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INTERNATIONAL EDITION

Paul Clement, center, is currently is defending both Arizona’s illegal immigration law and Congress’ ban on interstate recognition of same-sex marriages.

WASHINGTON — It would be hard for any lawyer to fathom a more riveting caseload than the one Paul Clement carried during his seven years in U.S. President George W. Bush’s Justice Department. As solicitor general for three years and deputy solicitor for four, Clement appeared before the Supreme Court 49 times, defended the administration’s detention of terrorism suspects, fought off challenges to the McCain-

Feingold campaign finance law and validated the prosecution of medical marijuana growers in a landmark commerce case. But if possible, the docket that Clement has compiled in the private sector as one of Washington’s leading appellate litigators may situate him even closer to the center of national discourse. At the moment, he is defending both Arizona’s tough new law against illegal immigration and Congress’ prohibition against interstate recognition of same-sex marriages. And if, as expected, the

New York Times Service

WASHINGTON — An unusual proposal by Iran’s supreme leader to eliminate the position of president has highlighted an increasingly bitter struggle within the country’s political elite, as the leader and his allies continue to try to undercut the powers of Iran’s ambitious president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, told an academic gathering last week that “changing Iran into a parliamentary system” in which voters no longer elected

a president would not be a problem. His words were widely seen as the latest blow in a battle that began in April when Ahmadinejad crossed a line by openly feuding with Khamenei — who has the final word in affairs of state — over cabinet appointments. Some analysts see the power struggle as a legacy of the disputed 2009 presidential election, when accusations of rigging — and months of street protests — deepened rifts and reduced the supreme leader’s support among the public and the political elite. Although Ahmadinejad had the

supreme leader’s support in both the 2009 and 2005 elections and the two men were long seen as ideological soul mates, the president has tried to build an independent power base, and many conservatives feel threatened by his vision of an Iran less dominated by clerics. Khamenei’s veiled attack on the presidency has drawn polarized responses. Ali Larijani, the speaker of Parliament and a rival to Ahmadinejad, endorsed the comments and called for a parliamentary system. A former president, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who has at

• TURN TO EUROPE, 2A

• TURN TO LAWYER, 2A

Uruguay revokes dirty war officials’ amnesty BY ALMUDENA CALATRAVA AND RAUL O. GARCES Associated Press

MONTEVIDEO, Uruguay — Uruguay’s Congress revoked amnesty for military officials charged with human rights abuses on Thursday, a day after an Argentine court sentenced a former navy spy known as “the Angel of Death” and 11 other former Argentine military and police officers to life in prison for crimes against humanity committed during the country’s 197683 military dictatorship. Alfredo Astiz, a 59-year-old former navy captain, became notorious for his infiltration and betrayal of activists and was viewed by many Argentines as the symbol of the junta’s crimes. He was accused of participating in the kidnapping, torture and murder of two French nuns, a journalist and three founders of a human rights group. The crimes alleged against all the defendants included 86 cases of kidnapping, torture and murder of leftist dissidents committed at the Navy Mechanics School, one of the military junta’s principal torture

IN SUPERCOMMITTEE, DEMOCRATS OFFER UPTO $3 TRILLION IN CUTS, 3A

VICTOR R. CAIVANO/AP

Alfredo Astir, left, a former Argentine navy spy nicknamed ‘the Angel of Death,’ and former navy captain Antonio Pernias, right, got life sentences for crimes against humanity. centers used to crush the threat of armed revolution. About 5,000 detainees passed through the school. Fewer than half survived. Closing out a trial that began in 2009, four other defendants were sentenced to between 18 and 25 years

LIBYA’S INTERIM LEADER ASKS NATO TO STAY THROUGH 2011, 6A

New York Times Service

• TURN TO IRAN, 2A

lead counsel in the high-profile Florida case filed by Republican governors and attorneys general from 26 states. In August, he and his co-counsel, Michael Carvin, won the only appellate ruling to invalidate the act’s keystone provision, which will require most U.S. citizens to obtain medical insurance, starting in 2014. That opinion, from the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, in Atlanta, directly contradicts a ruling from the 6th Circuit in

Supreme Court soon announces that it will hear a challenge to last year’s healthcare law, it seems increasingly likely that it will be Clement who argues, in the thick of the 2012 campaign, that the Affordable Care Act — U.S. President Barack Obama’s signature domestic achievement — is unconstitutional. This week and last, Clement, 45, filed briefs supporting the Obama administration’s request that the court accept his healthcare challenge from among the several pending before it. He is

Iran’s power struggle goes beyond personalities BY ROBERT F. WORTH

BY STEVEN ERLANGER AND STEPHEN CASTLE

times sparred with the supreme leader, warned Tuesday that eliminating the presidency would “be contrary to the Constitution and would weaken the people’s power of choice,” according to the centrist newspaper Aftab News. Other partisans have gone further, with one pro-Ahmadinejad daily newspaper, Iran, seeming to mock the supreme leader’s comments. (That article was soon taken off the paper’s website.) “The fighting in Iran is very serious now,” said Seyed Mojtaba

BRENDAN HOFFMAN/ NEW YORK TIMES SERVICE

LAWYER OPPOSING HEALTHCARE LAW IS FAMILIAR FACE TO SUPREME COURT JUSTICES

New York Times Service

Euro deal draws positive first reaction BRUSSELS — European leaders, in a significant step toward resolving the eurozone financial crisis, won an agreement from banks Thursday to take a 50 percent loss on the face value of their Greek debt. The agreement was crucial to assembling a comprehensive package to protect the euro, which has emerged as a new source of global economic anxiety and has been keeping jittery financial markets on edge. The markets rallied strongly on the news of the accord, which was achieved after nearly 10 hours of negotiations by European leaders, finance ministers and bankers at an emergency meeting in Brussels. Stocks rose 6 percent in France, 5.1 percent in Germany and 3.3 percent in Hong Kong. On Wall Street, shares surged 2 percent at the opening bell. The value of the euro, which cost $1.32 a few weeks ago when anxiety over its future stability was worsening, surged to $1.40 in European foreign exchange trading on Thursday. Hopes were also boosted by the possibility that Russia and even China, which has amassed enormous amounts of capital in its historic economic climb over the years, would play an active role in helping with Europe’s financial rescue. President Nicholas Sarkozy of France spoke to his Chinese counterpart, Hu Jintao, on Thursday, although there was no word on precisely what was discussed, and the top executive of the eurozone’s emergency bailout fund was scheduled to visit China on Friday. Still, the optimism and relief that washed over the markets in the aftermath of the European announcement of the package obscured a host of technical questions about its implementation that have yet to be addressed. How those questions are dealt with, European officials and bankers said, could determine whether the Europeans have truly

The right litigator BY KEVIN SACK

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 28, 2011

108TH YEAR I ©2011 THE MIAMI HERALD

in prison, while two others were absolved. Former Adm. Emilio Masserta, who commanded the torture center, wasn’t tried because of poor health and died last November. • TURN TO WARS, 4A

FORD REPORTS A PROFIT FOR 10TH STRAIGHT QUARTER, BUSINESS FRONT

Researchers decipher 250-year-old coded book LOS ANGELES — (AP) — Scientists in California and Sweden said they have used computer translation techniques to solve a 250-year-old mystery by deciphering a coded manuscript written for a secret society. The University of Southern California announced Tuesday that researchers had broken the Copiale Cipher, a 105-page, 18th century document from Germany. The handwritten, beautifully bound book didn’t contain any sort of Da Vinci Code but rather a snapshot of the arcane rituals practiced by one of the many secret societies that flourished in the 1700s. It also recorded rites for some apparent sects of Freemasonry that showed political leanings. “This opens up a window for people who study the history of ideas and the history of secret societies,” USC computer scientist Kevin Knight, who was on the deciphering team, said in a state-

DOLPHINS SIGN QB LOSMAN, SPORTS FRONT

ment. “Historians believe that secret societies have had a role in revolutions, but all that is yet to be worked out, and a big part of the reason is because so many documents are enciphered.” The handwritten Copiale Cipher was discovered in East Berlin after the Cold War and is now in a private collection. Most of the book was written in a cipher of 90 characters that included abstract symbols and Roman and Greek letters. Knight and Beata Megyesi and Christiane Schaefer of Sweden’s Uppsala University went to work cracking it earlier this year. They used a computer program to automate a key code-breaking procedure — tallying the frequency and grouping of the letters and symbols — then automated the process of comparing the cipher to known languages. It’s a method used by many automated translation programs. • TURN TO CIPHER, 2A

INDEX THE AMERICAS ............4A U.S. NEWS ...................5A OPINION........................7A COMICS & PUZZLES ...6B


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