district allies has not been enhanced in utilizing the database to its maximum capacity therefore the CM data has not been easily accessible in most instances. It is not clear how the other regional allies are undertaking the formation of the data base and how compatible is the system used in Pakistan with the Regional database if any exists. WECAN website needs regular updation particularly the Pakistan page.

24

From Midterm evaluation March 2008

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7 Discussion & Conclusion 7.1

Discussion

The data indicates that change in attitude and behavior of people has come about and the WECAN campaign has certainly contributed substantially to this change. The extent of change in an individual is dependent to a great extent upon his/her context and what has formulated the subtexts. The fact that Raheela could study is not only dependent upon her teacher coming to her father but also on the fact that her engagement was broken. Similarly what motivates an individual to become a CM also depends upon the multiple sub-texts of the individual; whether s/he is a perpetrator or victim of VAW or a maverick contributes to their acceptance of the message. There are certainly gender and regional differences which contribute to the social reality in which an individual is embedded. Each one of the 375 respondents mentions their journey of change; some to a greater degree than others. But certainly the continuum of change is visible for each. The campaign’s contribution to raising awareness on the issue cannot be undermined. It is evident that the campaign has moved people from a level of no or minimal awareness to what we have called awareness plus. What motivates individuals to move from that state of awareness plus to bringing about a change in their own attitude and behavior and then continue with that change depends upon their subtexts, motivation and positive reinforcing elements which vary for each individual. The data also allows us to extrapolate that once individuals show change which does not cause malaise in the organic solidarity of the system the acceptability of this behavior increases. It is at this point that individuals then face positive reinforcement through the reinforcing loop. The key reinforcing factor visible in this sample was status elevation. Once the individual status is elevated it serves in most instances as the tipping point for the individual to move towards eliminating further issues of VAW. However the individual CM’s status within society, within the household and the community also play a significant role in acceptance of the changed attitude and behavior within a particular sub system. For instance a young man’s (Asad) stand is much more acceptable than a young woman’s (Rabia), a political/community leader’s actions to stop VAW are more acceptable than a poor widow’s stand to send her daughters to school. The following that an individual gets is also dependent upon his/her position and vantage point in the society. A highly respected person like Mukhtiar Khan will gain following quicker than Gulnaz. Subsequent actions of sub systems are carefully measured against the social facts of the community. Once no negative elements are visible or rather positive elements become evident then sub system is able to influence other sub systems. Each sub system impacts the other and the extent of influence depends upon multiple factors. At this point when individual actions for change have managed to influence the sub system the sub system starts taking actions or at least supporting the actions of individuals. Deterrents including norms, values, social fabric, and religion are subsumed or minimized. At this point collective attitudinal shift is visible and slowly a collective tipping point is reached where VAW or certain elements of VAW are eradicated from the system. Figure 6.1 Process of deepening of change: NO toleran ce to VAW

CHANGE IS HAPPENING

Initial change and continue with it

Change in perception

Individual change in behavior

Actions of change

Collective attitudinal shift

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7.2

Conclusion:

The WECAN campaign in Pakistan has completed six years and the key objective was ‘to reduce the social acceptance of VAW in its various forms’. There is clear evidence that change is happening and a deepening of change has taken place for many CMs. In a patriarchal society where VAW is prevalent individual life experiences are embedded in interaction with these issues. Individual CMs texts are formulated within these social facts and social structures. The other organizations/institutions working on the issue of VAW, media as well as state policies also contribute to the construction of these social facts and meta-discourse in every community. Furthermore the power dynamics for each individual man and woman are different wherein women have to face the additional suppression by virtue of being women. The narratives though few in number are indicative of the fact that deepening of change is happening; there is a shift in attitude and behavior of individuals. The extent of this deepening of change varies with the vantage point of every individual, the context and different subtexts throughout his/her life experiences. Individual interaction with these social facts and the processing of these issues (VAW) depends on these elements. Hence the ‘mending broken windows’ phenomenon is also very individual specific. Nonetheless one of the main principles of WECAN campaign was that ‘no change is small’, and each individual’s story of change has to be seen in the light of their own context. The journey of change for individual CMs when narrated highlights small incidents of change but the negotiation and struggle behind achieving these successes must not be undermined. For any social change to take place the individual deepening of change must be coupled with the change in subsystems which will consequently change social facts and meta-discourse of the larger system. The evidence of collective attitudinal shift towards a community of no VAW substantiates that communities are moving towards a collective tipping point of non-acceptability of VAW. Furthermore it is also evident from the narratives that the campaign has been a major contributor towards building the momentum of collective tipping point. The key elements for reinforcing and maintaining this momentum include not only the repetitiveness of messages but also status elevation and visible positive effects. It is only when there is no noticeable negative impact of such individual change that the sub-systems accept change and the same holds true for other sub-systems to accept the change. Each sub-system is interlinked and with the others and contributes towards the collective shift. Together this leads to new and innovative ways of thinking and behavior which then becomes the larger social fact for each community. The question that is important for the assessment to ask is how far has the balance been tipped towards ending VAW and more importantly how far has been the contribution of the WE CAN Campaign in this regard. The findings of this assessment indicate that WE CAN campaign activities have contributed in bringing about a shift in individual and collective attitudes. However the extent of influence is context specific and is further impacted by different deterrent and reinforcing factors. There is evidence in many areas that WE CAN activities have contributed to tipping the balance towards EVAW but it may not have been the only factor.

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8 Recommendations Now that WECAN campaign is phasing out from its present mechanism and a new approach will be adopted for eliminating VAW the following recommendations are proposed based on lessons learnt from the campaign.

8.1

WECAN Campaign: 

8.2

The material of the campaign should be country specific and in some contexts even region/province specific. The district alliance partners have highlighted issues of acceptability of material as the characters and their dresses did not match with Pakistan’s context. For instance dowry was not an issue in Mardan, however the first newsletter focused on dowry and it couldn’t be used in Mardan. The material should be prepared in larger quantities and its dissemination should be wide. Many CMs and COI have reported that they have never received the material. The district alliance partners also state facing difficulty in distribution as the quantity of material was insufficient. There is also evidence that the CMs who have received the material have also used it as a status symbol which has served to reinforce their commitment to the issue. In Pakistan the newsletter dissemination approach was innovative; the word was spread through connectors who used newsletters to illustrate the issues. Such innovative context specific approaches need to be honed for the campaign to carry forward the message. The study findings are indicative of the fact that networks and platforms for CMs to share experiences and learn from each other have been useful reinforcing agents. This approach should be honed and networks at all levels should be strengthened in order to enable people to share material, best practices and lessons learnt. The database of CMs has been a constraint in accessing information. Delay in implementation of database and capacity of alliance partners in updating it have been concerns. It is therefore recommended that the database should be updated at district and provincial level and the capacity of the alliance partners should be enhanced. This will be an imperative link to re-engage these CMs for future work on issues of VAW. The WECAN campaign has built enormous momentum in the 41 districts where it has been implemented. The communities are now keen to learn more about various aspects of VAW. Nonetheless the narratives highlight the fact that this change and momentum has been achieved after gigantic struggles at individual and institutional levels. The exit strategy of WE CAN campaign should include mechanisms to acknowledge the vast amount of work and struggle of individual CMs as well as the alliance partners. This would facilitate in reenergizing and motivating individuals and institutions in carrying forward this work.

For future: 

Discussions also reveal administrative gaps in campaign implementation. The issues of secretariat hosting and management, finances and budgets as well as responsibilities should be resolved at the beginning of the campaign to avoid unnecessary delays and problems. The assessment information also reveals the fact that campaign staff and alliance partners were under stress to complete targets of enrolling CMs therefore in some instances the re-engagement with CMs to achieve deepening of change in Phase II of campaign was not as effective. Therefore it is recommended that during the second phase of the campaign emphasis should be laid on ‘filtering’ the real CMs from those who are inactive. The focus should shift from ‘number crunching’ to those who make a real difference. The WECAN campaign had limited resources and was expected to cover a large and diverse geographical area. The discussions show that alliance partners have also had to gather additional resources to carry out their activities. It is therefore recommended that at the initiation stage a campaign should carry out detailed mapping of existing resources available at district and provincial level. This should include not only the financial and human resources but also the institutions providing assistance to women victims of violence. Such linkages if formally established would support the campaign activities as well as ensure its sustainability. Discussions with alliance partners reveal the fact that they have continuously been expected to support victims of VAW. These organizations are part of the local network of civil society and have utilized their own contacts in this regard. At the advent of such a campaign the district and provincial alliance partners

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should be linked to the social services and institutions available in their locality as no campaign can work in isolation. Oxfam is now completing its 6 years support to the WE CAN campaign. However the findings also indicate that whereas tipping points and collective attitudinal shift has taken place in many small communities on certain issues a lot has to be done in the larger context. In this regard there is need for additional technical and financial support to the issue of VAW. It is therefore recommended that the CM database should be shared with other organizations working on human rights in general and women’s rights in particular in order to continue the momentum created by the WE CAN campaign. One of the major drawbacks of this assessment was that there was no baseline assessment against which the change could be measured. In future a campaign design should include a baseline assessment to be carefully designed to measure the expected outcomes which in turn would facilitate the end of campaign assessment process as well. A detailed baseline would also facilitate linking the campaign to all strata of the community. The assessment in itself has also served as an activity to re-generate interest and re-engage with CMs. Individuals and alliance partners are keen to see the findings of this assessment as it is perceived as a measure of their success. The report should be disseminated widely so that the individual and community change in attitude towards VAW is acknowledged and recognized at larger platforms. Data also indicates that one of the key changes among CMs who exhibit deepening of change is the fact that they have been provided a platform by WECAN where they not only share their woes and experiences but also learn from each other and reinforcement of eliminating VAW is also given. Hence CMs and COI are able to comprehend issues of VAW and articulate arguments for eliminating VAW. Such initiatives which provide platforms for analysis and deepening of understanding of issues should be strengthened.

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Annex 1: Outcomes And Indicators Of Phase II Of WE CAN Campaign Visible Outcomes I. Rejection/ reduced tolerance/ non acceptance of violence against women in the community in any form by community members and change makers

Indicators 1. Change-makers and community members can identify - at least one alternative way to resolve conflicts in relationships - report actions to prevent violence in each community 2. Community members (that is change makers and people in their sphere of influence) hold the view that violence against women is unacceptable

II. Greater acceptance towards women speaking out against domestic violence

- Change makers display positive attitude towards women speaking out about domestic violence - Community members (that is people in the change makers sphere of influence) display positive attitude towards women reporting domestic violence - Change makers report incidents where they have facilitated making visible/speaking out instances of domestic violence in the community

III. Increased awareness among change makers about the benefits of violence free relationships for men, women and families

- Change makers and community members are able to identify the benefits of violence free families to men, women and families - Change makers and community members believe that violence free homes are possible and equal relations in intimate relationships is worth achieving

IV. Increased evidence of change makers and other community members taking responsibility to build and strengthen violence free relationships V. Women change makers and the women in their spheres of influence feel confident to address and deal with domestic violence in their own lives and the lives of others

- Change makers believe that they have a role in ending VAW - Community groups recognise they have a role to end VAW - Examples of institutions adopting positive steps to support violence free relations and/or address violence against women - Women reached out by change makers and female change makers believe that VAW is not women’s fault - Women being reached through the change makers and female change makers report taking actions to address violence in their own relationships - Women being reached through the change makers and female change makers report supporting other women facing violence

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Annex 2 Terms of Reference

ToRs of Lead Researcher Pakistan The lead researcher as part of a multi-disciplinary team needs to complete the following activities: 1. Implement a commonly agreed research design, which includes:  Sampling process and site selection  Translation and back translation of tools.  Planning, recruitment and training of country research team for data collection  Data management  Process documentation of WECAN phase II activities in selected sites in the country.  Contributing to the development of a common format for quantitative data entry  Contributing to the development of an analysis frame work for both quantitative and qualitative data  Leading data analysis at the country level 2. Travel to rural and urban sites where the study is being undertaken, which Includes 

Organize and supervise data collection (during both the qualitative and quantitative phase)

3. Undertake report writing of the research study 4. Participate in requisite meetings and workshops  Conduct capacity building programs on the use of various research methods and tools for the research team of Investigators 

Communicate with TAG members and organize country level TAG meeting

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Announcement For Field Supervisor WECAN, a campaign on Violence against Women is looking for research investigators to gather data from several parts of rural Pakistan. The total duration of the assignment would be 30 days in the months of March and April, approximately 20 days spread across the months of May and June, and approximately 20 days in July. Background: WECAN is a six year south Asia level campaign (2005-2011) on violence against women. Its goal is to reduce the social acceptance of violence against women in its different forms. It is currently running in six countries of South Asia- India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. It aims at reaching out to 50 million people, symbolic of the 50 million women who are missing in South Asia because of gender discriminatory practices. The campaign has now proposed to undertake an assessment to establish whether or not the outcomes envisaged under phase II have been met. This assessment will be carried out simultaneously in five countries- India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka through a common methodology with some site specific components. The assessment will be a qualitative research. It would require a large team of researchers/investigators to travel and conduct this effectively. In Pakistan the study is taking place in Mardan in NWFP, Quetta in Baluchistan, Muzafargarh in Punjab and Jamshoro in Sindh. Each district will have its field team for research and a field supervisor will be required to supervise data collection and support the process of data cleaning. Tasks of Field Supervisor: 

Participate in the training workshop to be held in March

Supervise data collection in rural and urban areas, through interviews and participatory exercises.

Ensure quality of data collection.

Provide feedback to the field researchers/investigators.

Ensure complete and accurate documentation to the team leader/lead researcher.

Attend debriefing/feedback sessions when required.

Maintain complete confidentiality of this research outside the team.

Basic competencies/qualifications required: The researcher/investigator should be: 

Minimum BA pass

Sensitive to gender issues

Familiar with the issue of Violence Against Women (VAW)

Familiar with the local language and context.

Able to read, write in local language (language skill is must)

A good listener

Able to take detailed notes

Willing to travel and stay in rural areas.

A team player

Preferable qualifications: 

Previous experience of fieldwork as a research investigator or supervisor.

Familiarity with the WECAN campaign.

Remuneration will be based on qualification and experience.

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Announcement For Field Investigators

WECAN, a campaign on Violence against Women is looking for research investigators to gather data from several parts of rural Pakistan. The total duration of the assignment would be 20 days in the month of April and approximately 20 days spread across the months of May and June. Background: WECAN is a six year south Asia level campaign (2005-2011) on violence against women. Its goal is to reduce the social acceptance of violence against women in its different forms. It is currently running in six countries of South Asia- India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. It aims at reaching out to 50 million people, symbolic of the 50 million women who are missing in South Asia because of gender discriminatory practices. The campaign has now proposed to undertake an assessment to establish whether or not the outcomes envisaged under phase II have been met. This assessment will be carried out simultaneously in five countries- India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka through a common methodology with some site specific components. The assessment will be a qualitative research. It would require a large team of researchers/investigators to travel and conduct this effectively. In Pakistan the study is taking place in Jamshoro in Sindh, Muzafargarh in Punjab, Mardan in NWFP and Quetta in Baluchistan. Tasks of researchers/investigators: 

Participate in the training workshop to be held in March

Carry out data collection in rural and urban areas, through interviews and participatory exercises

Provide completed documentation to the team leader/lead researcher.

Attend debriefing/feedback sessions when required.

Maintain complete confidentiality of this research outside the team.

Basic competencies/qualifications required: The researcher/investigator should be: 

Minimum XII pass

Sensitive to gender issues

Familiar with the issue of Violence Against Women (VAW)

Familiar with the local language and context.

Able to read, write in local language (language skill is must)

A good listener

Able to conduct interviews

Able to take detailed notes

Willing to travel and stay in rural areas.

A team player

Preferable qualifications: 

Previous experience of fieldwork as a research investigator

Familiarity with the WECAN campaign.

Remuneration will be based on qualification and experience.

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Annex 3 Tools of data collection

Introduction to the workshop with Change Makers WORKSHOP SESSION I: INTRODUCTION Time allotted: forty five minutes The facilitator begins the workshop by welcoming all the change makers and thanking them for having taken the time to attend the workshop. He/ She then ask all the participants to introduce themselves. Each person is asked to state their name, where they are from and think about what they think is going to be discussed in this workshop. The participants should be given time to respond. The facilitator waits for everyone to share. He/she should try to see if some of the expectations expressed by the change makers can be related to the workshop objectives. He/she should share that while this is not a ‘training’ program or anything like the WECAN programs the change makers might have attended earlier, it will help everyone to reflect back about their experiences of working on the issue of VAW. The facilitator then says: “We are holding a meeting for those who have been associated with the WECAN campaign and are working to reduce violence against women. We want to learn more about how you have gotten involved in this work and your experiences. We will use this information to understand whether the WECAN campaign has made a difference in your communities and if yes, in what way?” “We would like to ask some questions have developed some questions and exercises for this workshop. We hope you will interact with us and participate in the exercises. Your honest sharing will help us a great deal in measuring the success of the campaign. We will begin with a small introductory game that will enable us to get to know each other a little better. Shall we begin?” The facilitator asks each participant to think of three statements about themselves, one of which is true and one is false. Each participant will share these two statements and the rest of the group has to guess which of the two statements is true and which one is false. The facilitator should ensure that the change makers participate more during this session and the interviewers and note takers. Use this session to make the change makers share and generate some dialogue/discussion based on what they are sharing. Once this exercise has been completed, the facilitator should explain that next session will involve in-depth discussions on how you have got involved in the work on VAW and the campaign. This would be done individually and not as a group. Each change maker will be interviewed by an interviewer and a recorder will maintain notes on what the change maker shares. The facilitator should check if there are any questions from the change makers. After addressing any doubts/clarifications the change makers may raise, the facilitator should divide the team into triads (one change maker, an interviewer and a note taker). They should be allotted a space to sit and talk separately.

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In Depth Interview Guide for Interview with Change Makers WORKSHOP SESSION II: IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW WITH CHANGE MAKERS IN DEPTH INTER VIEW GUIDE Introduction: Hello/Namaste/Asalam-u-Alaikum/ Aiyobuwan/Vanakkam/appropriate greeting. My name is _______________________ and this is my colleague________________. As you know, we are trying to talk with people who have been associated with the WECAN campaign. We would like to talk with you to know more about what you think about this issue and about your experiences in addressing VAW. I would like to ask you questions related to how you became involved with this issue and your experiences. I have with me a set of questions related to all these topics. Along with these topics it would be very useful for me to know more about you in general, as this would help me to understand how and why you became involved in the campaign and the work on VAW. All this information will help us to understand what people feel/ think about the campaign and the issue. I would like to let you know that you can refuse to answer any question that you don’t want and also stop the interview any time if you don’t wish to talk. This entire discussion will be kept confidential. This means that your interview responses will be shared only within the research team and we will ensure that any information we include in our report does not identify you as the respondent. Shall we begin? FACE SHEET 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you from?

3. 4.

What is your age? Sex

5.

What is your marital status?

6.

What are your educational qualifications?

7.

What is your occupation?

GS Division/Village_________ Tehsil/GN division/Block___________ District_________________________ Female_______1 Male_________2 Unmarried/never married __________1 Married___________2 Divorced/seperated__________3 Widow/widower______4 Deserted_______________5 Other(specify)________________6 Cannot read and write_____________1 Can only sign____________________2 Class I- V _______________3 Class VI – IX _____________4 Matriculation (class X)____________5 G.C.E O/L_______________6 Intermediate (class XII)______________7 G.C.E A/L__________8 Graduate______________9 Post Graduate____________10 Others (please specify)___________________11 Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service_______5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed_____________7 (specify)_______________________________________ Student_______________8 (if only 7 then go to question 10) Lawyer_________________9 Teacher_________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker________________13 (specify)___________________________________ Other (specify)______________________14

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8.

9.

10.

Relationship to respondent

How would you describe your work?

Irregular/Seasonal_______1 Regular______2 Other (specify)________3 Not applicable___________99 How would you describe your Daily____________1 wages? Weekly________________2 Fortnightly_______3 Monthly_________4 Seasonal_________5 Other (specify)______________________6 Not applicable______________________99 Can you tell me a little about your family? Who all is part of your family?

Age (in compl eted yrs)

Sex Female 1 Male 2

Marital status Never married…….1 Married………….2 Separated/Divorced……3 Widow /Widower……….4 Deserted……………5 Others(specify)…………6

Education Can’t read or write……..1 Can sign only…………2 Class 1— 4……………3 Class5--9…………….4 Matriculation……..5 G.C.E O/L…..…6 Intermediate……..7 G.C.E A/L….8 Graduate……9 Post graduate………10 Others (specify)…11

Occupation Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service____________5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed___7 Student__________________________8 Lawyer__________________________9 Teacher________________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker______________13 Other (specify)____________________14

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In-depth interview guidelines I. Family history You have told me about who is in your family and your family members. I would also like to know more about the kind of relationship you have with your family members. Can you tell me about this? Let change maker talk. Explore: A. Quality of relationship with each family member - Level of understanding with each of them. Probe how well she/he gets along with each family member; areas of common interest - Family member with whom the CM has the closest relationship/ who the CM feels understands her/him the most - Situations around which there are conflicts within the family? (Be sure to probe who all get involved and how do conflicts get dealt with? - Qualities about the family the change maker has always appreciated from before (even before he/she became a change maker) / something they are proud of as a family and he/she is proud of as an individual - Was there anything that she or he used to wish would be different about their family in the past? - Is there anything that she or he wishes could be different about the family now? II. Neighborhood In case the respondent is a student and lives in a hostel, follow questions in IIA. In case the respondent is from the general community, follow questions in IIB. II A. Can you tell me about life in the hostel? 1. How long have you been staying in the hostel? 2. Explore: - Friendships in the hostel; extent of support offered by the students to each other; any unpleasant issues in the hostel; probe around harassment by older boys/ girls; instances of sexual harassment. - People the change maker turns to in the hostel, in times of need. II B. Can we now talk a little more about your neighborhood and surroundings? In case the respondent is not a student: 1. How long have you been living here? 2. Explore: - Extent of support offered by the neighborhood to one another; degree of closeness among families/ people in the neighborhood; frequency and situations in which they meet and interact. - Who in the neighborhood does the change maker turn to in times of need? III. Thank you for sharing so much about your family and neighborhood/hostel. Can we now move on to talking more about your life? I would like to know more about the various stages of your life. I hope you are fine with this. Shall we begin? IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INTERVIEWER Now you are beginning the section on the change maker’s life history. Please note that this section requires you to probe the change maker’s life in stages. For younger change makers (approximately 25 years and below) it would be For change makers who are older the length of each stage could be more. You will have to keep this in mind while interviewing and defining each stage. For married change maker’s, these stages would be from adolescence up to marriage; the first few (4-5) years after marriage and the period since then till now. These are indicative time periods. It is possible that within the group of married change makers there are variations- some who have married recently or some who have been married for 3-4 years only. In such situations, dividing the time period into three parts may not be possible and only two time periods maybe possible, that is adolescence up to marriage and marriage to now. For unmarried change maker’s, the time periods to investigate would be adolescence; few years after adolescence and the period between then up to now. These are indicative time periods. It is possible that within this group there are variations- there maybe change makers who are still in the adolescent years or are young adults, in which case dividing the time period may have to be in two parts, that is 11-18 and from 18 till now or 11-15 and from 15 till now.

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STAGE I For change makers who are married, interviewer should ask, “If we were to start back with say when you were in your adolescence (jab aap kishori/kishor the), and before you got married, what are your recollections about this period? Please take time to think and respond.” Give the respondent time to think. For the change makers who are not married, interviewer should ask, “If we were to start back with say when you were in your early adolescence/adolescence (11-15 or 11-18 respectively as the case might be), what are your recollections about this period? Please take time to think and respond.” Give the respondent time to think. The interviewer can even leave the respondent alone for a while. Explore: A. Important/ significant moments and events during these years (within the family and outside); events that have left an emotional impact- positive and negative. In this context probe very gently about any physical/sexual abuse the change maker might have experienced within the family or outside. You could use the following lines as a way of opening a discussion on this subject: “Many times one hears about abuse of young people, especially adolescent girls and boys. This can include a range of behaviors such as beating, hitting or sometimes making sexual advances and even forcing sex on the young person. Has anything like this ever happened with you that you might want to talk about?” (This is a very sensitive issue. So if the change maker does not want to share about this issue do not push for a response. Do not probe beyond this point if the change maker does not want to talk about it. But the note taker should make a note of this on the side of the note taking sheet). B. How did this make the change maker feel, what she/he did about it? C. Aspirations about the future; what the CM wanted to do/become STAGE II If we move ahead by a few years, what can you recollect about this period? Cues - What was your life like? Are there any events or happenings that stand out in your memory as being important in your life? Both pleasant and unpleasant. Explore this in detail- what happened; how did the change maker feel about the situation; how did she/he deal with it? What was the family situation like at this time? Friendships in the community; probe around people who may have had a deep impact on the change maker; events that shaped her/his future. -

If the CM mentions marriage during this period probe around: * * * * *

How was the marriage fixed- arranged/love/ Whether husband known to change maker/within the family/outsider etc. Say in choice of partner Expectations from marriage Relationship with partner during the initial years (birth of children, living with spouse/family interactions)

-

Cues- what was the relationship like in the first few years after marriage- happy memories; situations of conflict; how the conflict was resolved. With female respondents, probe very carefully about any episodes of violence by husband. You could use the following script to open the discussion: “Many times there are situations of conflict in marriage. Sometimes men resort to behavior such as beating and hitting their wives during conflicts. Has anything like this ever happened with you?” Interviewer should check about: When this behavior started

-

How frequent is this behavior

-

Other forms of psychological abuse such as scolding, humiliation etc.

-

How the respondent coped with such incidents when they occurred initially

-

Is it continuing or has it stopped?

STAGE III: V. If we now look at the period between the time we just discussed up to now, what have been some of the things that stand out as being important/ significant for you? Probe- What were these events/ happenings/experiences

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-

Focus on how these events/happenings made the change maker feel

In this entire discussion if the respondent talks about having become a change maker or becoming associated with WECAN, be sure to probe further using the following guide:  When exactly did the respondent become a change maker? How old was she/he; in which year did he/she become a change maker? 

How did she/he become a change maker? Through an event or another change maker? Probe the process- What did him/she understands about the role of a change maker? Did he/she sign a form? Take an oath?

Situation 1: If change maker says she/he became a change maker after attending an event check which event, where was it held and when; what was discussed at this event; what did the change maker learn from this event/interaction? Did she/he get any material, if yes, what was it? After this event has she/he been part of any discussions on this issue or attended any other subsequent such events- probe for subsequent events or programs in the same way. Capture details of all VAW programs attended- what was the program about; what was discussed; what did the change maker learn from this event/interaction? Has he/she received the newsletter? Or attended any mobile van activity? If yes, ask for details. Situation 2: If the change maker has become a change maker through another change maker, ask what was he/she was told; what material did she/he see and/or get; did she/he sign the change maker form; has she/he attended any event on VAW after becoming a change maker; where and when; what happened at this program and what did he/she learn? If the person has attended more than one such program on VAW explore about each of them. Has he/ she received the newsletter or attended the mobile van activity? If yes, as her for details.

What motivated him/her to become a change maker? Probe in detail using the change maker’s responses to build more questions, for example, if the change maker says, “I liked what was said in the WECAN event, so I became a change maker” probe, “what was said? What did you like about what was said?” or “we keep reading about these issues or seeing such incidents around us, why then did you feel the need to become a change maker after attending the event?” Other probe questions could be what did the person expect he/she would get as a result of becoming a change maker? Once the motivation for becoming a change maker has been discussed thoroughly, the interviewer should say, “Thank you for sharing all this. We are grateful to you. We would further like to talk to you about how you have felt after becoming a change maker. But we will first have a cup of tea/break for lunch. It is best to take a break here and allow the change maker to take some rest. In the next session, the interviewer should move on to talking about the changes this action has led to. This should be covered through session IV, the social mapping exercise.

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Documentation Format In-Depth Interview With Change Makers CC FACE SHEET Name of Change maker: Name of interviewer: Name of recorder: Date of interview: 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you from?

3. 4.

What is your age? Sex

5.

What is your marital status?

6.

What are your educational qualifications?

7.

What is your occupation?

8.

How would you describe your work?

9.

How would you describe your wages?

SC

PII/NPII

0

0

GS Division/Village_________ Tehsil/GN division/Block___________ District_________________________ Female_______1 Male_________2 Unmarried/never married __________1 Married___________2 Divorced/seperated__________3 Widow/widower______4 Deserted_______________5 Other(specify)________________6 Cannot read and write_____________1 Can only sign____________________2 Class I- V _______________3 Class VI – IX _____________4 Matriculation (class X)________________5 G.C.E O/L_____________6 Intermediate (class XII)___________7 G.C.E A/L______________8 Graduate______________9 Post Graduate____________10 Others (please specify)______________________11 Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service_____________5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed_____________7 (specify)_______________________________________ Student_____________8 (if only student go to question 10) Lawyer______________________9 Teacher______________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker________________13 (specify)___________________________________ Other (specify)______________________14 Irregular/Seasonal_______1 Regular______2 Other (specify)________3 Not Applicable______________99 Daily____________1 Weekly________________2 Fortnightly_______3 Monthly_________4

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10 .

Seasonal_________5 Other (specify)______________________6 Not Applicable____________________99 Can you tell me a little about your family? Who all is part of your family?

101.Relationship to respondent

102. Age (in completed yrs)

103.Sex Female 1 Male 2

104.Marital status Never married…….1 Married………….2 Separated/Divorced……3 Widow /Widower……….4 Deserted……………5 Others(specify)…………6

105.Education Can’t read or write……..1 Can sign only…………2 Class 1— 4……………3 Class5-9…………….4 Matriculation....5 G.C.E O/L……..…6 Intermediate...7 G.C.E A/L.....8 Graduate……9 Post graduate………10 Others (specify)……….11

106. Occupation Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service____________________5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed___________7 Student__________________________8 Lawyer__________________________9 Teacher________________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker________________13 Other (specify)______________________14

I. FAMILY HISTORY

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II. NEIGHBOURHOOD

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III. LIFE HISTORY OF CHANGE MAKER Stage I:

Stage II:

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Stage III:

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Interviewing team’s comments:

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Interview Schedule To Measure Change Maker’s Attitude Towards VAW CC

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PII/NPII

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0

Name of change maker: Name of interviewer: Name of recorder: Date of interview: Session III: Questions on change maker’s attitude to VAW I have with me a few questions on the issue of VAW and would like you to respond openly to them. There is no right or wrong answer. This is to understand what you think and feel about VAW. Please do share what you think. Whatever you share with me will remain confidential. This means that your interview responses will be shared only within the research team and we will ensure that any information we include in our report does not identify you as the respondent. 13.

14.

15. 16.

According to you what kind of behaviors can be termed as violence against woman? (Note down all the behaviors he/she mentions) Some people believe that VAW is a serious problem. What is your opinion? (probe Q- Why do you think so?) How will you define a violence free family?

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Can you give an example of a violence free family around you? Why do think that there is no violence in that family? I have with me a set of statements about families which are violence free. I would like you to indicate yes if you think this applies to a violence free family and no if you think it does not apply to a violence free family. There is no right or wrong answer. (Please read out each statement one by one and record the response before moving to the next. Do not explain or probe) Statement Yes...1 No...2 Why do you think so? Husband and wife take all major decisions together

172

All the children are sent to school

173

Boys and girls get the same kind of food

174 175

Wife cannot go out of the community/village without asking her husband Husband abuses his wife occasionally

176

Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything.

177

Daughter is married off before the age of 18 yrs if the family finds a good match All family members can express their opinion freely

17.

178 179

18. 19.

Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly. According to you what should a woman do when she is facing violence in the family? (note down what the respondent states) I am going to read out a situation to you and would then like to discuss a few questions related to this situation. There is no right or wrong answers. Please feel free to share your views. Your brother works in the city and stays there with his wife. He and his wife come home to see your parents once a month. The last time he was here, his wife refused to go back with him. She has shared with her parents

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191 192 193

20

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

that whenever she asks for money your brother hits her and abuses her. Your mother has also come to know of this. Her parents and your mother feel your brother is under a lot of stress and have advised his wife not to ask for any money. They have convinced her to go back with him. After a couple of days you have got a call from your brother’s neighbour that his wife has a fractured hand because of a fight between the couple and they need the help of your family. Who do you think is responsible for this situation? Probe why the respondent thinks so? What do you think your family could have done to solve the problem? What do you think your brother could have done to solve the problem?

I have with me here a few statements relating to men and women. I would like you to indicate your opinion about each of them by stating whether you agree or disagree with each one. In case you don’t have an opinion about the statement, you can say so. There is no right or wrong answer. Please feel free to express your opinion. (Interviewer to remember that once the respondent has said agree or disagree, please check whether the person agrees strongly or somewhat. Similarly, if the respondent says disagree, please check whether he/she disagrees strongly or somewhat. Then place a tick mark against the appropriate box. Be sure to ask why the respondent holds this opinion) Statement Strongly Somewhat No Somewhat Strongly Why do you think so? agree agree opinion disagree disagree An occasional slap by the husband does not amount to domestic violence Denying money to your wife is a form of domestic violence A man is never justified in hitting his wife Women should tolerate domestic violence as it is their responsibility to keep the family together We should not talk about their experiences of domestic violence with anyone Violence in any form is unacceptable It is the responsibility of the community to support the women who face violence Husband can demand sex from wife whenever he wants

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209

Men deserve more rights than women

210

Sharing housework does not suit men

21 211

Given below are some situations. Please indicate what you think you will do if you are faced with these situations. You come to know that the woman in your neighborhood whom you do not know very well is facing domestic violence. What will you do? (wait for the respondent to finish answering this question, then ask) Why will you do this?

212

Your uncle has returned home drunk and is abusing his wife. What will you do? (wait for the respondent to finish answering this question, then ask) Why will you do this?

22

Some people believe that violence against women is a community level problem. What is your opinion?

Interviewing teams comments/ observations:

THANKYOU!

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Social Influence Mapping Tool WORKSHOP SESSION IV: Social influence mapping exercise with change maker SOCIAL INFLUENCE MAP Influence diagram is a tool that allows you to explore the factors and directions of influence on a given situation. In this case, it will be used to explore the following questions: 1. What is the personal change the change maker has experienced since he/she joined WECAN? 2. What kind of collective attitudinal shift is taking place among various actors and systems within the change maker’s circle of influence? 3. What factor is/factors are responsible for changes among actors and systems in the change maker’s circle of influence? 3. How is the change in one system influencing and/or changing another system? The social influence mapping exercise should begin with an exploration of personal changes at the level of the change maker. That is the changes they have gone through. Two important pointers here are: 1. Please try to keep the focus on the change maker at this point. 2. Stories of change have to be backed by specific examples and instances. Even if the change maker talks of a change in perception/opinions, ask for any example that might help in understanding how the change maker’s thinking has changed. The interviewer should begin the social mapping exercise by first saying, “Thank you for answering all the questions so far. You have spoken to me at length about what motivated you to become a change maker. I would like to know a little more about what has happened after you became a change maker. Q1. What do you think is the personal change you have experienced since you joined WECAN?” ProbesChange in terms of actions/behaviors related to the change makers own life. Probe in detail about changes in the change maker’s own behavior. When did this change occur (soon after the person became a change maker or is this recent?); what exactly was the change? What did this action make the change maker feel? What are the challenges/difficulties the change maker faced in making this change/ these changes? What did the person do to overcome the difficulty? -

Change in terms of personal beliefs and perceptions. Any examples that might help us to understand the changed perception?

-

Instances where the change maker has intervened in someone else’s life and made a difference (be sure to cover every instance of intervention by the change maker). Cover each instance in detail- when did this happen; what was the exact situation; what made the change maker intervene in this situation; who all were involved; what the change maker did. Here be sure to ask in detail about how the change maker changed the situation (if that happened).; what all did he/she say to convince the persons concerned to change, how many such interactions were needed, did the change happen immediately or did it take time? In either case, what caused the change? What was the resistance offered by the other side and how was it overcome. THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS WHEREBY THE CHANGE MAKER MADE A DIFFERENCE TO THE SITUATION. UNCOVERING HOW EXACTLY THE CHANGE MAKER SHIFTED THE SITUATION, WHAT ALL HAPPENED IS VERY IMPORTANT.

-

What is the CM gaining or getting out of making all these changes and taking these actions? Probe: what are the benefits of being a change maker? What is the value added?

Q2. Refer back to the question on WECAN events and check to see all the different ways in which the change maker has reconnected with the issue after the first time she/he was introduced to VAW (e.g. through the mobile van, newsletter, any other subsequent programs etc.). Explore what the change maker feels about these various methods of reconnecting the change maker with the issue. (E.g. ask, “You mentioned that after you became a change maker you have also attended other programs/ participated in the mobile van activity/got the newsletter etc. In what ways has this made a difference to what you have been doing to reduce VAW?” Q3. Check with the change maker if, apart from WECAN, she/he is part of any other group/intervention (such as a savings group/ adult education group/youth club)? Q4. How long has he/she been a part of such a group?

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Q5. Was he/she part of this group from before or after he/she became a change maker? Q6. If the change maker says he/she is also part of a mahila mandal/women’s savings group/ other women’s group, check: a) Whether issues of violence against women are discussed in these groups b) If yes, what exactly is discussed and how is this different from WECAN? c) What is the difference they see between their role as change makers and their role as members of the other intervention group they are part of? Probe question- Why couldn’t the respondent have taken actions on VAW or made these changes without becoming a change maker? ; In what way has being part of the other group helped the change maker to discharge his/her role? Is there anything else you want to share about your experiences of addressing VAW? Thank the change maker and if needed take a short break after this and then resume the social mapping exercise. Step I: The interviewer and note taker should take a chart paper and sit down comfortably with the change maker. Then he/she says, “You have shared about your experiences after becoming a change maker and about various people and groups in your environment. I have a few more questions related to these changes. Let us start with your family, for example. Let’s say this shape I am making here (interviewer draws a blob as shown below) stands for your family. According to you, who all among your family members have changed as a result of what you have done on the issue of VAW or as a result of the changes in you?” As the change make talks about each member, keep adding smaller blobs for each of them and name them (mother with name, father with name etc.).

The second person who is with you should start writing down changes among the family members in Form I, in great detail. Ensure that you probe changes within the family in great depth and ask for specific examples, stories and instances to explain whatever change is reported by the change maker. This is very important. The interviewer should write this down but in brief (maybe a phrase or line) in a box next to the corresponding blob. Once the changes have been captured, ask the change- makers, “what do you think is causing this change? This is how the blob of the family should look when it is complete.

“You have shared about the change each of the members in your family has gone through, very well. Are there things you are doing now as a family that you were not doing earlier? Any practices? Any actions?” This should be noted down in detail in the appropriate section in Form I by the note taker. Step II: The interviewer says, “Till now, we have talked about your family as a group. Are there any other groups in your surroundings, such as your extended family or neighborhood, that you feel are also changing in the same way?” Make a second blob for the system mentioned by the change maker. Explore in depth about changes within this group/system in detail, just as you did for the family. A very important question to probe here is “What is causing this second group to change?” If the change maker shares that this second system has changed because of the changes in the family in some way, ask why does she/he think her/his family has anything to do with this change?” Also ask the change maker now whether the reverse has also happened, that is his/her family has also been impacted by this second group in any way. If the change maker says yes, probe in what way has her/his family been impacted by the change in this second system. Place arrows to show the direction of change (could be one way or two way).

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In this way keep exploring all the various groups around the change maker that might have changed in some way due to interactions with the change maker or others, on the issue of violence against women or WECAN. In probing the change within each group it is very important to constantly ask the change maker two questions: 1. “What is causing this group to change?” 2. “In your view, is the change in this group affecting other groups in any way?” In this way, all the groups around the change maker should be explored and at the end of this part of the discussion, the chart could look something like this: Diagram 1

Story of change

Story of change

Neighbo rs

Family

Friend s

Name of friends/s

Relatives

(However, to make the diagram less cluttered and easy to read, when you are finalizing the workshop transcripts, it might be better to make two separate diagrams- one for the various systems and actors in it; and a second one only to explain the impact of one system on another. This has also been explained in the documentation format). Ensure you explore whether there are any overlaps between any of the circles. You could, for example, ask, “Are your friends part of any of these circles apart from their own circle?” Note this in the blob adjacent to the circle, as shown above in circle on neighbors. Step III: Once this exercise has been completed, thank the change maker. Then tell her/him, “The information you have just provided is very useful. Just as we have spoken to you about the changes you have gone through, we also want to talk to some of the people mentioned by you in our discussions right now. Do you think you could provide me with names of such people we could speak to?” This should be noted in the form attached. 25

If the perpetrator of violence is among the persons mentioned by the respondent, as one of the persons who has been impacted and has changed, please ensure that you seek permission from the respondent about whether that person can be interviewed in the follow up session; whether interviewing this person might pose any risk to the respondent. Only if the respondent agrees and says that she/he is not at risk if the person is interviewed, should his/her name be included in the form. 25

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Documentation Format For Social Influence Mapping CC

SC

PII/NPII

0

0

QI. Narrative of personal change experienced by the change maker

Q2. The different ways in which the change maker has reconnected with the issue after the first time she/he was introduced to VAW (e.g. through the mobile van, newsletter, any other subsequent programs etc.). Effect of reconnecting with the issue and campaign

Q3. Apart from WECAN is the change maker part of any other group/intervention (such as a savings group/ adult education group/youth club)?

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Q4. How long has he/she been a part of such a group?

Q5. Has this person joined this group before the respondent became a change maker or after?

Q6. If the change maker says he/she is also part of a mahila mandal/women’s savings group/ other women’s group: a) Whether issues of violence against women are discussed in these groups

b) If yes, what exactly is discussed and how is this different from WECAN?

c) What is the difference they see between their role as change makers and their role as members of the other intervention group they are part of?

Q7. Anything else shared by the change maker about his/her experiences of addressing VAW?

Thank the change maker and if needed take a short break after this and then resume the social mapping exercise. Change within the family:

What is causing the change

Is the change in this group affecting other groups in any way?

Change within the second group mentioned by change maker Neighbors...........1 Relatives and extended family................2 Friends of change maker..............3 Friends of the family members......4 Others (specify)..................5

What is causing this change

Is the change in this group affecting other groups in any way?

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Change within the third group mentioned by change maker Neighbors...........1 Relatives and extended family................2 Friends of change maker..............3 Friends of the family members......4 Others (specify)..................5

What is causing this change?

Is the change in this group affecting other groups in any way?

FORM TO IDENTIFY CHANGE MAKER’S CIRCLE OF INFLUENCE Name of change Maker: Schedule No:

Date: S no.

Name of person who has been impacted by the change maker and WECAN

Relationship with the Change maker

Sex Female -1 Male-2

Marital status Unmarried/never married________1 Married___________2 Divorced/seperated_3 Widow/widower___4 Deserted_________5 Other(specify)_______6

Age

Location/address of the person

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Interview Schedule For Change Makers Circle Of Influence Schedule no. CC

SC

0

0

0

Assessment of WECAN phase II (Interview schedule for people from different systems in the change maker’s circle of influence)

To be filled in by the interviewer before and after the interview Name of the respondent: Name of the change maker: Respondent’s relationship with change maker: Name of the village: Name of the district: Name of the block/tehsil/VDC/union/division: Complete address of the respondent: Name of the investigator: Name of recorder: Date of interview: Status of interview:

Completed……………. Incomplete………………

Number of visits required to complete the interview…………………………..

Introduction: Hello/Namaste/Assalam-u-alaikum/Aiyobuwan/Vanakkam/appropriate greeting. My name is _______________________ and this is my colleague__________________. We have got your name from _______________(put the name of Change maker ) who is your family member/ friend / relative / neighbor. We are trying to talk with people with whom _____________(name of change maker) has talked and discussed the issue of violence against women. As_______________has mentioned your name we would like to talk with you to know more about what you think about this issue and about your experiences in addressing VAW. We would like to ask you questions related to how you became involved with this issue and your experiences. All that you share with us will help us understand what people feel/ think about this issue.

You can refuse to answer any question that you don’t want and also stop the interview any time if you don’t wish to talk. This entire discussion will be kept confidential. This means that your interview responses will be shared only within the research team and we will ensure that any information we include in our report does not identify you as the respondent.

Can we start the interview? (If the respondent agrees for the interview please inform him / her that it will take approximately an hour and then proceed).

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BEFORE STARTING THE INTERVIEW PLEASE ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS TO ENSURE THAT THE PERSON HAS HEARD ABOUT THE ISSUE/CHANGE MAKER/ CAMPAIGN. HE/SHE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO REMEMBER THE CAMPAIGN BUT CAN RECALL THE DISCUSSION WITH THE PARTICULAR CHANGE MAKER WHO HAS MENTIONED HIS/HER NAME

1.

What is your full name?

2.

Have you ever heard about the issue of violence against women?

Yes…………………1 (go to Q 4)

3.

Can you recollect _______________(put the name of the change maker) discussing and talking about the issue of violence against women/discrimination of girl child or showing you any material on this issue, at any time?

Yes I can remember…….1(start the interview, go to Q 8) No I can’t remember anything….2 (thank the respondent and terminate the interview)

4.

From where did you get this information? (can be multiple response)

5.

Apart from these sources did anyone else talk to you about the issue of violence against women?

Television…………….1 Radio…………………2 Newspaper……………3 Change maker………...4 (go to Q 8 ) Event in the community…….5 From Neighbor/community member...................................6 From a relative……………….7 From a friend………………...8 Other(specify)………………9 Yes…………….1 No……………..2 (go to Q 7)

6.

Who talked to you about it?

7.

Can you recollect _______________(put the name of the change maker) discussing and talking about the issue of violence against women/discrimination of girl child or showing you any material on this issue, at any time?

No………………….2 (go to Q 3)

Panchayat member/local elder/ local councilor/Mohalla committee member/Gram sevaka…………1 Anganwari Worker/health worker/LHW/LHV………2 Change maker………….3 (go to Q 8) NGO worker……………..4 Friend/neighbor/relative………..5 Others (specify)………………….6 Yes I can remember…….1(start the interview, go to Q 8) No I can’t remember anything….2 (thank the respondent and terminate the interview)

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SECTION 1: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS Thank you for your cooperation so far. I have a few questions on your family and educational background. Can we proceed? 8.

What is your age? (in completed years)

9.

Sex

Female……………1 Male………………2

10.

What is your marital status?

Unmarried/never married________1 Married___________2 Divorced/seperated__________3 Widow/widower______4 Deserted______________5 Other(specify)________________6 Cannot read and write_____________1 Can only sign____________________2 Class I- V _______________3 Class VI – IX_____________4 Matriculation (class X)______5 G.C.E O/L_____6 Intermediate (class XII)_______7 G.C.E A/L_______8 Graduate______________9 Post Gradutae________________10 Others (please specify)__________________11 Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service___________5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed_______7 Specify__________________________ Student__________________________8 Lawyer__________________________9 Teacher________________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker______________13 Specify___________________ Other (specify)____________________14

11.

What are your educational qualifications?

12.

What is your occupation?

13.

I would like to know a little more about the other members of your family. Please ask about and note down all the details about the various members of his/ her family (that is all those living in the same house as the respondent). Start with the eldest member of the family and go the youngest. If the age of the member is less than a year put “0” in the column of age. While noting down the name of the family members ask for girls/ female members specifically)

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Relationship

Age (in

Sex

to

completed

Female

respondent

yrs)

1 Male 2

Marital status Never married…….1 Married………….2 Separated/Divorced…… 3 Widow /Widower……….4 Deserted……………5 Others(specify)…………6

Education Can’t read or write……..1 Can sign only…………2 Class 1—4……………3 Class5---9…………….4 Matriculation…5 G.C.EO/L…………..…6 Intermediate………..7 G.C.E A/L…....8 Graduate…………9 Post graduate………10 Others (specify)………11

Occupation Farming on own land_______________1 Agricultural labour________________2 Non-agricultural labour______________3 Government service________________4 Private service/____________5 NGO sector____________6 Small business owner/Self employed__7 Student__________________________8 Lawyer__________________________9 Teacher________________________10 Lady Health Worker LHW/LHV_____11 Housewife______________________12 Home based worker______________13 Other (specify)__________________14

SECTION 2: RESPONDENT’S KNOWLEDGE ABOUT VAW AND WECAN

In the beginning of the interview you mentioned that_______________(name of change maker) spoke with you and discussed the issue of VAW. I have a few questions related to this which I would like to talk to you about. 14.

Can you remember when____________ (name of change maker) first talked to you about this?

15.

What did he/she tell you?

16.

How much did you both talk or discuss this issue?

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17.

Did ________(name of change maker) use or show you any of these material related to VAW? (show prompt sheet 1 to respondent)

Yes…………..1 No……………2 (got to Q 13)

18.

Can you please tell me which materials were shown to you? Please remember all the materials that were shown to you (Multi response is possible –please circle all the options that the respondent mentions—DO NOT READ OUT)

Comic books……..1 Posters………….2 Workbooks……..3 Wall pennant……….4 Newsletter…………..5 Flip chart/flash cards……………….6 Calendars………………………7 Greeting cards………………….8 Others (specify)…………..……..9

19.

What did you find relevant in what ________(name of change maker) told you about VAW?

20.

How do you think these discussions have impacted your sensitivity to the issue of VAW? Can you explain this with an example?

21.

Have you ever heard about the WECAN campaign?

Yes……………………….1 No…………………………2 (go to Q 23)

22.

What do you think is the objective of the WECAN campaign? (multiple response – please do not read out- circle those mentioned by the respondent and then probe for anything else)

23.

Have you heard of the term change maker?

It is on ending domestic violence….1 It is about equal rights for women…2 It is about unacceptability of VAW..3 It is on discrimination of girls……4 It is about personal change……….5 It is about a peaceful family life….6 It is about different forms of VAW…..7 Other(specify)…………………………..8 Yes……………….1 No………………….2 (go to Q 29)

24.

Who according to you is a change maker?

25.

What according to you does a change maker do? (Multiple responses are possible; Do not read out; circle all those applicable)

Talk to others about issues related to domestic violence…………………1 Help those who face domestic violence………………….2 Motivate people to send their daughters to school…………..3 Organize village meetings/events…….4 No Idea…………………………..5 Others(specify)……………….………6

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26.

Do you consider yourself a change maker?

Yes………………1 No……………….2 (go to Q 29 )

27.

Why do you consider yourself a change maker? (Multiple responses are allowed here. Let respondent speak and circle appropriate responses. Do not read out responses)

Because I have filled a CM form………1 Because I am working to end VAW………2 Because I am talking to others about VAW…3 Because I have made personal changes in my life…………………….4 Because I am motivating others to change..5 Because I have taken many actions to end VAW in my family………………….6 Because I have taken many actions to end VAW in my community…………….7 Others (specify)……………………………8

27.

Since when have you been a change maker?

28.

Why did you decide to become a change maker? (Probe Q- ask respondent to explain reasons and ask for examples where appropriate)

29.

Since you heard about the issue of VAW, have you discussed it with others about the issue?

Yes……………1 No……………2 (go to Q 31)

30.

Can you please tell me who you talked to about these issues? (Multiple responses are allowed here. Let the respondent speak and circle appropriate responses. Do not read out responses)

Mother…………………..1 Father……………..2 Own sister/sisters………………..3 Own brother/brothers………………..4 Cousins male…………………………….5 Cousins female………………….6 Other male relatives (specify)…………………………………7 Other female relatives (specify)…………………………………..8 Male friends….………………………….9 Female friends…………………………..10 Male neighbors………………………..11 Female neighbors……………………..12 Others (specify)…………………………13

31.

Apart from what___________( name of change maker) discussed with you, have you participated in any other activities or discussions on this issue?

Yes (WECAN activity)…………1 Yes (non WECAN activity on VAW)…….2 No…………..3 (go to Q 33)

32.

Can you share about this activity?

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SECTION 3: PERSONAL CHANGE

Till now we were talking about the issues related to VAW, the WECAN campaign and how you came to know about them. Now I would like to know about the changes in your own life or the changes you noticed around you as you have become aware and are talking and discussing these issues.

33.

You have mentioned that you have discussed about VAW with ___________(name of change maker), come to know about the issue and (if applicable) also seen the material. Do you think all this has led to any kind of personal change in you? Can you tell me more about it? (Interviewer should give time and probe about this issue. Interviewer should probe for examples, actions and behaviors that demonstrate the change.)

34.

What do you think has caused this change?

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35.

Have you noticed any changes in your family? (Check for examples) then ask, can you please explain what the reasons for such changes are?

36.

Similarly, can you share about the changes you have noticed in your neighbors, friends and relatives? What do you think are the reasons behind such changes?

Section 4: Attitude towards the issue of VAW For some time now we have been talking about the campaign, the changes you have gone through and changes you have seen in others. I now have a few questions related to your views and beliefs about the issue of VAW. Can we proceed? 37.

According to you which behaviors can be termed as violence against woman? (probe and note down all the behaviors he/she mentions)

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38.

Some people believe that VAW is a serious problem. What is your opinion? (Probe Q - why do you think this is a serious/not a serious problem?)

39.

How would you define a violence free family? Can you give an example of a violence free family around you? (Probe Q-Why do think that there is no violence in that family?)

40.

I have with me a set of statements about families which are violence free. I would like you to indicate yes if you think this applies to a violence free family and no if you think it does not apply to a violence free family. There is no right or wrong answer. (Please read out each statement one by one and record the response before moving to the next. Do not explain or probe)

Statement 401

Yes...1 No... 2

Why do you think so?

Husband and wife take all the major decisions together

402

Boys and girls get the same kind of food

403

Wife cannot go out of the village/community without asking her husband

404

Husband abuses his wife occasionally

405

Wife is denied money as husband gets her everything

406

Daughter is married off before the age of 18 yrs if the family finds a good match

407

All family members can express their opinion freely

408

Mother in law abuses the daughter in law if she does not cook properly.

409

All the children are sent to school

41.

According to you what should a woman do when she is facing violence in the family? (Note down what the respondent states verbatim).

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42.

421

422 423 43.

Thank you! I am going to read out a situation to you and would then like to discuss a few questions related to this situation. There is no right or wrong answers. Please feel free to share your views. Your brother works in the city and stays there with his wife. He and his wife come home to see your parents once a month. The last time he was here, his wife refused to go back with him. She has shared with her parents that whenever she asks for money your brother hits her and abuses her. Your mother has also come to know of this. Her parents and your mother feel your brother is under a lot of stress and have advised his wife not to ask for any money. They have convinced her to go back with him. After a couple of days you have got a call from your brother’s neighbour that his wife has a fractured hand because of a fight between the couple and they need the help of your family. Who do you think is responsible for this situation? Probe why the respondent thinks so? What do you think your family could have done to solve the problem? What do you think your brother could have done to solve the problem? I have with me here a few statements relating to men and women. I would like you to indicate your opinion about each of them by stating whether you agree or disagree with each one. In case you don’t have an opinion about the statement, you can say so. There is no right or wrong answer. Please feel free to express your opinion freely. (Interviewer to remember that once the respondent has said agree or disagree, please check whether the person agrees strongly or somewhat. Similarly, if the respondent says disagree, please check whether he/she disagrees strongly or somewhat. Then place a tick mark against the appropriate box. Be sure to ask why the respondent holds this opinion) Statement

431

An occasional slap by the husband does not amount to domestic violence

432

Denying money to your wife is a form of domestic violence

433

A man is never justified in hitting his wife

434

Women should tolerate domestic violence as it is their responsibility to keep the family together

435

We should not talk about their experiences of domestic violence with anyone

436

Violence in any form is unacceptable

Strongly agree

Some what agree

No opinio n

Some what disagre e

Strongl y disagre e

Why do you think so?

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437

It is the responsibility of the community to support the women who face violence

438

Husband can demand sex from wife whenever he wants

439

Men deserve more rights than women

440

Sharing housework does not suit men

44

Given below are some situations. Please indicate what you think you will do if you are faced with these situations.

441

You come to know that the woman in your neighborhood whom you do not know very well is facing domestic violence. What will you do? (wait for the respondent to finish answering this question, then ask)

Why will you do this? 442

Your uncle has returned home drunk and is abusing his wife. What will you do? (wait for the respondent to finish answering this question, then ask)

Why will you do this?

45

Some people believe that violence against women is a community level problem. What is your opinion?

Interviewing team’s comments:

THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR TIME AND PARTICIPATION

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Annex 4: notes for field research teams:

Pointers And Instructions For Recorders The recording format follows the order in which various exercises/activities are being carried out in the workshop for change makers It is very important that the recorder also be equally familiar with the flow of the workshop and the questions to be asked. It is imperative to write down the responses according to the various boxes and spaces provided in the recording format. All the discussions with the change maker have to record verbatim, that is as the change maker is saying it. This is extremely important because we do not want any bias to creep into what the change maker is saying. If required ask the change maker to halt briefly while you quickly jot down what they have said. Please do not add extra words or phrases or sentences based on what you think they might have said. The recorder’s role is to record what is said without resorting to any interpretation of what the change maker is sharing. Also keep making a note of any facial expressions, especially when the change maker is speaking about an emotional experience (happy or sad). This can be done by using a simple smiley. Ensure the transcripts are faired and finalized before moving to the next workshop. This is imperative so that you do not pile up work and forget details. Ensure you and the interviewer take time out to reflect on the discussions with the change maker and jot down your observations. This too should be done immediately after the workshop is over.

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Ethical Considerations And Practicality Of The Assessment Ethical considerations    

  

 

In-depth explanation on the purpose and process of the assessment will be given to all members of the research team. Vocabularies that are sensitive according to cultural or any other beliefs will not be used by the team. Apply do no harm approach in all kinds of interaction concerned with the assessment. Confidentiality will be assured to research participants (changer makers + people from the circle of influences) and their real names will not be disclosed at any point. The access to information gathered will be restricted. Investigators and recorders will submit their notes on a daily basis (at least by the end of each workshop/field visit) The members of the research team must not be judgmental about the views expressed by the participants/informants. The members of the research team will not be allowed to use the collected data for other purposes. Prior acknowledgement/permission is required (from the We Can Secretariat, through the lead researcher), if needed. The purpose and process of the assessment will be given to all participants. They will be given freedom to decide their participation in the study. No one will be forced to be part of the study. The participants will not be forced to express certain concepts/view points against their will.

Practicality     

Political situation of the field location will be assessed before any interaction/effort that the assessment attempts. Security of the research team members and participants will be given priority at any point of the assessment. Other research challenges will be notified and will be handled appropriately with the help of context specific consultations with experts in the respective fields. The research team will use the same way of introducing themselves to the participants in a manner that doesn’t harm anyone and the purpose of the assessment. Buffer periods will appropriately be given throughout in order to handle the emergencies (such as health, security and political situations).

119


Annex 5: Important Lessons of the Midterm Review March 2008 Rabia Khan Important Lessons: There are gender differences in levels of understanding and awareness among men and women, as well as boys and girls in the same area on issues of violence against women and it doesn’t appear to have any link to literacy levels. Change makers and those who have the potential, especially men, have consistently reported that they did/do not have enough awareness about these issues. Therefore their confidence to discuss this with others was/is limited. This is different from women change makers who have more clarity and experience about this either as direct victims or sympathizers of women victims and actually engaged in some form of formal or informal support. Similarly change makers have comfort zones and shy away from debating beyond those zones unless they are challenged and are provided with enough evidence and conceptual clarity on human rights and gender equality. This relates to guidance on whether violence against women who may be ‘bad charactered is permissible or lawful. . According to the strategy attitudinal and behavior change is also progression over a period of time as a person realizes the dimensions and implications of these issues, the process of internalization will be supported by various messages which the Campaign will generate in its four phases to continue the learning and build the awareness levels of the cadre of change makers. 26

Assumptions that certain people (religious groups support VAW) is wrong as there are many madrasseh teachers and mosque khatibs who have been supportive and invited CMs to come and enlighten their students and faculty so that the message can be spread further. Oxfam may not directly engage with such groups but it should not discourage it as well. Similarly feudal, tribal leaders and police who are traditionally thought to be perpetuators of VAW have pockets of support and should be engaged as they can be very influential CMs The change makers at the initial stage want to keep the Campaign around the broader issue of VAW. The issue of honor killings is VAW but in the Campaign it should not be called as ‘honor’ killing. The resistance in the community to not accept the terminology “honor” killing as a crime is because honor is considered a good thing. Therefore without using the word ‘honor’ a message which says taking a women’s life for any reason is a crime and a sin would be more appropriate. Although the Campaign decided to facilitate and directly manage contracts of over 65 District based allies, this may reduce/dilute the quality of support provided with the current resource base as the Campaign gains momentum and scales up in terms of number of allies and broader geographical spread. Very soon the Campaign management will have to make some choices on where to focus their workload/facilitation support. The following choices come to mind, which are not exhaustive and may be better identified after consultation with the alliance members: a) b) c)

26

Provide capacity building for change makers and monitoring support to the Alliance for all the Campaign phases so that change makers are of the desired quality, as they form the back bone of this Campaign. Monitor and provide feedback to the Provincial and Federal based allies who become the focal for Campaign management and the formation of change makers. Focus on contract management with Provincial and federal level alliance members for the duration of the contract. These allies then take on facilitation support to the District alliance

Campaign Strategy Paper Updated June 2005 pg. 7 The Stage of Change Theory

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