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BEGINNERS' FREKFCH BY

VICTOR

E.

FRANgOIS,

Ph.D.

OFFICIER D'ACADEMIE

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF FRENCH IN THE COLLEGE

OF THE CITY OF

NEW YORK

NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY :.

•:•


Copyright,

1903,

by

Victor E. Francois Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

FRANCOIS, BEGINNER'S FRENCH W.

p.

22


To MY Dear Friend AND Former Colleague in the University of Michigan DR.

ERNST MENSEL

Professor of

German

THIS VOLUME IN

IS

in

Smith College

DEDICATED

REMEMBRANCE OF THE MANY PLEASANT

HOURS WE HAVE SPENT TOGETHER DISCUSSING BOOKS AND METHODS

68'7'902


TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGB

Introduction

7

Pronunciation

13

.19

Definite article. Plural of nouns Definite article (continued). Translation of it when a subject Negation. Formation of questions. Present indicative of etre Agreement, feminine and plural of adjectives. Formation of questions (continued) Possessive and demonstrative Comparatives and superlatives. adjectives Of or from the. Irregular plurals Reading Lesson. Sorite Some or any. Present indicative of avoir . . Indefinite article. Cardinal and ordinal numbers Reading Lesson. Divisions du temps Present indicative of the first conjugation . To or at the. Imperfect indicative of the first conjugation Reading Lesson. Impossible ii'est pas franfais . Present indicative of the second conjugation Imperfect indicative of the second conjugation. Formation of adverbs Reading Lesson. Du pareil au mime Present and imperfect indicative of the third conjugation Some or any (continued). Verbs ending in -ger and -cer . • . . Reading Lesson. Un Calembour Some or any (continued). Irregular feminine of adjectives. Present and imperfect indicative of recevoir Place of adjectives. Agreement of adjectives qualifying two or more .

.

21

.

23

.26 30 35 39 39 44

...... .....-5^

49 50 55 5^

.

.

.

.

.

66

...'75 .

.

62

67 70

.

75

8° 88 93

nouns Reading Lesson. .

Trois excellents Medecins • Peculiarities of some verbs of the first conjugation Future and conditional of regular verbs. Impersonal verb

.

.

Demonstrative pronouns

97 108

Interrogative adjectives; interrogative and relative pronouns. Com.112 pound tenses .118 Agreement of past participles Possessive pronouns. 121 Une Meprise Reading Lesson. Demonstrative and relative pronouns (continued). Compound tenses •

.

.

(continued) Indefinite adjectives and pronouns Place of personal pronouns Preterit. Place of personal pronouns (continued). Formation of tenses. Cueillir Reading Lesson. Une joyeuse Harangue S

^^i

^25 I3^ 1

37

Mi


TAHLK OF CONTKNTS

O

PACK

Imperative. Place of personal pronouns (continued). Passive voice. Couvrir^faire, pleuvoir Disjunctive pronouns. Hair^ partir,falloi> Time of the day. Aller, mettre Voir Reading Lesson. La petite ATendiantt .

.

Envoyer

.

.

,

.

152

156 160 163

Prendre

165

.168

Active voice instead of passive. Plaire Simple tenses of the reflexive voice. Sortir

Compound

tenses of the reflexive voice. Venir, sentir, s'asseoir Reading Lesson. Enignies Plural of compound nouns. Resoudre^ dire, valoir Prepositions before the infinitive. Craindre Imperative of the reflexive voice. Tenir, boire, pouvoir .

.

.

.

Reading Lesson.

.

.

La petite Hirondelle

Atteindre, introditire

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Dormir, eteindre, poun>oir Reading Lesson. Une Suppression

172 178

.183 .184

............ ...... ......... .

Ouvrir, lire

142

.146

189 194 198 201

203 207

spirituelle. Repartie royaU 211 Reciprocal verbs .212 Reading Lesson. Acrosticke .216 .216 Place of adverbs. Senir, vetir Reading Lesson. La Tombe et la Rose .221 Rules of the subjunctive mood. £crire, votiloir .222 228 Use of fie. Mourir, rire, vivre Reading Lesson. Un Courtisan pris au pies^e 232 Instruire, paraitre, (aire, decouvrir, conveuir 233 Imperfect of the subjunctive. Sequence of tenses. Acquerir, croire, .

.

.

savoir, cofinaitre

Reading Lesson.

.

.

Bons Mots de

.

.

Diof;ene.

.

L"*

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Animal

le

Reponse de Socrate

Poems

^Z7

plus nuisible. 243

....

Le Colimafon, by Arnault La Feuille dessechee, by Arnault Le Petit Pierre, by Boucher de Perthes Beau Soir, by Paul Bourget Etoiles Filantes, by Fran9ois Coppee Con sells a un Enfant, by Victor Hugo Partant pour la Syrie, by La Reine Hortense Trois Fils d'Or, by Leconte de Lisle .

.

.

Chanson de Barberine, by Alfred de Musset Full conjugation of avoir and etre Table of endings of regular verbs Alphabetical table of irregular verbs Vocabulary, i. French-English 2. English-French

244 24S 245 246 247 247 2^8 249 250 25 254 255 256-2 ::9 •

.

261

o

28^


INTRODUCTION The old method of teaching modern

languages was trainThe new methods aim to train the ear, tongue and the eye. The author has tried to bring

ing only the eye. the

together a set of exercises giving to each of these organs a fair field of activity.

Up-to-date teachers are anxious to use French in their classes as soon as possible, but very if

few elementary books,

any, help them to carry out their cherished ambition.

It is the aim of the present volume to enable such masters, however inexperienced they may be, to make use of the conversational method from the very start. A glance through the book will suffice to understand its arrangement. It is simple and methodical. Rules. The book contains all grammar rules that first and second-year high school students or first-year college Every lesson students are expected to be familiar with. the examples coming first general rules, begins with a few write the rules in decided to It was for obvious reasons. learner. the However, as of English for the convenience teacher reviewing, the especially when early as possible and is advised to translate them into easy French and to require his pupils to recite them in the same form.

—

May

it

also be suggested here that teachers of languages

should make a more general use of the Socratic or inductive method ? Instead of giving detailed grammatical explanations to which nobody listens, 7

let

the teacher write on


beginner's FRENCH

8

the board a few well chosen examples, underlining words

or parts of words illustrating the rule to be worked out, and let

him have

the students themselves find

the solution of a problem.

It is

it

out as

an easy matter

if

if it

were

the teacher

prompts them by well directed questions. this

Such a fine opportunity should not be missed. First, method accustoms the pupils to think, to argue logically

and to express themselves intelligibly in their mother's tongue, results which are the first we should aim at even in the teaching of foreign languages. Secondly, it makes interesting and attractive a subject which is otherwise dull and repulsive, for it never fails to create a lively spirit of emulation in the class room, which is most beneficial. Thirdly, the student remembers better and for a longer time a rule which he himself has found out or helped to work out. The arguing about the rules should be done in French as soon as the progress of the class allows

Vocabulary.

it.

— Common words, words of every-day and the stock

life,

were especially sought very slowly. The words are given in the following order after,

in the special vocabularies

adjectives,

:

increased

masculine nouns, feminine nouns,

pronouns, verbal forms, adverbs, prepositions,

conjunctions and interjections.

There

end of the book. This part French Texts.

lary at the

It

is

—

is

is

a general vocabu-

the pivot of the lesson.

generally consists of four, five, or six easy sentences,

A great effort has plainly illustrating the preceding rules. been made to have sentences connected in meaning. The task

was very hard

at the beginning.

verbs except avoir and etre in the

The

There are no irregular

first

twenty-five exercises.

place of personal pronouns, except en, could not be ex-

plained earlier than in the twenty-fifth lesson, because nouns

were needed for the application of the

rules.

From

that

exercise on, the use of personal pronouns as objects should


BEGINNERS FRENCH be required

in the

texts the linking

9

answers as often as possible.

mark has been

In

all

the

used, following the set of

Paul Passy (see Linking of Words, p. 17). as well as the Vocabulary, should be read aloud carefully several times by the teacher on the day he assigns the lesson. As many students as possible should rules of Dr.

The French Text,

repeat

it

after him.

It

should be studied hy heart and every

sentence pronounced aloud again and again.

Transposition. the rules and

—

It offers the learner

knows the French

who understands

text by heart, a golden

opportunity to display his progress in pronunciation and to

master promptly and intelligently the various verbal forms and constructions. The books being closed, the teacher reads a sentence of the French text at a time and then asks it after him with the required Care should be taken not to name that particular

a particular pupil to repeat changes.

Keep

pupil before reading the sentence to be changed. class

on the qui

monotony

vive.

A

very profitable

in this part of the

work

is

way

the

to relieve the

to ask a student to

read the sentences to the class, the teacher having only to point out those

The

who must

repeat them.

preparation of the transposition

work has been made

easy by examples given after every direction. out saying that the class

changes which are indicated.

own judgment. age and

It

goes with-

not expected to prepare

is

The

all

the

teacher should use his

The work to be assigned depends on the members of the class, the length of

ability of the

the recitation and the time the students are supposed to

devote outside to this special study.

Questions.

— When the

class uses a

book not

especially

prepared for conversational work, lazy or indifferent pupils may answer " I do not understand you. I cannot answer." :

In such cases the teacher

excuse

is

is

generally helpless.

possible with this system.

No

such

Every question has

its


BEGINNERS FRENCH

lO

answer do

in the preceding

French

question of every set

first is

is

text,

given.

and the answer So,

all

to the

the pupil has to

to imitate the example.

At

first

glance the reader

may

think that these numerous

questions, calling for almost identical answers,

come tiresome and monotonous.

It

might be so

would bein a very

small private class but not in a large section.

Teachers and students know how hard it is for an English-speaking person to form correct questions in French.

Yet

this

important side of the work

every text book.

is

sacrificed in almost

After years of study, students are able to

answer questions, but cannot ask any in a correct way. From the very beginning, when two or three minutes can be spared, select one of the French texts which has already been studied, ask a student to stand up and form questions based on it. Call upon other members of the class to answer them fully. This is a very good way of reviewing. The students are obliged to do their best in pronouncing to make themselves understood, and it gives them confidence in themselves.

Grammar

Drill.

— This part of the work affords

the

learner a chance to apply the rules he has just mastered, and, if it is

written in English, to

both languages.

Translation. deal of trouble

if

make a

fruitful

comparison of

— Teachers could save themselves a great they would follow the plan the author pre-

sented in a letter published last year in "

Modern Language

Notes" (see June, 1902). At the beginning, instead of giving out

for the next recita-

Grammar

and the Translation of the lesson he has just explained, let the teacher be satisfied with the French part of the exercise until he reaches, say, the tenth or twelfth lesson. Then, on the day he assigns the eleventh tion the

Drill

lesson, for instance, let

him give

out, as reviewing

work.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

II

Grammar

the

Drill and the Translation of the first lesson. simply a shifting of the usual work, care being taken

It is

that the students be always ten or twelve

What

ahead.

work

the

will be

of the

first

the results?

French exercises

First,

it

will

lighten

two weeks and allow more time

devoted to pronunciation.

Then,

to be

in the first ten exercises,

the pupil has seen the rules of the first lesson applied so

many

become so familiar with them and the he will consider as very easy and enjoyable a task which would have seemed to him hard and disagreeable if he had been asked to do it on the day the first lesson was explained. He will, of course, make very few mistakes, his confidence will increase daily, the standard of the class will be raised and a great deal of time saved. Reading Lessons. They have been added to bring variety and to play the part of a preparatory reader. The words will be found in the general vocabulary. Another way to use the book is to set aside for review work the Transposition and Questions and go ahead with This plan could be followed by the rest of the exercises. times, he has

words of that

lesson, that

teachers that

most

aim

who in

are anxious to begin reading very early.

mind, two lessons

may

With

be assigned at a time in

cases.

New

Rules.

— References

to the set of licenses

(tole-

adopted by the Minister of Public Instruction of France in his decree of February 26, 1901, will be found at

rances)

the proper place in the rules or in notes at the bottom of the

pages.

Verbs. Tables of regular and irregular verbs will be found at the end of the book, before the vocabulary.


PRONUNCIATION Graphic Signs

Accents.

e,

e,

a, u, a, e,

i,

6,

ii.

There are three accents in French the acute ( ' ) the grave (") and the circumflex ("). The acute is found only over the vowel e (e). The grave is especially used over the vowel e (e), sometimes also over a or u. The ,

:

circumflex

may

Apostrophe.

be used over any vowel.

1',

s',

m'.

The apostrophe (') indicates that a final vowel has been word beginning with a vowel or an h mute.

elided before a

That vowel

is

generally e;

or personal pronoun) and

Hyphen. The

— Asseyez-vous.

i

it

of

may si

A-t-il

also be a of la (article

before

il

and

ils.

?

decree of February 26, 1901, promulgated by the

Minister of Public Instruction of France, does

away with

However, it was kept after an imperative followed by a personal pronoun object and in questions where the so-called euphonic t is inserted between the verb and il, the hyphen.

elle, *

or on.

It goes

without saying that no foreigner can master the French pro-

nunciation from rules without outside help.

The few

here are to be used by pupils as mere references. 13

general rules given


:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

14

— Fa§ade,

Cedilla.

The that

fagon, degu.

under c preceding and should be pronounced

cedilla is put

soft

it is

Diaeresis.

— Naif,

a,

o or

Esali.

placed over the last of two vowels to

It is

forms a

bv

svllable

u to indicate

like s in sin.

show

that

it

itself.

Simple Vowels Approximate corresponding Examples. la,

va,

ma,

ta, sa,

sounds in English.

Value.

papa,

a short

ame,

a long

=

intermediate sound bfetween a in lad and a in father.

baba. tas, pas, fable, ine,

a in father.

rr

flamme. le, ce,

me,

te, se, je, ne, te.

dame,

acte, fable.

elle,

table,

6t6, h\6, priiiri, nez, et,

d^,

pied, les, des,

mes,

tes,

acc^,

chef,

fer,

fete,

« in b«t.

e short =:

e almost silent

e,

e,

6,

e

=^

fol-

ces,

lowed by a

sel,

consonant.

in sol^.

The

quality of that sound is the same as that of e in th^re, ranging from a in s^le to e in

bete,

s^ll.

tete, etre.

midi, gite,

fini,

mardi

abime,

comme,

lie,

col,

amie.

colonne,

i

short

ilong

= =

short

=

long

=

/ in

mach/ne but

/ in

mach/ne.

shorter.

in c^rn, shortened.

mode. nos, vos, dos, cote.

o in no.

No

du, vu, bra, rae, debut.

:=

similar sound in English

German

«.

;

Pronounce

the examples with the lips in position for whistling. see ray^, pays, paysage.

1

short above.

The

to the first / belongs preceding syllable and the second to the following


'

BEGINNERS FRENCH

15

Compound Vowels Approximate corresponding Examples. balai,

laquais,

aimerais, lait, mai, aimerai.

sounds in English.

Value.

aimais, fait, ai-

above)

e

**'

au eau

au, aux, travaux, eau, bean, veau.

and

ai (see e

(see o long

above)

reine, peine, veine.

ei (see e

above)

peu,

eu long and close

e in f^rn

peur, leur, fleur, valeur,

eu OBU short and open

= e in iexn

ceux, feu, veux, aveu, bleu,

deiix,

moi, voix, bois.

ou, tout, nous, vous, chou, cou.

01

=

ou

=

o).

but more open than for eu long,

sceur, coBUr. toi,

(= German

intermediate between iva of wax and wa of wa%. 00 in

\ioo\..

Nasal Sounds

A

nasal unless the

is

m

vowel followed by n or

n or

m

ending a word or a syllable by another

in its turn followed

is

n or m or h mute. Pronounce the following examples through the nose, with the mouth widely open, care being also taken to cut the sound short and not let the n be heard. an, tant,

an

chambre, rampe,

iJm

enfant, vent, empire, membre;

enJ^i t em

!>^

=

nasal a.

<

Pronounce an and follow

I

\

in watt

above

directions.

in

vin, '

im

imperial, vain, faim,

aim

teint,

ein

tympan.

ym

ain

bon, ton,

on

nom, ombre.

om

un, brun,

un

parfum, humble.

um

coiUj point, loin, soin.

oin

= -nasal

>

= =

nasal

nasal

\

=w

4-

Pronounce an in angry and follow above directions.

i

•1

I nasal

Pronounce on and follow

in \on^

above

directions.

Pronounce u of t«rn and follow above directions. /

which

see.

£nf, ending of the 3d person plural of verbs, is always silent. In words ending in />« and forms of 2. Bi^«, ri<?«, viens. e»tr, tenir and their compounds, en has the sound of nasal / which see. ^

:

I.

lis Siiment.


BEGINNER

i6

FRENCH

S

Consonants

The consonants not given

in the following list

same or almost the same sound

have the

as in English. Approximate corresponding

Examples.

camp,

sounds in English.

Position.

car, col, cure.

C

before

«, ^,

p before a, o,

ceci, fafade,

u u

c in rorretrt. c in cell.

before

bicyclette.

C

gare, golfe, gue,i aigu.

g before g before

geant, gite, gymnase.

e,

i,y

a, o, e, i,

u

g

y

agneau, regner, mignon.

now

in words of Germanic aspirate. Now, it merely indicates that no elision can take place before it and that the last consonant of the preceding word cannot (^be linked with the vowel following h. i

homme,

is

//

origin, h

silent.-

Formerly

was

I

I

jour, jarabe, jeter.

=

J

11

preceded by

fusil, gentil.

il

final*

qui, qualite, que.

qu

rage, porta, parle.

r

fille,

in u«/on.

«/'

f

hardi, haut, bote.

in ^o.

s in pleasure.

famine,

aille.

,-3_ i

=

= —

s in

y y

pleasure.

in t'ou. in jj'ou.

k.

r

pronounced

is

more

strongly than in English.

parler, premier, off icier.

cousin,

baiser, poison, oser.

.

s

thym.

a

exercice,

examen.

like s in pleaj-e.

= =

ex initial and followed by a vowel = or h mute

a in kte.

//

has often the hissing sound of s.

t.

usually ks.

I

X

deuxieme.

X

= =

2

The u after ^ is not sounded Some persons slightly sound

3

Double

//,

=

i.e.

e

th

soixante.

1

/

=

ti+^

X

reflexion.

=

between two

partial,

theatre, the,

^

vowels

essenminutieux, patiel, tience.

nation,

er final

preceded by

egz ss. z.

unless it is final. it, especially on the stage. are sounded as a single / in a few words

/,

*

There

tranqu///e and their compounds. are few exceptions i/, exi/, vi/, civi/.

^

The

is

v/7/e, m/V/e,

r

:

pronounced

hiver, hier, fier (proud).

in

monosyllabic words and in a few other words

:


:

BEGINNERS FRENCH The consonants c, f, 1, The others, when

sounded.

r,

when

final,

1/ are

final,

are generally

generally

silent.

See

Vocabulary for exceptions.

Linking of Words

Lessen fants.

Ils^ont.

If two words standing together are closely connected in

meaning, the first one ending with a consonant, the second beginning with a vowel or h mute, they are pronounced as if they were forming a single word. This mark ^ will indicate in the texts the words to be linked.

The following passage

translated from " Les Sons

Fran^ais," par Paul Passy, Docteur es

du

Maitre de conferences a rficole des Hautes fitudes (Paris, Firmin Didot), contains very sensible views. lettres,

The

linking of words varies a great deal according to the and the people. In the literary language it occurs more frequently than in the familiar style. But it is especially

style

schoolmasters and, trying to

**

still

speak well,"

more, not very well educated people

who

link at every opportunity.

In the spoken language, only words closely connected by the

meaning should be

(a)

Article followed

linked.

Here are

the principal cases

by an adjective or a noun lesj^hommes. :

les^autres personnes.

{h) Adjective followed by a noun: petits^enfants,

le

grand^ours, deux

mon^ami.

adjective followed by an adjective or a noun: deux^animaux. {d) Adverb followed by an adjective or an adverb tres^utile, {c)

Numeral

:

trop^idiot. 1 s

2

and

X,

When

when

linked,

linked, are pronounced like

d

is

sounded like

/,

c

and

z.

g like

kÂť


)

.

BEGINNER^S FRENCH

l8

A

(e)

personal pronoun (or en) followed by a verb noiis^arrivons,

tend,

:

il^en-

on^ecoute, j'en^ai.

Verb followed by a personal pronoun or by en: vas-y,

(/)

prends-en, a-t^l.

(g) Preposition followed by

its

object: sans^abri, en^ecou-

tant.

(h)

(j)

The conjunction quand and Quand^il viendra. The various forms of the verbs

the

etre

following

and

word:

avoir, especially

used as auxiliaries, and.the following words

:

il^est^ici,

il^etait^arrive, ils^ont^appris.

Division of 1

Gou ver ne ment,

A

Words

in ca

pa bi

into Syllables li

te.

medial French syllable must begin,

if

possible, with

a consonant. 2.

3.

hon neur, man ger. When two consonants stand

The

two consonants if (Apply Rule 2 if you

division takes place before the

the second

4.

together, they generally

belong to different syllables. ta ble, ar bre, a gneau, crai gnons.

is 1

or r and before

^.

have 11 or rr. ex em plai re. X always belongs to the preceding

syllable.

Tonic Accent

Amerique. All syllables of a French word, except those ending in e mute, must be pronounced distinctly with a slight raising of the voice (tonic accent) on the last sonorous one.

1.

gouverneur.

2.

Le professeur

A

est

debout dans

la salle,

statement being pronounced as

word, the tonic accent syllable.

is

if

transferred to

it

were a long

its last

sonorous


.

FIRST LESSON Rules I.

Le Hvre, the hook;

1

The French language having no

la table, the table.

neuter gender, French

nouns are either mascuHne or feminine. 2.

The

is

translated by le before a masculine

noun

sin-

gular and by la before a feminine noun singular. 2.

Le

livre, the

hook ;

les livres, the hooks.

La

table, the

tahle; les tables, the tables. 1.

The

is

2.

The

plural of French

by adding

translated by les before any plural noun.

s to

3. le livre,

le

Monsieur or M.,

Madame

the paper.

room.

dans,

ou, where.

box.

la poche, the pocket.

sont, are

est, is.

(3rd person plural).

4. 1.

2. 3.

4.

in.

sur, on, upon.

the table.

la boite, the

or M"^^,

sir,

Mr.

Madam, Mrs.

Mademoiselle or M}^^, Miss.

crayon, the pencil.

la salle, the class

la table,

formed, as in English,

is

Vocabulary

the hook.

le papier,

nouns

the singular.

Text

La table est dans la salle. Le livre est sur la table. Le papier est dans la boite, Le crayon est dans la poche.


BEGINNER

20

FRENCH

S

Transposition

5.

Replace the singular by the Ex. I. Les tables sont dans

plural. les salles.

:

Questions

6. 1.

Ou

Answer: Monsieur/

est la table?

la table est

dans

la salle. 2.

Oti est

le livre?

4.

Ou Ou

est le

5.

Ou

sont les tables?

3.

est le papier?

les salles.

,

^

crayon? A.: Monsieur,

7.

Ou Ou

8.

Oti sont les crayons?

6.

The

sont les papiers?

Grammar

paper, the papers ;

;

8. I.

The

pencil

3.

Drill

the pocket, the pockets

the class room, the class

boxes; the pencil, the pencils; the

pocket.

sont dans

sont les livres?

7.

the books

les tables

^

is

The box

;

;

the book,

the box, the

table, the tables.

Translation

in the box. is

rooms

on the

2.

table.

The papers are 4. The books

in the

are in

6. Sir, the paper 5. Where is the paper? on the table. 7. Where is the book? 8. Madam, the book is in the pocket. 9. Where are the pencils? 10. Sir,

the class rooms. is

the pencils are in the boxes. *

Or Madamgf Mademoiselle,

as the case

may

be.


.

BEGINNERS FRENCH

21

SECOND LESSON Rules

^

9. L'eleve, the pupil; Tecole, the school; Thabitant, the

inhabitant.

The

is

translated by

before any singular noun, begin-

1'

ning with a vowel or an h mute.

Ou

10.

Where

Ou

est I'encrier? is

EUe

est la table ?

Where is the table? when a subject, is

It is

est

on the

dans

table.

la salle.

It is in the class

translated

It,

a masculine

sur la table.

II est

the inkstand?

noun and by

elle

when

by

il

room.

when

it

stands for

stands for a feminine

it

noun.

Ou

11

the books?

Ou

sont les livres

They are on

?

lis sont sur la table.

Where

are

the table.

EUes sont dans la boite. Where They are in the box. They, standing for a noun which is masculine in French, sont les plumes?

are the pens?

standing for one which

is

translated by

ils;

is

translated by

elles.

le

banc, the bench.

12.

I'encrier

is

Vocabulary I'ecole (f.), the school.

(m.), the inkstand.

il

(m. and f.), the pupil. plume, the pen.

est,

he

l'eleve

elle est,

la

ils

is

she

or is

it is.

or

it is.

sont, they are.

elles sont, they are.

13. 1.

feminine,

Text

Les plumes sont dans

les^encriers.

2.

Les^encriers sont sur les tables.

3.

Les^eleves sont sur les bancs.

4.

Les

salles sont

dans les^ecoles.

it


.

.

22

beginner's FRENCH) Transposition

14.

Replace the plural by the singular.

Ex.:

La plume

I.

dans Tencrier.

est

Questions

15.

Ou

1.

sont les plumes?

A.: Monsieur,

sont dans

elles

les encriers. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

Ou Ou Ou Ou

sont les encriers?

Ou Ou Ou Ou Ou

est la

A.: M.,

ils

sont.

.

sont les eleves ? sont les bancs? sont les salles?

plume?

A.: M., A.: M.,

est I'encrier?

dans

elle est il

est.

I'encrier.

.

est I'eleve?

est le

banc?

est la salle?

Grammar

16.

Drill

Replace the dashes by the proper form of the definite article.

— plume, — plumes; — — — — — — eleves — — — encrier — poches, — poche — bancs, — — — banc — crayons, — crayon — ecoles

ecole,

1.

tables

table,

;

eleve,

;

encriers,

2.

;

;

;

;

17. I.

Where

is

the inkstand? cil ?

6.

It is

the pen? 4.

^

The

It is

9.

salle.

salles,

Translation^ It is in

2.

the box.

on the paper.

on the bench.

in the class room.

livres.

livre,

;

7.

Where

Where is

5. is

is

the table

the class

room?

student should be requested to supply Monsieur,

Mademoiselle before every answer through the whole book.

Where

3.

Where

?

is

the pen8.

It is

10. It is

Madame,

or


BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

23

Where are the papers? 12. They are in Where are the boxes ? 14. They are on the tables. 16. He is in the school. 15. Where is the pupil? 18. They are on the bench. 17. Where are the pupils? in the school.

the pocket.

11.

13.

THIRD LESSON Rules

ne sont pas sur

18. lis II

la table.

n'est pas sur la table.

They are not on

It is not

on the

the table.

table.

Not is translated by ne pas. The verb is placed between ne and pas. Ne becomes n' when the verb begins with a vowel or an h mute. .

19. Est

When

il

dans

Ou

When

Is he (is it) in the class

la salle?

it is

est le

is

room? a per-

placed after the verb, as in English.

Where

maitre?

is

the master?

word noun or pronoun) the subject may follow the verb. (For

a question contains only an interrogative

how, when,

izvhere,

.

the subject of an interrogative sentence

sonal pronoun,

20.

.

and the verb,

etc.), the subject (a

another construction, see 31.) 21. Present of the indicative of 6tre {to be). AFFIRMATIVE je suis, / tu^ es, il

suis je?

you are he

est,

INTERROGATIVE

am

elle est,

is

she

is

nous sommes, zve are vous etes, you are ils

sont, they are

elles sont, ^

they are

Tu, jyou,

is

by

/ÂŤ.

I?

NEGATIVE je ne suis pas, /

es tu?

tu n'es pas

estjl

il

?

am

not.

n'est pas

pas

est elle?

elle n'est

sommes nous? sont^ils?

nous ne sommes pas vous n'etes pas ils ne sont pas

sont elles?

elles

etes

used only

In the English exercises,

am

in

vous?

ne sont pas

speaking to relatives and intimate friends.

you marked with an asterisk

is

to

be translated


.

.

.

beginner's FRENCH

24

22. Vocabulary le

pare, the park.

la chaise, the cliair,

le

maitre, the master, the teacher,

ou, or.

la

maitresse, the mistress.

oui, yes.

rantichambre, the anteroom.

non, no.

who?

qui?

Text

23. 1.

Je suis le maitre.^

2.

Vous^etes les^eleves.

3.

Je suis sur la chaise.

4.

Vous^etes sur les bancs. Je ne suis pas dans I'antichambre,

5.

dans 6.

je

suis

la salle.

Vous n etes pas dans

le

pare,

vous^etes

dans lecole. 24. 1.

Replace the singular by the plural (except

and Tecole

sommes 2.

Ex.: 3.

Transposition

les

.

Ex.:

le i.

pare

Nous

Vous

first

etes le.

person by the second and vice versa.

.

Replace the affirmative form by the negative and vice

Ex.

versa.

:

Je ne suis pas

i.

25. 1.

versa.

.

Replace the I.

and vice

in sentence 6)

Suis je

le

maitre?

le.

.

.

Questions

A.: Oui. monsieur, vous etes

maitre.

vous

les eleves?

2.

fites

3.

Suis je sur la chaise? J

Or

A.: Oui, M., nous sommes.

la maitresse, as the case

may

be.

.

le


.

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

^5

bancs?

4.

£tes vous sur

5.

Suis je dans Tantichambre ou dans

6.

£tes vous dans

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

;

les

le

la salle?

pare ou dans I'ecole?

Qui est le maitre?" A.: Monsieur, vous etes le maitre. Qui sont les eleves? A.: M., nous sommes. Qui est sur la chaise? Qui est sur le banc? (a) Qui n'est pas dans rantichambre ? (b) Qui est dans la salle? (a) Qui n'est pas dans le pare? (b) Qui est dans I'ecole? .

(Negative answers followed by affirmative.) 13.

£tes vous

A.: Non, M., je ne suis pas

maitre?

le

le

maitre, je suis I'eleve. 14.

Suis je I'eleve?

15.

£tes vous sur la chaise?

banc?

16.

Suis je sur

17.

Suis je dans I'antichambre ?

18.

£tes vous dans

le

le

26. 1.

The

Grammar

Drill

chairs, the chair; the parks, the park; the class

rooms, the class room 2.

pare?

The

;

the pupils, the pupil.

masters, the master

the benches, the bench

;

;

the anterooms, the anteroom

the schools, the school

;

the mistresses,

the mistress. 3.

He

4.

We

5.

Is

6.

Are you*?

7.

You

are not.

is,

she

are,

is,

you*

am, they (m.)

I

are, they

he? are they (m.) are

is

not,

?

are

she? are she

is

(f.)

are.

are,

you

are.

you?

we? not,

are they

they

(m.)

(f.) ?

are

not,

we


BEGINNERS FRENCH

26

Translation

27.

Who

I.

is

the teacher.

the teaclier?

4.

the anteroom.

Who

is

am

2. I

in the

the pupil.

anteroom?

5.

3.

You

You

are

are not in

Where am I? 7. You are on the chair, 8. Where are we? 9. You are on the school. 10. Where are the pupils? 11. They 6.

in the class room.

bench, in the

are not in the class rooms.

Where

13.

he

is

is

the master

not in the school.

They

12.

14. Is

?

He

16.

is

he

are in the anterooms.

in the school?

15.

No,

in the park.

FOURTH LESSON Rules

Le pare

The park is large. The parks are large. La ville est grande. The city is large. Les villes sont grandes. The cities are large. French adjectives agree in gender and number with noun which they qualify. 28.

est

grand.

Les pares sont grands.

the

Le pare est grand. The park is large. La ville est grande. The city is large. The feminine of a French adjective is formed by adding

29.

e to the

masculine singular.

Exceptions

:

i.

Le mur est jaune. The wall is yellow. La porte est jaune. The door is yellow.

Adjectives ending in

-e

in the

masculine singular are

alike in both genders. 2.

Quel pare?

What park? What

Quelle couleur?

The feminine line singular is

ing

e.

of adjectives ending in

formed by doubling the

color?

-el in

final

1

the mascu-

before add-


BEGINNER

V

FRENCH

S

The parks are large. The cities are large. of a French adjective is formed by adding

30. Les pares sont grands.

Les

villes

The

sont grandes.

plural

to the singular.

Le mur est gris. The zvall is gray. Les murs sont gris. The walls are gray.

Exception.

Masculine adjectives ending

unchanged

La

est

ville est elle

Oil

pare est

le

When

in -s in the singular

il grand ? Is the park large f grande ? Is the city large f il

?

Where

is

the park f

the subject of an interrogative sentence

or any other pronoun but a personal pronoun,

verb in French and

is

also repeated after

corresponding personal pronoun. 32. le

mur, the the

I'a venue

la rue, la

la

city.

(f.), the

avenue.

grandes,

form of a

gaies

what? (interrogative adjective).

large larges

pl.

large, s.

f.

merry.

quelles

s.

f.

cheerful,

gaie

quelle

couleur, the color.

grande,

in the

gais

quels

the door.

grands, m.

pl.

tall.

large

wide.

larges triste

joli

tristes

jolis

sad, gloomy.

pretty. jolie

triste

jolies

tristes

etroit

jaune

etroits

jaunes

y

a noun

(See 20.)

quel

maison, the house.

grand, m.

is

precedes the

gai

the street.

la porte,

it

it

Vocabulary

wall.

I'habitant (m,), the inhabitant. la ville,

remain

in the plural.

Le pare

31.

s

(Cf. 2. 2.)

narrow.

etroite

jaune

etroites

jaunes

vcllow.


.

.

BEGINNER

28

.

FRENCH

S

assis assis

what^ Tsubject)

qu'est ce qui?

seated. assise

comment, how,

assises

tres, very.

and.

gris

et,

gris

mais, but. gray.

de, of.

grise

grises

Text

33.

2.

Nous sommes^assis dans le pare. La ville est grande et le pare est

3.

L'avenue

1.

est tres large et

joH.

rue est tres^

la

etroite.

Les maisons sont

4.

mais les^habitants

tristes,

sont gais.

Les murs sont

5.

gris et les portes sont jaunes. Transposition

34. 1.

Replace the singular by the plural (except le pare

sentence

Ex. 2.

I

:

I

le

pare.

2.

.

Nous ne sommes pas

assis

dans

.

.

.

.

2.

Qui

villes ...

.

.

est assis

dans

assis

.

. .

?

2.

La

ville

est

.

35. 1.

Les

the interrogative form.

Ex. I Sommes nous grande et le pare ?

assis

in

versa.

the negative form.

Use :

elle

and vice

Je suis assis dans

.

Use

Ex. 3.

:

i )

dans

Questions le

pare?

A.: M., nous sommes

.

(a) Qu'est ce qui^ est grand?

A.: M., la

(b) Qu'est ce qui est joli? ^

Qu^est ce qui

is

masculine.

ville est.

.


:

.

.

:

29 3-

(^)

Q^i'est ce qui est tres large?

(b) Qu'est ce qui est tres etroit? 4.

(j)

A.: M.,

Qu'est ce qui est triste? sont

.

.

les

maisons

.

(b) Qui est gai? 5.

(a)

Qu'est ce qui est gris?

(b) Qu'est ce qui est jaune? 6. 7.

Oil etes vous assis (a) (b)

8.

(a)

(b) 9.

(a)

(b) 10.

(a)

(b)

Comment Comment Comment Comment Comment Comment De quelle De quelle

?

^.; M., nous sommes. A.: M.,

la ville est elle?

pare est

le

il?

.

elle est.

.

â&#x20AC;˘

I'avenue est elle?

rue est elle?

la les

maisons sont elles?

les

habitants sont ils?

couleur

les

murs sont

couleur

les

portes sont elles?

Grammar

36.

ils?

Drill

Write (a)

The feminine joli, gai,

(b)

singular of the following adjectives:

quel, assis, triste.

The masculine

plural of:, jaune, grand, gris, etroit,

large.

(c)

The feminine

plural of: triste, gris, large, grand,

assis, jaune, gai, etroit, joli, quel.

Conjugate the present indicative of (o)

etre gai in the affirmative form.

Ex.: Je suis gai

or gaie.^

Ex.: Suis

(b) etre triste in the interrogative form.

je

triste ?

(c)

etre assis in the negative form.

Ex.

:

Je ne suis pas

assis or assise.^ i

According as the pupil

is

a boy or a

girl.


BEGINNER

30

37. I.

is

We

seated

The

4.

are very sad. 7.

Where

room. 12. It

3.

Who

5.

They

The

6.

she?

10. is

very large.

pupils are seated on the benches.

2.

mistress

It is

is

not in the class room.

She is seated on the chair in the anteThe anteroom is gloomy but the class rooms are

is

9.

pretty.

FRENCH

Translation

are in the school.

?

S

8.

Where

narrow.

are 13.

we? 11. You are in the park. The avenues are not very pretty.

Are the streets cheerful? 15. No, they are not cheerful. They are narrow and very gloomy. 17. How is the inhabitant? 18. Is he cheerful or gloomy ? 19. He is gloomy. 20. Is the house narrow? 21. No, it is not narrow, it is wide. 22. Are the walls wide? 23. No, they are not wide, 14. 16.

they are very narrow.

FIFTH LESSON Rules 38.

La

salle

est

plus grande que

(moins grande que,

aussi grande que) I'antichambre.

The

class

room

is

larger than (less large than, a^ large

as) the anteroom.

The comparative of

a French adjective

is

formed by put-

ting pins (comparative of superiority), moins (comparative

of inferiority), anssi (comparative of equality) before

it.

Exception Le maitre est bon. The master is good. La The mistress is good. Le maitre est meillenr que la maitresse. The master is :

maitresse est bonne.

better than the mistress.

The comparative of bon is meillenr. Note. The feminine of bon is irregular bonne. :


1

BEGINNERS FRENCH 39.

La

plus grande

The larger or

salle.

3 the largest class

room.

Le

To form

1.

The smaller or tlie smallest pupil. The better or the best schools,

plus petit eleve.

Les meilleures

ecoles.

the superlative of a French adjective, put

the definite article

before the comparative.

le, la, les

The French have only one form

2.

to express the larger,

the largest.

40. Possessive adjectives.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculine

Feminine

Both Genders

my

mon

ma

mes

your

ton

ta

tes

his, her, its

son

sa

ses

our your

notre

nos

votre

vos

their

leur

leurs

Notes,

Son

i.

Sa plume.

livre.

His, her,

His, her, its

its

book.

pen.

Son and sa agree in number and gender with the lowing noun, not with the possessor as in English. 2.

Mon

ecole.

My

Ton antichambre.

fol-

school.

Your anteroom.

Son amie. His, her, its friend {fern.). Mon, ton, son replace ma, ta, sa before any feminine adjective or noun beginning with a vowel or an 11 mute. 41. Demonstrative adjectives.

Ce

livre.

This or that book.

Cet encrier.

This or that inkstand.

Cette table.

This or that

table.


.

BEGINNER

32

FRENCH

S

Ces

livres.

This or that school. These or those books.

Ces

tables.

These or those

Cette ecole.

tables.

Masculine Before a consonant.

this

or

/

hat

ce

cat

these or those

Vocabulary

the brother.

bon bons

monsieur, the gentleman. les messieurs, the gentlemen. le

le

cousin,

^/t^

cette

ces

42. le frere,

Feminine

Before a vowel or an A mute.

bonne bonnes

cousin.

^

ÂŤ"'"'â&#x20AC;˘

I'enfant (m. or f.), the child. la soeur, la

meilleur

the sister.

dame, the

â&#x20AC;˘

meilleurs

lady.

.

I'actrice,

meilleures

the actress.

petit

.que, more. ..than. moins...que, less... than.

plus.

petits

little.

petite

small

si

43. 1.

3.

4.

.

aussi.. .que, as... as.

petitea

2.

better.

meilleure

I'amie, the friend (fern.).

.

.

.

que, so

.

.as.

Text

Son frere est plus grand que ce monsieur. Sa sceur est plus petite que cette dame. Son cousin est meilleur que ceCenfant. Son^amie est moins jolie que cette actrice 44.

Transposition

I. Replace son and sa by the other possessive adjectives. Ex.: I. Son (mon, ton, notre, votre, leur) frere est plus

grand que ce monsieur.


:

BEGINNER 2.

Use

S

FRENCH

33

the plural everywhere and replace ses by the other

possessive adjectives.

Ex.:

Ses (mes,

I.

tes, nos, vos,

freres sont plus

leurs)

grands que ces messieurs.

Use the interrogative form. I Son f rere est il plus grand que

3.

Ex.

:

.

45.

ce monsieur ?

Questions

Qui est plus grand que ce monsieur ? ^.: M., son grand que ce monsieur. Qui est plus petite que cette dame? Qui est meilleur que cet enfant? Qui est moins jolie que cette actrice?

1.

f rere

est plus 2. 3.

4.

Use mon Qui

5.

A.: M.*

mon

Qui Qui Qui

6. 7.

8.

instead of son in the answers.

est le plus

grand, votre frere ou ce monsieur?

frere est le plus grand.

est la plus petite, cette est le meilleur, votre

moins

est la

jolie, cette actrice

Negative answers with

Ce monsieur

9.

11.

12.

il

est

ou votre amie?

il

(so) and use leur instead of son.

aussi

A.:

n'est pas si

46. I.

si

votre soeur?

grand que leur frere? grand que leur frere. Cette dame est elle aussi petite que leur soeur? Cet enfant est il aussi bon que leur cousin? Leur amie est elle aussi joHe que cette actrice?

Non, M., 10.

dame ou

cousin ou cet enfant?

Write

in

Grammar

Drill

French the masculine and feminine forms

singular and plural of the following adjectives, comparatives

and superlatives

(a) cheerful,

more

cheerful.

cheerful, the

more

cheerful, the

most


BEGINNERS FRENCH

34

(b) small, smaller, the smaller, the smallest. pretty, prettier, the prettier, the prettiest.

(c)

(d) gloomy, more gloomy, the more gloomy, the most

gloomy. (e) good, better, the better, the best.

My

2.

(your*, his, her,

My

3.

My

4.

;

(his,

my

its,

my

pencils.

their)

its,

your*,

(their, her, your, his, our,

(your, his, their,

(fern.)

our, your, their) pencil;

its,

(our, his, your*, her, your,

pen

its)

;

my

your*, our) pens.

our,

their,

your*, her, your)

its,

(vour, his, our, her, your*,

its,

their)

friend

friends

(fem.). 5.

This book, these books

:

that pupil, those pupils

;

this

school, these schools; that table, these tables.

Translation

47. I.

3.

our streets 7.

park large?

Is that

2.

It

Are those avenues narrow? 5.

.

It is larger

Is

They are

your school small

than this house.

8.

larger than your city.

is

4.

?

6.

How

No,

narrow as

as it is

not small.

are the class rooms

?

They are not wide. 10. They are as narrow as my anteroom. II. Are these pupils good? 12. They are better than

9.

your brother. sad.

15.

13.

Is their

actresses?

very pretty.

17.

16.

14.

How

No, he

is

are those

Are they pretty ? 18. They are very tall and 19. They are taller than this gentleman and

prettier than these ladies. is

master cheerful?

His pupils are not good.

as sad as his sister.

(fem.) or her sister?

22.

23.

How is this child? 21. He Who is the prettier, my friend

20.

Your

friend (fem.)

24. Yes, but her sister is the taller

is

the prettier.

and the merrier.


)

;

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

35

SIXTH LESSON Rules 48.

(i)

Du

maitre,

du heros

;

(2) de la maitresse, de la

harpe;

(3) de I'eleve, de I'ecole, de I'habitant (4) des maitres, des heros, des maitresses, des harpes, des eleves, ;

des ecoles, des habitants.

Of

the or

from

the master, the

hero, the mistress, the harp, the pupil, the school, the in-

habitant; of the or

from

the masters, the heroes, the mis-

tresses, the harps, the pupils, the schools, the inhabitants.

Of

the or

from

the

is

translated

by

(i) du before a masculine noun singular beginning with a

consonant or an h formerly aspirate; (2) de la before a feminine noun singular beginning with a

consonant or an h formerly aspirate; (3) de

1'

before any singular noun beginning with a vowel

or an h mute des before any plural noun.

(4)

Le fils, les fils. Nouns ending in s,

49.

The

son, the sons.

x, z are alike in

both numbers.

(Cf.

exception to 30* 50.

Le

The blackboard,

tableau, les tableaux.

the black-

boards.

Le neveu, les neveux. The nephew, the nephews. Nouns ending in au and eu take x in the plural of

51 â&#x20AC;˘ L'amiral,

ill

instead

s.

les

amiraux.

Nouns ending

in al replace

52. Est ce que

le

the class

The admiral, the admirals. by ux in the plural.

1

maitre est dans

la salle?

Is the master

room?

Another way of forming a question is to put before any statement.

{is it [a fact] that?)

est ce

que


BEGINNER

36

Le maitre n'est room?

53-

FRENCH

S

pas dans

il

la salle

Is not the master

?

in the class

M.,

Si,

Yes

is

il

dans

est

translated

Yes,

la salle.

by

si

when

sir,

he

is in

the class room.

the question has a negative

form.

Present indicative of etre {to he).

54^

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE

am

ne suis je pas?

ne sommes nous pas?

I not?

n'es tu pas ? n'est

il

n'etes

pas?

n'est elle

pas?

vous pas ?

ne sont

ils

ne sont

elles

pas? pas?

or est ce est ce

je ne suis pas? que tu n'es pas ?

que

est ce qu'il n'est

est ce est ce

pas ?

que nous ne sommes pas ? que vous n'etes pas ?

est ce qu'ils

est ce qu'elle n'est pas ?

ne sont pas

est ce qu'elles

?

ne sont pas

?

55. Vocabulary rinstituteur, the sehoolmaster.

Tentree

(f.), the entrance.

the class room.

le

tableau, the blackboard.

la classe,

le

bureau, the desk.

le

neveu, the nephew.

meme. .que les memes. .que 'the same. la meme. .que les memes. .que-'

le fils,

le

le

.

.

the son.

marquis, the marquis.

marechal, the horseshoer.

I'edifice

(m.), the building. meuble, the piece of furniture.

loin de, far from.

le

pres de, near.

I'institutrice, the

schoolmistress.

56. I.

du

Lecole de

pare.

.as.

.

debout (adverb), standing. en face de, opposite.

I'amiral, the admiral. le

.

.

la

ville

si,

yes (see 53).

Text

est^en face de I'entree


.

.

BEGINNER

Le bureau de

2.

S

.

FRENCH

I'instituteur

37 est

de

loin

la

porte de rantichambre.

Le neveu de lamiral

3.

debout pres du

est

tableau de la classe.

Le

4.

que

du marechal

fils

sur le

est

meme

banc

cousin du marquis.

le

57. Transposition 1. Replace the singular by the plural. Ex. I Les ecoles des villes sont en face des entrees des :

.

pares. 2.

Use two

Ex.:

interrogative forms.

(a)

I.

L'ecole de la ville est elle en face de.

.

.

en face de.

.

(b) Est ce que Tecole de la ville est en face de. 3.

Use

Ex.

:

L'ecole de la ville n'est pas en face de.

A. : M.,

1.

Oil est l'ecole de Oil

le

bureau de Tinstituteur

neveu de I'amiral est il assis? du marechal?

3.

Oil

le

4.

Ou

est le fils

5.

Quel

6. 7.

8.

la ville ?

.

elle est

est il?

edifice est en face de I'entree

en face de.

la ville est

du pare?

A.: M.,

.

Quel meuble est loin de la porte de I'antichambre ? Qui est assis pres du tableau de la classe? Qui est sur le meme banc que le cousin du marquis?

Answers with 9.

?

?

Questions

2.

de

.

the negative form.

I.

58.

l'ecole

.

si

(yes).

L'ecole de la ville n'est elle pas en face de I'entree

du pare?

A.:

Si,

M.,

elle est

en face de I'entree du pare.


;

;

.

; . ;

. . ;;

; ;

Beginner's french

^S>

Est cc que

10.

bureau de Tinstituteur

le

porte de rantichambrc

de

la

de

la classe

Le neveu de

11.

n'est pas loin

?

I'amiral ivest

pas assis pres du tableau

il

?

12. Est ce que le fils du marechal banc que le cousin du marquis?

Grammar

59.

n'est pas sur le

meme

Drill

Replace the dashes by the plural form of the preceding word and the dots by the proper form du, de la, de 1' or des. :

Le meuble,

1

la ville, les

le

;

meuble,

...

;

les

fils,

les

...

les

le

I'edifice, les

;

I'actrice, les

le

;

Where 4.

;

...

of the class

;

...

...

Translation 2.

We 3.

are seated on the

Where

is

near the entrance of the school.

schoolmaster standing or seated? site the pupils.

...

...

are you seated?

It is

...

...

benches of the same class room.

room?

— —

marquis, ...

... ;

60. I.

— —

— — — neveu, — dame, marechal, — — enfant, ...

;

les

I'enfant, les

... bureau, ...

...

;

les

...

... actrice,

;

les

le

4.

ecole,

... edifice, ...

;

les

3.

...

fils,

...

;

meubles, du meuble, des meubles.

;

I'ecole, les

;

... tableau, ...

— — bureau, -^ — — Le marquis, — — neveu, — La dame, — marechal, — Le

2.

... amiral, ... ;

meuble, ...

... ville, ...

tableau, les

le :

— — — ;

I'amiral, les

Ex.

les

7.

room?

6.

He

5.

Is this

standing oppo-

far from the door No, thev are near the desk of the

Are the blackboards 8.

is

your class


BEGINNER schoolmaster.

9.

On what

S

FRENCH

piece of furniture are the books

of the horseshoer's nephews^?

Are

11.

bench as your brothers? school.

I

13.

15.

10.

They

are on the table

same No, they are not in the same seated on the same bench as the children

of the anteroom.

am

of the marquis.

39

14.

the admiral's sons^ on the

12.

Are not the schools of

the city large?

Yes, they are very large and very cheerful.

building

is

street far

opposite the houses of the admirals?

from the park of the city?

18.

No,

16.

What

17. Is their it

is

opposite

the entrance of the park.

61.

Reading Lesson* SORITE

L'Europe est la plus belle partie du monde. La France est le plus beau pays d'Europe. Paris est

Ma Ma Ma

la

rue est

plus belle ville de France. la

plus belle de Paris.

maison est la plus belle de la rue. chambre est la plus belle de la maison. Je suis le plus bel homme de ma chambre. Done je suis le plus bel homme du monde.

SEVENTH LESSON Rules 62. Tin livre, a (one) book.

Tine table, a (one) tabic.

and one are translated by un The l)efore a masculine noun and by une before a feminine. indefinite article a or

63. L'eleve a des livres. ^

^

^

Say Say

nephews

a)i

The pupil has (some) books.

of the horseshoer.

:

the

:

the sons of the admiral.

See the general vocabulary for the translation of the reading lessons.


BEGINNER

40

The

partitive article

S

FRENCH

some or any, expressed or under-

stood in English before a noun, must be expressed in French

and

translated by des before a plural noun.

is

(Cf. 48. 4.)

The pupil has no {not

64. L'eleve n'a pas de livre.

a,

not

any) hook.

No, not

a,

not any are translated by ne (verb) pas de

before any noun, singular or plural, used as a direct object.

De becomes

The pupil has only one book.

65. L'eleve n'a qn'un livre.

Mon

frere n*a que des

Only Que

is

II

fils.

My

brother has only sons.

translated by ne (verb) que.

= qu'

66.

h mute.

before a vowel or an

d'

before a vowel or an

h mute.

he? Elle a, she has. On a, one has. A-t-on? has one? the third person singular of any tense ends in a a,

he has.

A-t-il? has

A-t-elle? has she?

When vowel and

is

followed by

il,

elle,

on, the letter t

must be

inserted between hyphens.

What

67. Qu'a-t-il?

has he?

Qu'est ce qu'il a? 1.

What?

interrogative pronoun, direct object,

is

trans-

by que or qn'est ce que.

lated 2.

Qu'est ce que must be used

when

the subject of the

question precedes the verb.

68. Present of the indicative of avoir {to have). AFFIRMATIVE j'ai,

/ have

il

or

have I?

elle

a

a-t-il

je n'ai pas, /

have not

tu n'as pas

as tu?

tu as

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE ai je?

or a-t-elle?

il

or

elle n'a

pas

nous avons

avons nous ?

nous n'avons pas

vous avez

avez vous?

vous n'avez pas

ont

ils

ils

or

elles

ont

ils

or elles?

or elles n'ont pas


.

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

Another interrogative form est ce

que

est ce

que tu as

j'ai ?

4I

is:

have If

est ce

?

est ce

est ce qu'il or elle a ?

que nous avons? que vous avez ?

est ce qu'ils

69.

le

eiles

ont ?

rideau, the curtain.

the shade {blind).

le store,

le

drapeau, the flag. preau, the playground.

le

fourneau, the stove.

la carte, the

le

couteau, the knife.

le

or

Vocabulary

the village.

le village,

.

la cloche,

the

la fenetre,

le cahier, the

hell.

map.

the window.

notebook.

Text

70.

L'ecole du village a un drapeau, un preau une cloche. 2. La salle de l'ecole a un tableau, une carte 1.

et

un fourneau.

et

3.

un

fenetre de lantichambre a un rideau et

store.

4.

un

La

Le neveu du marechal

cahier,

un couteau, une plume 71.

1.

Use

a dans son bureau et

un crayon.

Transposition

the plural everywhere and repeat the subject and

the verb before every direct object.

Ex.

2.

I

:

ont des

.

Les ecoles des villages ont des drapeaux

.

.

Use

.

et elles

ont des

.

;

elles

.

the negative form and repeat the subject and the

verb before every direct object.

Ex.:

I.

L'ecole du village n'a pas de drapeau; elle n'a

pas de preau et

elle n'a

pas de

,

.


.

BEGINNER

42 3.

Use

Ex. et

:

I.

FRENCF

S

the restrictive form (=r only).

L'ecole du village n'a qu'un drapeau, qu'un preau

qu'une eloche.

72. 1.

(a) L'ecole du village a-t-elle un drapeau?

(b) (c)

(a)

(b) (c) 3.

(a)

a

elle

(b) A-t-elle 4.

A.: Oui,

un drapeau. A-t-elle un preau? A-t-elle une cloche? Est ce que la salle de l'ecole a un tableau? Est ce qu'elle a une carte? Est ce qu'elle a un fourneau? La fenetre de I'antichambre a-t-elle un rideau? M.,

2.

Questions

un

store?

(a) Est ce que le neveu

du marechal a un cahier dans

son bureau? (b) Est ce qu'il a un couteau? (c)

Est ce

qu'il a

une plume?

(d) Est ce qu'il a un crayon?

5.

Ou'est ce qui a un drapeau, un preau et une cloche?

A.: M., Tecole du village a un ... 6.

Qu'est ce qui a un tableau, une carte

7.

Ou'est ce qui a un rideau

8.

plume 9.

10.

et

Qui a dans son bureau un et un crayon? Qu'a

l'ecole

du village?

Qu'est ce que

la salle

un

cahier,

A.: M.,

de

l'ecole

et

un fourneau

?

store?

elle

un couteau, une*

a

un

.

.

a?

11. Qu'a la fenetre de I'antichambre?

12.

Ou'est ce que

bureau ?

le

neveu du marechal a dans son


BEGINNERS FRENCH

43

Restrictive answers.

Est ce que Tecole du village a des drapeaux, des

13.

preaux

et

La

14.

A.: Non, M.,

des cloches?

et

qu'un ...

qu'une

salle

.

.

elle n'a qii'un

drapeau,

.

de Tecole

a-t-elle des tableaux, des cartes et

des fourneaux?

Est ce que

15. et

la

fenetre de rantichambre a des rideaux

des stores?

Le neveu du marechal

16.

73.

a-t-il

plumes

cahiers, des couteaux, des

et

Grammar

dans son bureau des

des crayons?

Drill

Replace the dashes by un or une as the case the first

row of

dots by the proper translation of

may

be,

some or

any and the second by the plural of the preceding noun. 1.

— drapeau, — rideau, — neveu, — — couteau, Ex. Un rideau, des rideaux. — — — — plume, — — amie, — — bureau, — — preau, — antichambre, — — — crayon, — tableau, — ;

;

fils,

;

:

2.

ecole,

.

;

;

carte,

;

;

cahier,

;

salle,

;

;

;

boite,

;

5.

;

ville,

;

4.

;

;

cloche,

3.

i

fenetre,

;

porte,

;

have, we Has he? have you? have you*?

have, they (m.) have.

I

(Two

translations of

every question.)

6. They has not.

(f.)

have

not,

I

have not, you have not, she


BEGINNERS FRENCH

44

Translation

74.

I. The school of the city has (some) class rooms and (some) anterooms. 2. The class rooms of the schools have some windows and one door. 3. The anteroom of the school has no blackboards. 4. It has only chairs and one table. They are 6. 5. Where are the maps and the blackboards?

7. Have the schools of the They have only bells they have

on the walls of the class rooms. village flags

no ID.

flags.

and

bells ?

;

The windows

9.

They have no

schoolmaster? the park.

8.

of our class rooms have shades.

curtains.

12.

They

13.

Where

of

his

is

the master?

room.

the

stove

16.

What

18.

Have you (any) desks?

desks?

Where

11.

class

15.

has he in his pocket?

20.

We

are the pupils of this

are in the playground in front of 14.

He

Who

He What

17.

is

is

seated near

pupil?

this

has only a knife.

have you 19. have notebooks, pens and pencils.

your

in

EIGHTH LESSON Rules 75' Cardinal numbers.

un, une

i

douze

12

deux

2

treize

13

trois

3

quatorze

14

quatre

4

quinze

15

cinq

5

seize

16

six (siss)

6

17

sept (sett)

huit (ziret, short)

7 8

dix sept (diss) dix huit ( " )

neuf

9

dix neuf

(

"

18 I?

)

26

vingt (z'in)

un (vinte-un)

dix (diss)

10

vingt et

onze

II

vingt deux (pron.

t)

.

.

21

.

.

22


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

45

23

soixante dix huit

78

vingt quatre(

)

24

soixante dix neuf

vingt cinq

(

)

25

quatre vingts {vin) ....

79 80

vingt six

(

)

26

quatre vingt un

81

vingt sept

(

)

quatre vingt deux

82

vingt huit

(

)

27 28

quatre vingt dix

90

vingt neuf

(

)

29

quatre vingt onze .....

91

30

quatre vingt douze

92

(pron.

vingt trois

O-.

trente

un

31

quatre vingt treize

trente deux, etc

32

quatre vingt quatorze

quarante

40

quatre vingt quinz-e

41

quatre vingt seize

quarante deux, etc

42

quatre vingt dix sept

cinquante

50

quatre vingt dix huit

.

.

.

.

trente et

quarante

un

et

un

51

quatre vingt dix neuf

52

cent

soixante

60

cent

un soixante deux

61

cent cinquante

62

soixante dix

70

deux cents deux cent trente

soixante et onze

71

trois cents

soixante douze

y2

mille

soixante treize

et

soixante et

un

73

douze cent

74

soixante quinze

75 y6

deux mille deux mille cent un million

soixante dix sept

Notes:

i.

Cinq

...

97 98 99 100 loi

soixante quatorze

soixante seize

93 94

.

95 96

cinquante deux

cinquante

.

trois

1 50 200

230 300 1000 1203

2000 2100 1,000,000

yy livres; cinq, cinq^enfants.

Five hooks;

five, five children.

Six

villes

The

final

neuf, dix

is

;

six, six^ecoles.

Six

cities; six, six schools.

consonant of the numbers cinq,

not sounded

when they

six, sept, huit,

are followed by a noun

or adjective beginning with a consonant or an aspirate 2.

and

is

pronounced

The conjunction

et

is

h formerly

in all other cases.

used only

in 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71.


.

BEGINNERS FRENCH

46

76. Ordinal numbers.

premier, premiere

.

1st

dix septieme

17th

deuxieme or second,

2nd

dix huitieme

i8th

troisieme

3rd

dix neuvieme

19th

quatrieme

4th

vingtieme

20th

cinquieme

5th

vingt et unieme

21st

sixieme

6th

vingt deuxieme

22nd

septieme

huitieme

.

neiivieme

7th

trentieme

30th

8th

quarantieme

40th

9th

cinquantieme

50th

soixantieme

60th

dixieme

loth

onzieme douzieme

nth

soixante dixieme

70th

2th

quatre vingtieme

Both

1

treizieme

13th

quatre vingt dixieme.

quatorzieme

14th

centieme

quinzieme

15th

seizieme

1

To form any

6th

.

.

90th looth

loooth

millieme

milhonieme

i

,(X)0,oooth

ordinal number, add -ieme to the correspond-

ing cardinal (except premier; fem. irregular: premiere).

Notes:

i.

However, notice the

slight

changes or addi-

tions in quatrieme, cinquieme. neuvieme, trentieme, etc.

Unieme, deuxieme are respectively used to translate and second in 21st, 22nd, 31st, 32nd, 41st, 42nd, etc. We do not elide the vowel of le 3. Le or la onzieme.

2.

first

or la before onzieme.

77.

Vocabulary

le

jour, the day.

rheure

le

mois, the month.

la

le siecle,

the century.

(f.), the hour, semaine, the week.

ranne^(f.), the year.

le

temps, the time.

la division,

la

seconde, the second.

il

la

minute, the minute.

elle

la parti e,

the part.

ils

the division.

forme, he or

it

ferme, she or

forms. it

forms.

or elles forment, they form.


BEGINNER 78. 1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

67.

47

Divisions du Temps.

60 secondes forment une minute. 60 minutes forment une heure. 24 heures forment un jour. 7 jours forment une semaine. 30 jours forment un mois. 365 jours forment une annee. loo^annees forment un siecle. 79.

1.

FRENCH

S

Transposition

Double every number.

Ex.:

120 secondes forment

i.

2 minutes. 2.

Triple every number.

Ex.:

180 secondes forment

i.

3 minutes. 3.

Quadruple

every

Ex.:

number.

forment 4 minutes. 4. Decuple every number.

Ex.:

i.

240

secondes

600 secondes forment

i.

10 minutes. 5.

Deduct one from the

and use the negative form.

number of every sentence

first

Ex.

:

i.

59 secondes ne forment

pas une^ minute. 6.

Use

the ordinal numbers.

Ex.

i.

:

Une

seconde est

la

soixantieme partie d'une minute. 80. 1.

60 secondes forment

Questions elles

une minute?

A.: Oui, M.,

forment une minute. 2. Est ce que 60 minutes forment une heure?

elles

3.

4. ^

24 heures forment elles un jour? Est ce que 7 jours forment une semaine?

Mft one

(See 64.)

is

translated

by ne

(verb) pas une

;

not a by ne (verb) pas de.


.

.

beginner's FRENCH

48

7.

30 jours forment ils un mois? Est ce que 365 jours forment une annee? 100 annees forment elles un siecle?

8.

Qu'est ce qui forme une minute?

5.

6.

des

.

A.: M., 60 secon-

.

9.

Qu'est ce qui forme une heure ?

10.

Qu'est ce qui forme un jour?

11.

Qu'est ce qui forme une semaine?

12.

Qu'est ce qui forme un mois?

13.

Qu'est ce qui forme une annee?

14.

Qu'est ce qui forme un siecle?

15.

Quelle

est

soixantieme

la

A.: M,, une seconde est

la.

partie

d'une

minute?

.

16.

Quelle est la soixantieme partie d'une heure?

17.

Quelle est

la

18.

Quelle est

la

septieme partie d'une semaine?

19.

Quelle est

la

trentieme partie d'un mois?

20. Quelle

est

la

vingt quatrieme partie d'un jour?

trois

cent soixante cinquieme partie

d'une annee? 21. Quelle est la centieme partie d'un siecle?

81.

Grammar

the odd numbers from

4.

Give Give Give Give

5.

58, 814, 1204, 1492, 1643, 1789. 1824, 1870, 1903.

1.

2. 3.

Use no I.

3.

We

i

to 21.

numbers from 2 to 30. the multiples of 3 up to 99. the multiples of 4 up to 120. the even

82.

2.

Drill

Translation

figures in writing out this exercise.

have 4 generals and 2 admirals

in

this

city.

This general has 3 sons and this admiral has 5 nephews. The city has 7 schools, 6 parks, 8 avenues, 92 streets and


;

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

49

blackboards, 5

Our school has 45 windows, 16 doors Your class room has 12 benches, 3 maps and 2 desks. 6. The schoolmistress has

in her desk

pencils, 2 inkstands, 7 books, 10 pens

60,000 inhabitants.

4.

and 2 playgrounds. 4

notebooks.

7.

5.

The

and 14

divisions of time^ are the second, the

minute, the hour, the day, the week, the month, the year and the century. 8. 180 minutes form 3 hours. 9. 91 days form 13 weeks. 10. 52 weeks form one year. 11. 312 weeks form 6 years. 12. 120 hours form 5 days. 13. 210 days form 7 months. 14. 1460 days form 4 years. 15. 1000 years form 10 centuries. 16. 20 is the fifth part of 100. 17.

30

the sixth part of 180.

is

of 477.

19.

42

is

18.

53

is

the ninth part

the eleventh part of 462.

83.

Reading Lesson

DU TEMPS

DIVISIONS

L'annee a douze mois.

Les noms des douze mois de

I'annee sont: Janvier, fevrier, mars, avril, mai, juin, juillet, aout, septembre, octobre,

Janvier est le

novembre

decembre.

et

premier mois de l'annee; fevrier est

deuxieme mars est le troisieme avril est mai est le cinquieme; juin est le sixieme; ; .

;

septieme; aoiit est octobre est est le

le

le

huitieme; septembre est

dixieme; novembre est

douzieme,

le

le

juillet le

onzieme

le

quatrieme

le

est

le

neuvieme;

et

decembre

dernier.

juillet, aoiit, octobre et decembre ont autres mois, excepte fevrier, ont Les trente et un jours. vingt huit jours dans les annees trente jours. Fevrier a

Janvier, mars, mai,

ordinaires et vingt neuf dans les annees bissextiles.

Le premier Janvier est un decembre est le

trente et est le

le

premier jour de l'annee;

dernier.

Le vingt deux

le

fevrier

jour de I'anniversaire de naissance de Washington.

Le quatre

juillet est la

date de la fete nationale des fitats 1

Supply

the.


?

BEGINNER

50

Le quatorze

Unis.

FRENCH

S

juillet est la

date de Tanniversaire de la

prise de la Bastille.

L'annee a quatre saisons.

de Tannee sont:

le

Les noms des quatre saisons

printemps, lete, rautomne et I'hiver.

Le printemps est la plus agreable des quatre saisons. La semaine a sept jours. Les noms des sept jours

de

la

semaine sont: lundi, mardi, mercredi, jeudi, vendredi, samedi Lundi et mardi sont les deux premiers jours et dimanche.

de

la

Samedi

semaine.

et

dimanche sont

les

NINTH LESSON

deux demiers.

*

Rules

Review

§§ i8, 40, 48, 49, 50, 51.

84. Sonner, to ring.

The tions.

Dessiner, to draw.

regular French verbs are divided into three conjuga-

The

infinitive present of the first

one ends in

-er.

85. Present indicative of sonner (to ring).

nous sonnons, we ring

je Sonne, / ring, I do ring,

I

am

ringing

tu sonnes, you ring il

or

elle

vous sonnez, you ring

sonne, he or she rings

The endings

f

singular

-j

I I.

or elles sonnent, they ring

of the indicative present of verbs of the

conjugation are:

86.

ils

f

_e

-es -e

plural

S L

first

-ons -ez

-ent

Present indicative of sonner (interrogative form).

(

sonne je?

\

est ce

que

)do I ring? je

sonne?

\am

sonnons nous?

I ringing?

sonnes tu?

sonnez vous?

sonne-t-il?

sonnent

sonne-t-elle

sonnent elles?

ils?


BEGINNER 1.

The

S

FRENCH

51

no corresponding form Ring I? instead of Do I ring? Ring We say instead of Do you ring? etc. auxiliary verb to do has

in French.

yoiif

mute of the first person when followed by je.

Such forms as sonne-je?

dessine-je? are avoided in con-

Therefore always use the form

versation.

person singular of any tense.

first

singular must be

Final e

2.

accented (e)

est ce

que

Either form

in the

may

be

used in the other persons. 87. Present indicative of sonner je

ne sonne pas, / do not ring,

am

/ tu il

elle

88.

A

vous ne sonnez pas

ne sonne pas

Le

few nouns ending

89.

I.

De

1.

Whom?

?

Of whom

quoi parlez vous?

is

Whom

by -ux

do you

in the plural.

criticise?

De

are you talking?

Of what

are

you talking?

translated by qui.

by quoi.

90. r^difice (m.), the building. le

chapeau, the hat.

le

pardessus, the overcoat.

I'animal (m.), the animal.

bateau, the boat.

I'avis

-il

the works.

interrogative pronoun, object of any preposi-

tion, is translated

le travail,

The work,

interrogative pronoun, direct object or object

of any preposition,

What?

or elles ne sonnent pas

in -ail replace

Qui critiquez vous?

2.

2.

ils

travail, les travaux.

qui parlez vous

le

nous ne sonnons pas

not ringing

ne sonnes pas or

(negative form),

the work.

(m.), the advice.

la tour, the tower.

(See 67.) Vocabularyla

classe,

the

class,

room. sonner, to ring.

deposer, to lay down. dessiner, to draw.

examiner,

to

examine.

critiquer, to criticise.

ecouter, to listen.

the

class


?

BEGINNER

52

91.

FRENCH

S

Text

Les cloches sonnent dans les tours des^ecoles. Vous deposez vos chapeaux et vos pardessus

1.

2.

sur les tables des^antichambres.

Nous dessinons des^animaux

3.

et des

dans nos cahiers ou des cartes sur

bateaux tableaux

les

des classes.

Le maitre examine

4.

critique

et

les

travaux

des^eleves.

Nous^ecoutons ses^avis.

5.

Transposition

92. 1.

Ex.:

Replace the plural by the singular and vice versa. I.

La

cloche sonne...

2.

Tu

deposes ton...

Je

3.

un 2. Conjugate sentences 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the present inEx. I Je depose mon Tu deposes ton dicative. Ex. i. (a) Est ce que interrogative forms. Use two 3. les cloches sonnent dans. ? (b) Les cloches sonnent elles dessine

.

.

.

:

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

:

.

dans

.

.

.

.

Questions

93. 1.

Qu'est ce qui sonne dans

les cloches 2.

sonnent.

.

les

tours des ecoles? A.: M.,

.

Qui depose son chapeau

et

son pardessus sur

la table

de Tantichambre ? 3.

(a)

Qui dessine des animaux cahier

et

des bateaux dans son

?

(b) Qui est ce qui dessine des cartes sur des classes? 4.

(a)

Qui examine

les

travaux des eleves?

(b) Qui est ce qui critique leurs travaux? 5.

Qui ecoute

les avis

du maitre?

les

tableaux


:;

.

;;

;.

;

;

BEGINNERS FRENCH

Ou

6.

dans

.

sonnent elles?

les cloches

53

A.: M.,

sonnent

elles

.

7.

Que deposons nous

8.

(a)

9.

(b)

Que

(a)

Qu'est ce que

(b)

Que

les tables

des antichambres

11.

Dans

tours de quels edifices les cloches sonnent

les

A.: M.,

maitre examine?

le

critique-t-il?

Qu'ecoutez vous?

sonnent dans.

elles

.

.

Sur quoi deposons nous nos chapeaux

12.

dessus

?

dessinez vous sur les tableaux des classes?

10.

elles?

sur

Qu'est ce que vous dessinez dans vos cahiers?

et

nos par-

?

Dans quoi dessinez vous des animaux

(a)

13.

bateaux

14.

(b)

Sur quoi dessinez vous des cartes?

(a)

De De

(b)

De

15.

qui

et

dea

?

maitre examine-t-il les travaux?

le

qui critique-t-il les travaux?

qui ecoutez vous les avis?

Grammar

94.

Drill

Replace the dashes by the plural form of the preceding noun and the dots by the proper forms du, de la, de 1', des. :

1.

Le chapeau, la classe, le

les

— — — — —

les

cahier, les

I'avis,

les

,

la carte, les

I.

.

.

.

,

.

,

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Le chapeau,

chapeau, ...

— — — — — animal, classe,

...

cahier,

...

.

...

carte,

... .

.

avis,

.

,

I'animal, les

Ex.:

,

... .

.

.

chapeaux, du chapeau, des cha-

les

peaux. 2.

Le

bateau, les

la tour, les

,

— .

.

,

.

.

.

.

bateau,

tour, ...

...


;

.;

;

BEGINNERS FRENCH

54

— — — pardessus, —

le travail, les

Tenfant, les le

la

:

ring,

cising,

I

am

,

.

I listen,

Who

enfant, .

,

.

...

.

.

cloche,

we

listen,

.

...

...

.

.

.

they do not listen

;

you

we examine? do

down, she does not lay down; you*

lay

ring,

she ringing? they are not

is

criticising,

95. I.

— — pardessus, — —

travail,

.

not examining, do

is

down? we

you do not

.

.

.

les

are examining, he

they lay

.

.

cloche, les

Translate

3.

,

,

do you

criti-

criticise?

Translation

rings the bell of the school?

2.

Do you

ring the

No, the nephew of the schoolmaster is ringing. 5. We are in the class room 4. In what class room are you? opposite the park. 6. Does your teacher lay down his hat on bell?

3.

the chair?

Where

7.

No, he lays down his hat on the table. 8. 9. They are on the chairs

are the pupils' overcoats ?

of the anteroom. are

we drawing?

10. 12.

What are you drawing? am drawing an animal on

I

board of the class room and boats in their notebooks. 14. 16. 17.

my

13.

11.

What

the black-

brothers are drawing (some)

Who

is

examining the works?

The master examines our notebooks. 15. Do you listen? The pupils do not listen to^ the advice^ of the master. They are criticising his work. 1

Omit.

2

Use the pluraL


BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

55

TENTH LESSON Rules 96.

A

Le

Les

bal, the hall.

few nouns ending

adding

s

to

97. (i) maitres,

Au

form

their plural regularly,

by

(See $!â&#x20AC;˘)

singular.

tl)e

bals, the halls.

in -al

maitre, (2) a la dame, (3) a I'enfant, (4)

aux dames, aux enfants

;

to the (at the)

aux

master, lady,

child; to the (at the) masters, ladies, children.

To

the and at the are translated by ( i ) au before a masnoun singular beginning with a consonant or an h formerly aspirate, by (2) a la before a feminine noun singular beginning with a consonant or an h formerly aspirate, by (3) ^1' before any singular noun beginning with a vowel or an h mute, and by (4) aux before any plural noun.

culine

98.

was speaking,

Je parlais, /

I used to speak

tu parlais, you zvere speaking il

parlait,

he was speaking

elle parlait,

she

was speaking

zve were speaking you were speaking ils parlaient, they were speaking elles parlaient, they were speaking

nous parlions, vous

parliez,

The endings

of the indicative imperfect of the

jugation are: singular

r

_ais

\

-ais

first [

plural

I -ait

-j

L

99. Vocabulary le bal,

the hall.

rinvite, the guest.

rambassadeur, the ambassador

I'etranger, the stranger.

I'hote, the host.

le

general, the general.

con-

-ions -iez

-aient


.

BEGINNER

56 le son, le

the sound.

I'hotesse, the hostess.

violon, the violin.

assister a, to be present at.

rinstrument (m.),the instrument. la

FRENCH

S

princesse. the princess

parler, to speak, to talk.

presenter, to introduce.

Tambassadrice, the ambassadress.

danser, to dance,

autre, other.

100.

Text

1.

Nous^assistons au bal de rambassadeur.

2.

Vous presentez letranger

Thote

a

et

a

a

la

I'hotesse. 3.

^ ambassadrice

parle

au general

et

princesse. 4.

Les^autres^ invites

dansent

aux

sons

des

violons. IoI 1.

Ex.

:

2.

Ex.: 3.

Transposition

Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. J'assiste au bal de Tambassadeur. Tu assistes.

I.

.

,

Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa. I.

J'assiste

aux

bals des ambassadeurs.

Replace the present by the imperfect.

assistions 4.

.

Ex.:

i.

Nous

au bal de Tambassadeur.

Use

the negative form.

Ex.:

i.

Nous

n'assistons pas

au bal de I'ambassadeur.

102. 1.

Qui

assiste

Questions

au bal de I'ambassadeur?

A.:

M. nous

assistons au bal de Tambassadeur.

4.

Qui presente I'etranger a I'hote et a Thotesse? Qui parle au general et a la princesse? Qui danse aux sons des violons?

5.

A

2. 3.

quoi assistez vous?

A.: M., nous assistons au


BEGINNER

7.

A A

8.

Aux

6.

S

FRENCH

57

qui est ce que je presente I'etranger? qui rambassadrice parle-t-elle

sons de quel instrument

,

?

dansent

les invites

ils?

(Use the imperfect.) 9. Assistiez

vous au bal de Tambassadeur ?

nous assistions au

.

.

Est ce que

10.

I'hotesse

presentais

je

a Thote et a

I'etranger

?

L'ambassadrice parlait

11.

A.: Oui, M.,

.

au general

elle

et a la prin-

cesse ?

Est ce que

12.

Grammar

103. 1.

The

ball,

dansaient aux sons des violons

les invites

the balls

;

?

Drill

of the ball, of the balls

to the ball,

;

to the balls. 2.

The

princesses 3.

princess, the princesses ;

The

;

of the princess, of the

to the princess, to the princesses.

guest, the guests

;

of the guest, of the guests

;

to

the guest, to the guests. 4.

The

host, the hosts; of the host, of the hosts; to the

host, to the hosts. 5.

The sound,

^

the sounds; of the sound, of the sounds;

to the sound, to the sounds. 6.

The

strangers 7.

;

The

stranger, the strangers

;

of the stranger, of the

to the stranger, to the strangers. lady, the ladies

;

of the lady, of the ladies

;

to the

lady, to the ladies. 8.

to

I

am

speak

;

dancing,

we

I

was dancing; he

introduce,

we were

is

speaking, he used

introducing

;

they

are

drawing, they used to draw. 9. You are present, you were present;* are you speaking? were you speaking? are we criticising? were we criticising?

does she dance? was she dancing?


BEGINNER^S FRENCH

58

(a) is

I.

Where

the host

?

Translation

104.

«

4.

are you

He

2.

?

We are

at the ball.

3.

Where

introducing the strangers to the other

is

5. Where are the princesses and the ambassador? The ambassador is standing near the door. 7. To whom 8. He speaks to the hostess. does he speak? 9. The

guests. 6.

princesses are seated near the general.

they speaking?

11.

They

she present at the ball?

12.

Is

14.

Do you

dance?

15.

10.

To whom

are

are speaking to the ambassadress.

We

13.

Yes, she

is

dancing.

do not dance to the sounds of

the violin.

(b) I. My brothers were present at the class. 2. We were drawing. 3. The master was speaking to the pupils. 4. He was criticising their works. 5. We were listening to^ his advice.

105.

Reading Lesson

IMPOSSIBLE n'eST PAS FRANgAIS

Napoleon premier donne un jour a un jeune lieutenant

un ordre

difficile

a executer.

L'of ficier hesite et

murmure

:

« Sire, Texecution de cet

ordre est impossible.)) «

n'est

Impossible

!

crie

Napoleon

f urieux,

impossible

!

ce

mot

pas fran9ais.))

ELEVENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§

18, 28, 40, 63.

Remplir,

106. Rougir, to blush.

The tion

to fulfill.

infinitive present of the verbs of the

ends in

-ir. 1

Omit

second conjuga-


f

f

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

59

107. Indicative present of rougir. je rougis, / blush, I

am

nous rougissons

blushing,

/ do blush

vous rougissez

tu rougis il

rougit

elle

ils

rougit

rougissent

elles

The endings of

rougissent

the indicative present of the second con-

jugation are:

r _is

singular

j

|-

plural

-is

]

-issons -issez

-issent

I -it

108. Indicative present of rougir (interrogative form) est ce

que

am

je rougis?

do I blush

rougissons nous

I blushing

rougis tu?

rougissez vous

rougit

il

?

rougissent ils?

rougit

elle ?

rougissent elles

person singular, use the form

1.

In the

2.

In the other persons, use either forms.

109.

I.

first

Who?

interrogative

may

r

?

est ce que.

be translated by qui or

qui est ce qui. 2.

Whom?

interrogative

may

be translated by qui or

qui est ce que.

no. Vocabulary I'ami, the friend. le

diligent, -e, industrious.

choix, the choice.

obeir

les parents, the parents, the rela-

a, to

subir, to

obey.

undergo, receive.

tives.

rougir (de), to blush {for).

la

punition, the punishment.

rejouir, to rejoice.

la

conduite, the behavior.

choisir, to choose.

bien, well.


beginner's FRENCH

6o

III.

Text

1.

Mon

2.

II

n'obeit pas a ses maitres.

T,,

II

subit des punitions.

frere n est pas diligent.

Nous choisissons bien nos^amis. Vous ne rougissez pas de votre choix

4. 5.

de

et

votre conduite.

Nous

6.

rejouissons nos parents. 112.

Transposition

(Choix and conduite must remain singular and parents plural throughout.)

Conjugate every sentence

1.

Ex.

:

I

2.

Ex.:

I.

3.

versa.

the indicative present. .

Mes

.

.

freres ne sont pas diligents.

Replace the negative form by the affirmative and vice

Ex.:

Mon

i.

frere est diligent.

113. 1.

in

Je ne suis pas diligent or diligente. Tu n'es pas Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa. .

Votre frere

n'est

il

Questions

pas dihgent?

A.: Noh, M.,

il

n'est

pas ...

pas a ses maitres?

2.

N'obeit

il

3.

Subit

des punitions?

4.

Est ce que vous choisissez bien vos amis?

5.

(a)

il

Ne

rougissons nous pas de notre choix?

(b) Est ce que nous ne rougissons pas de notre conduite ? 6.

Rejouissez vous vos parents?

7.

Qui

n'est pas diligent?


beginner's FRENCH

6l

n'obeit pas a ses maitres?

10.

Qui Qui Qui

11.

(a)

(b)

Qui ne rougit pas de son choix? Qui est ce qui ne rougit pas de sa conduite?

Qui

rejouit ses parents?

8. 9.

12.

est ce qui subit des punitions?

choisit bien ses

13.

Votre frere

14.

A

15.

Qu'est ce

16.

Qui

est

qui n'obeit

17.

De

18.

Qui

il

I

diligent?

pas?

il

qu'il subit?

choisissez vous bien?

quoi ne rougissons nous pas?

que vous rejouissez?

est ce

114. 1.

amis?

Grammar DriH

choose, they choose, she chooses; you* rejoice,

we

you obey, I obey, he obeys. 2. They undergo, you undergo, he undergoes we do not blush, she does not blush, they do not blush. do you choose? do they choose? 3. Am I choosing? does she obey? are we obeying? do you* obey? rejoice, they rejoice;

;

115. I.

3. 5.

My

They They

Translation

brothers are industrious.

are at^ school.

4.

Do

listen well to^ their advice.^

They

Where

2.

are they?

they obey^ their teachers? 6.

They do

not blush

and their teachers. 8. Are these pupils your friends? 9. You do not choose well. 10. I do not blush for my choice. 11. Do you receive punishments? 12. The teacher is sad we are not very industrious. 13. We do not obey. 14. We do not listen. 15. And you receive punishments. 16. We blush for our behavior. for their work. 7.

rejoice our parents

:

1

Supply

//^<?,

2

Supply

a.

^

Omit.

Use the

plural.


beginner's FRENCH

62

TWELFTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ I9> 20, 28, 29.1, 116. Ce livre ci, this book. Cet enfant

ci, this child.

Cette salle

ci,

this class

Ces eleves

ci,

these pupils.

When

it is

31, 4iÂť 52, 98.

Ce

livre la, that book.

Cet enfant

room.

necessary to

la,

that child.

Cette salle

Ces eleves

mark

la,

la,

that class room.

those pupils.

a sharp distinction between

the adjectives this and that, these and those, put ci after the

noun preceded by by that or those.

this or these,

and

la after the

one preceded

117. Imperfect of punir (to punish).

was punishing,

je punissais, /

nous punissions

/ used to punish

vous punissiez

tu punissais il

punissait

ils

punissaient

elle punissait

elles

The endings of

the indicative imperfect of the second

conjugation are:

punissaient

r f -issais

singular

\

r f

plural

-issais

I -issait

118.

Grand (m.), great; grande

\

L

(f.), great;

-issions

issiez -issaient

grandement,

greatly. f.), qmck ; rapidement, quickly; plus more quickly; le plus rapidement, the most

Rapide (m. and rapidement, quickly.

Je parle rapidement, / speak quickly. I.

French adverbs are formed by adding -ment

feminine form of the adjective.

to the

Their comparative and


.

'

beginner's FRENCH formed

superlative are

63 (See

those of the adjectives.

like

38, 39.) 2.

Adverbs are placed immediately

119.

Le

after the verb.

livre est sur la table, n'est ce

pas?

Is the book on the table f

est sur la table.

Oui, M.,

Yes,

sir, it is

il

on

the table. 1.

is it

A

third

way

to

form a question

2.

Yes, after such a question,

to put n'est ce pas?

oui, not

(See

si.

53'.)

cherir, to cherish, to like.

devoir, the duty.

remplir, to

the girl.

la fille,

is

Vocabulary

120. le

is

not so? after any statement.

fulfill.

jouir de, to enjoy.

la reputation, the reputation,

jeune, young.

reussir, to succeed.

meilleur,

grandir, to grozv.

-e, better.

mieux (adverb),

punir, to punish.

better.

rapidement, quickly.

Text

121.

Je punissais ces^eleves ci et ces^eleves la. 1.

2.

Cette jeune

devoirs que cette jeune 3.

Ce maitre

ci

remplissait

la

fille

fille

jouissait

cherissais

je

mieux

ses

ci.

dune

meilleure repu-

que ce maitre la. Ces^enfants la grandissaient plus rapidement

tation 4.

que ces^enfants ci. maitresses 5. Ces ces maitresses

reussissaient

Transposition

Conjugate every sentence

punissais ces.

.

mieux que

la.

122, I.

ci

.et tu.

in the imperfect.

Ex.

:

I.

Tu


.

.

beginner's FRENCH

64 2.

Ex.

:

3.

Conjugate every sentence I.

Je punis ces eleves

the

in

ci et je.

.

indicative present.

.

Replace the singular by the plural (except " une meil-

leure reputation ") and vice versa. 4.

Use

the interrogative form n'est ce pas.

punissais ces eleves

ci,

n'est ce

123. 1.

(a)

Qui

2.

Qui Qui (b) Qui

.

Je

i.

Questions

punissait ces eleves ci?

ces

Ex.:

pas?

^..-

M., je punissais

.

(b)

est ce qui cherissait ces eleves la?

(a)

remplissait bien ses devoirs? est ce qui remplissait

mieux

ses devoirs

que

cette jeune fille ci? 3.

(a)

Qui

est ce qui jouissait

d'une bonne reputation?

(b) Qui jouissait d'une meilleure reputation que ce

maitre la? 4.

Qui gnandissait rapidement? (b) Qui est ce qui grandissait plus rapidement que (a)

ces

enfants ci? 5.

Qui (b) Qui (a)

est ce qui reussissait? est ce qui reussissait

mieux que

ces maitresses

la?

6.

(a)

Qui punissiez vous?

A.: M., je punissais ces.

.

(b) Qui est ce que vous cherissiez? 7.

(a)

Qu'est ce que cette jeune

(b)

Qu'est

ce

que

mieux que

cette

jeune

fille fille

la la

remplissait? remplissait

cette jeune fille ci?

De quoi ce maitre ci jouissait il? 9. Comment ces enfants la grandissaient ils? 10. Comment est ce que ces maitresses ci reussissaient ? 8.

Use in the answers the indicative present and the negative and the affirmative forms.


beginner's FRENCH

A.: Non, M., je ne

(o) Punissez vous ces eleves la?

11.

punis pas ces eleves

la,

6$

'

je punis ces eleves

ci.

(b) Est ce que vous cherissez ces eleves ci?

jeune

12. Cette

cette

jeune

Ce maitre

13.

fille

remplit

ci

n'est ce

fille la,

la jouit

mieux

ses devoirs

que

pas? il

d'une meilleure reputation que

ce maitre ci?

Ces enfants

14.

enfants

grandissent plus rapidement que ces

ci

n'est ce pas

la,

?

Est ce que ces maitresses

15.

mieux que

la reussissent

ces

maitresses ci?

Grammar

124.

Use

ci

or

1^,

as the case

1.

This

2.

That stranger,

may

Drill

be, after every

noun.

flag, that flag, these flags, those flags.

this

stranger, those strangers, these

strangers.

4.

These Those

5.

This ambassador, that ambassador, those ambassadors,

3.

balls,

those balls, this

ball, that ball.

bells,

these bells, that

bell, this bell.

these ambassadors. 6.

That

actress,

these

actresses,

those

actresses,

this

actress. 7. I was growing; you were not growing; were they growing ? 8. We used to fulfill was she fulfilling? You* were not ;

fulfilling. 9.

You were

not succeeding

;

I

used to succeed were they ;

succeeding ? 125. I.

My

parents used to blush for

not industrious. 4.

I

Translation

3.

You were

was growing very

my

reputation.

2.

I

was

not fulfilling your duties.

rapidly.

5.

I

did

not like

my


beginner's FRENCH

66 master.

6.

was not succeeding.

I

blush for your behavior! reputation?

9.

utation than those masters. pupils.

II.

*j.

And you

did

not

Who

used to enjoy a good These teachers used to enjoy a better rep8.

10.

They were only

They used

to punish their

fulfilling their duty.

12.

Were

you receiving punishment? 13. Were you obeying^ your parents and your masters? 14. We were not blushing for our work. 15. Yoti were succeeding better than your brother. 16. This gentleman used to choose his friends better than that gentleman. 17. He used to enjoy a very good reputation and

was succeeding very

well.

126.

Reading Lesson

DU PAREIL AU MEME Napoleon trois, empereur des Franc^ais, cause un jour avec femme, I'imperatrice Eugenie. Comme elle parle un peu etourdiment, son mari demande par maniere de plaisanterie « Quelle est la difference entre un miroir et vous meme ? » L'imperatrice cherche en vain une reponse a cette quessa

:

tion.

«

Eh

bien, continue

Napoleon,

la

difference est que

miroir reflechit et que vous ne reflechissez «

A

le

pas.))

votre tour, riposte vivement Eugenie, quelle est la

un miroir et vous meme?)) L'empereur reste muet de surprise.

difference entre

;(Eh bien,

mon 1

ami. c'est que

le

miroir est plus poli.»

Supply a before every object.


:

BEGINNER''S

FRENCH

67

THIRTEENTH LESSON Rules 127. Perdre, to lose.

The

Descendre, to go down.

infinitive present of the verbs of the third

tion ends in

conjuga-

-re.

128. Indicative present of perdre. je perds,

,/

lose, I

am

losing,

nous perdons

/ do lose tu perds il

or

elle

vous perdez perd

ils

INTERROGATIVE FORM est ce

que

perds tu

je

or elles perdent

NEGATIVE FORM

perds?

je ne perds pas

tu ne perds pas, etc.

? etc.

The endings of

the indicative present of the third con-

jugation are

j-

singular

.s

j-

plural

-s

^

-{

I -

I

_ons -ez

-ent

129. Imperfect of perdre. je perdais, / to lose,

was

losing, I

used

vous perdiez

tu perdais il

or

elle

nous perdions

I did lose

perdait

The endings

ils

or elles perdaient

of the indicative imperfect of the third con-

jugation are the same as those of the imperfect of the

first

conjugation (see 98). 130. Diligent, industrious.

French adverbs ending jectives ending in -ent.

in

Diligemment, industriously.

-emment are derived from ad-


BEGINNER^S FRENCH

68

Vocabulary

131. le repas, the le

le voisin, le

meal.

perdre, to lose. attendre, to wait for.

pensionnaire, the boarder. the neighbor.

entendre, to hear.

temps, the time.

tendre, to extend^ to hold out.

salle a manger, the dining room. la main, the hand.

descendre, to go dozen, to

la

la sonnette, the

{small)

enfin, at last.

bell.

132.

Text

impatiemment

Nous^attendons

1.

come

down. impatiemment, impatiently.

Theure

du

repas. 2.

Vous perdez votre temps.

3.

Enfin

entendent

pensionnaires

les

la

son-

nette. 4. 5.

Vous descendez a la salle a manger. Je tends la main a mes voisins. 133.

1.

Ex.: 2.

Transposition

(Main must remain singular throughout.) Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. I.

J'attends.

.

Tu

.

attends.

.

.

Replace the present by the imperfect.

Ex.:

i.

Nous

attendions ... 3.

Use

the three interrogative forms.

dons nous. attendons.

.

.

.

.,

?

n'est ce

Qui attend impatiemment Qui

est ce qui

.? (c)

Nous

Questions I'heure

nous attendons ... 2.

.

pas? 134.

1.

Ex. :i. (a) Atten-

(b) Est ce que nous attendons.

perd son temps?

du repas?

A.: M.,


.

beginner's FRENCH

Qui entend enfin la sonnette? Qui est ce qui descend a la salle a manger? Qui tend la main a ses voisins ?

3.

4. 5.

Qu'attendez vous impatiemment?

6.

dons.

69

^.; M., nous atten-

.

7.

Qu'est ce que nous perdons?

8.

Qu'est ce que

9.

Oil descendons nous?

A

10.

les

pensionnaires entendent enfin?

qui tendez vous la main

?

(Use the imperfect and the negative form

in the

answers.)

Est ce que vous attendiez impatiemment Theu're du repas? A.: Non, M., nous n'attendions pas. 11.

.

.

12..

Perdions nous notre temps?

13.

Les pensionnaires entendaient ils enfin la sonnette? Est ce que nous descendions a la salle a manger? Vous tendiez la main a vos amis, n'est ce pas?

14. 15.

135.

Grammar

Drill

am waiting, we wait, they do wait. She does not go down, you do not go down, we do not go down. 3. Do you* hear? are they hearing? do we hear? I do not extend. 4. We extend does he extend ? 5. Are you losing? we are not losing; they lose. 6. I was going down, they were going down, you were 1.

I

2.

;

going down. 7.

You

8.

We

used to

lose,

they used to

lose, I

used to

lose.

were not hearing, she was not hearing, you* were

not hearing. 9.

Were

they extending? were you extending? was she

extending ? 10.

They used

waiting.

to wait,

were you waiting? we were not


BEGINNERS FRENCH

JO

Translation

136. I.

Who

is

waiting?

Who

2.

waiting for^ the meal time? 2 ing impatiently for^ bell? 9.

6.

We

rings.

It

hear at

last.

loses his time?

3.

Who

is

These gentlemen are waitthe meal time.^ 5. Do you hear the 8. Don't you hear? 7. Is it ringing? 10. We do not lose our time. 11. The 4.

examining the dining room. 12. To whom does she hold out her^ hand? 13. She holds out her^ hand to her friends. 14. She does not lose her time. 15. She introduces

hostess

is

the strangers to the other boarders.

down

quickly?

dining room. their^

17. 18.

Our

16.

Who

is

going

down quickly to the 19. They do not extend They do not lose their

neighbors go

They hear

the

bell.

hands* to their neighbors.

20.

time.

FOURTEENTH LESSON Rules

Review

ยง 63.

137. (i) des olives

Some

;

Du

some

papier, (2) de la viande, (3) de Teau, (4) i^any) paper, meat, water, olives.

or any, expressed or understood before a noun,

must be expressed

in

French and

is

translated

by (i) du

before a masculine noun singular beginning with a con-

sonant or an h formerly aspirate, by

(2)

de la before a

feminine noun singular beginning with a consonant or an h

formerly aspirate, by (3) de 1* before any singular noun beginning with a vowel or an h mute, and by (4) des before

any plural noun. 1

Omit.

'

heure.

^ the.

^

Use the

singular.


BEGINNER 138. Indicative present of je

mange, / eat

tu

manges

il

or

elle

S

FRENCH

manger

71

(to eat).

nous mangeons vous mangez

,

mange

ils

or elles

mangent

Imperfect,

was

je mangeais, /

nous mangions vous mangiez

eating

tu mangeais il

or

elle

mangeait

ils

or elles mangeaient

In verbs ending in -ger, supply a silent e after the g to

keep

it

soft (p. 16)

Compare

in

whenever the endings begin with a or

English

to singe,

0.

singeing; to tinge, tingeing

139. Indicative present of placer (to place, to put).

nous plaqons vous placez

je place, / place

tu places il

or elle place

ils

or

elles

placent

Imperfect, je plagais, I zvas placing

nous placions

tu plagais

vous placiez

il

or

elle plagait

ils

In verbs ending in

keep

it

soft

Compare

in

(=

English noticeable, serviceable, faqade, 140.

le

poisson, the fish.

le fruit,

or elles plaqaient

put a cedilla (,) under the c to s) whenever the endings begin with a or 0. -cer,

the fruit.

Vocabulary le vin,

legume, the vegetable.

le

le

pain, the bread.

le the,

le

fromage, the cheese.

le sel, le

the salt.

poivre, the pepper.

le radis, le

the cracker.

the radish.

garden, the waiter.

the wine.

le lait, the milk.

le

le biscuit,

etc.

verre, the glass.

the tea.

le chocolat,

the chocolate.

le cafe, the coffee.

la servante, the

maid.

la

viande, the meat.

la

creme, the cream.

la

moutarde, the mustard.


.

.

BEGINNER I'huile (f.), the I'olive

S

FRENCH placer, to place, to put.

oil.

demander,

(f.), the olive.

to

ask for.

la biere, the beer.

verser, to pour.

I'eau (f.), the water.

quelquefois, sometimes.

la tasse, the cup.

etc.

chaque (m. & f.), each, every. manger, to eat.

141. 1.

A

(et cetera, et ainsi

and

de suite)

so forth.

Text

chaque repas,

je manp;eais du poisson, de des legumes, du fromage et des fruits. servante pla9ait sur la table du pain, de

la viande, 2.

la

La

creme, des^olives, des biscuits, 3.

Vous

demandiez

etc.

quelquefois

du

sel,

du

poivre, de la moutarde, de Thuile, des radis, etc. 4. Les gar9ons versaient du vin, de la biere, de Teau ou du lait dans les verres des messieurs, et du the, du cafe ou du chocolat dans les tasses des dames.

Transposition

142.

1. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative imperfect and repeat the subject and the verb before every direct obEx.: I. A chaque repas, tu mangeais du poisson, tu ject. mangeais de la viande, tu .

.

Conjugate every sentence in the present of the indicative and repeat the subject and the verb before every direct Ex.: i. A chaque repas, je mange du poisson, je object. 2.

mange de 3.

Use

viande, je.

la

.

the three interrogative forms.

geais je du.

.

.a

chaque repas?

du...a chaque repas? repas, n'est ce pas

?

(c)

Ex.:

i.

(a)

Man-

(b) Est ce que je mangeais

Je mangeais du...a chaque


BEGINNER

repas

3.

?

Qui mangeait des legumes a chaque repas? (d) Qui est ce qui mangeait du fromage a chaque (c)

(e) 2.

73

(a) Qui mangeait du poisson a chaque repas ? ^.; M., je mangeais du poisson a chaque repas. (b) Qui est ce qui mangeait de la viande a chaque

repas â&#x20AC;˘

FRENCH

Questions

143. 1.

S

?

Qui mangeait des

Qui (b) Qui (c) Qui (d) Qui (a)

fruits a

chaque repas?

du pain sur la table? creme sur la table?

est ce qui plagait pla(;ait

de

la

est ce qui plaqait des olives sur la table? pla(;ait

des biscuits sur

la table?

Qui demandait quelquefois du sel ? Qui est ce qui demandait quelquefois du poivre? (c) Qui demandait quelquefois de la moutarde? (d) Qui est ce qui demandait quelquefois de Thuile? (e) Qui demandait quelquefois des radis? (a)

(b)

4.

(a)

Qui

versait

du vin dans

des messieurs (c)

Qui

des messieurs?

les verres

(b) Qui est ce qui versait de

la biere

dans

les

verres

?

versait de I'eau dans les verres des messieurs

(d) Qui est ce qui versait du

messieurs

lait

dans

les

?

verres des

?

Qui versait du the dans les tasses des dames? (/) Qui est ce qui versait du cafe dans les tasses des dames ? versait du chocolat dans les tasses des dames ? Qui (g) (e)

5.

je

Qu'est ce que vous mangiez a chaque repas?

mangeais du.

.

.

servante plagait sur la table?

6.

Qu'est ce que

7.

Que demandions nous

la

quelquefois?

A.: M.,


BEGINNER

74 8.

FRENCH

S

(a) Qu^est ce que les gardens versaient dans les verres

des messieurs?

Que

(b)

versaient 144.

ils

dans

les tasses

Grammar

des

dames?

Drill

Replace the dash by the proper translation of some or any.

— moutarde, — — — creme, — — — viande, — — — fromages, — — legumes. — — fromage, — — — — — — — — temps, — eau,

cafe,

1.

tasses,

lait,

2.

chocolat,

poivre,

verres,

poisson,

sel,

huilc,

pain,

vin,

fruits,

olives,

biere,

biscuits.

I am eating, we eat, do they eat? You were not eatwere you* eating? She was not eating. 4. Does he place ? they do not place, we are placing ; I was placing; were we placing? They were not placing.

3.

ing,

145.

Translation

At last the boarders heard^ the bell. 2. The maid was ringing in the dining room. 3. She was losing her time. 4. At meal time,^ we used to go down to I.

servant

the dining room.

5.

I

Did you

6.

eat^

my overcoat on one of my hat on my overcoat.

used to place

the chairs of the anteroom and

some meat

at

each meal?

7.

We

Who

used

was eating some The ladies eating olives, and olives and radishes? were 9. the gentlemen radishes. 10. The waiters were putting in front of* the boarders (some) bread, salt, glasses and cups. 12. He used to II. One of my neighbors was very merry. the hostess. in glass of pour water the 13. She was someask the^ maid servants for® times very sad. 14. I used to hostess used to place some milk, cream, or cheese. 15. The eat

to

^ ^

*

meat^ and vegetables.

8.

- Say at the hours of the meals. imperfect. Supply some before every word where it is omitted. ^ Omit. ^ Supply to. devant.

Use the

:


BEGINNER

6.

FRENCH

(some) coffee,

in front of the ladies 1

S

The gentlemen used

75 milk, or chocolate.

tea,

to ask the^ waiter for^

some beer or

wine.

Reading Lesson

146.

UN CALEMBOUR

Un

jour,

un

fameux pour

acteur, tres

subitement malade et est oblige de garder

un de

sa fatuite, le

lit.

II

tombe charge

ses amis d'annoncer a son directeur qu'il est incapable

de jouer ce soir

une profonde

la.

A

cette nouvelle, le directeur, affectant

pousse cette exclamation: (("Quelle

tristesse,

fatalite (quel fat alite)

!

»

FIFTEENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 28, 29, 30, 137. 147. Le beau pare, the beautiful

park.

Les beaux pares, the beautiful parks.

Le

'

bel enfant, the beautiful child.

Les beaux enfants, the beautiful children. (Cf. So*) 1. Adjectives ending in -au take x in the plural. 2. Bel is used instead of beau before a masculine noun singular beginning with a vowel or an h mute. Masculine

longs .

beau

Fbmininb

{

beaux

...

beautiful,

1

fme

longues ,,

,

I

belle

r

,

belles

..

L

Some

handsome, ,

A

,

1

J

J

adjectives form their feminine in an irregular way. 1

Supply

/o

2

Omit.


BEGINNER^S FRENCH

yd

Un

149.

bon

Some French the

livre,

a

noun they quahfy. The most common are:

petit,

good book.

adjectives are placed, as in English, before

bon, long, beau,

joli,

haut (high),

grand, large, vaste (vast), habile (skilful), immense,

excellent,

mauvais (bad).

De bon

150.

the,

(some or any) good

tea.

De bonne creme, (some or any) good cream. De bonnes olives, (some or any) good olives. Some or any, expressed or understood, before a noun, expressed in French and translated by de (d*)

if

is

the quali-

fying adjective precedes the French noun.^

151 â&#x20AC;˘ Recevoir, to receive.

There are a few French verbs the infinitive present of which ends in -oir. All are irregular. Those the infinitive of which ends in -evoir are conjugated on the same model. .152. Present of the indicative of recevoir. je regois, / receive, I

/

am

nous recevons

do receive,

receiving

vous recevez

tu regois il

I.

or

elle regoit

ils

The endings of

in -evoir are

:

or

elles

reqoivent

the indicative present of the verbs r

.

singular

\

-ois

f

plural

-ois

I -oit ^

One

of the licenses adopted

On

I

-oivent

by the French Minister of Public

struction in his decree of February 26, 1901, '^Article Partitif.

j

-evons -evez

is

tolerera du, de la, de

devant un substantif precede d'un adjectif.

In-

the following:

/',

des,

Ex.

:

au lieu de de partitif de ou du bon vin, de

bonne viande, de ou des bons fruits." " Commentary " on the decree, rightly warns foreigners not to avail themselves of the above "tolerance" except before expressions which may be assimilated to nouns of species. They

bonne viande ou de

la

Prof. Cledat, in his

should never do so either before abstract expressions or before indefinite adjectives.


beginner's FRENCH 2.

the c

The is

cedilla

(=

soft

77

under the c before a, o, u indicates that (See Pronunciation, page i6.)

s).

I53ÂŤ Imperfect of recevoir.

used

je recevais, /

/

was

nous recevions

to receive,

receiinng, I did receive

tu recevais il

or

elle

vous receviez

recevait

The endings are

f

:

singular

\ I

154.

-evais

the

haut,

adminis-

-eviez

-evaient

-e,

high.

excellent, -e, excellent.

mauvais,

-e,

bad.

vaste, vast.

the lake.

habile, skilful.

immense, immense.

Teglise (f.), the church. la fleur,

I

-evions

beau, belle, beautiful, fine.

trator.

la

\

Vocabulary

I'arbre (m.), the tree. le lac,

plural

-evait

magasin, the store.

I'administrateur,

f

-evais

I'hotel (m.), the hotel. le

or elles recevaient

ils

of the imperfect of verbs ending in -evoir

devoir, must, ought.

the flower.

apercevoir, to perceive, notice.

pelouse, the lawn.

bon, -ne, good.

recevoir, to receive.

long, -ue, long.

avoir, to have, also.

155. 1.

rues,

Chaque grande

Text

ville

d'immenses.^^h6tels,

doit

de

avoir de

larges

belles^^eglises,

de

hauts^edifices et de grands magasins. 2.

Les grandes

villes

biles^administrateurs, de

doivent aussi avoir d'habonnes^ecoles, de jolies

maisons et de beaux pares. 3. Dans les pares, vous^apercevez de hauts^ar-


.

beginner's FRENCH

78

de

bres,

de

longues^avenues,

fleurs,

jolies

de

vastes pelouses et de petits lacs.

Des magasins de

4.

bon

nous recevons de de bonne huile, inais de

la ville,

the, d'excellent cafe,

mauvaise viande. 156. Transposition 1.

Put the singular subjects and verbs in the plural and and repeat the subject and the verb before every Ex.: i. Les grandes villes doivent avoir de object.

vice versa, direct

larges rues 2.

elles

;

Drop

doivent avoir

.

.

.

the adjectives everywhere.

Ex.

:

Chaque

i.

ville

doit avoir des rues, ... 3.

Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the Ex.: i.

subject and the verb before every direct object.

Chaque grande ville devait avoir 4. Use two interrogative forms. .

chaque grande ville doit elle

doit

ville

avoir

.

.

.

avoir.

.

Ex.: .

?

i.

(a)

Est ce que

(b) Chaque grande

?

157. 1.

.

.

Questions

(a) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de larges rues?

chaque grande

ville doit

avoir de

.

A.: M.,

.

(b) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir d'immenses hotels? (c)

Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de belles eglises?

(d) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de hauts edifices? (e) 2.

Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de grands magasins?

(a) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir d'habiles administrateurs

?

(b) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de bonnes ecoles? (c)

Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de jolies maisons?

(d) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de beaux pares? 3.

(a)

Qui apergoit de hauts arbres dans

les

pares?


;;

.

BEGINNER Qui

(b)

est ce qui aper^oit

les

79

de longues avenues dans

pares?

Qui apergoit de

(c)

FRENCH

S

dans

jolies fleurs

les

pares?

(d) Qui est ee qui apergoit de vastes pelouses dans pares

Qui Qui

(e)

(a)

4.

les

?

aper^oit de petits laes dans les pares?

de bon the des magasins de

est ee qui regoit

la ville?

(b) Qui regoit d'exeellent eafe des magasins de

la

ville?

Qui

(c)

*

de bonne huile des magasins

est ee qui regoit

de

la ville?

(d) Qui regoit de mauvaise viande des magasins de la ville?

Qu'est ee que ehaque grande

5.

elle doit

avoir de

.

ville doit

6.

Qu'est ee que

7.

Qu'est ee que j'apergois dans

8.

Que

les

Some

1.

water

grandes

;

3.

villes

fish,

Grammar

some good

doivent aussi avoir?

les

pares?

Drill

fish; eream,

beer, exeellent beer

;

Some

2.

eheese,

A.: M.,

reeevez vous des niagasins de la ville?

158.

good wine

avoir?

.

radishes,

;

bad eream; wine, bad radishes.

glasses, beautiful glasses tea, some bad tea good eheese; mustard, good mustard; water, bad ;

olives, exeellent olives.

Some

masters,

some

skilful

paper, good paper pens, bad pens ;

masters ;

;

flags, large flags

sehools, beautiful sehools

playgrounds, small playgrounds.

5.

We do not I am reeeiving; do you receive? He must; must they? I must not; we must.

6.

She

4.

notice.

notices

;

are

we

receive.

noticing ? you do not notice

;

I


beginner's FRENCH

8o

159. I.

The

Translation

schools of the city are

immense

buildings. 2.

They

have wide doors and high windows. 3. Each school must also have vast class rooms, long blackboards and immense playgrounds. 4. We must also have excellent administrators

and skilful teachers. 5. The pupils must have good paper and good pens. 6. You must have large cities. 7. They have beautiful avenues and long streets. 8. Strangers^ notice also beautiful hotels, large parks, high churches and vast stores.

9.

I

notice in this park beautiful flowers, large lakes,

beautiful trees

and pretty lawns.

large dining rooms.

11.

Hotels,

10.

At each meal,

must have

the waiters place in

good water, excellent cream and good place bad wine or bad beer on the tables. 14. I 13. A village has small houses and bad streets. receive from the small store of the village bad tea, excellent chocolate and good coffee. 15. We have excellent friends front of the boarders

milk.

12.

They must not

in this village.

SIXTEENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 160.

64, 137, 149, 150.

Un mur gris, a gray wall, Un chapeau rond, a round hat. Un fruit doux, o nveet fruit. Un livre frangais, a French book. Un visage souriant, a smiling face.

French adjectives (a) of

color,

(b)

shape,

(c)

taste,

(d) nationality and participles used adjectively are placed after the 1

noun they

Supply the definite

qualify. article M<f before

nouns used

in a general

meaning.


beginner's FRENCH

The

Note.

place of the other adjectives except those

must be learned by

cited in 149

Blanc

161.

8t

blancs

)

practice.

(blanche

.

^

)

^^^^^^^

frais frais

The preceding

blanches

I

f

)

'

I,

S

^

adjectives

form

fraiches

their feminine in

an irreg-

ular way.

162.

Du

vin rouge, (some or any) red wine.

De la biere anglaise. {some or any) English De Teau fraiche, {some or any) fresh water. Des

When translate

livres franqais,

beer.

{some or any) French hooks. noun it qualifies,

the French adjective follows the

some or any, expressed or understood, according

to the general rule § I37

163. '(i) J'ai des freres et des cousins diligents.

/ have diligent brothers and cousins. J'ai '

des soeurs et des cousines diligentes.

/ have diligent sisters and cousins.

(2) J'ai des soeurs et des freres diligents. / have diligent sisters and brothers. French adjectives qualifying two or more nouns of the same gender become plural and take the gender of the nouns. 2. Qualifying two or more nouns of different genders, they become masculine plural. 1.

164.

Vocabulary propre, clean.

le

visage, the face.

la

pension, the hoarding house.

sou riant,

la

nappe, the table cloth.

vert, -e, green.

la serviette,

the napkin.

-e,

smiling.

rouge, red.

I'assiette (f.), the plate.

frais, fralche, fresh.

entrer dans, to enter.

anglais, -e, English.

pendre

a, to

hang from.

blanc, -he, white.

suivre, to follow.

a suivre, to he continued.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

.

.

beginner's FRENCH

82

165.

Nous^entrons dans

1.

Text

manger de

salle a

la

la

pension.

Vous^apercevez des nappes

2.

blanches,

et

propres

des^assiettes

des serviettes des

et

visages

souriants.

Des rideaux blancs

3.

et

des stores verts pen-

dent aux fenetres.

Les gar9ons placent devant

4.

du vin rouge, de

I'eau

glaise et du. pain blanc.

de

pensionnaires la

biere

an-

{a suivre.)

Transposition

166. 1.

les

fraiche,

Conjugate every sentence, except the

third,

in

the

present of the indicative, and repeat the subject and the verb

before every direct object. 2.

subject

and the verb before every

entrions dans 3.

Use

.

.

Nous

.

.

?

Qui entre dans

Ex.

direct object.

:

i.

Nous

Ex.:

i.

(a)

.

.,

n'est ce

.

.

?

Questions

la salle .

En-

pas?

a

manger de

la

pension?

.

Qui est ce qui aper<;oit des nappes blanches? Qui apergoit des serviettes blanches? (c) Qui est ce qui aper^oit des assiettes propres? {d) Qui apergoit des visages souriants? Qu'est ce qui pend aux fenetres? (a)

(&)

3.

.

(h) Est ce que nous entrons dans.

entrons dans.

M., nous entrons dans 2.

J'entre dans.

the three interrogative forms.

167. 1.

i.

.

trons nous dans. (c)

Ex.:

Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the

A.:


;

beginner's FRENCH

St,

(a) Qui est ce qui place du vin rouge devant les

4.

pensionnaires

?

(b) Qui place de I'eau fraiche devant naires

Qui

(c)

les

pension-

?

est ce qui place

de

anglaise devant les

la biere

pensionnaires ?

(d) Qui place du pain blanc devant

les

pensionnaires?

5.

Ou

6.

Qu'est ce que nous apercevons

7.

(a) Oil des rideaux blancs pendent ils?

8.

Qu'est ce que

entrez vous?

Ou

(b)

naires

A.: M., nous entrons dans... ?

pendent des stores verts? gargons placent devant

les

les

pension-

?

Grammar

168.

Drill

Replace th^ dashes by the proper translation of some, any or no (see 64), as the case

1.

blanc

;

belles

be,

vin,

frangais,

vin,

je n'ai

anglaise,

may

— vin rouge, — bon — vin — vin — — — — vin pas mauvaise — biere — nappes, ne verse pas — — nappes, nappes propres, nous n'avons pas — biere,

;

biere

biere,

biere

fraiche, je

;

nappe.

— bonne eau, — eau, — mauvaise eau, — eau — eau propre, n'apergoit pas — eau; — bon fromage, — fromage, — fromage ne mange pas — — — mage — propres, — n'a pas — — visages, — visages propres, — beaux visages, — ne visages souriants — papier blanc, — bon — pa— — — excellent papier pas — — — creme creme, bonne creme, propre; — mauvaise creme, ne place pas — creme sur — — — bonne jaune, — mauvaise fraiche,

2.

elle

fro-

fran^ais, je

belles tasses,

tasses

;

vertes, elle

tasses,

tasses

papier, je

rec^ois

tasse.

3.

;

anglais,

papier,

fraiche,

pier

la table

elle

huile,

papier,

huile,

huile

huile.


:

.

beginner's FRENCH

84

Translation

169.

I. Large hotels^ have vast dining rooms. room has small tables and beautiful chairs.

2. 3.

Each dining The waiters

place every day on the tables white table clothes flowers.

They must

4.

and fresh

also place before every stranger beer,

red wine or white wine and water. 5. Gray shades were hanging from^ each window of my boarding house. 6. We used to receive clean napkins every week. 7. At meal time I used to examine the dining room. 8. I used to notice long tables and poor chairs. 9. The windows had no curtains. 11. 10. The maid servant was entering^ the dining room. She was placing before the boarders clean plates and knives. 12. At each meal, my neighbor used to ask the* hostess Have you fresh water ? " 13. We used to notice the smiling *'

faces of the other boarders.

14.

Strangers^ used to ask the*

waiter for^ white wine or English tea.

SEVENTEENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 49> I37» 160, 162, 163. 170. L'ceil bleu, the blue eye. Les

yenx

bleus, the blue

eyes.

The The

1

2.

171 •

plural of

ceil is

plural of bleu

Un

irregular is

gateau delicieux.

Des gateaux

Une

A

Supply

2

f/te.

*

Supply

io.

(Cf. 50«)

delicious cake.

A

Replace by

delicious cakes.

delicious fig.

I. Masculine adjectives ending numbers. (Cf. exception to 30.) 1

yeux.

Some

delicieux.

figue delicieuse.

:

regular: bleus.

in -x are alike in

^

at. 5

Omit.

Supply

into.

both


BEGINNER^S FRENCH 2.

Adjectives

ending

-x

in

85

replace

by

-x

-se

in

the

feminine.

S^^

172.

^

Sseche

dry

seches

sees

doux doux

The preceding

)

sweet,

^

soft

(

I

douce douces

adjectives have an irregular feminine.

I73. Imperfect of avoir {to have).

nous avions

j'avais, / had, I did have,

was having, I used

/

have

to

vous aviez

tu avais il

or

elle avait

ils

174. I'oeil

les

les le

le

Vocabulary

(m.), the eye.

bleu, -e, blue.

yeux, the eyes.

rose, rosy.

cheveux (m.), the manteau, the cloak.

le dessert,

pale, pale.

hair.

blond,

-e, fair,

blond.

noir, -e, black, dark.

the dessert.

gateau, the cake.

brun,

-e,

brown.

the grape.

rond,

-e,

round.

le raisin,

la joue, the cheek. la robe,

plat, -e, flat.

the dress.

delicieux, -se, delicious,

la figue, the fig.

sec, seche, dry.

.dou-x,

la fin, the end. la suite, the

mur,

continuation.

la droite, the

la

or elles avaient

right side.

gauche, the

de gauche, on the

I.

Ma

sweet, soft.

suite et fin, concluded. de droite, on the right side,

left side.

175.

-ce,

-e, ripe.

Text

left side.

{Suite et Fin).

voisine de droite a des^yeux bleus, des

joues roses, des cheveux blonds, des robes et des

manteaux

gris et des

chapeaux ronds.


.

beginner's FRENCH

86

Ma

gauche a des yeux gris, des cheveux noirs, des robes et des manteaux bleus ou bruns et des chapeaux plats. 3. Au dessert, nous mangeons des gateaux delicieux, des figues seches, des raisins doux et des 2.

voisine de

joues pales, des

murs.

fruits

176. 1.

Transposition

Conjugate every sentence

and

in the present indicative

repeat the subject and the verb before every direct object.

Ex.: 2.

I.

J'ai

des yeux bleus,

j'ai

des.

.

.

Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the

subject and the verb before every direct object. voisine de droite avait des 3.

Use

yeux bleus

ma

yeux a des yeux

voisine de droite

de droite a des yeux bleus,

177. 1.

(a)

(b) (c)

(d) (e) (/")

2.

(a)

(b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

Ex.: (a)

the three interrogative forms.

sine de droite a-t-elle des

.

.

.

bleus,. bleus,.

.

.

.

Ex.

elle avait

;

.

n'est ce pas

Ma

i.

:

des

.

Ma

.

voi-

?

(b) Est ce que

?

(c)

Ma

voisine

?

Questions

Qui a des yeux bleus? A.: M., ma voisine de droite a des yeux bleus. Qui est ce qui a des joues roses? Qui a des cheveux blonds? Qui est ce qui a des robes grises? Qui a des manteaux gris? Qui est ce qui a des chapeaux ronds? Qui est ce qui a des yeux gris? Qui a des joues pales? Qui est ce qui a des cheveux noirs? Qui a des robes bleues ou brunes? Qui est ce qui a des manteaux bleus ou bruns? Qui a des chapeaux plats?


.

beginner's FRENCH 3.

87

Qui mange des gateaux delicieux au dessert? Qui est ce qui mange des figues seches au dessert? (c) Qui mange des raisins doux au dessert? (d) Qui est ce qui mange des fruits murs au dessert? (a)

(b)

4.

Qu'est ce que votre voisine de droite a?

a des yeux bleus, des 5.

6.

.

A,: M.,

elle

.

Qu'a votre voisine de gauche? Que mangez vous au dessert?

Grammar

178.

Drill

Some ^ tea, green

tea, good tea, English tea, bad tea, some mustard, good mustard, French mustard, fresh mustard we have no mustard some bread, good bread, French bread, bad bread, white bread, fresh bread; you have no bread. 2. Some eyes, large eyes, brown eyes, beautiful eyes; some dresses, blue dresses, fine dresses some hats, black hats, beautiful hats, round hats she has no hats. 3. Some figs, good figs, fresh figs, delicious figs, bad figs, dry figs, fine figs, ripe figs; some cakes and grapes, delicious cakes and grapes. 1.

she pours no

tea;

;

;

;

;

179.

(a)

I.

hats and 3.

We

enter the^ store.

on the

brown

2.

My

sisters

choose gray

clqaks and you choose black dresses

Our neighbor on right.

younger.

Translation

6.

eyes.

the left

is

prettier than

4. She has rosy cheeks. She blushes more quickly. 8.

They

are very sweet.

and those girls have black are choosing round hats and these fair hair^

9.

hair.^

and

She is also She has large These girls have 10. Those ladies 5.

7.

ladies are asking for^

flat hats. *

Supply

info.

*

Use

hats.

your neighbor

the plural.

*

Omit


:

beginner's FRENCH

88

(b) I. Our hostess had pale cheeks and gray hair.^ At each meal, the boarders used to eat excellent fish, fresh vegetables and good meat. 3. Yes, I was also eating dry bread. 4. The maid servants used to pour fresh water in our glasses and bad tea in our cups. 5. At dessert,^ we 2.

had ripe figs, white grapes and sweet no coffee.

fruit.^

6.

We

had

180. Reading Lesson

TROIS EXCELLENTS MEDECINS

le

Quelques docteurs eminents de la capitale entouraient lit de mort de Dumoulin, le plus celebre medecin de son

temps.

A ((

leurs expressions de douleur et de regret,

il

repond

Messieurs, je laisse derriere moi trois grands medecins.))

Chacun, esperant entendre prononcer son nom, presse mourant de preciser. Dumoulin murmure avec effort « L'eau, I'exercice et :

le

la

diete.))

EIGHTEENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 50, 171, 173181. Beaucoup de pain, much bread, Beaucoup d'amis, many friends. Peu de viande, little meat. Peu de crayons, few pencils. Such words

as beaucoup, peu,

quantity in French.

de (without the article unless the

noun or nouns 1

Use the

it

are called adverbs of

etc.,

They always is

require the preposition

used

in

EngHsh) before

that they modify. plural.

*

Supply

^Ae.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

89

182. Avez vous beaucoup de livres? J*en ai; j'en ai beaucoup; j'en ai cent; je n'en ai pas. Have you hooks? I have some; I have many; I have a hundred; I have none.

When

1.

noun

a

understood after some, a noun of

is

quantity or measure, an adverb of quantity, or a number, it

expressed in French in the form of the pronoun en

is

{of

of them) immediately placed before the verb.

it,

2.

None Le Le Le

183.

translated

is

by n'en (verb)

pas.

verrou, the holt; les verrous, the holts. bijou, the jewel; les bijoux, the jewels.

joujou, the toy; les joujoux, the toys.

Nouns ending

in -on

form

their plural according to the

general rule except half a dozen which take x. 184. Imperfect of etre {to he). j'etais,

nous etions Vous etiez

/ zvas, I used to he

tu etais il

or

elle etait

185.

Vocabulary beaucoup, m,uch, many, a great

I'oncle, the uncle.

I'oiseau (m.), the bird.

deal.

much, so many. much, as many.

le

joujou, the toy.

tant, so

le

bijou, the jewel.

autant, as

le jeu,

or elles etaient

ils

the game.

peu,

little,

few.

la famille, the family.

moins,

la tante, the aunt.

more. assez, enough.

la niece, the niece.

heureu-x, joyeu-x,

-se,

-se,

much, too many. hozv many. que, than, as (when following another as or so or same). trop, too

numerous,

happy.

-se, joyful.

fewer.

plus,

la fille, the daughter.

nombreu-x,

less,

.

large.

combien,

mais, but.

how much,


.

.

BEGINNER

90

i86.

S

.

:

FRENCH

Text

Votre famille etait tres nombreuse. Vous^aviez beaucoup d'oncles et de tantes. Vous^aviez autant de neveux que de nieces, 3. mais moins de cousines que de cousins. 1.

2.

Vos

4.

n etaient

fils

pas

joyeux

ils^avaient

:

beaucoup d'oiseaux, mais peu de joujoux jeux 5.

n'en^avaient pas assez.

ils

;

de

et

Vos

etaient^heureuses

filles

elles^avaient

:

beaucoup plus de bijoux, de chapeaux et de robes que leurs^amies elles_en_avaient trop. ;

Transposition

187. 1.

Replace votre

in the first sentence

sessive adjectives singular.

Ex.

:

Ma

by the other pos-

(ta.

.

.

)

famille.

.

2. 4 and 5 adjectives plural. Ex. singular and by the other possessive

Replace vos in the

4.

Mon 3.

fect.

4.

(ton.

.

)

fils.

.

.

Conjugate the sentences 2, 3, 4 and 5 iri the imperEx. 2. J'avais. Tu avais. Replace the imperfect by the present. Ex.: i. Votre :

famille est 5.

.

first clause of sentences

.

.

.

Drop

.

.

.

the adverbs of quantity, the comparisons, the

word mais and the negations. oncles et des

.

188. 1.

mille. 2.

Ex.:

des

A.: M., votre

fa-

Questions

Qu'est ce qui etait nombreux? .

Vous

aviez

2.

.

.

(a) (b)

Qui Qui

avait

beaucoup d'oncles? beaucoup de tantes?

est ce qui avait


BEGINNER 3.

Qui Qui

(a)

(b)

avait autant de

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f) 5.

(a)

Qui Qui Qui Qui Qui Qui Qui Qui Qui

Ql

neveux que de nieces? moins de cousines que de

est ce qui avait

cousins 4.

FRENCH

S

?

n'etait

pas joyeux?

beaucoup d'oiseaux?

est ce qui avait

avait peu de joujoux?

peu de jeux? joujoux?

est ce qui avait

n'avait pas assez de

est ce qui n'avait pas assez de est ce qui etait

jeux?

heureux?

beaucoup plus de bijoux que ses amies? beaucoup plus de chapeaux que ses amies? (d) Qui avait beaucoup plus de robes que ses amies? (b)

(c)

Qui Qui (g) Qui

est ce qui avait

(e)

est ce qui avait trop

(/)

avait trop de

Use it is

avait

de bijoux?

chapeaux ?

est ce qui avait trop

de robes?

the present indicative and the pronoun en whenever

placed between parentheses.

6.

Ma

famille est nombreuse, n'est ce pas?

elle est tres 7.

(a)

A.: Oui, M.,

nombreuse.

Combien

d'oncles est ce que j'ai?

A,: M., vous

en avez beaucoup. (b) 8.

Combien de

(a) Est ce que

tantes est ce que j'ai? (en) j'ai

autant de neveux que de nieces?

(en) (b) Est ce que

j'ai

moins de cousines que de cou-

sins? (en) 9.

(a)

Mes

fils

ne sont

ils

pas joyeux?

Combien d'oiseaux ont ils? (en) (c) Combien de joujoux ont ils? (en) (d) Combien de jeux ont ils? (en) (e) Ont ils assez de joujoux? (en) (b)

(/)

Est ce

qu'ils ont assez

de jeux? (en)


BEGINNER

92 (a)

lo.

Mes Ont

S

FRENCH

sont heureuses, n'est ce pas?

filles

beaucoup plus de bijoux que leurs amies? (en) (c) Est ce qu 'elles ont beaucoup plus de chapeaux que leurs amies? (en) (b)

elles

(d) Elles ont beaucoup plus de robes que leurs amies,

pas? (en)

n'est ce

(e)

Ont

(/)

Elles ont trop de chapeaux, n'est ce pas? (en)

elles

trop de bijoux? (en)

(g) Est ce qu'elles ont trop de robes? (en)

Grammar

189.

Many

1.

daughters,

families, too

friends,

more cousins we have no toys

?

many

few sons, so many

nieces.

;

How many

2.

many

Drill

jewels, fewer games, as

many

birds; they have no books.

More

3.

curtains, fewer cloaks,

many

dresses, too

many

hats; she has no boxes. 4.

pupils,

Too much we

5.

less

Much paper, many pencils, too many how many books? we have no knives.

pepper; Little

coffee,

grapes than

figs, as

6.

meat enough,^ no fruit.

salt,

eat

little

beer,

pens,

more

-much bread,

how much milk? so much tea, more much wine as water; you don't see any

tables.

Translation

190.

(a)

he?

3.

Was his family large? He had many. 4. But

I.

daughters.

5.

How many

2.

How many

sons had

he had fewer sons than nephews had your masters?

They had few, but they had many nieces. 7. Had you many friends in this town? 8. I had many. 9. I had

6.

1

Say

:

enough meat.


BEGINNER twenty.

S

FRENCH

93

You had as many as your brother, ii. He had Were you numerous? 13. We were ten. Our neighbor's nieces are not joyful. 2. They

lo.

none.

12.

(b)

I.

have not enough dresses, cloaks and hats. 3. Their friends have fewer and are happy. 4. My cousins arq happy. 6. They 5. They have so many birds, books and games! have much more than their little friends. 7. These children have too many toys and those children have none.

NINETEENTH LESSON Rules

Review

§§ 40» 85, 98.

Un

191.

verre d'eau, a glass of water, livre de bonbons, one pound of candy. of quantity and measure require the preposition

Une Nouns

de (without the article unless

it is

also expressed in English)

before the noun or nouns that they modify. 192. Indicative present of preferer (to prefer). je prefere, / prefer

nous preferons

tu preferes

vous preferez

il

or

elle

prefere

ils

Imperfect: je preferais,

Some

verbs of the

or elles preferent

etc.

first

conjugation have an

the last syllable of the infinitive; that e

before the mute endings

e,

je

mene, /

lead, I take

il

mene

or elle

Imperfect

:

je menais, /

e

before

replaced by an e

es, e.

193. Indicative present of

tu'menes

is

mener

(to lead, to take).

nous menons vous menez ils

was

or

elles

menent

leading, taking, etc.


BEGINNER

94

Some

verbs of the

first

FRENCH

S

conjugation have an unaccented

e before the last syllable of the infinitive;

an

e

whenever the next

194.

appelle

elle

Imperfect 2.

:

j

or elles appellent

ils

'appelais, /

was

calling.

Indicative present of Jeter (to throw). je jette, /

throw

nous jetons vous jetez

tu jettes il

or

elle jette

ils

Imperfect: je

jetais, / zvas

Verbs ending

in -eler

and

or elles jettent

throwing,

etc.

-eter double the

instead of replacing the unaccented e by an Cf. in English, to impel,

syllable.

195.

before

to pet, petted,

la

douzaine, the dozen.

la

limonade, the lemonade.

preparer, to prepare.

the theater.

mere, the mother. demoiselle, the

young

cedej-, to yield.

preferer, to prefer. lady.

lassiettee (f.), the plateful.

mener,

to lead, to take.

appeler, to

call.

generalement, generally.

strawberry.

la fraise, the

t,

a silent

Vocabulary

I'invitee (f,), the guest. la

or the

the wish.

le theatre,

la

e,

impeWed ;

1

cocher, the coachman.

le desir, le

replaced by

nous appelons vous appelez

tu appelles

or

is

Indicative present of appeler {to call).

I.

j'appelle, / call

il

it

syllable is mute.

pour, for.

196.

Text

Ma

3.

mere cede a mes desirs. frere appelle un cocher. Je mene mes^amies au pare ou au

4.

La

1.

2.

Mon

theatre.

servante doit preparer pour mes^invitees

une tasse de the ou un verre de limonade.


.

.

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

95

Ces demoiselles preferent generalement une assiettee de fraises, une douzaine de bonbons et un verre d'eau fraiche. 5.

197. Transposition

Conjugate every sentence in the present of the inEx. I Je cede aux desirs de ma f ille. Tu cedes

1.

dicative.

aux

:

.

desirs de ta

.

Replace the present by the imperfect.

2.

mere

.

cedait a

Use

3.

.

.

Ex.

:

i

Ma

.

.

the three interrogative forms except in sentence 3 Ex.: i. (a) Ma mere cede-t-elle a...?

(see 86. 2).

(b) Est ce que .

.

.

,

n'est ce pas

ma mere

cede a.

.

.

(c)

Ma

mere cede a

?

198.

Questions

Qui cede a vos desirs? A.: M., ma mere cede a. Qui est ce qui appelle un cocher? 3. Qui mene ses amies au pare ou au theatre? 4. Qui est ce qui doit preparer pour vos invitees nne tasse de the ou un verre de Hmonade? 5. (a) Qui prefere generalement une assiettee de fraises ? (b) Qui est ce qui prefere generalement une douzaine 1.

.

2.

de bonbons (c)

A

quoi madame^ votre mere cede-t-elle? Qui monsieur^ votre frere appelle-t-il ? Oil menez vous vos amies?

6. 7.

8.

Qu*est ce que

9.

vitees

?

Qui prefere generalement un verre d'eau fraiche?

la

servante doit preparer pour vos in-

?

10.

Qu'est ce que ces demoiselles preferent generalement?

We

use monsieur, madame, mademoiselle or their plurals as a mark of politeness before the adjective votre or vos followed by a noun express1

ing a

member

of the family.


beginner's FRENCH

96

Grammar

199.

Drill

Replace the dashes by the preposition 1.

fruits,

Un

verre

une

assiettee

une tasse

vin,

Deux

douzaines

the, trois verres

4.

He

5.

I

6. 7.

8.

We

does she call?

call,

You are throwing, do I am yielding, do we

What do you

I

You

Whom

ant. 10.

are our guests.

We

is

throwing.

Translation 2.

3.

6.

are you calling?

She

9.

calling.

yield? they do not yield.

or tea and a glass of water. 5.

am

they throw? he

prefer?

coffee or a glass of wine?

7.

fraises,

leading, do

200. I.

pain,

do we prefer? they prefer. you lead ? she is not leading.

prefers,

am

— gateaux, plus —

assiettees

eau.

3.

une douzaine

raisins.

— amis, quatre — Beaucoup — legumes, moins — assez — limonade, trop — bonbons. 2.

cinq tasses

de.

lait,

Do you

prefer a cup of

We prefer a cup of chocolate 4. We yield to your wishes. We have good fresh, water.

8.

I

am

calling the

maid serv-

preparing the lemonade for our friends.

is

down

are going

to the dining room.

You

11.

enter

windows. 13. They generally speak of their dresses, hats,^ cloaks and jewels. 14. These ladies prefer round hats, gray cloaks and brown dresses those ladies prefer flat hats, blue cloaks and first.^

12.

These young

ladies are seated near the

;

black dresses.

You

15.

notice

on the

table

many

plates,

two

dozen (of) glasses and cups and four or five platefuls of cakes, candies

and

fruit.^

berries or grapes?

17.

16. Does your sister prefer strawShe prefers strawberries. 18. Our

brothers are calling three coachmen.

guests to the park. the wishes of *

Supply

the.

my ^

19.

We

are taking our

20. I prefer the theater, but I yield to

sister

and

my

friends.

Supply of their before every noun.

«

Use the

plural.


:

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

97

TWENTIETH LESSON Rules 201.

I.

Dauser (to dance).

FUTURE

CONDITIONAL je danserais, â&#x20AC;˘

je danserai,

or

il

elle

tu danserais

dansera

il

nous danserons vous danserez

2.

or elle danserait

nous danserions vous danseriez

or elles danseront

ils

ils

je rougirais, etc.,

I should or

/ shall or will blush 3.

would blush

Tendre (to extend).

je tendrai, etc.,

je tendrais, etc.,

/ shall or will extend 4.

or elles danseraient

RoTigir (to blush).

je rougirai, etc., '

would dance

I should or

/ shall or -mil dance

tu danseras

would extend

I should or

Recevoir (to receive).

je recevrai, etc.,

je recevrais, etc.,

I should or would receive

/ shall or will receive

The endings

of the future are

{-ai -as

r

plural

-a

The endings

1

l

-ons -ez

'

-ont

of the conditional^ are: C

singular

-j \

r -i( -ions

-ais

-ais

1::; ait

plural

{ I

-iez -i(

-aient

be noticed that the imperfect and the conditional have the same endings. Those of the imperfect are added to the root and those of 1

It will

the conditional to the infinitive.


beginner's FRENCH

98

The future and the conditional of any regular verb are formed by adding respectively the above endings to the infinitive.

Drop

Note.

conjugation and

the final e of the infinitive of the third -oi

of the five verbs ending in -evoir be-

fore adding the terminations.

202.

AvQir (to have).

I.

FUTURE

CONDITIONAL

j'aurai,

J

/ shall or

zvill

have

tu auras

il

â&#x20AC;˘

or elles auront 2.

/ should or

or elle aurait

nous aurions vous auriez ils

or

elle

sera

nous scrons vous serez or elles seront

The formed

/

should or would be

tu serais

tu seras

ils

auraient

je serais,

/ shall or will be

or

elles

Etrc (to be),

je serai,

il

would have

tu aurais

il or elle aura nous aurons vous aurez

ils

aurais,

il

or

elle serait

nous serions vous seriez ils

or elles seraient

future and the conditional of avoir and etre are irregularly.

203. Pref6rer {to prefer). je prefererai,

je prefererais, / should or

/ shall or will prefer

tu prefereras il

or

elle

preferera

nous prefererons vous prefererez ils

or

elles

prefereront

would prefer

tu prefererais il

or

elle

prefererait

nous prefererions vous prefereriez ils

or elles prefereraient


99 In the future and the conditional of verbs of the

conjugation having an e before the finitive there is

204.

no change

Mener

I.

in the spelling.

CONDITIONAL je menerais,

je menerai,

I should or

/ shall or will lead

meneras il or elle menera nous menerons vous menerez ils or elles meneront Appeler (to

il

or

elle

menerait

nous menerions vous meneriez ils

or elles meneraient

call).

j'appellerais, etc.,

'appellerai, etc.,

I should or

/ shall or will call 3.

would lead

tu menerais

tu

2.

(Cf. 192.)

{to lead, take).

FUTURE

j

first

last syllable of the in-

would

call

Jeter (to throw).

je jetterai,

je jetterais,

/ shall or will throw

I should or

Rules I93> 194 are applied also

would throw

in the future

and the con-

ditional.

205,

I.

Acheter (to buy). INDICATIVE PRESENT

j*achete, /

buy

nous achetons vous achetez

tu achetes il

or

elle

achete

ils

or elles achetent

IMPERFECT j'achetais, /

FUTURE j'acheterai, / shall

was buying CONDITIONAL

buy

j'acheterais, /

should buy


BEGINNER

lOO 2.

FRENCH

S

GtlBT '(to freeze). INDICATIVE PRESENT

il

gele,

il

gelait, it

FUTURE

freezes

it

il

gelera,

il

gelerait,

IMPERFECT

it

will freeze

CONDITIONAL

was freezing

it

would freeze

The verbs acheter, geler and a few others follow rule 193 instead of I94> i-c, the unaccented e preceding the last syllable of the infinitive becomes e before a mute vowel and the

t

or the

1 is

not doubled.

206, Lundi, samedi,

On Monday,

le

14 mars.

on Saturday, on March

The

preposition on

207.

Une demi douzaine, half a dozen. Une douzaine et demie, a dozen and Quatre

is

14.

omitted in French before dates.

livres et demie,

Demi agrees only when

it

a half.

four pounds and a

follows the noun.

half.

However,

according to the decree of the Minister of Public Instruction

(February, 1901), the agreement of demi, when preceding will no longer be considered a mistake.

a noun,

208.

Vocabulary

ranniversaire (m.^, the anniverle panier, le

the basket.

bonbon, the candy.

le biscuit,

the biscuit.

le plaisir,

the pleasure.

le cri,

the cry.

I'ordre (m.), the order. la

la

confusion, the confusion.

aimable, amiable, kind.

sary.

naissance, the birth.

la livre,

the pound.

demi,

-e, half.

celebrer, to celebrate. repeter, to repeat.

regner, to reign. Jeter, to

throw, to utter.

acheter, to buy. jouer, to play.

amener,

to bring.

la

douzaine, the dozen.

hi en, very.

la

demi douzaine, the half-dozen.

plusieurs, several.


.

beginner's FRENCn 209. Text 1.

Lundi,

celebrerai

je

,'^

iOI

'>-^ ^"-;

^;-

^^Âť

"'â&#x20AC;˘>

â&#x20AC;˘

de

mon^anniversaire

naissance. 2.

Notre

achetera plusieurs

servante

paniers

de fruits, quatre livres et demie de bonbons une douzaine de boites de biscuits. 3.

Mes

seront

freres

bien^aimables;

neront une demi douzaine d'amis. beaucoup de 4. Nous^aurons

ils^ame-

plaisir

nous

;

jouerons, nous danserons, nous jetterons des 5.

La

6.

Vous repeterez mes^ordres a

et

cris.

confusion regnera dans la maison. la servante.

210. Transposition 1.

Conjugate every sentence (except the fifth) in the Ex.: i. Lundi, je celebrerai mon...; lundi, tu

future.

celebreras ton... 2.

2.

J'acheterai

.

.

.

tu

;

acheteras...

Replace the future (a) by the present of the indicative. lebre

mon.

.

{h) by the imperfect of the indicative. je celebrais

.

1.

Quand

2.

Ex.:

celebrerez

i.

Lundi,

:

i.

Lundi, je celebrerais

vous votre anniversaire de nais.

achetera-t-elle

{c)

Ex.

Questions

A.: Je celebrerai. (fl) Combien de paniers {b)

Je ce-

.

211.

sance?

i.

mon...

(c) by the conditional.

mon

Ex.:

.

Combien de Combien de

.

de

fruits

votre

servante

?

livres

de bonbons achetera-t-elle?

boites de biscuits achetera-t-elle?


.

BEGINNER

I02

S

FRENCH

3. Polinqucd vostireres seront ils bien 4.

aimables?

Qu'est ce que vous aurez?

(a)

(b) Jouerez vous?

Danserez vous? Que jetterez vous?

(c)

(d) 5.

Ou

6.

Qu'est ce que je repeterai a

7.

Que

8.

Qu'est ce que

9.

regnera

la

confusion? la

servante?

A.: Je celebrerai mon. servante achetera?

celebrerez vous lundi? la

.

Qui sera bien aimable? Qui ameneront ils? (a) Qui aura beaucoup de plaisir ? (b) Qui est ce qui jouera? (c) Qui dansera? (d) Qui est ce qui jettera des cris? (a)

(b)

10.

11.

Qu'est ce qui regnera dans

12.

A

212. 1.

A

la

maison?

qui repeterai je vos ordres?

Grammar

Drill

cup of chocolate, a glass of water, a plateful of

olives. 2. A pound of candies, half a pound of bread, two pounds and a half of tea, a basket of fruit. 3. Three glasses of red wine, four baskets of fresh bis-

boxes of ripe strawberries.

cuits, five 4.

A

dozen^

friends,

half a dozen^

young

ladies,

two

dozens and a half boxes of flowers. 5.

Little pleasure, too

many

cries,

more lemonade

;

I

have

no wish. 6.

I repeat,

not repeat,

I

do you repeat? we were repeating, they

7. He is throwing, do we throw? you throw? she would not throw. ^

will

should repeat.

Supply

o/.

2

I

was throwing,

Say : a half dozen

of.

shall


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

We do not buy, are they buying? buy ? you would buy.

8.

will

You*

9.

we

celebrating, shall

who

used to buy,

I

we

celebrate, does she celebrate?

was not

ing, he

IO3

)

are celebrat-

celebrate? they

would

not celebrate.

Are you

10.

you

calling?

shall not call,

I

am

would she

not calling,

who was

calling?

call ?

213. Translation

We

I.

brother.

many

shall 2.

celebrate

How many when we

guests ,

on Monday the birthday of my 3. We have

guests will you have?

celebrate that anniversary.

brother will be the host and shall receive 6.

My

you

our

8.

friends in the

We

and pleasure^

reign

in

5.

My We

immense dining room.

several

shall utter

will

4.

shall be the hostess.

cousin generally^ brings

utter cries?

fusion^

little

I

no

friends.

cries.

the

9.

Will

7.

But con-

house.

The

10.

guests will play or dance to the sound of the instruments. II. They will have a great buy a dozen baskets of fruit. 14.

Our mother

brother's wishes.

and a half of

will 16.

deal of pleasure.

be kind.

And we

13.

I shall

15.

She

I

shall

choose ripe

fruit.

will

shall also^

buy

12.

yield to

six

my

pounds

and a half dozen boxes of candies. 18. We shall have no cakes. 19. The maid servants will pour lemonade in the glasses and tea in the cups of the guests. 20. I yield to your wishes. 21. I shall repeat your orders. 22. You are very kind. 17.

I

biscuits

prefer candies^ to cakes.^

1

See 118.

2.

2

Supply

the.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

I04

TWENTY-FIRST LESSON GENERAL REVIEW Review

especially §§ 64, 137, 150, 162, 163, 182.

214. le

Vocabulary une centaine, (about a) hundred. nombreu-x, -se, numerous.

boulevard, the boulevard.

I'habitant, the inhabitant. I'air

(m.), the

magnifique, magnificent.

air. '

le

beurre, the butter.

exquis,

I'espace (m.), the space. le

-e,

charmant,

bosquet, the grove.

exquisite. -e,

charming, pleasant.

sauvage, wild.

ranimal (m.), the animal.

enorme, enormous.

I'elephant (m.), the elephant,

superbe, superb.

le lion,

le tigre, le

the lion.

vilain, -e, ugly.

serpent, the snake.

le singe, the

la

feroce, ferocious.

the tiger.

tout, -e, tous, toutes, all, every,

monkey.

any.

campagne. the country.

il

I'allee (f.), the lane. la

il

menagerie, the menagerie. il

il

aurait, there

y

215.

y

a,

there is or there are.

y avait, there was or there were. y aura, there will be.

would

be.

Text

1.

Dans

toute

2.

A

campagne, il y a de bon^air, des de jolies fleurs, du lait exquis, du du fromage frais, beaucoup d'espace,

y a de nombreux boulevards, des magasins magnifiques, de tres beaux theatres, beaucoup d'habitants, et ainsi de suite. la

ville,

il

fruits delicieux,

beurre et nlais

peu

d'habitants.

Dans chaque

il y a de longues^allees, de beaux^oiseaux, d'immenses pelouses, des bosquets charmants, des centaines

3.

de petits

lacs bleus,

d'arbres, etc.

pare,


.

BEGINNER 4.

FRENCH

S

Dans^une menagerie,

?

.

IO5

y a des^animaux

il

sauvages, d enormes^elephants, des lions superbes,

des tigres feroces, de longs serpents, de

vilains

singes, etc. 216.

N.B. all

Transposition

Repeat the expression

y a before every noun

il

1.

Drop

and the nouns, and adverbs of et. Ex. i Dans toute ville,

the adjectives

quantity and replace mais by il

in

the changes.

:

.

y a des boulevards, il y a des magasins, 2. Replace the present Ex.:

(a) by the imperfect. avait de

.

.

i.

Dans

y a

.

.

toute

ville,

y

il

.

Ex.

(b) by the future.

:

i.

Dans

de nombreux boulevards, (c) by the conditional.

aurait de

il

Ex.:

i.

toute

il

ville,

il

y aura des

Dans

toute

nombreux boulevards,

il

.

y aura .

ville,

il y y aurait

des ... 217. 1.

Dans

(a)

toute

ville,

A.: Oui, M., il

y en

Questions

y il

a-t-il

de nombreux boulevards

y a de

nombreux boulevards

a.^

(b) Est ce qu'il y a des magasins magnifiques? (c) II y a de tres beaux theatres, n'est ce pas? (a)

Y a-t-il beaucoup d'habitants? A la campagne, est ce qu'il y a

(b)

II

y a des fruits delicieux, n'est ce pas?

(c)

Y

a-t-il

(d) 2.

de

jolies fleurs a la

de bon air?

campagne?

(d) Est ce qu'il y a du lait exquis? (e) a-t-il du beurre et du fromage frais?

Y

y a beaucoup d'espace, n'est ce pas ? Est ce qu'il y a peu d'habitants? (g) (/)

II

1

Both answers should be required throughout.

or


beginner's FRENCH

I06 3.

Dans chaque

(a)

n'est ce

pare,

Y a-t-il de petits Y a-t-il de beaux

(b) (c)

y a de nombreuses

il

allees,

pas? lacs bleus?

oiseaux?

(d) Est ce qu'il y a d'immenses pelouses? (e) II y a des bosquets charmants, n'est ce pas? (/) II y a des centaines d'arbres, n'est ce pas? 4.

Dans une menagerie,

(a)

sauvages?

A.:

n'y

Si,

pas des^ animaux

a-t-il

M.,

y a des animaux

il

sauvages, or il y en a. (b) Est ce qu'il n'y a pas d'enormes elephants?

N'y

(c)

a-t-il

pas des lions superbes?

(d) Est ce qu'il n'y a pas des tigres feroces?

N'y

(e)

a-t-il

(f) Est ce

5.

Dans

toute

pas de longs serpents?

qu'il n'y

ville,

breux boulevards,

il

a pas de vilains singes?

qu'y a-t-il?

y a des.

.

6.

A

7.

Dans chaque

8.

Dans une menagerie, qu'y

la

A.:

^I.,

il

y a de nom-

.

campagne, qu'est ce

qu'il

y a?

pare, qu'est ce qu'il y a? a-t-il ?

(Negative answers.) 9. il

Y

a-t-il

les villes? Non, M., y a de nombreux bouley en a beaucoup.

peu de boulevards dans

n'y a pas peu de boulevards,

vards, or 10.

il

n'y en a pas peu,

Est ce

qu'il

il

il

y a beaucoup d'espace

et d'air

dans

les

villes ?

1

11.

Est ce

12.

A

This

negative.

la

qu'il

y a des theatres a

campagne, y

a-t-il

la

campagne?

beaucoup d'habitants?

a rhetorical question in which the meaning Therefore we use c/^s, not ^^.

is

is

not really


BEGINNER 218. 1.

2.

stores, 3.

Some Some

air,

5.

Some Some

FRENCH

Grammar

Drill

fresh air,

much

air,

IO7

air

;

there

;

is

no

air,

numerous

large stores, French stores,

hundreds of stores

Some

there are no stores.

animals, fine animals, wild animals, few animals,

a dozen animals 4.

good

stores,

S

;

there were no animals.

space, too

much

space

;

there

is

no space.

lakes, small lakes, blue lakes, small blue lakes,

pleasant lakes,

numerous

lakes, so

many

lakes

;

I

notice

no

lakes. 6.

Some

flowers, beautiful flowers, exquisite flowers, red

flowers, boxes of flowers 7.

There

is,

is

;

I

do not buy any flowers.

there? there

is

not; there are, are there?

there are not. 8.

There was; was there ? there was not there were, were ;

there? there were not. 9.

There

will be, there

would be; would there be? would not be.

will

there be? there will not be, there

219.

Translation

I. In the schools of this city there are numerous class rooms and vast anterooms. 2. There are in our class room many desks and benches, high windows, long blackboards, immense maps, but few pupils. 3. There are in a large city magnificent avenues and streets, numerous schools and churches, immense hotels, high buildings and hundreds of strangers. 4. There are in the dining room of this hotel numerous tables, pretty chairs and many waiters. 5. At the windows, there are blue shades and yellow curtains. 6. There were on our table clean plates and glasses, fresh cream and milk, delicious radishes, exquisite figs and grapes, many beautiful flowers, and so forth. 7. There will be in the menagerie of the park fine lanes, small groves, and many


beginner's FRENCH

I08 animals

tigers, elephants, lions,

:

monkeys, snakes,

etc.

high

trees,

In

8.

would be numerous birds, large and more air and space than in the cities.

the country there

lakes,

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON Rules

Review §§ 41 > "6. 220. Ces bijoux sont beaux: celni ci est celui de tante, celni 1^ est celui

de

fine: this one is that of

my

Voici de jolies

mures que

plus

Here

f raises

celles

ma

These jewels are

cousine.

my

aunt, that one is

celles qui sont

:

cousin's.

dans ce panier sont

que nous avons dans notre jardin.

are pretty strawberries: those which are in this basket

we have

are riper than those which 1.

in

our garden.

Demonstrative pronouns.

PLURAL

SINGULAR Masculinb ,

ma

Masculinb

Fkminins

.

celui

celui ci

celle ci

celui la

celle la

Note.

ceux ceux

that, those

( \ ^

1,

ceux

celle

Fbmininb

celles

,

the one, the ones these

ci

celles ci

this,

la

celles la

that, those

Ci and la are not used

when

the pronouns are

followed by the preposition of or a relative pronoun. 2. The relative pronouns which, that are always pressed in French and are translated by qui

and que (qu*) when 221. C'est

mon

when

ex-

subject

direct object.

frere.

He

is

my

brother.

Ce sont ceux de

my brothers. my uncle's. They are my uncle's.

C*est le plus

is

Ce sont mes C'est celui

Ce sont

freres.

They

are

mon oncle. mon oncle. grand. He (it)

de

les plus

It is

grands.

the largest.

They are

the largest.


BEGINNER

He

is,

she

is,

it is,

and ce sont when the

FRENCH

S

IO9

and they are are translated by c'est is a noun, a pronoun or a

attribute

superlative.

Void son

222.

Here In

is

is

frere

c'est le meilleur

:

his brother: he is the best

translated

by de

homme du monde. man in the world.

after a superlative.

223. Lequel de ces enfants est votre cousin?

Which one

of these children

Laquelle de ces jeunes

Which one

of these

is

your cousin f votre cousine?

filles est

young

ladies is

Which, which one, interrogative pronoun,

is

translated by

lesquels, lesquelles.

lequel, laquelle,

224. le fauteuil,

your cousin?

Vocabulary

the armchair.

vendre, to

sell.

le

jardin, the garden.

a louer, for rent, to a vendre, for sale.

la

chambre, the room.

voici,

confortable, comfortable.

voila,

le salon,

the parlor.

here

is,

there

let.

here are.

is,

there are

(when

occuper, to occupy.

pointing to the person or ob-

louer, to rent, to

ject).

let.

225. 1.

mon

Voici de

jolis fauteuils; celui ci est celui

pere, celui la est celui

plus confortable 2.

de

Text

Voila de

ma

soeur,

du

ma

mere;

c'est le

salon.

belles*

celle

de

de

la

chambres: est celle

celle ci est celle

qui

est3

louer;

c'est la plus belle de la maison. 3.

Voici de beaux jardins; ceux de droite sont

ceux de mes neveux, ceux de gauche sont ceux que mon frere loue; ce sont les plus grands de la rue.


no

BEGINNERS FRENCH Voila de

4.

jolies

maisons; celles

sont_a vendre, celles nos^amis occupent; ce sont qui

de

sont celles

que

sont

les

plus charmantes

celles

la ville. 226.

The

first

Put

1.

Transposition

clause of every sentence must not be altered.

in the pkiral

singular pronouns, adjectives and

verbal forms, and vice versa. teuils

:

ceux

ci

sont

.

.

Ex.:

1.

Voici de jolis fau-

.

2.

Replace the present by the imperfect.

3.

Use

the interrogative forms.

celui ci est ce celui est.

ci

la

.

.

?

(c)

Celui

de

mon

ci est.

.

227. 1.

(a) Lequel

pere? .,

2.

il

(a) Voici...

n'est ce

;

ci

pas?

Questions

A.: M., celui

(b) Quel est celui de

Est

i.

de ces fauteuils est celui de monsieur

votre pere?

(c)

Ex.:

(b) Est ce que celui

madame

ci

est...

votre mere?

confortable?

(a) Laquelle de ces chambres est celle de mademoiselle

votre soeur?

(b) Quelle est celle qui est a louer?

3.

(c)

Est

(a)

Lesquels de ces jardins sont ceux de messieurs

elle belle?

vos neveux? '

(b) Quels sont ceux que monsieur votre frere loue? (f)

4.

Sont

ils

grands?

(a) Lesquelles de ces maisons sont celles qui sont a

vendre ? (b) Quelles sont celles que vos amis occupent? (c)

Sont

elles

charmantes?


.

;

BEGINNERS FRENCH

Grammar

228.

III

Drill

Replace the dashes by the proper demonstrative adjective or pronoun.

— de ma cousine — qui — chaise sont — que qui sont sur sur — — — de Voila des robes: — ou — Pref erez vous — que — demoiselle — — enfant sont de apercevez Les oiseaux que vous — a — de mon prefere chambre. dans sa sont Je — — sont plus raiches que — qui Voici des sont dans — panier — sont 1

Voici des chapeaux

la table

je choisis,

la

;

sa soeur,

la est

2.

est

est

:

achete.

ci

ci

est

la ?

3.

frere

ci

la.

fraises

4.

les meilleures.

229. I.

Here are the

f

ci

:

;

Translation

friends (fem.) of

my

daughters.

2.

I

Those on the right are more cheerful than those on the left. 4. Which one of these young ladies is the prettiest? 5. The one who has a blue dress and a gray hat. 6. She is the sister of the stranger who occupies that house. 7. She is the most amiable girl in the parlor. prefer these to those.

3.

Who are these children? 9. They are my niece's.^ 10. Which one do you prefer ? 11. The one who is uttering cries is the one whom^ we prefer. 12. Those who are seated

8.

on the bench are not diligent. 13. There are pretty flowers and many vegetables in the gardens that we see.^ 14. Are these the ones which are to let? 15. This one is for sale, that one

is

my

neighbor's.

16.

It

is

the largest in the

street. ^

Say

:

those of

my niece.

^ que.

* apercevoir.


f

BEGINNER

112

S

FRENCH

TWENTY-THIRD LESSON Rules

Review §§ 68, 173, 220. 230.

is

Quel livre? quelle maison? What hook? what house

I.

Which? or what? modifying a noun or used as attribute, an interrogative adjective and is translated as above. ,

qui?

2.

\

qui

est ce

qui?

whom?

(de) qui?

qui?

(object of a preposition).

whom?

qui est ce que ? 3. qu'est ce

zvho?

what?

qui ?

(direct object).

(subject).

que? >

qu'est ce que

what? (object of

(de) quoi?

a preposition).

SINGULAR

4.

Feminine

Masculine

lequel

zvhat? (direct object).

?

laquelle

?

which one? of or from which one? to or at which one?

?

duquel ?

de laquelle?

auquel ?

a laquelle ?

PLURAL Masculine

lesquels

Feminine

lesquelles ?

?

desquels ?

desquelles

auxquels ?

auxquelles ?

The above

list

?

which ones? of or from which ones? to or at which ones?

contains the interrogative adjectives (i)

and the interrogative pronouns

(2, 3, 4).


beginner's FRENCH

II3

231. List of relative pronouns: 1.

qui,

who, which, that (subject).

(de) qui, que,

whom

(object of a preposition).

whom, which,

that (direct object).

SINGULAR

2.

Feminine

Masculine

who

which,

lequel

laquelle

duquel (dont)

de laquelle (dont) of or from which, whom to or at which, whom a laquelle

auquel

PLURAL Feminine

Masculine

lesquels

which, zvho

lesquelles

desquels (dont) desquelles (dont)

of or

auxquels

to

auxquelles

whom whom

from which,

or at which,

Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles

(subject or direct

object) are seldom used; they sometimes replace qui or que to avoid a double

meaning.

Duquel,

etc.,

auquel,

etc.,

are of

constant use.

232.

I.

Le monsieur dont (de

qui, duquel) je park.

gentleman of whom I am speaking. 2. Le monsieur dans la maison de qui (duquel)

The gentleman in whose house I live. The relative pronoun of whom or whose has ferent translations: de qui, duquel,

pronoun of which has two duquel, :

Notice that dont relative clause.

is

used only

etc., etc.,

at the

The

j'habite.

three dif-

dont; the relative

dont.

very beginning of a

If a preposition begins the relative clause

(see example 2), dont cannot be used.

233.

A A

qui est ce livre?

JVhose book

qui sont ces livres?

is this?

Whose hooks

are those?

Such expressions are idiomatic and cannot be translated literally. Whose hook is this? must be replaced by: To whom is this hook? etc.


BEGINNER

ri4 -

FRENCH

S

Parler to speak; parle, spoken.

234.

rougir, to blush; rougi, blushed.

perdre, to lose; perdu,

lost.

recevoir, to receive ; regu, received. avoir, to have; eu, had. etre, to be; ete, been.

Past participles of regular verbs are formed by replacing respectively -er,

-ir,

-re of the infinitive

by

-e,

verbs ending in -evoir by replacing -evoir by those ending in -cevoir takes then a cedilla

The

Note.

past participles of avoir

:

and

-i,

-u; of the

The

-u.

c of

5.

etre are irreg-

ular.

235. Past indefinite: J'ai (tu as, etc.) parle, rougi,

perdu, regu, eu,

ete.

/ have spoken, blushed, lost, received, had, been.

Pluperfect. J'avais (tu avais, etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, regu, eu, ete. /

had spoken, blushed,

Compound

236. le

voisinage, the neighborhood.

la

question, the question.

demeurer,

II

received, had, been.

Vocabulary il

it is

a question

avec, with.

to reside.

est question

est question de, of.

237. 1.

lost,

tenses are formed exactly as in English.

Text

du bal auquel nous^avons^as-

siste. 2.

La

demoiselle

avec

qui

(avec

laquelle)

vous^avez danse est tres jolie. C'est une jeune fille dans le voisinage de 3. laquelle (de qui) ma famille a demeure.


.

BEGINNERS FRENCH 4.

II5

Ces^etrangers sont ceux dont (desquels, de

qui) I'hotesse a parle. 5.

Les

nous sommes^assis

fauteuils sur lesquels

sont tres confortables. Transposition

238. 1. .

.

.

j'ai .

.

Conjugate every sentence.

j'ai assiste.

demeure.

demoiselle.

Ces etrangers..

4.

.je suis assis. 2.

La

2.

.

Ex.:

i.

.j'ai parle.

.

.

auxquels

question

est

II

danse.

j'ai

.

3.

.

5.

C'est.

Le

Ex.:

II

i.

**

est question

le voisi-

des bals

j'ai assiste.

Replace the present by the imperfect and the past

definite

.

fauteuil

.

Replace the singular by the plural (except

nage ") and vice versa. 3.

.

by the pluperfect.

Ex.

II etait

i.

:

question.

.

in-

.nous

avions ... 4. 5.

Use Use

the interrogative forms.

form

the negative

239.

in the principal clauses.

Questions

(Negative answers.) 1.

Est ce

assiste?

qu'il

question du bal auquel vous avez

est

A.: Non, M.,

il

2.

La

3.

Est ce une jeune

famille a 4.

n'est pas.

demoiselle avec laquelle fille

.

.nous avons.

j'ai

dans

.

.

danse, est elle tres jolie?

le

voisinage de qui votre

demeure?

Est ce que ces etrangers sont ceux desquels I'hotesse

a parle? 5.

Les fauteuils sur lesquels vous

confortables

6.

De

7.

Qui

etes assis, sont

?

quoi est

il

question?

est tres jolie?

A.: M.,

il

est.

.

ils

tres


beginner's FRENCH

Il6 8.

9.

Qui est cette demoiselle? Qui sont ces etrangers?

Comment

10.

assis

sont

fauteuils

les

sur lesquels vous etes

?

Grammar

240. (a)

1.

Which book

Drill

did you^ receive ?

Of what book

(b)

did you speak? (a)

2.

Who

speaking ?2

is

this

gentleman? (b) Of whom are you did he sell his house? ((/) Whom

To whom

(c)

did you notice? (a) What is' on the table? Of what did they speak? 4. (a) Which of these teachers 3.

(c)

What

(b)

did you sell?

is your friend's? (b) Oi which of these teachers did you speak? (c) Which* of these teachers did you obey? (d) Which of these teachers did you like? 5. (a) The book which is on the table of the parlor is not the one that I have bought, (b) The gentleman of

whom we

are speaking,^

is

a stranger,

The lady in (d) The child The garden in

(c)

whose garden^ we have been, is very pretty, to whom you have spoken, is her son. (e) which we have been, is the largest in the neighborhood. 6. Whose toy is this? Whose are these games? Whose birds are those

?

241. (a)

your^

I.

Who

hand?

Translation

whom you

are these gentlemen to

2.

They

are those

who

held^ out

-were at the balls at

I was present.^ 3. They are those in whose neighborhood your brother lived.^ 4. Of what did you speak ?^ 5. We spokeÂŽ of the trees which are growing in the garden

which

^

Replace did you, did

2

Say:

6

Say: in the garden of

is it

they, etc.,

[a] question.

whom.

by have you, have '

Supply

*

Use the past

there.

they, etc. *

indefinite.

Supply '

to.

the.


beginner's FRENCH which we were.

in

6.

Whose

10.

I

11.

I

The

These or those?

9.

7. They Which would

flowers are these?

are those of the children of the hostess.

you prefer?

II7

8.

red or the white?

should prefer those near which you are standing. prefer these. 12. Of which do you speak ? 13. Those

of which I speak are the ones which are near the wall, far

from the bench on which you are seated. 14. They are very 15. They are the most beautiful in the whole^

beautiful.

garden. (b) 2.

are to is

I.

The

let.

3.

lived^ rent^

see,* are the

rooms.

ones which

Here are those of which I spoke.^ 4. This one whose friend my nephew is.^ 5. Which

that of a stranger

one would you rent? 7.

we

family in whose house

Those, the windows of which you

From

the

the country.

8.

It

seated,

I

the

and curtains.

whole^ neighborhood. is

comfortable.

green and yellow.

12.

1

Use the

2

Say Say Say

* fi

:

:

:

should probably choose

room

which we

in

10.

9.

It is the

The

this.

we

see

most cheerful

chair on which

Those on which you

11.

They ,

.

.

I

are,

are not pretty colors. f

past indefinite.

of all the

3

Uge the

singular.

Those of which you see the windows. whom my nephew is the friend.

of

are,

has also a stove, a table, chairs and arm-

chairs, white shades in the

6.

windows of

am are


BEGINNER

ii8

FRENCH

S

TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON Rules SINGULAR

242.

Mascuunb

mien

mine

le

yours

le tien

his, hers, its

le

sien

PLURAL Mascuunr

Fkminink

mienne

la

les

miens

Fbmininb

miennes

les

la tienne

les tiens

les tiennes

la

sienne

les siens

les siennes

ours

le

notre

la

notre

les

notres

yours

le

votre

la

votre

les

votres

theirs

le

leur

la leur

243.

Le

que

fauteuil

j'ai

les leurs

achate, the armchair

which

I

bought.

Les fauteuils que

j'ai

the armchairs

achetes,

which I

bought.

chambre que j'ai occupee, the room that I occupied. Les chambres que j'ai occupees, the rooms that I occupied. 'Lai

Any

past participle conjugated with avoir agrees with

preceding direct object. there

is

no

Therefore

direct object or

244.

when

follows the past participle.

rapporter, to bring back.

avoir besoin de, to be in need

ne.

.

.plus,

Cette chambre

of.

no longer, no more.

245.

est

Text

que mon frere a que la mienne; c'est

celle

choisie; elle est plus^agreable la

its

when

preferable, preferable.

the lace.

agreable, pleasant.

1.

does not agree

Vocabulary

le besoin, the need. la dentelle,

it

it

plus^agreable de Thotel. 2.

Ce

fauteuil est celui

que

ma

soeur a re9u;

il


? ?

BEGINNERS FRENCH plus beau que le mien;

meilleur et

est

meilleur

aper9u

J'ai

3.

4.

cest

le

mon^amie

a

plus beau du salon.

et. le

achetes;

II9

que

rideaux

les

sont preferables aux miens.

ils

ma

Voici les dentelles que

du magasin;

tante a rapportees

besoin des miennes.

elle n'a plus

246. Transposition 1.

le

ma

Replace mon,

by the other possessive adjectives and

mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes by the other pos-

Ex.:

sessive pronouns. elle est 2.

last

la

tienne

.

.

3.

i

(a)

(c)

/

3-

4.

.

i.

:

.

;

.

Questions a-t-il

choi-

A.: M., cette chambre est celle que...

elle

Est ce

plus agreable que la votre? plus agreable de I'hotel?

la

(a) Quel

in-

Cette chambre etait celle

Quelle chambre monsieur votre frere

fauteuil

mademoiselle votre soeur

(b)

Est

il

meilleur que

(c)

Est

il

plus beau que

(d) Est ce

^

Ex.

frere avait choisie.

(b) Est

2.

.

and 2 must remain singular).

by the pluperfect.

sie?

^

.ton frere.

Replace the present by the imperfect and the past

mon

I.

.

Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa (the

247. ,/

Cette chambre.

i.

.

noun of sentences

definite

que

.

.

.

le

le

le

votre

meilleur du salon? plus beau du salon?

(e)

Est ce

le

(^)

Qi^iels

rideaux avez vous apergus?

(b)

Sont

(a)

Ou

ils

a-t-elle

[regu?

votre

preferables

aux votres?

sont les dentelles que

madame

rapportees du magasin?

(b) A-t-elle encore besoin des votres?

votre tante a


BEGINNERS FRENCH

120

(Negative and affirmative ansv^ers.) 5.

(a)

Cette chambre est celle que vous avez choisie?

A.: Non, M., ce n'est pas c'est celle

que

mon

celle

que

j'ai choisie,

frere a choisie.

(c)

La La

votre est ce la plus agreable de I'hotel?

6.

(a)

Ce

fauteuil est ce celui

7.

Le votre est il meilleur que le sien? (c) Le votre est il plus beau que le sien? (d) Le votre est ce le meilleur du salon? (e) Le votre est ce le plus beau du salon? Vos rideaux sont ils preferables a ceux que

(b)

votre est

elle

plus agreable que

la

sienne?

que vous avez requ?

(b)

votre

amie a achetes?

Grammar

248.

Drill

I.

This pen

2.,

That notebook

3.

This bird

4.

That armchair is yours, this one is mine. These gardens are his, those are theirs. Those laces are hers, these are ours. These toys are yours, those are mine.

5.

6. 7.

is

mine, that one

is

is

theirs, that

249.

j/ I.

Where

yours.

3.

is

the

Mine

is

yours.

hers, this one

one

is

is

mine.

ours.

Translation

room which you rented?^ pleasanter than

is

yours.

2.

It is

4.

It

is

near the

most pleasant in the v^hole house. 5. These are the ones which my parents chose.^ 6. They are preferable to mine

and yours.

7.

They are the largest in the hotel. ? 9. Those on which we are

chairs are these

mine. aunt.

10. 1

1.

fortable in

8.

Whose

seated are

There is the one which I received ^ from my You do not need hers. 12. It is the most comWhere are the hats which the whole room. 1 3. i

Use the past

indefinite.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

your sister brought ^ back from the store ? there

mine.

is

15.

Which

is

121 14.

the prettier?

Here 16.

is

hers,

Hers

is

more expensive than mine. 18. It was the most expensive in the store. 19. She also bought^ some pencils. 20. I do not need yours any longer. prettier

than yours.

17.

It is

250. Reading Lesson

UNE MEPRISE

Un

un paysan

jour,

portait

chateau d'un grand seigneur.

II

un panier de

poires

au

arrive au chateau et sur

il rencontre deux singes, habilles comme des enfants. Le paysan ote respectueusement son chapeau. Les singes approchent du panier ce sont des animaux gourmands

Tescalier

et

devorent une grande partie des poires. le paysan monte chez le maitre du chateau. Monseigneur, voici les poires que vous avez comman-

Ensuite «

dees.))

«

Mais pourquoi

n'as tu pas rempli ton panier

?

II est

a

moitie vide.)) « II etait plein,

sur I'escalier

j'ai

monseigneur, repond

rencontre vos deux

trouve mes poires a leur gout

le

fils.

et je n'ai

brave homme, mais

Ces messieurs ont

pas ose protester.))

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON Rules 251. Ceci est bon, cela est mauvais.

This

is

good, that

is bad.

C'est bon.

This and

This or that that,

is

good.

opposed to each other, are respectively 1

Use the past

indefinite.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

122 translated by ceci

named

just

and cela when representing something Ce is vague and appears as subto.

or pointed

ject only before the

252.

Celqui

I.

verb

6tre.

bon

est

What

est cher.

is

good

is

ex-

pensive.

in

What

Ce que

j'aper<;ois est beau.

2.

ce dont vous avez besoin.

T'ai

need

I see /

is fine.

have what you are

of.

3.

Voila ce a quoi vous visez.

1.

What,

when a

is

what you aim

meaning

pronoun,

relative

translated by ce qui

That

that

zvhich,

subject and ce que

when

at. is

a

direct object.

Dont

2.

is

when

what,

A

3.

the only possible translation of of zvhich, of

its

antecedent that

French

preposition

is

always \precedes

rogative or relative pronoun which

Which

4.

or what

is

it

translated

is

ce.

the

inter-

governs.

by quoi when object

of any preposition but of (see 2 above) that

by

tranÂŤ;lated

if

its

antecedent

translated by ce.

good?

253. Est ce bon?

Is that

In questions, ce

placed after the verb as

is

if

were

it

a personal pronoun (see 19).

254. Past future of parler, rougir, perdre, recevoir. J'aurai (tu auras, etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, re(;u, / shall

have spoken,

etc.

Past conditional of the same. J'aurais (tu aurais. etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, regu. /

should have spoken,

Compound

tenses are

etc.

formed exactly as

*

in English.


.

.

BEGINNER

.

S

:

FRENCH

I23

255. Vocabulary le

marche, the bargain.

la qualite,

mauvais,

the quality.

manquer

I'experience (f.), the experience. the practice.

la pratique,

-e,

bad, poor.

tout, all, everything. de, to lack.

viser, to aim.

bon marche, cheap.

cher, chere, dear, expensive.

meilleur marche, cheaper.

Text

256. 1.

Ceci est cher, c^la est bon marche.

2. Ce qui est de mauvaise qualite est generalement meilleur marche que ce qui est de bonne

qualite.

ce que vous^avez 3. Tout marche, mais mauvais.

achete

4.

La

5.

L'experience est ce a quoi

est

bon

pratique est ce dont vous manquez. je vise.

257. Transpositioii 1.

Replace respectively the present indicative and the

past indefinite

{a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect. etait cher,

cela.

Ex. :i. Ceci

.

{b) by the future and the past future.

Ex.:

i.

Ceci

sera ...

by the conditional and the past

(c)

Ceci serait 2.

Ex.

:

3.

conditional.

Ex.

.

Conjugate the relative clauses of sentences 3, 4 and 5. Tout ce que tu as Tout ce que j'ai achete est.

3.

achete est

il

.

.

.

Use one of

cher ?

.

.

Cela

.

.

.

the interrogative forms. ?

Ex.:

i.

Ceci est


BEGINNERS FRENCH

124

Questions

258. 1.

(a) Qu'est ce qui est cher?

(b) Qu'est ce qui est bon marche?

Qu'est ce qui est generalement meilleur marche que ce qui est de bonne qualite? 2.

3.

(a) Qu'est ce qui est bon

marche?

(b) Qu'est ce qui est mauvais? 4.

De

5.

A

6.

(a) Ceci est

manque?

quoi est ce que je quoi visez vous?

(Negative and affirmative answers.) il

bon marche?

A.: Non, M., ceci n'est

pas bon marche, ceci est cher. (b) Cela est 7.

Ce

il

cher?

qui est de mauvaise qualite est

il

generalement

plus cher que ce qui est de bonne qualite? 8.

(a) Est ce que tout ce que

(b) Tout ce que

9.

10.

bon? beaucoup de pratique? Avez vous beaucoup d'experience ? Est ce que

This

2. 3.

is

bad, that

That

pensive.

is

il

j'ai

259. 1.

achete est cher?

j'ai

achete est

j'ai

Grammar is

Drill

That

good.

is

cheap, this

is

ex-

beautiful.

What is bad is cheap. What What you hear is pleasant.

sad

is

is

What

not interesting. I

notice

is

ex-

pensive. 4.

He

asks for* what -he

your friends aim

260. I.

Our

thing* they

brothers

buy

1

Omit.

*

Say

:

is

is

in

need

of.^

You have what

at.^

Translation

have many

of poor quality.

that at which.

qualities.

2.

But every-

They do not buy what

3.

2

Say

*

that which.

:

that of which.


beginner's FRENCH is

expensive.

4.

And what

is

cheap

I25 generally of poor

is

what they are in need of. 6. Practice is what they must aim at. 7. Do you have what they lack? 8. Yes, we generally ask for what is expensive. 10. This is cheaper 9. Every day, I repeat to my sister: than that. 11. That is good, this is bad. 12. All that is^ bad is generally cheap. 13. Everything that is^ good is expensive. 14. We do not need what is cheap. 15. I do not examine what is of poor quality. 16. I buy what is expensive. 17. That is generally of good quality. 18. Experience is not what we are in need of. 19. Practice is not what we must aim at. 20. We have what you are in need of. 21. We have what you must aim at. quality.

5.

Experience

is

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 138, 152, 181, 201.

Vous

261.

ceed

if

you are

Vous ceed

if

si

vous etes

diligent.

You

will suc-

(will be) industrious.

reussiriez

si

vous

You would

etiez diligent.

suc-

you were {should he) industrious.

The verb in the

reussirez

of a clause beginning with

future or in the conditional.

si

{if) is

never put

If the future or the

is used in English, replace them respectively in French by the present or the imperfect indicative. 262. Vous regretterez le temps perdu quand vous "serez grand. When you are old, you will regret the time you

conditional

have wasted.

The verb

of a clause beginning with the conjunction

quand must be put clause

is

in the

future

when

that of the principal

in the future or expresses futurity. 1

Supply which before

is.


BEGIN NER^S FRENCH

126 263.

I.

Present indicative of nettoyer {to clean).

nous nettoyons vous nettoyez

je nettoie, I clean

tu nettoies il

2.

or

elle nettoie

ils

Imperfect. je nettoyais, /

3.

or elles nettoient

was

cleaning.

Future. je nettoierai, / shall clean,

4.

Conditional. je nettoierais, /

In verbs endipg (cf.

in English

should clean.

in -yer, the

to tie,

y becomes

i

before an e mute

tying).

In verbs ending in -ayer, the y

may

be kept.

264. List of indefinite adjectives and pronouns. tout, all, everything.

chaque, each, every.

chacun,

-e,

aucun, -e

each one, every one. (with ne), no, none,

quelque, some, a few.

[nobody.

tout le

monde, everybody.

on. one, people, they.

personne (m., with ne), nobody

quelqu'un, somebody.

rien (m.). nothing.

quelques uns, some (pron.). quelque chose (m.), something.

nul,

nul, -le, no.

quiconque, whoever.

tel. -le,

tout, -e, tous, toutes, all. whole.

certain, -e.

265. Personne ne parle.

none (only as subject).

Nobody

such.

some.

speaks.

Je ne parle a personne. / speak to nobody, Rien ne bouge. Nothing moves.

Je n'ai

The verb

rien.

/ have nothing.

of the clause in which the indefinite words

rien, aucun, nul, personne are used,

is

preceded by ne but

not followed by pas.

266. J'ai quelque chose de bon.

Je n*ai rien de bon,

/ haz'c

something good.

/ have nothing good.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

T27

ftuelque chose and rien, modified by an adjective, re-

quire the preposition de immediately after them (cf. the Latin nihil bo7ti).

267.

On

I.

frangais

parle

French

ici.

spoken here

is

{one does speak French here).

Ton parle

frangais.

2.

Ici

3.

Parle-t-on frangais ici?

1.

On

{one, people, they)

Here French Is is

spoken.

is

French spoken here? always singular and used

only as subject.

sometimes added before on for sake of euphony.

2. L' is

In questions, on

3.

is

placed after the verb as

if it

were

a personal pronoun.

Notice that the English passive voice

by the French

268. le

chemin de

le

voyage, the

le

voyageur, the passenger.

le soir,

fer, the railroad.

le

sommeil, the

wagon

le

doute, the doubt.

le

repos, the rest.

la

interessant,

interesting.

avoir sommeil, to be sleepy.

rarement, seldom. par, through. sans, without.

encore,

short.

-e,

still,

content, -e (de),^ pleased (to).

si,

profond,

pourquoi?

deep.

en chemin de

The

if.

why?

parce que, because.

voyager, to travel.

1

yet.

quand, when.

dark.

-e,

fall.

faire, to do.

the destination.

obscur,

tomber, to

trouver, to find.

the car window.

-e,

sembler, to seem.

essayer (de),^ to try {to).

sleep.

the sleeping car.

campagne, the country.

-e,

at.

to notice.

arriver, to arrive.

la destination,

court,

regarder, to look

remarquer,

trip.

le

la portiere,

often replaced

Vocabulary

the evening.

lit,

is

active.

fer,

by

preposition between parentheses

rail.

the one required

is

preceding word when an infinitive depends upon

it.

by the


beginner's FRENCH

128

269. Text

Quand^on voyage en chemin de fer, on re1. garde par la portiere, mais Ton remarque rarement quelque chose d'interessant. 2. Un tel voyage semble court a certains voyageurs et long a d autres. 3. Le soir, personne n'aper9oit plus rien dans la

campagne obscure. 4.

Si quelqu'un

wagon

a sommeil,

entre

il

dans

le

lit.

Tout

monde

un peu de repos, mais aucun des voyageurs ne tombe dans^un profond sommeil. 6. Sans nul doute, chacun est content d'ar5.

le

essaie de

trouver

river a destination. 270. 1.

Transposition

Replace the present (a) by the imperfect;

(b) by the future (keep the present in the clause be-

ginning with

si)

;

(c) by the conditional (use the imperfect in the clause

beginning with 2.

Use

271. 1.

(a)

Questions

Quand on voyage garde-t-on

2.

si).

the interrogative forms.

en chemin de

fer,

par ou re-

?

(b)

Que

(a)

Un

(b)

Semble-t-il long a d'autres?

remarque-t-on rarement?

tel

voyage

semble-t-il court a tout le

monde?


?

BEGINNER

.

FRENCH

S

1

(a) Apergoit on encore quelque chose,

3.

dans

campagne?

la

Pourquoi n'apergoit on plus rien?

(b)

ou

Si quelqu'un a sommeil,

4.

le soir,

29

entre-t-il ?

Qui essaie de trouver un peu de repos? (b) Tous les voyageurs tombent ils dans un profond (a)

5.

sommeil ?

Sans nul doute, ou chacun

6.

Use quiconque and

est

content d'arriver?

il

answers to questions 7

in

(a and b)

ID.

Qui regarde par

(^)

7-

voyage

Qui

(b)

.

Qu'aperqoit on,

10.

Qui entre dans

11.

(a)

Qui (b) Qui

Qui

12.

.

?

A qui un tel voyage semble-t-il A qui semble-t-il long

(a)

(b) 9.

.

remarque rarement quelque chose

est ce qui

d'interessant 8.

A.: M., quiconque

portiere?

la

regarde

. ,

.

le

dans

soir,

le

wagon

la

court?

campagne obscure ?

lit?

un peu de repos? tombe dans un profond sommeil?

essaie de trouver est ce qui

est content, sans

aucun doute, d'arriver a destina-

tion?

272.

Grammar

1.

Each

2.

Any^ car window, any

3.

Some^

trip,

Drill

each traveler, every evening, every

trips,

rest,

any

some books, some

4. All travelers,^ the whole* trip,

whole* 5.

city,

ladies, all

city.

any doubt.

some evenings.

car windows,^ the

city.

Such

a*^

doubt, such a railroad, such a lady.

^

Use aucun and

8

Supply the after

nul. all.

^

Use quelques and

*

Say

:

all

the ...

certains. ^

Say

:

a such

.

.

.


: ;

beginner's FRENCH

130

6. Something beautiful nothing sad one hears the bell somebody tries to enter some of your friends are entering nobody looks out of the car window. they perceive 7. I notice everything you notice nothing nobody whoever is sleepy tries to find some rest everybody ;

;

;

;

;

;

falls

;

;

none of the

ladies

seems pleased

273. I. is

Do you

;

each one

is

sad.

Translation

seldom^ travel by rail?

not interesting and seems long.

3.

2.

Yes, such a trip

When

you are seated

near the car window, do you not notice anything beautiful?

Without any doubt, I perceive villages, trees, houses, etc. one seldom perceives anything pleasant in the 5. But country. 6. When we^ arrive near a city, everybody tries to look out of the car window. 7. They- examine the buildings, the avenues, the parks, etc. 8. It seems fine to some of the travelers and gloomy to others. 9. In^ the evening, every one is sleepy. 10. They^ enter the sleeping car.

4.

II.

We

also^

enter.

12.

We

try

to

perceive

something.

somebody looks out of the car window in^ the evening, he will not notice anything any longer. 14. Everything is dark and sad in the country. 15. Will everybody fall into a deep sleep? 16. No, without any doubt, nobody will 18. None of the find any rest. 17. At last we^ arrive. travelers is sorry to* arrive at his^ destination. 19. Every 13. If

lady seems pleased. long, others find^ 1

See 118.

2.

it^ 2

20.

Some

travelers find such a trip

short.

Say: one (see 267.

i).

^

Omit.

* de.


BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

I3I

TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 138, 182,

193, 235, 252.

274. Preterit or past definite. parler {to speak) je parlai, /

rougir {to blush)

spoke

je rougis, / blushed

tu parlas il

tu rougis

or elle parla

il

or elle rougit

nous parlames

nous rougimes

vous parlates

vous rougites

ils

or elles parlerent

ils

or elles rougirent

perdre {to lose)

recevoir {to receive)

je perdis, / lost

je regus, / received

tu perdis

tu regus

il

or

elle

perdit

il

or

elle

regut

nous perdimes

nous re^iimes

vous perdites

vous

ils

or elles perdirent

The

ils

regiites

or elles regurent

preterit, or past definite,

(i) of the

first

conjugation

is

formed by replacing

-er

of the infinitive by: r -ai

singular

{ I

r

plural

-as -a

{ I

-ames -ates

-^rent

(2) of the second and third conjugations by replacing respectively the endings

-ir

and

-re

r -is

singular

^ I

-is -it

by: r

plural

<

-imes -ites

L -irent


:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

132

(3) of verbs ending in -evoir by replacing -evoir by -us

r

singular

The

Note.

-utes

-j

-ut

I

-times

r

plural

-us

\

-urent

I

c of verbs

ending in -cevoir takes a

cedilla

before u.

275. Preterit or past definite. avoir {to have)

etre {to be) je fus, /

was

j'eus, /

or

il

elle

fut

il

ils

or

276.

elles

or

elle

eut

nous eumes vous eutes

nous fumes vous futes

They

had

tu eus

tu fus

furent

ils

or elles eurent

are irregular. I.

was speaking,

Je parlais, /

I used to speak, I did

speak. 2,

Je parlai, / spoke (once). spoke, I have spoken.

3. J'ai parle, / 1.

2. 3.

The The The

imperfect

is

preterit

especially used in narration.

is

especially used in description.

past indefinite

277. Je vous choisis. Je

I'ai choisi.

especially used in conversation.

/ choose yon.

/ have chosen him.

Je vous parle. Je lui

is

ai parle.

II

nous a parle.

II

leur a parle.

/ speak to you. / have spoken to him.

He has spoken to us. He has spoken to them.


:

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

133

Personal pronouns used as objects.

As

(i)

As

(2)

direct object

object of the

preposition to:

me

me

you

te

him, her,

= =

it it

= = r

le

lui

=

<

us

nous

you

vous

=

me

to

you

to

him

to

her

la I

them

to

= = leur

les

=

to it

to

us

to

you

to

them

All personal pronouns, direct objects or objects of the preposition

to,

immediately before

are placed

the verb in

simple tenses, and immediately before the auxiliary in

compound

tenses.

Notes, i. The preposition to must not be expressed French since it is included in the personal pronoun. 2.

Me,

te, le, la

become

beginning with a vowel or

m',

t',

1'

before a verbal form

mute.

h.

278. J'y demeure. I live there. There, representing a place just mentioned,

by

y,

in

is

translated

which follows rule 277.

279.

Un bel homme. A handsome man. Un bel abricotier. A beautiful apricot

Some French culine singular.

tree.

form for the masused when the modified noun be-

adjectives have a double

Beau

is

gins with a consonant or an

h formerly

begins with a vowel or a mute h.

aspirate, bel

when

it


BEGINNERS FRENCH

134

280. Vocabulary

rhomme, I'aine, the

younger (youngest)

donner, to give. enlever, to take away.

son.

pere de famille, the head of

le

to take along.

derober, to steal.

elder {eldest) son.

cadet, the

le

emmener,

the man.

the family.

adresser a

i

poser a

J

fo

ask (somebody a quesiion).

I'abricot (m,), the apricot.

conseiller a (de), to advise (to).

I'abricotier (m.), the apricot tree.

eviter (de), to avoid (to). defendre a (de), fo forbid (to).

le

lendemain, the next day.

la question, the question.

cueillir, to gather, pick.

suivant,

aussitot, immediately.

-e,

following.

Text

281. 1.

Un^homme

de manger les dans le jardin. 2.

Un

qui avak

fils,

leur defendit

d'un bel^abricotier qui etait

fruits

jour,

deux

I'aine

emmena

y

le

cadet et

lui

conseilla de cueillir des^abricots. 3.

et

Celui

ci

I'ecouta

en donna a son 4.

Le

il^en deroba, en

:

frere qui en

lendemain,

mangea

mangea aussi.

pere de famille remarqua

le

de son^arbre. qu on_avait_enleve des 5. ILappela I'aine aussitot et lui adressa (posa) " As tu evite de faire ce les questions suivantes " que je t'ai defendu ? As tu derobe des^abricots ? fruits

:

(A

282. I.

You

Un

jour

Transposition

are the elder son.

necessary changes. 2.

suivre.)

j'y

Ex.:

i.

emmenai mon

Repeat the story with the Notre pere nous defendit..

frere.

.

.


??

BEGINNER 2.

You

S

are the younger son.

.

FRENCH

135

Repeat the story with the

necessary changes. 3.

There are four sons

(les

deux aines

deux cadets).

et les

i.

Un

jour

les

Repeat the story with the necessary changes.

Ex.:

homme

Un

qui avait quatre

fils,

leur defendit.

.

.

2.

deux aines ... 4.

Replace the past tenses by (a) the present, and the

pluperfect by the past indefinite,

change

in the direct discourse.)

the

(b)

Ex.

i.

:

(No

future.

Un homme qui a.

.

Questions

283.

(The pronouns placed between parentheses

after the ques-

tions are to be used in the answers.) 1.

2.

(a)

Qui

avait

(b)

Que

leur defendit il?

(c)

Ou

(a)

Qui

deux

fils?

(en)

etait ce bel abricotier?

un

emmena-t-il,

I'aine

dans

jour,

le

jar-

din? (y)

3.

(b)

Que

(a)

Le cadet

lui conseilla-t-il

Fecouta-t-il

(b) Deroba-t-il des abricots? (en) (c)

En

(d)

A

(e)

Le

mangea-t-il? qui en donna-t-il? frere en mangea-t-il?

4.

Qu'est ce que

5.

(a)

Qui

le

pere de f amille remarqua

1

le

lendemain ?

appela-t-il aussitot?

(b) Quelles questions 284.

lui posa-t-il?

Grammar

Drill

I. Replace the dashes by the proper French personal pronoun object: (a) by me or to me, (b) by yon* or to you*, (c) hy him or to him, (d) by her or to her, (^) by us or to us, (f) by you or to you, (g) by them or to them.


beginner's FRENCH

136

H — appela.

Us

Us

parlerent.

H^

rejurent.

adressa cette question. I ate^

2.

we

it,2

ate them, he ate

it,

did you eat it? they

ate them.

He

punished^ me, you punished us, did she punish you?

I punished them, they punished her.

Did she

me ? we

hear^

heard them, you heard

us, did

they

hear them? I heard you. us,

I perceived^ her, did you perceive him? they perceived we perceived them, did she perceive you? They had^ it, did you have them ? we had some. I was,^

was he ? you were, were you ? they were. Translation

285. I.

two

A

man

In his garden there were^ That man was^ the* head of had^ only two sons. 5. One day, the

had^ a garden.

beautiful apricot trees.

a family.

He

4.

2.

3.

parents took^ them along into the garden.

When

6,

they

arrived^ near the apricot trees, they forbaje^ them to take

away

the fruit^ of those trees.

trees

or

we

noticed^ that

shall

some one was

questions.

ing?

13.

Who

advised® you to pick them?

15.

Who

16.

We

to them.

They

We

20.

to our friends.

garden.

17.

They

advised® us to pick some.

22. I

*

Use the

*

Suppose

*

Use the imperfect

some.

we have

preterit. it is

is

blush-

took® our

perceived® the

19.

We

listened®

We

have given some have eaten some, he has eaten some,

stole®

they have eaten some,

12.

has eaten them?

the elder or the younger son?

18.

9.

forbidden you to do?

stolen our apricots?

friends along into the fruit.

they

day,

At They asked^ them many

10.

What have we

11.

avoid those

The next

8.

stealing their apricots.

once they called^ their sons.

Who has 14. Who

You must

7.

punish you.

masculine. indie.

21.

eaten some. *

Replace by a or omit.

^

Use the plural. Use the past indefinite.

^


:

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

\2i7

TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 243, 274, 276, 277, 278. 286. istpart

Verb or auxiliary

Personal pronouns direct

'"'^"'

objects or objects of

negation

je

me

tu

te

...

il

^^^Pf* ^^^^J.^^

^^f^P^Il^^lP'^

^^^^

,

le

elle

on nous vous

ne

.

lui

I

^^ ^^^ or

.

la

y en -^

-y

(past

pas

auxiliary)\

nous vous

\ 1 x participle) •

ils

les

leur

elles

When two fore the

personal pronoun objects must be placed be-

same verb or

Therefore, the

importance.

When

the third.

auxiliary, first

it

is

simply a question of

and second persons precede

both pronouns belong to the third person, first, i.e., precedes the personal pro-

the direct object comes

noun object of lo. En always comes follow any personal pronoun.

after

y and both must

287. Cueillir (to gather, to pick).

flnf initive

cueillir

:^

1 To facilitate the study of irregular verbs such as cueillir, French grammarians considier as primitive tenses those marked above with a f. a. For the formation of the future and the conditional, see 201. 6, The present participle is supposed to form three derived tenses

(a)

the pli\ral of the present indicative,

tive,

and

(c)

(d)

the imperfect indica-

the present of the subjunctive by replacing the


:

:

: :

:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

138 fPresent participle:

cueillant^

fPast participle

cueilli

t Present indicative:

nous cueillons vous cueillez

je cueille

tu cueilles

or

il

Imperfect indicative

elle cueille

ils

or elles cueillent

je cueillais

fPreterit

je cueillis

Past indefinite

j*ai cueilli

Future

je cueillerai

Conditional

je cueillerais

Imperative:

cueille, cueillons, cueillez

Present subjunctive

que je

:

Imperfect subjunctive 288. J 'en ai

Je n'en

:

cueille

je cueillisse

/ have gathered some.

cueilli.

ai

que

/ have not stolen any.

pas vole.

We

Nous en avons mange.

En

never the direct object.

is

have eaten some.

Therefore past participles,

conjugated with avoir, never agree with ending -ant respectively

{a)

-ait, -ions, -iez, -aient

{c)

The endings

;

it

(see 243).

by -ons, -ez, -ent {h) by -ais, by -e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, -ent. ;

-ais,

of the present subj. of verbs in -evoir are: -oive,

-oives, -oive, -evions, -eviez, -oivent. c.

The

past participle forms

all

compound

tenses with the help of

avoir and etre as in English. d.

The

(See 235, 305.) present indicative forms the imperative by dropping the per-

sonal pronouns of the corresponding persons and the final

s of

the 2d person singular in the ist conjugation. e.

An

easy mechanical

way

to get the ist person singular of the im-

perfect of the subjunctive

of the preterit

rougisse 1

;

:

is

tu parlas,

tu perdis,

que

je

add -se to the 2d person singular que je parlasse tu rougis, que je perdisse tu re9us, que je re9usse. to

;

;

All irregularities in various tenses will be printed in heavy type

throughout.


.

beginner's FRENCH Vocabulary

289.

infliger a, to inflict upon,

exemplaire, exemplary. inutile

desobeir

(de), useless (to).

a,

repondre

repliquer, to reply.

a,

to

disobey.

to anszver.

refuser (de), to refuse.

alors, then.

aj outer, to add,^

cependant, however.

290. 1.

Son

fils

139

â&#x20AC;˘

Text

{Sttife et

r^pondit

lui

:

Fin)

"Mon

frere

en_a

en_a mange, m'en^a donne et j'en^ai aussi mange." 2. Alors le pere appela le cadet et lui demanda: "Pourquoi m'as tu desobei? Pourquoi as tu derobe des^abricots?" " Vous nous I'aviez 3. Celui ci lui repliqua defendu, mais mon frere me I'a conseille. 4. Je I'ai ecoute; cependant je n'en^ai cueilli que quelques^uns; je n'en^ai mange que deux ou trois. Je lui en_ai donne autant il ne les^a pas refuses et il les^a manges." d'ajouter que leur pere leur 5. ILest^inutile infligea une punition exemplaire.

cueilli,

:

:

Transposition

291. 1.

You

are the elder son.

necessary changes.

Ex.

:

2.

I.

Je

You

lui

repondis

.

Mon 3.

:

.

.

(None

frere lui repondit

:

in the direct discourse.)

.

are the younger son.

necessary changes. I

Repeat the story with the

(No change

Repeat the story with the

in the direct discourse.) .

There are four sons

Ex.:

.

(les

deux aines

et

les

deux


?

BEGINNER

I40

S

FRENCH

Repeat the story with the necessary changes. (Use Ex.: i. Ses fils lui... 4. Replace the preterit and the present by (a) the future, (b) the conditional. (No changes in the direct discourse.)

cadets).

the plural in -the direct discourse.)

292. Questions 1.

2.

(a)

Que

lui

repondiU son

cadet

a-t-il cueilli

b)

he

c) rf)

En En

e)

Celui

(a)

fils?

des abricots? (en)

a-t-il

mange?

a-t-il

donne a son frere?

Qui

le

b)

Que

c)

Le

en

ci

a-t-il

mange

(lui)

au^si?

pere appela-t-il alors?

lui

demanda-t-il

cadet lui

desobei?

a-t-il

d) A-t-il derobe des abricots? (en) 3.

(a)

Qu'est ce que

le

cadet

lui

repliqua?

b) Est ce que leur pere leur avait defendu de

cueillii

des abricots? (le) c) 4. (a)

Qui a conseille au cadet d'en Le cadet a-t-il ecoute I'aine?

cueillir? (le lui) (le)

b) A-t-il cueilli cependant beaucoup d'abricots? (en) c)

Combien en

d) Combien en

Les /) Les

e)

5.

Qu'est

il

I give

to him,

we

not give I

it

it

donne a son frere?

a-t-il

refuses?

a-t-il

manges ?

Grammar

to you, they give

Drill

them

speak to him about

spoken to you* about Use the

it?

it,-

we

preterit.

it

was giving it to him ? he will

to us, he

gave^ them to them, will he give to him, he will give

1

(lui)

inutile d'ajouter?

293. I.

mange?

a-t-il a-t-il

it

to you.

he spoke^ to

me

shall speak to ^

about

it,

has he

them about

Translate by ^n.

it.


beginner's FRENCH

I4I

They

will take you (along) there, were they taking him do not take them there, we have taken her there. I forbid him to do it,^ were we forbidding them to do it?^ he would not forbid you to do it.^ 2. I gather apricots, do you gather them? we gather some, they were gathering some, will they gather any? she will not gather any, you would not gather any.

there?

I

294. Translation I.

Then

the younger son

his friends along into

pick " 5.

and to

Our

me.

fruit.

You

9.

You

He

7.

:^

3.

do

answered* me: some to me.

will give

some

will also give

to

My

2.

He

my

it."^

this 6.

You^

8.

You

10.

brother took*

advised* them to

repeated*

I

4.

father has forbidden us to

listen* to

II.

apricots.

eat

added

our garden.

to

He

him:

did not

will gather

will eat

some.

friends or I shall inflict

upon you an exemplary punishment. 12. Then I did not it. 13. I have disobeyed you. 14. However, we have not stolen many. My brother has gathered half 15. a dozen. 16. I have gathered as many. 17. His friends were asking us for some.ÂŽ 18. I have given them one. refuse* to do

19.

They

them

refused*

three.

it

at once.

They

21.

have eaten them. 23. useless to punish me. 295.

did I

My

20.

not

brother has given

them.

refuse*

blush for

my

22.

behavior.

They

24. It

is

Reading Lesson

UNE JOYEUSE HARANGUE

Un

de France

roi

visitait

Un

son royaume.

jour,

il

arriva

aux portes d'une petite ville oti il fut re^u par le cure, accompagne de toute la population. Or, ce cure etait un original. Quand il arriva aupres du 1 ^

Say

:

T

forbid

See note

i

it

to him.

above.

^

Preterit.

^

*

Past indef.

*

Use the 2d person Say some to us. .

singular.


!

BEGINNER

14^ roi,

le

il

salua tres

S

FRENCH

humblement et lui dit « Sire, je n'ai pas un long discours mais, a I'occasion compose une petite chanson que je desire :

rintention de vous faire

de votre

vous

visite, j'ai

;

chanter.))

Et il entonna aussitot une chanson dans laquelle tait au monarque la bienvenue et un long regne.

Le Le et

roi applaudit et cria

:

Bis

«

!

Bis

!

il

souhai-

»

pretre repeta sa chanson avec encore plus de gaiete

d'enthousiasme.

Pour

lui

temoigner sa satisfaction,

ci,

en

le roi lui

donna dix

louis.

Celui

cria a son tour

les recevant,

:

«

Bis

Bis

!

sire.))

Le

roi,

charme de

I'esprit

du

cure, doubla la

somme.

TWENTY-NINTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ of

138.

p.

40-

2

;

243;

13 (hyphen)

p.

;

note d, bottom

-

Shozv me Show it to him. Montrez-le-nous. Show it to us. Montre-m'en un. Show me one. Montres-en un. Show one.

296. Montrez-moi ce

livre.

this hook,

Montrez-le-lui.

1.

Personal pronouns, direct objects or objects of

to,

placed after the verb in the same order as in English it

is

in the imperative affirmative.

When

are

when

the imperative

is

negative, follow 277 and 286. 2.

When

placed after the verb, the personal pronouns,

direct objects or objects of to, are translated as in table 277,

except moi and become m' and

toi instead of t'

me,

before en or y.

te.

However, moi and

toi


:

: : ::::

: :

BEGINNER 3.

first

The second person

Envoy er

s

(to send).

Infin.

envoyer

Pres. part.

envoyant

Past part.

envoye

Pres. ind.

j'envoie

before en or y.

(Review 263.)

nous envoyons vous envoyez

tu envoies il

Imperf. ind.

or

elle

43

singular of the imperative of the

conjugation ends with

297.

FRENCH

S

envoie

ils

or elles envoient

envoyais 'envoyai

Preterit

Past indefinite:

j

'ai

envoye

Future

j'enverrai

Conditional

j'enverrais

Imperative

envoie, envoyons, envoyez

Pres. subj.

que

Imperf. subj

que j'envoyasse

j

'envoie

298. J'y ajouterai quelque chose, / shall add something to

it.

Y

means

to

them (things).

299.

Vocabulary-

it,

envoyer, to send.

road.

la route, the I'aise

also to

emporter, to carry away.

(f.), the ease.

I'adresse (f.), the address. la

permission, the permission.

deviner, to guess. desirer, to desire.

I'expression (f.), the expression.

recommander,

to

la gratitude, the gratitude.

reflechir

reflect upon.

sur, -e, sure.

salir, to soil.

montrer,

to

show.

garder, to keep.

a, to

recommend.

rendre, to return, give hack. plutot, rather.

a votre aise, leisurely.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

144

300.

Montrez-moi

1.

Text

livres

les

que vous^avez trou-

ves sur la route.

Examinez-les ^ votre aise mais ne les

2.

salis-

sez pas.

Ce sont ceux que mon

3.

frere a perdus, j'en

Reflechissez^y bien: ne les gardez pas;

suis sur.

rendez-les-lui.

Donnez-moi son^adresse;

4.

je les lui enverrai;

ou plutot emportez-les et envoyez-les-lui. 5. Recevez Texpression de ma profonde tude et de la sienne.

grati-

301, Transposition

Use Use

1.

2.

the singular everywhere. the first person plural of the imperative in 2 and 3.

302.

Questions

For the answers, translate the sentences between parenIf there is no sentence, see 3<>oÂŤ

theses. 1.

(a) Devinez ce que

j'ai

trouve?

(You have foynd

some books.) (b) Devinez ou je les ai trouves? (You have found them on the road.) (c) Est ce que je dois vous montrer les livres que j'ai

2.

aise? 3.

Me

(Show them

trouves?

donnez vous

la

permission de

to me.) les

(Examine them at your ease.) Que me recommandez vous? (Do not

examiner a soil

them.)

4. (a) Est ce^ ceux que votre frere a perdus? *

Used

for sake of

euphony instead of sonf ce.

mon


))

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

I45

En etes vous bien sur? (Yes, do reflect Dois^je bien y reflechir? upon it.) (Do not keep (d) Est ce que je dois les garder? (b)

(c)

them.

Est ce que je dois

(e)

(Re-

rendre a votre frere?

les

turn them to him.)

(Give

(a) Desirez-vous son adresse?

5.

it

to me.)

(b) Les lui enverrez vous?

Est ce que je dois

(c)

away. (d) Dois-je

sion.

les lui

.

receive the expres-

sir,

.)

Grammar

303. 1.

(Yes,

(Take them

(Send them to him.)

envoyer?

ÂŁtes-vous content?

6.

emporter?

les

Show

do not show

it,

it,

Drill

show them, do not show

them, show some, do not show any, show me, do not show

me, show it to me, do not show it to me, show them to us, do not show them to us, let us show it, let us not show it, let us show them to him, let us not show them to him. Keep it, do not keep it, keep them, do not keep them, keep some, do not keep any, Soil soil

it,

it,

let

Give

do not

us not

it

let

us keep them,

it,

soil

soil

soil

it,

back, give

2.

to

me

I I

am

sending

it

us

was not sending them

them.

them

let

soil

them,

us not

soil

let

us

them.

back to me, give some back, do not us give some back to them. to them there, do you send it to them

there, she has not sent

to

them,

let

to us there ? he will not send

some

soil

us not keep them.

it

give them back to him, there?

let

let

them, do not

there, send

to

it

you

any to you it

to

me,

some you send them we would send

there, they sent

to him, will there,

let

us not send

it

to


beginner's FRENCH

146

304. Translation I. Somebody has lost his books opposite your house. Did you find^hem? 3. We found^ some on the road. 4. Show them to me. 5. Let us not show them to him. 6. They are^ not yours. 8. Give 7. Are you sure of it? them back to me or rather send them to me. 9. Let us not give them back to him. 10. And we shall not send them to him. II. If you do not return them to me, you will receive an exemplary punishment. 12. Let us keep them. 13. I shall speak to your uncle about it. 14. We forbid you to do it.^ 16. Let us 15. He will inflict upon you a good punishment. reflect upon it. 18. Let 17. Let us show those books to him. us examine them leisurely. 19. You are soiling them. 20. Let us not soil them. 21. Let us not return them to him. 22. They are his. 23. What is the address of your parents? 24. Give it to us. 25. We shall send them to you there. 26. Give them to me rather. 2^. I shall take them away. 28. Take them away. 29. My gratitude is very deep. 30.

2.

Receive the expression of

it.

THIRTIETH LESSON Rules 305. Etre envoye, puni, perdu, rcQU (/o he sent, punished, lost,

received). PRESENT INDICATIVE je suis

tu es il

est

elle est *

Past indefinite.

puni(e)

envoye (e) envoye (e) envoye envoyee

puni(e)

puni punie

*

c'^st or ce sont according to the

*

We forbid

it

to you.

new

decree.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

147

PRESENT INDICATIVE {Continued')

nous sommes

envoy es (ees) envoye (ee, es, ees) envoyes

punis (ies)

envoyees

punies

je suis

perdu (e)

regu(e)

tu es

perdu (e) perdu perdue perdus (ues) perdu (ue, us, ues) perdus perdues

regu(e)

vous etes ils

sont

elles

il

sont

est

elle est

nous sommes vous etes '

ils

sont

elles

â&#x20AC;˘

sont

puni

(ie, is, ies)

punis

regu regue regus (ues)

regu (ue, us, ues) regus

regues

.

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE j'etais

envoye(e),

puni(e),

envoye(e),

puni(e),

perdia(e),

re9u(e),

etc.

perdu(e),

regu(e),

etc.

perdu (e),

re9u(e),

etc.

perdu (e),

re9u(e),

etc.

perdu (e),

reQu(e),

etc.

PRETERIT je

fus

PAST INDEFINITE j'ai ete

envoye (e),

puni(e),

je serai

envoye (e),

puni(e),

je serais

envoye (e),

puni(e),

FUTURE

CONDITIONAL

Past participles, conjugated with etre, agree in gender

and number with the subject of the 306. Je suis alle(e). Elle est revenue.

Vous

1 have gone.

She has come

etes sorti (ie,

The following

clause.

is,

ies).

hack.

You have gone

past participles, conjugated with to have in

English, are conjugated with etre {to be) in French. 305.

The French

out.

considers the state, not the action.

Apply


:

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:

:

beginner's FRENCH

148 alle, -e,

gone

tombe,

-e, fallen.

arrive, -e, arrived.

venu,

entre, -e, entered.

revenu,

-e,

come

devenu,

-e,

become.

parti, -e, departed.

'

-e,

come.

reste, -e,

remained.

mort,

sorti, -e,

gone

ne, -e, born.

out.

-e,

back.

died.

307.

couvrir

Inf in.

faire

{to cover)

Pres. part.

couvrant

Past part. Pres. ind.

plenvoir^

{to do,

make)

{to rain)

faisant

plouvant

cbuvert

fait

plu

je couvre

je fais

tu couvres

tu fais

il or couvre \\ or elle fait nous couvrons nous faisons vous couvrez vous faites ils or elles couvrent ils or elles font

elle

Imperf

.

ind.

Preterit

pleut

il

je couvrais

je faisais

i

je couvris

pleuvait

[

je fis

iI

plut

convert

j'ai fait

i

[

a plu

Future

je couvrirai

je ferai

i

1

Condit.

je couvrirais

je ferais

iI

Past indef

j'ai

.

Imperative

couvre

fais

faisons

couvrez

faites

je

que

couvre

La

rue est couverte de boue.

.

je fasse*

que je

Imperf. subj. que je couvrisse 308.

pleuvrait

'

couvrons

que

Pres. subj.:

pleuvra

fisse

The

(none)

qu'il

pleuve

qu'il plut

street is

covered

with mud. ^ It is

^

irregular throughout.

Irregular persons of verbs, ending in

because there

is

no model on

wMch

-ot'r,

cannot be especially marked

to base a distinction.


BEGINNER The

1.

FRENCH

S

partitive article (du, de

149

de

la,

T,

des)

is

omitted

after the preposition de to avoid the repetition of the

same

word. After some past participles (covered, dressed, adorned,

2.

etc.),

with

is

translated by de.

309. Vocabulary le

temps, the weather. the wind.

plein, -e, full, filled.

revenu,

le vent,

le froid,

the cold.

Thiver (m.), the winter. le silence,

la

come

-e,

back.

geler, to freeze.

troubler, to disturb.

depouiller, to strip.

the silence.

boue, the mud.

couvrir, to cover.

snow. the ground.

la neige, the

pleuvoir, to rain.

la terre,

faire

quel temps fait il?

h. feuille, the leaf.

-e,

be

how

is

the

dead.

310. I

to

weatherf

calme, calm.

mort,

du vent (impers.),

windy.

la nature, the nature,

pleut;

II

il

fait

Text

du

vent;

les

rues

sont

pleines de boue. 2.

II

gele; le froid est revenu; la neige couvre

la terre. 3.

En shiver,

la

nature tombe dans^un profond

sommeil. 4.

Tout

5.

calme et campagne.

est

silence de la

triste

:

rien ne trouble le

Les jardins sont depouilles,

tombees, les fleurs sont mortes.

les

feuilles

sont


beginner's FRENCH

150

311. Transposition 1. Replace respectively the present and the past indefinite (a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect, (b) by the future

and the past future, {c) by the conditional and the past conditional.

Use the

2.

interrogative forms.

312. Questions (a) Quel temps fait

1.

(b) Pleut

(c) Est ce qu'il fait

De

(d)

il?

il?

quoi

les

du vent?

rues sont elles pleines?

(a) Est ce qu'il gele?

2.

(b) Qu'est ce qui est revenu?

Qu'est ce qui couvre

(c) 3.

En

hiver,

(a)

4.

dans quoi

la

la terre?

nature tombe-t-elle ?

Qu'est ce qui est calme?

(b) Qu'est ce qui est triste? (c)

Qu'est ce qui trouble

le silence

de

la

campagne?

(a) Qu'est ce qui est depouille?

5.

(b) Qu'est ce qui est tombe? (c)

Qu'est ce qui est mort?

313. 1.

She

2.

sent,

we

Drill

are lost (m.), were you being lost

(f.

they were sent (m.), I have been sent (f.), they had

pi.) ?

been

is

Grammar

(m.), will she be lost? we should be sent (m.). have gone (m.), she has gone, have they gone (m.)

lost I

we have gone

out (f.), have you gone out (m. pi.)

come, they have come (m.), have

we

arrived (m.)

?

?

?

he has she has

arrived. 3.

I

;

am

covering, they cover, were you covering?

We


BEGINNERS FRENCH

I5I

covered, she has covered, they had covered, you* will cover,

we would 4.

He

5.

It

cover, let us cover.

makes, she was making, are you making? they made (pret.), he has made, shall we make? they make, I had made, let us make, you would make, do not make. rained?

was raining, would rain,

it

will

it

it is

raining.

314.

rain,

it

rained (pret.), has

it

Translation

I Winter^ and cold^ have come back. 2. The cold is stripping our gardens and our parks. 3. Leaves^ have fallen and .

cover the ground.

4.

dead.

reigns

Silence^

6:

weather?

8.

Flowers^ are dead. over^

has rained and

It

are covered with

mud.

When

it is

10. It

Everything

5.

nature.^

How

7.

raining.

9.

The

is

the

is

streets

has been windy and

it

is

from the country? 12. She came^ back on* Tuesday. 13. It had rained. 14. She has fallen. 15. She was covered with mud, windy.

16. I

this

11.

am

did your sister come^ back

very sorry for^

winter?

18.

it.

17.

be windy.

It will

How

weather be windy, it will

will the

19. If

it is

it is freezing, and it will freeze. snow^ is falling, snow^ will fall. 22. It will cover everything with its white cloak. 23. Nature^ will fall into a deep sleep. 24. Birds^ will not disturb it. 26. They will 25. The streets will be quiet and gloomy.

rain.

21.

20. It has frozen,

Snow^ has

fallen,

also be filled with snow. 1

Supply

*

Omit.

the.

^

^

Replace by

Replace by

in. <?/*.

^

Past indefinite. *


:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

152

THIRTY-FIRST LESSON Rules

Review §§

107, 117, 192, 305, 306.

315. moi, /;

lui, elle, 1.

me

nous, zve; us

you* he; him

toi,

vous, you

eux, they; them

she; her

Elle et moi, nous

elles,

they; them

sommes toujours en

She and

retard.

I are always late. 2.

Lui a raison, moi

3.

C'est

4.

II

moi qui

j'ai tort.

ai parle.

He

// is I

is right,

who

I

am

wrong.

spoke.

parle de moi, de lui; avec elle, avec eux; pour moij

pour vous. He speaks of me, of him; with her, with them; for me, for you.

The above 1.

personal pronouns are used

In a compound subject.

Notice that

when

there are

them being of summed up before

several subjects of different persons, one of

the

first

or the second person, they are

all

the verb by nous or vous. 2.

When

the subjects are emphatically opposed to one

another.

Then the emphatic forms moi, toi, nous, vous are lowed by the ordinary forms je, tu, nous, vous. Lui, eux, elles are not followed by il, elle, ils, elles. 3.

When

noun subject

attribute of the verb etre; also is

separated from

its

When

the pro-

verb by any other word

but ne or a conjunctive pronoun (see 277). 4.

when

folelle,

object of any preposition but

to.


:

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BEGINNERS FRENCH *

153

316. hairi

Infin.

{to

partir

hate)

{to

falloir

depart)

Pres. part.

haissant

partant

Past part.

ha'i

parti

Pres. ind.

je hais

je pars

tu hais

tu pars

1'^=''*

die

nous haissons vous haissez â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

\

elles

Imperf. ind. Preterit

Past indef

.

:

6e necessary f must)

fallu

il

faut

fallait

JP^-^

die

nous partons vous partez

^^''^'

haissent elles

^

{to

\

je ha'issais

je partais

il

je hais

je partis

il

fallut

je suis parti (e)

il

a fallu

j'ai

hai

Future

je hairai

je partirai

il

faudra

Condit.

je hairais

je partirais

il

faudrait

hais

pars

haissons

partons

Imperat.

Pres. subj.:

Impf. subj.:

haissez

partez

que que

que je parte que je partisse

je haisse

je haisse

qu^il faille

qu'il fallut

317. Vocabulary le climat,

muet,

the climate.

I'accord (m.), the agreement. I'ete le

(m.), the summer.

la

hair, to hate.

the season.

partir, to depart,

recherche, the search.

la pitie,

falloir, to

the pity.

-e,

go away.

be necessary, must.

etre d'accord, to agree.

desagreable, disagreeable.

clement,

mute. hecom^.

-e,

embellir, to beautify.

chant, the song.

la saison,

-te,

devenu,

clement, mild.

avoir pitie de, to have pity on. presque, almost.

fester, to remain. 1

/zaiV is regular. It

isgiven here to

show where the diaeresis

is

not used,


BEGINNERS FRENCH

154

318. Text 1.

L'hiver est^arrive; c'est la plus desagreable

des quatre saisons. 2.

Mes

freres ne sont pas d accord avec moi:

eux preferent

I'hiver

aux^autres saisons; moi,

je

hais.

le

Presque tous les^oiseaux sont partis h la recherche d'un climat plus clement. 4. Ceux qui sont restes avec nous sont devenus muets. 5. II faut avoir pitie d eux. 6. Car ce sont^eux qui, en_ete, embellissent jardins nous rejouissent par leurs chants. nos et 3.

319. Transposition I.

Replace respectively the present and the past indefi-

nite

(a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect;

(b) by the future and the past future; (c) by the conditional

and the past

conditional.

320. Questions 1.

(a)

Quelle saison est arrivee?

(b) Laquelle des quatre saisons est

la

plus desagre-

able? 2.

(a)

Qui

n'est pas d'accord avec

(b) Preferent (c) 3.

ils

I'hiver

vous?

aux autres saisons?

Haissez vous I'hiver? (le)

(a) Qu'est ce qui est parti?

(b)

A

la

recherche de quoi sont

ils

partis?

(le)


beginner's FRENCH 4.

Que

restes avec

(what became of) ceux qui sont

sont devenus

nous

155

?

5.

Faut

6.

(a) Qu'est ce qui embellit nos jardins en ete? (les)

avoir pitie d'eux? (en)

il

(b) Qu'est ce qui nous rejouit en ete? (c)

Par quoi nous rejouissent

a2i.

He

and

Grammar

ils?

Drill

(we) have come; she and you (you) agree; hate winter he^ has gone out, / have entered; they (m.) succeed, w^ do not succeed; it is / who have done it it is he who has come for me, for you, for him, for them (m.), with her, with us, with them (f.), with 1.

they and

I

we (we)

;

;

;

thee. 2.

They

hate,

we were

they hated (pret.), 3.

let

hating, will he hate

us hate,

we

? is

he hating ?

should hate.

They were departing (going away), they

had

(f.)

departed, you departed (pret.), will she depart? do not de-

they would depart,

part,

we (m.) have

departed,

us

let

depart. 4.

It

will

be necessary, has

necessary (pret.), would essary,

is it

it

been necessary?

be necessary?

it

it

was

used to be nec-

necessary?

322. I.

it

I introduce

my

Translation

friends to you.

2.

They^ remained^

two months and we remained- there only for* one week. 3. When did you come^ back, gentlemen? 4. IVe arrived^ on Monday and he returned on in^

the country for*

Tuesday. the 1

3

5.

What

disagreeable weather,

weather more pleasant

in^

the

is

it

country?

not? 7.

Past Use the emphatic forms for the subjects in italics. * Omit or replace by during; (pendant). Replace by at '^

6.

Is

Do you indefinite.


beginner's FRENCH

156 winter ?i

hate

mer.^ prefer. 12.

We

8.

hate

it.

9.

/ prefer

it

sum-

to

season that our parents and we do not agree with us and with them.

10. It is also the 11.

Why

You

do you prefer summer?^

mild in winter.

windy,

13.

Our dimate

is

not

snow^ falls. 16. One must^ pity me. 15. I pity you. 17. For I hate cold.^ 18. We shall be in^ the country in summer. 20. The streets will 19. It will not rain, it will not be cold. not be full of mud. 21. They will be clean. 22. Birds^ will not be mute. 23. They will have become joyful. 24. Their songs will rejoice us. 25. The gardens will be full 14.

It is

it

rains,

freezes,

it

26. The trees will be covered with leaves. Flowers^ and leaves^ will beautify the whole country.

of flowers.

27.

THIRTY-SECOND LESSON Rules

Review §§

75, i39, 207.

323. Quelle heure est II

est 3

heures

II

est 3

heures

II

est 3

heures et

II est

il?

What

time

is it?

// is 3 o'clock

minutes or 3 heures 5 10 minutes or 3 heures 10

et 5

3.05

3.10

3 heures et quart or 3 heures 15

3.15

20 minutes or 3 heures 20

II

est 3 heures et

II

est 3 heures et

3.25

II

est

3.30

II

est

II

est

II

est

II

est

II

est

II

est

3.20

25 minutes or 3 heures 25 heures et demie or 3 heures 30 3 heures moins 4 25 minutes or moins 25 heures moins 20 minutes or moins 20 4

4 heures moins un quart or moins 15 4 heures moins 10 minutes or moins 10 4 heures moins 5 minutes or moins 5 4 heures

3.35

3.40 3.45

3.50 3.55

*

1

Supply

the.

2

s^y:

it is

necessary.

^ T?

4.00 enlace

by

at.


:

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:

BEGINNERS FRENCH It

is,

of the time of the day,

is

1

translated by

57

il est.

324.

mettre

aller

Infin.

go)

(to

(to put)

Pres. part:

allant

mettant

Past part.

alle

Pres. ind.

je vais

tu vas

mis je mets tu mets

il or elle va nous allons

nous mettons

vous

vous mettez

ils

Imperf

il

allez

or elles vont

or elle

ils

met

or elles mettent

j'allais

je mettais

Preterit

j'allai

je

Past indef.

je suis alle(e)

j'ai

.

ind.

mis mis

Future

j'irai

je mettrai

Condit.

j'irais

je mettrais

Imperative

va, allons, allez

mets, mettons, mettez

Pres. subj.:

que que

que je mette que je misse

Imperf. subj.:

j'aille

j'allasse

325. Vocabulary le

dimanche, Sunday.

dejeuner, to breakfast.

le

dejeuner, the breakfast.

aller, to go.

le service, le fidele, le

commencer,

the service.

sonner a toute volee, to ring a

quart, the quarter.

les

to begin.

inviter (a), to invite (to).

the faithful.

vetements (m. p\.),the clothes.

full peal.

I'heure (f.), o'clock, time.

mettre, to put, to put on.

la volee, the flight.

de coutume, usual, usually. de bonne heure, early.

la

messe, the mass.

la

coutume, the custom.

tard, late,

apreSj after.


beginner's FRENCH

158

Text

326. 1.

Chaque dimanche,

je

mets mes plus beaux

vetements. Je dejeune a huit^heures un coup plus tard que de coutume.

quart,

2.

Apres

3.

a

le dejeuner, je vais

4.

Le

5.

J'arrive

service

commence

1

beau-

eglise.

a dix^heures et demie.

a la porte de leglise a dix^heures

vingt. 6.

Les cloches sonnent a toute volee

les fideles 7.

J

a assister a

entre dans

1.

messe.

I'eglise.

327.

2.

la

et invitent

Transposition

Conjugate sentences i, 2, 3, 5 and 7 in the present. Replace the present (a) by the future, (b) by the

past indefinite, (c) by the conditional, (d) by the preterit, (^) by the imperfect. 3.

Use

the interrogative forms.

328. Questions 1.

(o)

(b)

Que mettez vous chaque dimanche? Quand mettez vous vos plus beaux vetements? (les)

2.

(a) Dejeunez vous de bonne heure? (negative)

(b) Est ce que vous dejeunez tard? (c)

Quelle heure est

il

quand vous dejeunez

le

manche ? 3.

(a)

Ou

allez

vous apres

le

dejeuner?

(b) Allez vous a I'eglise apres 4.

Quelle heure est

il

quand

le

le

service

dejeuner? (y)

commence ?

di-


BEGINNERS FRENCH

Ou

(a)

5.

arrivez vous?

(b) Arrivez vous a

6.

la

(c)

Quelle heure est

(a)

(b)

Que font Comment

(c)

Qui

(d)

A

(a)

Ou

7.

59

1

il

porte de I'eglise? (y) quand vous y arrivez?

cloches?

les

sonnent elles?

invitent elles?

quoi

les invitent elles?

entrez vous?

(b) Est ce que vous entrez dans I'eglise? (y)

Grammar

329. 1.

to 2,

What

time

minutes past it is

is

7, it is

a quarter past

2.

We

3.

it

is

it

gone,

9,

8.

I shall go, let

we went

(pret.),

had

(pret.), she

us go, would they go?

do not go, he

going.

is

we

are putting, they will put, have they put?

had you put? she was putting, you* would

shall put,

10

is

it

25 minutes to

it is

go, were you going? he went

You

20 minutes

is

5 minutes to 9,

not half past 10,

gone, are they going?

we have

It is half past 5,

it?

a quarter past 11,

is

it

Drill

put,

us put.

let

330. Translation I.

Do you go

every

My

4.

Sunday.

much

later.

our finest clothes.

your church?

9.

hear those bells? 12.

They ring a 16.

7.

6.

11.

15.

After breakfast,^

They

They

13.

neighborhood.

Supply

//5(?.

go there

fine

clothes.

We

5.

Where

8.

10.

Do you

They

are calling us.

14.

invite us to be present at

2

shall

put on

shall

are the bells of our church.

Let us be present there, 1

we

We

Will you go to church?^

It is in the

full peal.

us obey them. service.

2.

his

family breakfast^ usually at 8 o'clock.

breakfast

is

on Sunday? Everybody puts on

to church^ 3.

Use the

let

us go there.

singular.

Let

(the) 17.

At


:: : : ::

:

: ::

BEGINNER

i6o

what time

will the service

at the

door at ii o'clock.

mence

later,

at

FRENCH

S

begin?

a quarter after 11.

at

church^ at half past 11.

The

i8.

faithful arrive

But the service

19.

20.

You

will

will

comarrive

21. Enter there.

THIRTY-THIRD LESSON Rules

Review §§ 181, 262, 324. voir (to see)

331. Infin.

Present part.

voyant

Past part.

vu(e)

Pres. ind.

nous voyons vous voyez

je vois, / see

tu V9is il

or

Imperf

elle voit

Preterit

je vis

Past indef.

j 'ai

Future

je verrai

je verrais

Imperat.

vois, voyons,

Pres. subj.:

que je voie que je visse

332. ministre,

le

the minister. le pupitre,

(m.

pi.),

sermon, the sermon.

Dieu, God. I'auditoire

the desk.

les assistants

voyez

Vocabulary

le pasteur,

the per-

(m.),

the

congrega-

tion.

I'orgue (m.), the organ.

sons present. le

vu

Condit.

Imperf. subj.:

le

or elles voient

ils

je voyais

ind.

.

commencement, the beginning. 1

I'organiste, the organist.

Supply

^Ag.


BEGINNERS FRENCH le sujet,

the subject.

i6i

voir, to see.

la

personne, the person.

mal, badly.

la

ceremonie, the ceremony.

directement, directly.

devant, before, in front pendant, during, for.

la ferveur, the fervor. la

bonte, the kindness.

I'attention

(f.), the attention.

musique, the music. jouer de, to play (an ment),

of,

avec, with. sur, about.

la

instru-

depuis, since, from. jusqu'a, until,

to.

retourner, to go back,

chez, at, to, in the house of.

chanter, to sing.

chez

moi

(toi,

lui,

prier, to pray.

vous, eux, elles),

finir, to finish.

{your,

etre fini(e), to be over.

their) house, at

his,

her,

elle,

nous,

at, to, in

our,

my

your,

home, home.

333. Text

Je vols beaucoup de personnes assises sur bancs et le ministre devant son pupitre. 2. Pendant la ceremonie, les assistants chantent avec^expression et prient avec ferveur. 3. Le pasteur fait un long sermon sur la bonte de Dieu et I'auditoire I'ecoute avec la plus grande 1.

les

attention depuis le 4.

commencement

jusqu'^ la

fin.

J'entends aussi de bonne musique: Torganiste

joue tres bien de I'orgue. 5.

Quand

le service est fini, je

retourne direc-

lement chez moi. 334. Transposition

Conjugate in the present sentences i, 2, the last clause and 5 and the first clause of 4. 2. Replace the present (a) by the imperfect, (&) by the past indefinite, (c) by the future, {d) hy the preterit, {e) by 1.

of 3

the conditional. 3.

Use

the interrogative forms.


1

BEGINNER^S FRENCH

62

Questions

3351.

(a) Qui voyez voiis dans I'eglise? (y) (b) Les personnes que vous y voyez, sont elles debout

ou assises?

Le

(c)

ministre est

2.

(a) Pendant

(c)

,

3.

la

Comment Comment

(b)

ceremonie, que font

Quel en

les assistants?

chantent ils? prient ils?

(a) Qu'est ce que

(c)

debout?

il

pasteur fait?

le

(b) Son sermon est â&#x20AC;˘

debout ou assis?

il

(d) Devant quoi est

long ou court?

il

est le sujet?

(d)

Que

(e)

ÂŁcoute-t-il le pasteur avec peu d'attention? (le)

fait I'auditoire

pendant

le

sermon?

(a) Entendez vous aussi de bonne musique? (en)

4.

(b) Qui joue de I'orgue? (en)

5.

(c)

En

joue-t-il bien

(a)

Le

service fini,

ou mal?

ou retoumez vous?

ce que vous vous? (y)

(b) Est

336. 1.

What

minutes past

what time

time was 2,

will

Grammar

it?

it

directement

chez

Drill

was a quarter

to 4,

it

was 10

25 minutes past 6? it was half past 3. be? it will be 20 minutes to 5, it will be

was it

retournez

it

a quarter past 9. 2.

I

go,

you went

she has gone, go, shall

gone, 3.

see?

He

we saw

was he going? they

we go? you would

will go,

go, they (f.) had

us go.

let

let

(pret.),

is

seeing, have

you seen? we used

to see,

do you

us see, he will see, you had seen, would they see? (pret.),

we

shall see, see^ they

used to

see.


beginner's FRENCH

I.

What

are

You

3.

we going will

63

Translation

337.

church,

1

do?

to^

Let us enter the

2.

many

see there

strangers.

4.

The

ceremony has begun. 5. Here is the pew^ of my family. 6. The sermon of the minister is very long. 7. He has been speaking for^ one hour. 8. He is speaking about* the kindness of God. 9. We listen to him attentively. 10. The congregation

is

seated during the sermon.

do during the service? persons present. 14. I

17. I

Your

13.

hear them very well.

greatest fervor.

am

We

12.

16. I

21.

We

the service

is

You

19.

What

we

shall return directly there.

The

will hear

organists

some good

my

church.

return to your house ?

22.

We

have remained

from the beginning to the end.

338.

Reading Lesson

LA PETITE MENDIANTE ^C'est la petite

mendiante

Qui vous demande un peu de pain. Donnez a la pauvre innocente, Donnez, donnez, car

Ne

rejetez point

ma

elle

a faim.

priere,

Votre coeur vous dira pourquoi. J'ai six ans, je n'ai plus

de mere,

J'ai faim, ayez pitie de moi.

^

Omit.

*

Replace by

Say: bench.

2 :

of.

^

^

we

one hour.

for^

18.

at (the) service in

over, shall

shall

with the other

not pray with the

also listening to the organ.

music when you are present

When

You do

have been praying

of this city do not play well.

20.

.

sing with expression.

sisters 15.

1 1

shall sing

Say: he speaks since.

Ct. note 3 above.


beginner's FRENCH

164

Hier, c'etait fete au village,

A

moi personne n'a songe; Chacun dansait sous le feuillage, Helas! et je n'ai pas mange. Pardonnez-moi,

demande,

je

si

Je ne demande que du pain. Du pain, je ne suis pas gourmande.

Ah

me grondez

ne

!

pas,

N'allez pas croire que

Que dans Mais

Ah

!

ce

monde

il

j

j

f aim.

*ai

'ignore

faut souffrir;

je suis si petite encore,

ne

me

laissez pas mourir.

Donnez a la pauvre petite, Et pour vous comme ellc priera! Elle a faim; donnez, donnez vite,

Donnez, quelqu'un vous Si

Eh De

ma

rendra.

le

vous importune,

plainte

bien! je vais rire et chanter;

mon

Taspect de

infortune

Je ne dois pas vous attrister. Quand je pleure. Ton me rejette,

Chacun me

dit

ficoutez done

:

filoigne-toi.

ma

chansonnette,

Je chante, ayez pitie de moi.

Boucher de Perthes.


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:

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

165

THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON Rules

Review note

bottom of

b,

137; §§ 139, 306, 324, 33I'

p.

prendre (to take)

339- Inf in. Pres. part.

prenant

Past part.

pris je prends

Pres. ind.

tu prends il or elle prend nous pjenons vous prenez ils or elles prennent

Imperf

je prenais

ind.

.

Preterit

je pris

Past indef

Future

:

j'ai pris

.

je prendrai

,

Condit.

je prendrais

Imperat.

prends, prenons, prenez

Pres. subj.

que que

Imperf. subj.

je

prenne

je prisse

340. Vocabulary le spectacle,

le billet, le

the spectacle, show.

la salle,

the ticket.

la

guichet, the ticket office.

the auditorium.

scene, the stage.

I'espece (f.), the kind, sort.

go up, climb.

le haut, the top.

monter,

Tescalier (m.), the staircase.

prendre, to take.

la

representation,

the

quelquefois, sometimes.

perform-

ance.

to

jamais, ever, never.

la place, the seat.

deja, already.

I'ouvreuse, the (female) usher.

tou jours, always.

en retard,

late

(person).


?

?

1

beginner's FRENCH

66

341.

Text

1.

Nous^allions quelquefois au spectacle.

2.

La

representation commen9ait generalement

a huit^heures. 3.

Nous

4.

Nous^arrivions

n'etions jamais en retard.

a

porte

la

du

theatre

a

huit^heures moins^un quart.

Nous^achetions

nos

au guichet et nous choisissions toujours de bonnes places. 6. Nous montions et au haut de Tescalier une 5.

billets

ouvreuse prenait nos billets. 7. Nous^entrions et nous voyions

salle

la

et

la scene. 8.

II

y avait dej^ beaucoup de personnes dans

la salle.

{a suivr^.)

342.. Transposition 1.

Conjugate sentences

i,

3, 4, 5,

7 and the

first

clause

of 6 in the imperfect of the indicative. 2.

Replace the imperfect (a) by the present, {h) hy the

conditional, (r)

by the pluperfect, (^) by the future, (^) by

the preterit. 3.

Use the

interrogative forms.

343. 1.

(a) Oil alliez vous

2.

Quelle heure

Questions

{b) Alliez vous tres sou vent au spectacle? (y) etait il quand la representation com-

mengait ? 3.

(a)

ÂŁtiez vous generalement de bonne heure

(6)

ÂŁtiez vous jamais en retard?


beginner's FRENCH 4.

5.

(a)

Ou

(b)

A

(a)

Qu'est ce que vous achetiez?

1

67

vous?

arriviez

quelle heure y arriviez vous?

(b)

Ou

(c)

Quelle espece de places choisissiez vous toujours?

achetiez vous vos billets? (les)

(en) 6.

(a) Est ce que vous montiez I'escalier? (le)

(b) Qu'est ce qu'une ouvreuse prenait au haul de I'escalier ? 7.

(a) Entriez vous?

(b) Voyiez vous

la salle?

(la)

Est ce que vous voyiez la scene? (la) (d) Voyiez vous la salle et la scene? (les)

(c)

8.

(a) Qu'est ce qu'il y avait dans

(b)

Y

en avait

il

Grammar

344. 1.

he see? she had seen,

2.

He

is

Drill

they saw (pret.), you* used to see, shall they

I see,

see? did he see (pret.)

would have

la salle?

deja beau coup?

?

see, would have seen, they

they have seen, do not

we were

seeing,

I shall

seen.

taking, were

we taking?

they took (pret.), are

had taken, she was taking, he has taken, they will take, let us take, we shall have taken, did you take (pret.) ? you had taken, I shall take, would you* take? you would have taken, do not take.

you taking?

I

345. I.

My

Translation

family used to go to the theater

residing in the city in winter.

we

2.

We

when we were

seldom go there when

3. At what time did the performThey used to begin at 8 o'clock. 5. But

are in the country.

ances begin?

many

4.

persons were already arriving at the doors of the


beginner's FRENCH

l68 theater at 7.30. ticket office?

6.

7. I

Did you use

to

buy your

tickets at the

never used to buy them there.

are too expensive there.

My

9.

They

8.

brother used always to

He used always to buy good have bought your ticket, what do you do? 12. I climb the numerous staircases with the other persons. 13. There are many female^ ushers. 14. They are waiting for you at the top of the staircases. 15. You give them your tickets. 16. They take them. 17. They also take your hat and your overcoat. 18. Then they lead you to the seats which you have chosen. 19. Many people enter the our

choose

ones.^

auditorium. 22. I

10.

seats.

When you

II.

20.

do not see

Nobody it.

21.

late.

is

23. It

is

Where

opposite you.

is

the stage?

24.

We

have

the best seats in the whole auditorium.

THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON Rules 346. Ici Ton parle frangais.

Son pere

He

le punit.

French

is

spoken here.

has been punished by his father.

Instead of the passive voice, the French often use the active voice with the

name

on (see 267) as subject 347.

Quand

allez

if

of the agent as subject and with

no agent

vous a

specified.

is

I'eglise?

When

do you go

to

church? Je prends mon paraplnie lorsqu'il pleut (quand my umbrella when {whenever) it rains.

il

pleut).

I take

When

is

translated

rogative clause.

by qnand when

Otherwise,

it

is

it

begins an inter-

translated

by quand or

lorsque (lorsqu' before a vowel). 1

Omit and use en before the

verb.

^

Omit.


:

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:

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:

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

169

plaire (to please)

348. Infin. Pres. part.:

plaisant

Past part.

pIu

Pres. ind.

je plais

tu plais il

or

elle plait

nous plaisons vous plaisez ils

Imperf

.

ind.

Preterit:

Past indef

je plus j'ai

.

Future

je plairai je plairais

Imperat.

plais, plaisons, plaisez

Pres. subj.

que

je plaise

Imperf. subj.

que

je plusse

Vocabulary

coup, the blow, time, rap.

Tartiste (m.

le

and

the artist.

grand.

-e,

comique, comic,

light.

frapper, to strike, rap.

the public.

decor, the scenery.

le vaudeville, le

f.),

precis, -e, precise, sharp.

grand,

I'acteur, the actor.

le public,

plu

Condit.

349. le

or elles plaisent

je plaisais

pleurer, to weep.

the vaudeville.

melodrame, the melodrama.

I'opera (m,), the opera.

souper, to take supper. lever, to raise.

representer, to represent.

le

restaurant, the restaurant.

applaudir, to applaud.

la

comedie, the comedy.

plaire, a, to please.

la tragedie, the la piece,

tragedy.

tantot,

the play.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

lorsque, ensuite,

fterwards.

,

sometimes,

when,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

.


BEGINNER

I/O

350.

A

1.

coups 2.

et

huit^heures

on

Text

FRENCH

S

{SuiU

Fin)

et

on

precises,

frappait

trois

levait le rideau.

Nous voyions

sur

la

scene

les^^acteurs,

les^actrices et les decors. 3. Tantot les^artistes jouaient une comedie ou un vaudeville, tantot ils representaient une tragedie ou un melodrame tantot ils chantaient despairs de grand opera ou d'opera comique. ;

4.

Nous

5.

Si la piece plaisait, nous^applaudissions.

6.

Lorsque

preferions la comedie.

le

sujet etait triste,

le

public pleu-

rait. 7.

Quand

lions souper

la representation etait

351. 1.

Conjugate

clauses of 2.

finie,

nous^al-

au restaurant. Transposition

in the imperfect sentences 2, 4,

and the

Replace the imperfect (a) by the

preterit, (^)

future (use the present after si), (c) by the present, the past indefinite,

(^) by the conditional

Use

the interrogative forms.

352. Questions 1.

(a) Combien de coups frappait on? (en)

(r)

Quand frappait on trois coups? Que faisait on ensuite?

(a)

Qui voyiez vous sur

la

(&)

Que

la

(^) 2.

voyiez vous sur

(les)

scene? (y) scene? (y)

by the by

(rf)

(keep the im-

perfect after si). 3.

last

5, 6, 7.


?

?

BEGINNERS FRENCH

I7I

,

(c) Est ce que vous voyiez les acteurs, les actrices et les decors sur la scene? (les y) (a) Tantot, que jouaient les artistes?

3.

(b) Tantot, qu'est ce qu'ils representaient

4.

(c)

Tantot, que chantaient ils?

Que

preferiez vous,

le

vaudeville, la comedie, la tra-

6.

grand opera ou I'opera comique? Si la piece etait bonne, que faisiez vous? Lorsque le sujet etait triste, que faisait le public?

7.

(a)

gedie, le melodrame, le 5.

Quand

representation etait terminee,

la

vous? (b) Pourquoi y

alliez

I take,

1.

vous

Grammar

353.

Drill

you have not taken, you* were taking, had we

taken? do they take? they took (pret.), take (pret.)

oil alliez

we

not take,

? I shall

us take, did

let

we

should take, he will not

have taken. 2.

me?

please^ him,

I

we

are pleasing them, were you pleasing

they pleased (pret.) him, she had not pleased them, you

will not please her,

we

should

pleases me,

it

you?

please

you

if

have pleased them, have

I shall

please,^ please him, they

pleased us.

354. It

I.

is

exactly eight o'clock."*

going to* begin. on the stage. 4. 6.

It is

8.

I

Translation

3.

Do you

being raised.^

hear them 7.

The performance

?

5.

Look

What do you

see pretty scenery there.

They

2.

is

begin when you hear^ three raps

It will

9.

The

see

at the curtain.

on the stage?

artists are arriving.

sometimes through the doors, sometimes through the windows, ii. Will they represent a melodrama 10.

^

P/atre

2

Tf

it

enter

is

an intransitive verb.

pleases you.

*

Omit.

^ ''

Say

:

Eight o'clock precise.

Future,

ÂŤ

One

is

raising

it.


172

beginner's FRENCH

.

comedy?

or a

What

12.

we

play that

are they going to^ play?

evening

shall see this 15. / hate

prefer tragedy.

16.

it.

This actress

17.

play well.

has finished.

Some

take-

25.

That

Tuesday.

to the opera on^

sometimes

airs of

in the city.

also please

we 27.

24.

grand opera, sometimes

will please you, I

performance,

am

take^

shall

We

19.

when

She she

the other artists please the public?

please us, others do not (please us).

you

per-

very pretty, but she does not

20. I shall not applaud her

Do

21.

14* I

the actors and the

She does not speak with expression.

18.

does not please me.

22.

is

When

The

13.

a vaudeville.

weep during the whole

actresses represent such a play, I

formance.

is

sure (of

23. I shall

They

airs of it).

sing there

comic opera.

26. After the

you to the largest restaurant supper there. 28. That will

shall take

me.

THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON Rules 355. Je m'amuse.

/ enjoy myself.

Vous amusez vous ? Do yoti enjoy yourself (yourselves) ? Je ne m'amuse pas. / do not enjoy myself. Amusez-vous. Enjoy yourself (yourselves). Ne vons amusez pas. Do not enjoy yourself (yourselves). 1.

Many

verbs which are not reflexive in English are

reflexive in French. 2.

The

objects

rules concerning the place of personal

must be applied 1

Omit.

(see 277, 278, 286, 296). *

Replace by

/ead.

pronouns


beginner's FRENCH

1

73

35^' Examples of conjugations of reflexive verbs.

s'amuser

I.

rejouir

2. se

{to enjoy one's self)

(to rejoice)

PRESENT INDICATIVE

m 'amuse

je

je

tu t'amuses il or elle s'amuse nous nous amusons

rejouis

il

or

elle se rejouit

nous nous rejouissons vous vous rejouissez

vous vous amusez lis

me

tu te rejouis

or elles s'amusent

or elles se rejouissent

ils

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE je m'amusais

je

me

rejouissais

PRETERIT

je

m'amusai

je

me

rejouis

FUTURE je m'amuserai

je

me

rejouirai

CONDITIONAL je

m'amuserais

je

me

rejouirais

IMPERATIVE

amuse-toi

rejouis-toi

amusons-nous amusez- vous

rejouissons-nous rejouissez-vous PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

que je m'amuse

que

je

me

rejouisse

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je

m'amusasse

rendre

3. se

que je .

4.

me

rejouisse

se decevoir

(to surrender or betake one's self)

(

to deceive one's self)

PRESENT INDICATIVE je

me

rends

je

tu te rends il

or

elle se

me

degois

tu te deqois

rend

il

or elle se de^oit


:: :

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BEGINNER

174 nous nous rendons vous vous rendez ils

or

elles se

je

me

rendais

S

FRENCH

nous nous decevons vous vous decevez

rendent

or elles se degoivent

ils

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE je

me

decevais

PRETERIT

je

me rendis

je

me

rendrai

je

me

rendrais

je

me

de^us

FUTURE je

me

decevrai

CONDITIONAL je

me

decevrais

IMPERATIVE rends-toi

*

deqois-toi

rendons-nous

decevons-nous

rendez-vous

decevez-vous PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je

me

que

rende

je

me

devolve

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je

me

que

rendisse

357. sortir {to go out).

je

me

degusse

(Cf. partir, 316.)

Pres. Part.

sortant

Past part.

sorti

Pres. ind. je sors

nous sortons

tu sors

vous sortez

or

il

Imperf

.

elle sort

ind.

â&#x20AC;˘je

or elles sortent sortais

je sortis

Preterit

Past indef

ils

.

je suis sorti (e)

Future

je sortirai

Condit.

je sortirais


:

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

175

Imperat.

sors, sortons, sortez

Pres. subj.:

que que

Imperf. subj.:

je-

sorte

je sortisse

358. Vocabulary le trottoir, the

se rendre, to betake one's self.

sidewalk.

promenade, the walk. sortir, to go out.

se

se hater (de), to hasten (to).

faire

la

s'habiller, to dress

plaire

(a),

take

to

delight

(in).

(up).

une promenade,

to

take a

walk.

s'acheminer, to direct one's steps.

lentement, slowly.

se rejouir (de), to rejoice {to).

vers, towards.

en route, on the way.

Text

359. I.

Je

2.

Je

me me

Je

sors de la maison, je descends I'escalier

hate de m'habiller.

de

rejouis

faire

une bonne prome-

nade. 3.

et j'arrive sur le trottoir.

Je m'achemine lentement vers la

4.

me

ville et je

rends au pare.

5.

sons,

En

route,

je

les^hotels,

tres, etc.

me

plais

les^eglises,

1.

Conjugate every sentence

Use Use Use Use Use

5.

6.

les

thea-

Transposition.

2.

4.

les^ecoles,

(^ suivre.)

360.

3.

a regarder les mai-

in the present.

the third person singular of the imperfect.

the first person plural of the preterit.

the second person singular of the future. the first person singular of the conditional.

the interrogative forms.


beginner's FRENCH

iy6

361. Questions

2.

Qui Qui

3.

(a)

1.

4.

5.

se hate de s'habiller?

de faire une bonne promenade? (en) Qui sort de la maison? (en) (b) Qui est ce qui descend Tescalier? (le) (c) Qui arrive sur le trottoir? (y) (a) Qui s'achemine lentement vers la ville? (y) (b) Qui est ce qui se rend au pare? (y)

En

se rejouit

route,

qui

se

plait

a regarder

les

maisons,

les

hotels, les eglises, les ecoles, les theatres, etc.? (les)

6. 7.

8.

Que vous hatez vous de faire? De quoi vous rejouissez vous? (o) D'oij sortez vous?

(b)

Que

descendez vous?

(c) Oti arrivez vous 9.

ID.

(b)

Comment vous y acheminez vous?

(c)

Ou

(a)

En

route, est ce

(b)

En

route,

vous rendez vous? que vous vous plaisez a regarder les maisons et les hotels? (les) et les

(c)

vous plaisez vous a regarder

Do

les eglises

ecoles? (les)

Qu'est ce que vous vous plaisez a faire en route? 362.

I.

?

(a) Vers quoi vous acheminez vous?

Grammar

Drill

you go out with me? we

shall

go out with you,

she does not go out with us, I was not going out with them

(m.), they went out with you, would you go out with her? Let us go out with them ( f ) were they going out with you ? .

We

,

did not go out^ with her, they are going out with us, I

should not go out with you*, go out with them (m.). 1

Preterit.


:

beginner's FRENCH 2.

I take delight, did

delight?

we were

we

177

take^ delight? will they take

taking delight, she would not take delight,

us take delight, you took^ delight, they take delight.

let

Translation

363.

do you dress up? 3. We 4. To what park will you go? 5. We shall go to the large park in front of our church. 6. Our neighbors are also going out of their house. 7. They are directing their steps towards the country. 8. We shall direct ours towards the city. 9. We rejoice to go out. I.

Where do you

go?^

2.

Why

are going to^ take a walk in the park.

10. It

has been freezing for* three hours.

are covered with snow. 13.

We

14.

What

12.

Do

not

11.

fall

The sidewalks

while^ going out.

go down the staircase slowly when we go out. you look at on the way? 15. We shall take

shall

will

delight in looking at everything that attracts^ our attention

persons, buildings, birds, etc.

ing?

17.

theater.

Where

19.

Take me

16.

you go?^

will

along,

20.

Will you go out this even18.

We

We

shall

go

to the

should take you along

21. I never go out in^ the evening. 22. You go out in^ the evening when you are taller. 23. Little girls^ do not go out in^ the evening. 24. That does not

with us, but ..

,

will

please me. 1

Preterit.

*

Say

:

2

Say betake yourselves. Omit.

^

En

(followed by the pres. participle).

*

Future.

^

:

It freezes since.

â&#x20AC;˘

Supply

the.


BEGINNER

178

S

FRENCH

THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 243, 305, 306. 364. Je me suis amuse (e). / have enjoyed myself. Nous nous sommes amuses (ees). We have enjoyed ourselves. 1.

The compound

tenses of reflexive verbs are formed

with the help of the auxiliary

etre,

never with the help of

avoir. 2.

As

etre

is

used in this case instead of avoir, the past

participles of reflexive verbs follow the rule of

of past participles conjugated with avoir.

365.

Compound

agreement

(See 243.)

tenses of reflexive verbs.

PAST INDEFINITE je

me

amuse (e) amuse (e) amuse amusee

suis

tu t'es il

s'est

elle s*est

nous nous sommes amuses (ees) amuse (ee, es, ees) vous vous etes ils se sont amuses elles se sont amusees

me

rendu (e) rendu (e) rendu il s'est rendue elle s'est nous nous sommes rendus (ues) rendu (ue, us, ues) vous vous etes rendus ils se sont rendues elles se sont je

tu t'es

suis

*

rejoui(e)

rejoui(e) rejoui re joule

rejouis (ies) rejoui (ie,

is,

les)

rejouis

rejouies

degu (e) degu (e) degu degue degus (ues) degu (ue, us, ues) degus deques


BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

179

PAST ANTERIOR^

me

je

amuse(e)

fus

rendu (e)

de9u(e)

rendu (e)

de(;u(e)

rendu (e)

de9u(e)

rendu (e)

de9u(e)

rendu (e)

deQu(e)

rejoui(e)

PLUPERFECT

amuse (e)

je m'etais

rejoui(e)

PAST FUTURE

me

je

amuse (e)

serai

rejoui(e)

PAST CONDITIONAL

me

je

amuse (e)

serais

rejoui(e)

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je

me

amuse (e)

sois

rejoui(e)

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je

me

amuse (e)

fusse

Yeniv

366.

come)

{to

Pres. part, venant

de9u(e)

rendu (e)

rejoui(e) Sentil (to/eel)

s'SLSSeoil

sentant

s'asseyant

{to sit

down)

Past part. venu

senti

s'etant assis(e)

Pres. ind.ije viens

je sens

je m'assieds

tu viens

tu sens

tu t'assieds

\

elle

:

Ivient

elle

)

nous venons vous venez ils

)

sent

,.

elle

>

s'assied

)

nous sentons

nous nous asseyons

vous sentez

vous vous asseyez

^ils

.

\ ^

)

^„^^jviennent^^^^jsente„t

^jl^^jsasseyent

Impf. ind.ije venais

je sentais

je m'asseyais

Preterit

je sentis

je m'assis

:

je vins

tu vins

\

Ivint

elle

)

nous vinmes vous vintes

eL 1

The

^^'^"''* j

past anterior

(I

had amused myself)

is

formed with the help of when.

after conjunctions of time like

the preterit and

is

especially

as soon as, after,

if

the verb of the principal clause

iised

is in

the preterit.


:

:

;

BEGINNER

i8o

S

FRENCH

me

je suis venu(e)j'ai senti

je

Future:

je viendrai

je sentirai

je m'assierai

Condit.

je viendrais

je sentirais

je m'assierais

Imperat.

viens

sens

assieds-toi

Pastindf.

:

suis assis(e)

(also asseyerai)

(also asseyerais)

Pres. subj.

:

Impf.subj.

:

367.

La

venons

sentons

asseyons-nous

venez

sentez

asseyez-vous

que que

je vienne^

que

que

je vinsse

quejesentisse que je m'assisse

ville

a ses

je sente

City

plaisirs.

life

has

je m'asseye

its

pleasures.

Cette ville est belle: j'en admire les monuments. city is beautiful: I

Its

and

admire

its

This

momiments.

their are translated

(i) by son,

when

sa, ses

same clause (2) generally by en

.

the thing possessed

is

in the

as the thing which possesses .

.

le,

la,

V, les

when

they are in

different clauses.

368. Vocabulary I'etalage (m.), the display,

show

window. la

la la

vitrine,

manquer (de),

to fail.

saluer, to greet.

the

window

(of

a

rencontrer, to meet.

shop),

s'arreter, to stop.

chaussee, the causeway, street. connaissance, the acquaintance.

se reposer, to rest.

fatigue, -e, tired.

se diriger, to direct one's steps.

franchir, to cross.

penetrer dans, to enter.

sentir, to feel.

traverser, to cross.

parvenir

admirer, to admire.

se s'asseoir, to sit

a, to

mettre (a),

reach. to

begin (to).

down.

1 The ist and 2d persons plural are formed regularly; see note ^, p. 137. All the compounds of Tjentr are conjugated like vemr.


beginner's FRENCH 369. 1.

EUe

elle se 2.

s'arrete

Text

aux

Elle ne

{Suite)

des

vitrines

met a en^admirer

l8l

magasins

et

les^etalages.

manque pas de

saluer les^amis

et

connaissances qu'elle rencontre.

les

3.

Elle traverse

la

chaussee et

dirige

se

elle

vers le pare. 4.

elle 5.

banc

Elle y parvient; y penetre.

Elle se

sent

elle

en franchit I'entree

fatiguee;

elle

s'assied

sur

et

un

et elle s'y repose. 370. Transposition

1.

Conjugate every sentence

2.

Use the second person plural of the conditional.

3.

4.

Use Use

in the present.

the third person plural of the preterit. the first person singular (feminine) of the past

indefinite. 5.

6. .

7.

Use Use Use

the third person singular of the future. the second person singular of the imperfect.

the interrogative forms.

371. Questions 1.

2.

Qui s'arrete aux vitrines des magasins? (y) (&) Qui est ce qui se met a en admirer les etalages? Qui ne manque pas de saluer ses amis et ses con(a)

naissances? (les) 3.

Qui est ce qui traverse la chaussee? Qui se dirige vers le pare? (y) (a) Qui est ce qui y parvient? (h) Qui en franchit Tentree? (la) (c) Qui est ce qui y penetre ? (a)

{h)

4.

(la)


??

BEGINNER^S FRENCH

l82 5.

Qui Qui Qui

(a)

(b) (c)

6.

7.

se sent fatigue? est ce qui s'assied sur

un banc?

(y)

repose?

s'y

(a) Devant quoi s'arrete-t-elle

(b)

Que

se

(a)

Qui

salue-t-elle ?

met

elle

?

a admirer?

(b) Est ce qu'elle salue les connaissances qu'elle ren-

contre? (les) 8.

Qu'est ce qu'elle traverse?

(a)

(b) Vers quoi se dirige-t-elle 9.

.10.

(a)

Ou

(b)

Que

(c)

Dans quoi

(a)

(b)

Comment se sent Que fait elle?

(c)

Oil se repose-t-elle

parvient elle? franchit elle? penetre-t-elle elle?

?

Grammar

372.

Drill

have amused myself, she has rejoiced, we (m.) have (f.) have deceived themselves, you (m.) had (pluperf.) amused yourselves, we (f.) shall have rejoiced, they (m.) would have betaken themselves, she would have deceived herself. 2. She comes, were you coming? we came,^ you will come, they (f.) have come, they would not come, do not come. 1.

I

betaken ourselves, they

3.

there,

I

reach^ there,

we

shall reach there, she did not reach^

was she reaching there? we should not reach

there,

reach there. 4.

feel

it,

5.

He

will feel

you

We

felt* sit

1

it

it,

down

Preterit.

(m.), are

feel

it,

there, ^

we

feeling it? they

you have not felt it. you sat down* there,

would not

will

parvenir, conjugated like venir.

you

sit


beginner's FRENCH

down down

there

we should

?

there?

not

us not

let

sit

1

83

sit down there, were they sitting down there, they have sat down

there.

373. Translation

Why

I.

right? to you. 4.

We

does everybody stop on the sidewalk on the

There

2.

the large store of which

is

I

All the ladies stop there and admire

3.

shall cross the street

and we

have spoken its

displays.

shall stop there also.

5. If you begin to look at every window that we shall see on our way, we shall never reach the park. 6. Ladies^ take delight in stopping in front of every show window. 7. If

we meet some

We

of yours,^

friends

shall

we

greet

them?

do so.^ 9. Do you see that gentleman who is resting in an armchair on the sidewalk in front of the hotel ? 10. Is he an acquaintance of yours ?* 11. Yes, he is a good friend of mine.^ 12. If he saw us, he would not fail to greet us. 13. At what time shall we reach the park? 8.

we

14. If

hour.

Here

we

shall not fail to

hasten,

is

we

shall

reach there in a quarter of anÂŽ

When

you feel tired, we shall the park towards which we direct our 15.

enter there?

18.

entrance

Its

is

sit

down.

steps.

superb.

16.

17. Shall

19.

Let us

Here are some chairs. 22. Take one of them. 23. We shall sit down a few minutes. 24. When we have rested, we shall go home. cross

it.

21.

20. I feel tired.

374. Reading Lesson

ENIGMES I.

Mon Mon

premier est un metal precieux, second est un habitant des cieux

Et mon tout

est

un

fruit delicieux.

(â&#x20AC;˘95uBJo) ^

Supply

^

Replace by

^

Say

:

2

the.

One

it.

of

*

Some of your friends. Say: One of your acquaintances. Say

my good

:

friends.

^

Omit.


:

;

beginner's FRENCH

184 '

Cinq voyelles, une consonne, frangais composent mon nom, Et je porte sur ma personne

2.

En

De

quoi Tecrire sans crayon. (•nB^siQ)

Tout parait renverse chez moi.

3.

Le laquais precede le maitre, Le manant vient avant le roi, Le simple clerc avant le pretre Le printemps vient apres I'ete. Noel avant

la Trinite,

C'en est assez pour

me

connaitre.

(•9JlBUU0ipiQ)

Quelqu'un propose dans une societe I'enigme suivante suis pas ce que je suis, car si j'etais ce que je suis, ne Je En voici la solution C'est je ne serais pas ce que je suis.)) 4.

«

:

un

valet qui n'est pas le maitre qu'il suit, car

maitre qu'il

suit,

il

ne serait pas

s'il

etait le

le valet.

THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON Rules 375.

La

I.

plate bande, les plates bandes, the border, the

borders. 2.

Un

chef d'ceuvre, des chefs d'ceuvre, a masterpiece,

some masterpieces. 3.

La

contre allee, les contre allees, the side alley, the

side alleys. 1.

When

a

compound noun

is

formed of two nouns or

of a noun and an adjective, both words are put in the plural. 2.

When

it

is

formed of two nouns connected by a


:::

: :: :

beginner's FRENCH

185

preposition expressed or understood, the first one alone

is

put in the plural. 3.

the

When

it is

noun alone

formed of a noun and an invariable word, put in the plural.

is

376. Je vois des enfants jouer dans playing in the park.

After verbs meaning present participle

pare.

/ see children

English

to feel, to see, to hear, the

replaced by the infinitive in French.

is

resoudre

377.

le

{to solve,

valoir

dire

{to be

{to say, tell)

decide)

worth)

valant

Pres. part.

resolvant

disant

Past part.

resolu

dit

valu

Pres. ind.

je resous

je dis

je

vaux

tu dis

tu

vaux

tu resous il

)

\

..

elle

^

.

resout

nous resolvons vous resolvez ^ f,

{

elles

Imperf. ind. Preterit

Past indef

.

:

>

,,

elle

)

resolvent

vaut

J

nous disons

nous valons

vous

vous valez

dites {

,.

elles

)

elle

\

disent

1^^'^"'

elles

\

je resolvais

je disais

je valais

je resolus

je dis

je valus

j'ai dit

j'ai

j'ai

resolu

valu

Future

je resoudrai

je dirai

je vaudrai

Condit.

je resoudrais

je dirais

je vaudrais

Imperat.

resous

dis

vaux

resolvons

disons

valons

resolvez

dites

valez

Pres. subj.:

que

je resolve

que

je dise

que

Impf. subj.:

que

je resolusse

que

je disse

que je valusse

1

The

ist

:

je vaille*

and 2d persons plural are formed regularly see note ;

b, p.

137.


BEGINNER

i86

FRENCH

S

378. Vocabulary le

chef d'oeuvre, the masterpiece.

delicieu-x, -se, delightful.

le sculpteur, the sculptor.

ideal, -e, ideal.

Tequipage (m.), the equipage. I'apres midi (m. or f.), the afternoon.

passer, to pass, spend.

la statue, the statue.

se promener, to take a walk. resoudre (de), to decide (to).

rautomobile

(f.),

the automobile.

repasser, to repass. se lever, to get up.

la bicyclette, the bicycle.

dire, to say,

la peine, the trouble, the ivhile.

valoir, to be worth.

celebre, celebrated.

faire beau, to be fine (weather).

379. Text

On

1.

se dit:

un temps

fait 2.

On

3.

On_y

lacs et

il

fait

tell.

(Suite)

beau,

il

fait

delicieux,

il

ideal.

resout de passer Tapres midi au pare.

aper9oit de longues^avenues, de petits de belles statues, chefs d'oeuvre de sculp-

teurs celebres.

On_y

de superbes^equipages, des bicyclettes et des^automobiles passer et repasser. 5. On se leve, on va et Ton vient, on se promene et Ton se plait a admirer la nature. 6. Cela en vaut la peine. 4.

voit

380.

Transposition

1.

Conjugate sentences

2.

Use

it is

4 and

5 in the present.

Use

the second person plural of the future, wherever

possible.

4. it is

2, 3,

possible.

3. it is

i,

the first person plural of the imperfect, wherever

Use

the first person singular of the preterit, wherever

possible.


?

beginner's FRENCH

Use

5.

ever

it is

6.

the third person plural of the conditional, wher-

Use

the second person plural (masculine) of the past

wherever

Use

is

it

possible.

the interrogative forms.

381. 1.

(a)

Que

se dit

(b)

Fait

il

(c)

Est ce

(d) Fait

il

Questions

on? beau?

qu'il fait delicieux?

un temps

ideal?

2.

Ou

3.

(a)

Quest

(b)

De qui ces statues Que voit on passer

4.

87

possible.

indefinite, 7.

1

(a)

resout on de passer I'apres midi? (le) le pare? (y) sont elles les chefs d'oeuvre?

ce qu'on aper^oit dans

et

repasser?

(b) Est ce qu'on voit beaucoup de bicyclettes passer et 5.

(a)

repasser?

Se leve-t-on?

(b) Va-t-on et vient on

6.

(c)

Est ce que Ton se promene?

(d)

Que

se plait

Cela en vaut

(Use

il

on a admirer?

la

peine?

promeneurs instead of on as subject in the answers to questions beginning with qui.) 7. (a) Qu'est ce que les promeneurs se disent? (b) Quel temps fait il? 8. Qui resout de passer Tapres midi au pare? (I'y) 9. (a) Qui est ce qui apergoit de longues avenues? (en) les

(b) Qui est ce qui apergoit de petits lacs? (c)

Qui

est ce qui apergoit

(en)

de belles statues? (en)

(d) Est ce^ des chefs d'oeuvre? (en) 10. '

(a)

Qui

voit

de superbes equipages passer et re-

passer? (en) 1

See note

p. 144.


1

beginner's FRENCH

88

(b) Qui est ce qui voit des bicyclettes et des auto-

mobiles? (en)

Qui Qui (c) Qui (d) Qui

(a)

11.

(b)

se leve?

va

est ce qui

se

est ce qui se plait a

Qu'est ce qui vaut

12.

et vient?

promene?

382.

la

admirer

la

nature? (la)

peine d'etre admire?

Grammar

Drill

1. They have not decided (solved), I shall decide, were you deciding? they did not decide,^ we decide, you would decide, does she decide? we decided,^ will you not decide?

He

2.

says, she said,^ they did not say

;^

we

shall say,

do you say? would you say? they have said, have they said? I used to say, I did not use to say. Let us not tell, tell, tell me, tell her,^ tell him,^ do not tell her,^ say to yourself. I

3.

am

worth,

is it^

better?*

it

you are not worth, they were has been worth, will

we were (pret.) worth, she better?* we would not be worth.

not worth, be^

383. Translation 2. How I. In summer, this long walk was delightful. was the weather? 3. We used to say that it was ideal. 4. Did you seldom come to this park? 5. I have already told you that we used to come whenever^ the weather was fine. 6. That was worth the while. 7. We had decided to spend all our afternoons in this park. 8. We used to come to^ admire beautiful^ nature. 9. In front of what did you

use to stop?

10.

We

used to stop

which beautify the lawns.

11.

*

^ Supply Use the preterit. Use the adverb mieux.

ÂŤ

Omit.

^

The io.

in front of the statues

sculptors * ^ '^

who (have)

Supply worth. Replace by when. Supply the.


beginner's FRENCH

189

are famous. 12. We used to take delight in admiring these masterpieces. 13. They are worth admiring.^ 15. When it was fine 14. Do you see tliose wide avenues? weather, one used to perceive automobiles and bicycles there. 16. They were passing and repassing. 17. Tell me, did you

made them

use to take walks there? entrances of the park, to

sit

18.

we

When we

felt^

very

reached^ one of the

tired.

19.

.down on chairs for a quarter of an hour.

we used

used

20.

Then

up and direct our steps towards the large which we used to see many carriages going and

to get

lake, near

coming

We

slowly.

THIRTY-NINTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 118, 267, 339, 375384. Je vais 2.

mc

promcncr.

Je m'amuse k regarder

/

am going

to take

a walk.

/ enjoy watching

les enfants.

the children.

Je crains d'etre en retard. / J'ai la permission de sortir.

3.

4.

go

am /

afraid I shall he

late.

have permission

to

out. 5.

6.

Je suis pret a partir. / am ready to depart. It is difficult to II est difficile de comprendre cela.

understand

that.

C'est difficile a comprendre.

That

is difficult to

under-

stand.

When two same

verbs having the same subject are used in the the second one depending on the

clause,

put in the infinitive unless the

latter is

first is

first,

verb etre or avoir. 1

Say

:

the trouble of being admired.

2

the

the auxiliary

imperfect.


:

1

:

:: : :

:

:

BEGINNER

90

The

1.

verb

first

may

FRENCH

S

require no preposition before the

second. 2.

It

3.

It

may require the preposition a. may require the preposition de. Some

5.

Nouns generally Some adjectives

6.

When

4.

require

an adjective

is

some

a,

de.

preceded by

before the following infinitive; quires

require either.

require the preposition de.

if

il est, it

preceded by

requires de c'est,

it

re-

a.

No general rule (except for 6) can be given. Practice only will accustom students to use the proper preposition. The

preposition to be used

is

after every verb in the special

found between parentheses and general vocabularies.

craindre (to' fear)

385. Infin. Pres. part.

craig^ant

Past part.

craint

Pres. ind.

nous craignons

je crains

vous craignez

tu crains il

or

elle

craint

Imperf. ind.

or elles craignent

je craignais je craignis

Preterit

Past indef

ils

j'ai

.

Future

craint

je craindrai

Condit.

je craindrais .)

Imperat!

crains, craignons, craignez

Pres. subj.:

que je craigne

Imperf. subj.

que

je craignisse

386. Vocabulary le

parfum, the perfume.

le soleil.

the sun.

la

centre allee, the side path.

la plate

bande. the border.

branche. the branch.

le

parterre, the flower bed.

la

le

chemin,

marcher,

the^

road, way.

to n'alk.


BEGINNER

S

respirer, to breathe, inhale.

s'amuser (a),

to enjoy,

s'attarder (a), to stay late, tarry. se coucher, to go to bed, set.

FRENCH

191

prendre garde (de), to take care not (to). reprendre le chemin de, to go

se divertir (a), to enjoy.

back to. voluptueusement, with delight.

craindre (de), to fear.

trop, too, too

387. 1.

On

Text

many.

(Suie^ et Fin)

s'amuse ^ regarder les^enfants jouer sur

pelouses et dans les centre allees.

les

2. On prend garde de marcher sur les plates bandes des parterres. 3. On respire voluptueusement le parfum des

fleurs. 4.

On

se divertit ^ ecouter les^oiseaux chanter

sur les branches des^arbres. 5.

Mais

le

soleil

se couche:

il

est sept^heures

cinq. 6.

On

reprend

se hate, car

le

on craint de 388.

1.

2. 3.

chemin de s etre

la

maison

et

Ton

trop^attarde.

Transposition

Conjugate every sentence (except 5) in the present. Use the third person singular of the future. Use the first person plural of the imperfect whenever

possible. 4. 5.

Use Use

the second person singular of the conditional. the third person plural of the preterit

(use the

imperfect in the last clause of the fifth sentence). 6.

fect

Use

the first person plural (masculine) of the pluper-

(use the imperfect in the last clause of the fifth sen-

tence).


.

BEGINNER

192

Questions

389.

(Use 1.

(a)

les

promeneurs instead of on as subject.)

Qui s'amuse a regarder

(b) Oil ceux 2.

ci

jouent

les

(b)

Comment

(a)

Qui

le

enfants? (les)

ils?

Qui prend garde de marcher sur

parterres? (y) 3. (a) Qui respire

4.

FRENCH

S

parfum des

les plates

bandes des

fleurs? (le)

respirent ils?

le

est ce qui se divertit a ecouter les

oiseaux?

(les)

(b) 5.

Ou

ceux

chantent ils?

ci

(a) Qu'est ce qui se couche?

(b) Quelle heure est 6.

(c)

7.

8.

9.

Que

la

A

11.

(a)

maison?

(le)

craignent ils?

Que s'amuse-t-on a regarder? A.: Que prend on garde de faire? Que respire-t-on voluptueusement ?

10.

M., on s'amuse.

.

quoi se divertit on?

Qu'est ce que

(b) Est 12.

il?

Qui reprend le chemin de (b) Qui est ce qui se hate? (a)

il

le soleil fait?

sept heures cinq?

(o) Quel chemin reprend

on?

(b) Est ce que Ton se hate? (c)

Pourquoi?

Grammar

390. 1.

We

fear,

Drill

they did not fear,* had he feared?

fear, fear nothing, I shall fear,

we

should

was she fearing? you have

feared, he feared.* 2.

I

take care not to 1

fall

;

Use the

one would take care not to preterit


BEGINNERS FRENCH

I93

look at; have they taken care not to do that? he took^ care

not to walk

;

shall

care not to talk

we

take care not to cross

take care not to

;

?

you were taking

fall.

Translation

391.

I Where would your friends go if the weather was fine ? They would direct their steps towards the park. 3. They would not tarry to admire its entrance. 4. It is not worth looking at. 5. Would you go with them if the weather was .

2.

ideal?

6.

I

do not say no.

cross the streets.

your time?

We

11.

12.

We

13.

Would your

sure of

18.

should take care not to

10.

fear?

How

We

9.

should go and come in the side paths.

it.

15.

We

17.

friends enjoy looking at

When my would

should

sit

them?

14.

friends were^ tired, they

down.^

16.

What would you

listen to the birds

I

am

would listen

singing in the trees.

fear nothing, they fear nobody. 19. My friends would* also breathe with delight the sweet perfumes

They I

of the flowers of the borders.

should take

20. Children

care not to pick any nor to walk in the flower beds. is

should

would you spend

should look at the children playing on the lawns.

take chairs and

and

We

7.

What would you

meet an automobile.

fear to

to?^

8.

forbidden.

22.

When

once to our homes,

rhey would not

tarry.

the sun set,^

23.

we

2

Preterit. *

Supply we,

That

Would your friends hasten? 24. Would they fear being punished ?

25.

26. I shall not tell you.^ 1

21.

should go back at

Conditional. 5

Say

Âť :

it

Omit.

to you.


: : :

:: : :

:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

194

,

FORTIETH LESSON Rules

Review note

En

392.

d,

bottom of

p. 138; §§ 296, 355, 356, 384. In {while, on, by) coming in.

entrant.

Apres avoir dine. After dining. French prepositions require the infinitive except en which always requires the present participle as in English and apres which always requires the past infinitive. ponvoir (can,

baire

393. Infin. : tenir^ ,

(to hold)

(to drink)

may,

be able)

to

tenant

bnvant

pouvant

Past part.

tenu

bn

pu

Pies. ind.

je tiens

je bois

je

Pres. part.

peux or je puis

tu tiens

tu bois

elle

elle

' )

tu

Ibcnt

nous buvons vous buvez

ils

)

ils

)

\ )

} )

elles

.

tiennent

•L

)

nous tenons vous tenez

elles

,

.

peux

i-'

nous pouvons vous pouvez ^ ils

boivent

}

}

,,

elles )

peuvent ^

je tenais

je buvais

je

pouvais

Preterit

je tins

je bns

je

pus

Past indef

j'ai

Tmperf

ind.

.

.

Future Condit.

:

Imperat.

tenu

bu

j'ai

je boirai

je pourrai

je tiendrais

je boirais

je pourrais

tiens

bois

tenons

buvons buvez que je boive^

que

je tienne^

Imperf. subj.: que je tinsse ;

que

je

busse

que je puisse^ que je pusse

1 Tgm'r is throughout conjugated like ventr, which see (366) and other compounds of tenir are conjugated like tenir. 2 The I St and 2d persons plural are formed regularly.

'

It is irregular

pu

je tiendrai

tenez Pres. subj.

j'ai

throughout.

;

s'entretettii


;

;

BEGINNERS FRENCH

.

I95

394. Vocabulary

Tevenement (m.), the event. le membre, the member. le

diner, to dine. se regaler de, to regale one's self

with, to have a feast of.

diner, the dinner.

s'entretenir de, to converse about.

la bibliotheque, the library.

hunger.

la faim, the

boire, to drink.

pouvoir, can, may, be able.

la soif, the thirst.

accoutume,

-e,

avoir faim, to be hungry.

usual.

avoir

soif, to

395. 1.

A

I'heure

du

be thirsty.

Text

diner, rendez-vous a la salle a

manger. 2. Asseyez-vous a votre place accoutumee. buvez, vous^avez faim, mangez Si 3. ;

vous^avez

si

soif.

En

mangeant, entretenez-vous des^evene4. ments du jour avec les membres de votre famille. 5. Au dessert, regalez-vous de gateaux et de fruits. 6.

Apres^avoir

dine,

levez-vous

de

table

et

dirigez-vous vers la bibliotheque. 396. 1.

2.

Use Use

Transposition

the negative form of the imperative. the second person singular of the imperative (af-

firmative).

the first person plural of the imperative (negative)

3.

Use

4.

Replace the imperative (a) by the imperfect in the second person plural;

(b) by the preterit in the first person plural (c) by the past indefinite in the third person singular

feminine


;

.

beginner's FRENCH

196

(d) by the pluperfect in the culine)

first

person plural (mas-

.

397.

Questions

A I'heure du diner, ou Rendez-vous A.: a la. 1.

est ce

que

me

je dois

rendre?

.

Ou

2.

3.

4.

m'assierai je? faim, que dois je faire?

(a)

Si

(b)

Si j'ai soif, qu'est ce que je dois faire?

(a)

En

j'ai

mangeant, avec qui

est ce

que

je

-

peux

ra'en-

tretenir ?

(b)

De

5.

Au

dessert,

6.

(a) Apres avoir dine, qu'est ce que je ferai? '

(b)

quoi puis je m'entretenir avec eux?

Ou

de quoi

me

regalerai je?

pourrai je aller?

(In the answers to the follov^ing questions, use the

first

jv.rson plural of the present indicative.) 7.

A I'heure du diner, qui se rend a la salle a manger? (y)

8.

Qui

s'assied a sa place

(a)

En

9*

10.

accoutumee? (y) faim? Qui mange s'il a (^) (&) Qui est ce qui boit s'il a soif? mangeant, qui s'entretient avec

les

membres

de sa famille? (b) Qui est ce qui s'entretient des evenements du

jour avec eux? (en) 11.

Au

gateaux

dessert, qui se regale de

de fruits? (en)

et

12. (a) Apres avoir dine, qui est ce qui se leve?

(b) Qui se dirige vers

bibhotheque?

la

ÂŤ

Grammar

398. I.

friend

I

converse with

?

you

will

my

friends

;

Drill

did she converse^ with her

converse with his friends

versed with your friends 1

;

let

;

we have

con-

us converse with our friends

Use the

preterit.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

I97

would they converse with their friends? we conversed^ with them; you were conversing with your friend.

You* drink milk; he

2.

not drink tea; were

will

we drank^

drinking wine? he has drunk good wine;

water; they are drinking water, should let

when we

us drink

we

we

fresh

drink chocolate?

are thirsty, are you drinking beer?

they drank^ no coffee.

We

may, he could,^ will she be able? you have been you be able? she was^ able, can they? you would be able, we were^ able, you were^ not able. 3.

able, I cannot, will

399.

Translation

After taking a long walk

I.

to your house.

2.

Your

in the park,

of the stores, but you said^ to them

not tarry,

us hasten,

let

we

table of the

:

"

We cannot

are already late."

ing the house, you said^ to them

on the

you returned^

friends wished^ to^ stop in front

:

" Let us lay

anteroom and

let

3.

stop, let us

After enter-

down our

hats

us rest in the parlor

4. Your sister came^ and Did you not hear* the bell ringing ? It is half past six, it is dinner time, come to- the dining room." 5. Your friends went^ there with you and the other members

while waiting for dinner time." said^ to

you

:

of the family,

"

who

were^ already seated in their usual seats,

up and greeted^ them. 6. Your father said^ to everybody " Ladies and gentlemen, here are chairs, here are your seats, let us sit down." 7. Everybody seemed^ to^ be hungry and thirsty. 8. You heard^ your little brother saying to his neighbor " Are you not hungry ? Are you not thirsty ? You do not eat, you do not drink; you can have a feast; do not tell anybody,^ but the maid has prepared a delicious got^

:

:

1

*

Use the preterit. Use the past indefinite.

^

Use the

^

See note

*

Say

:

it

imperfect.

^

Omit.

and say betook themselves. to anybody. i

:


:

:

: :

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BEGINNER

198

S

FRENCH

worth the while." 9. You and you conversed^ about what you had done and seen during your walk. 10. That is a more interesting subject than the events of dessert; I have seen

it;

that

is

talked^ with your guests while eating

the day.

11.

After the dessert, everybody will get up and

towards the library. 12. You will say to your friends *' Choose the most comfortable armchairs, sit down and rest yourselves. I am sure that you feel tired." 13. They will answer you " We can stay only half an hour, direct his steps :

:

we must

return home.'*

FORTY-FIRST LESSON Rules

Review §§ 286, 307, 393. 400. Infin.

ouvrir (to open)

lire (to

Pres. part.

ouvrant

lisant

Past part.

ouvert

Pres. ind.

In

ouvre

j

je

tu ouvres il

or

elle

ouvre

Imperf

.

ind.

Preterit

Past indef

ouvrent

ils

lit

lisons lisez

or

elles lisent

je lus

'ouvris

j'ai

or elle

je lisais

j'ouvrais j

.

or

il

nous vous

vous ouvrez elles

lis

tulis

nous ouvrons

ils

read)

ouvert

j'ai lu

Future

j

'ouvrirai

je lirai

Conditional

j

'ouvrirais

je lirais

Imperat.

ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez

lis,

Pres. subj.:

que j 'ouvre que j'ouvrisse

que je lise que je lusse

Imperf. subj.:

^

Use the

preterit.

lisons, lisez


.

BEGINNERS FRENCH

I99

401. Vocabulary un.. .quelconque,

le

journal, the newspaper.

le le

roman, the novel. morceau, the piece.

executer, to play.

le

piano, the piano.

se mettre a

la soiree,

the evening reception.

(noun),

to sit

down

at.

parfois, sometimes.

favori, -te, favorite.

Text

402. 1.

any; some...

or other.

Asseyez-vous dans^un bon fauteuil et repo

sez-vousc.y. 2.

Lisez

3.

Cela

4.

journal

le

du

soir.

ouvrez un roman quelconque. Mettez-vous parfois au piano et executez fait,

quelques^uns de vos morceaux favoris. 5. Tantot allez au theatre ou au bal.

Tantot rendez-vous a une soiree tissez-vouscy autant que vous pouvez. 6.

et

diver-

403. Transposition

2.

Use Use

3.

Replace the imperative

1.

the first person plural of the imperative. the second person singular of the imperative.

(a) by the conditional in the first person singular;

(b) by the preterit (c)

m

by the pluperfect (mascuHne)

the third person singular; in

the second person plural

404. Questions 1.

(a) Oti m'assierai je?

(b) 2.

M'y

reposerai je?

Qu'est ce que je

lirai?

A.: Asseyez-vous dans...


200

BEGINNER

3.

Cela

4.

(o)

S

FRENCH

qu'est ce que j'ouvrirai?

fait,

Ou me

mettrai je parfois?

(b) Quels morceaux est ce que 5.

6.

Ou

irai je le soir?

(a)

Est ce que je

me

j

'executerai

?

rendrai a une soiree? (y)

(b) Est ce que je m'y divertirai?

(In the answers to the following questions, use the third

person plural of the future.) 7.

(a)

Qui

s'assiera

dans un bon fauteuil? (y)

(b) Qui est ce qui s'y reposera? 8.

Qui

lira le

9.

Cela

fait,

journal du soir? (le)

qui est ce qui ouvrira un

roman quelcon-

que? (en) (b)

Qui se mettra parfois au piano? (y) Qui executera quelques uns de ses morceaux

11.

Qui

ira tantot

12.

Qui (b) Qui

10.

(a)

favoris? (en)

(a)

au theatre ou au bal? une soiree? (y) divertira autant qu'il pourra?

se rendra tantot a s'y

405. 1.

I

am

Grammar

was she reading? we you had not read, she read ? do not read, he will

reading, they have read,

should not read, do you read? let

Drill

us read, did he read ?^ will

we

read,^

have read. 2.

We

were opening, have they opened? you

will

not

have opened, they did not open,^ does he open? she had opened, I am opening, the door is open, they would open, let us not open, will she have opened? open, I would open,

I

have opened. 3.

I

could not,^ you may, shall

we

be able? they have

been able, he cannot, they had not been able, will she be able ? you were^ able, may we ? I should be able, we were^ not able. 1

yse the

preterit.

^

yse the

imperfect.


:

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

20I

406. Translation

After dining, my father got^ up and members of the family Let us go to The maid quickly opened^ the door. 3. We I.

''

other 2.

:

What

to

said^

the

the Hbrary." sat^

down

in

Every evening, my father opens the newspapers and reads them from beginning to end. 6. That is his dessert. 7. My sister will probably read a novel. 8. Sometimes she says to me: " Let us sit down at the piano, let us open it and (let us) play some piece or other." 9. If I do not feel too tired, I sit down at the piano with her and we play a few of them. 11. He 10. Can your father 2 read when you play the^ piano ? does not hear us. 12. That done, how do you spend your time? 13. After playing all our favorite pieces, we shall converse about the events of the day. 14. Do your brothers stay at home in* the evening? 15. No, they seldom stay there; they stay there when it rains. 16. Sometimes the elder says to the younger: "Let us go to the ball." 17. Sometimes the younger will say to the elder " Let us go^ to some theater or other." 18. Do you and your sister* go out much? 19. Sometimes we must go^ to an evening reception. 21. Some20. Sometimes we go to the theater.

comfortable armchairs.

4.

did you do?^

5.

:

my

we are present at a ball. 22. Then I say to " Let us enjoy ourselves as much as we can." 23.

times

sister

And we

dance from the beginning to the end. '

Reading Lesson

407.

LA PETITE HIRONDELLE C'etait sur la tourelle

Du La

vieux clocher bruni. petite hirondelle

fitait

au bord du

^

Use the past

5

Replace hy: betake ourselves.

indefinite.

2

ggg note, ^

nid.

p. 95.

Say: Your

^

* Omit. Supply of. and you (aiS- *)â&#x20AC;˘

sister


;

202

BEGINNERS FRENCH

« Courage, dit sa mere,

Ouvre

ton aile au vent,

Ouvre-la tout entiere

Et

elance en avant.))

t

Mais rhirondelle hesite Et dit « C'est bieii profond :

Mon

Sa mere ¥.

Quand

Du

trop

aile est

me

je

suis jetee

haut de notre

Le bon Dieu m'a Petite

petite.))

repond:

lui

comme

toit,

portee,

toi.))

L'hirondelle legere

Ouvre son

aile

au vent,

L'ouvre bien tout entiere,

Et

s'elance en avant.

Elle vole, 6 surprise! Elle ne craint plus rien;

Tout autour de

Comme

elle

vole bien!

Et sa mere avec

De

elle

tout son coeur chantait

Sa chanson

Au

I'eglise,

Dieu qui

d'hirondelle la portait.

Ra]


: :

:

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:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

203

FORTY-SECOND LESSON Rules

Review §§ 118, 201, 243, 261, 376, 392. 408. Infin.

atteindre (to attain) (Cf. craindre,

introduire (to intro-

3^50

duce, put)

Pres. part.

atteignant

Past part.:

atteint

introduit

Pres. ind.

j'atteins

j'introduis

tu atteins

tu introduis

il

or

Imperf

.

Preterit .

Future

il

or elle introduit

nous introduisons

vous atteignez

vous introduisez

or elles atteignent

atteignais

J

j

Past indef

elle atteint

nous atteignons

ils

ind.

introduisant

ils j

or elles introduisent

'introduisais

j'introduisis

'atteig^is

j'ai atteint

j'ai

introduit

j

'atteindrai

j'introduirai

Conditional

j

'atteindrais

j

Imperat.

atteins

introduis

atteignons

introduisons

Pres. subj.:

Imperf. subj.

atteignez

introduisez

que j'atteigne que j'atteignisse

que j'introduise que j'introduisisse

409. le

Vocabulary

matin, the morning.

introduire, to put.

I'exemple (m.), the example. le palier,

le la

'introduirais

the landing.

bouton, the button, the knob.

chambre a coucher, the bed-

la cle, the key.

[room.

s'avancer a tatons, to grope one's

way. doucement, gently, noiselessly. par exemple, for instance. a tatons, gropingly.

la serrure, the lock.

6 heures du soir, 6 o'clock P.M.

tourner, to turn.

2 heures du matin, 2 o'clock a.m.

tirer, to

take out.

atteindre. to reach.

de quelle maniere? in what man\nerf

vers, about, tozvards.


.

.

BEGINNERS FRENCH

204

410. Text 1. il

Si votre frere

allait

a un

monterait doucement

II

3.

Il^atteindrait

I'escalier.

palier

le

par exemple,

du matin.

rentrerait vers deux^heures 2.

bal,

s'avancerait

et

a

tatons vers la porte de sa chambre a coucher. 4.

dans 5.

la cle

II tirerait

de sa poche

et Tintroduirait

la serrure. II

tournerait la cle et le bouton et ouvrirait

la porte.

(a

suivr^.)

411. Transposition 1.

Conjugate every sentence

j'allais. 2.

.

.

,

je rentrerais.

(Keep

in the conditional.

the imperfect in the clause beginning with

si.)

Ex.:

i.

Si

.

Replace the conditional and the imperfect (a) by the present in the second person singular;

{h) by the future in the third person plural the present after si)

(use

;

(c) by the past indefinite in the first person plural

(masculine)

;

{d) by the imperative in the second person plural.

Ex. 3.

Use

:

I.

Si vous allez.

.,

.

rentrez vers.

.

the interrogative forms.

412. Questions 1.

Qui

a un bal?

rentrerait vers

A.:

Mon

deux heures du matin

frere rentrerait.

2.

Qui monterait doucement

3.

(a)

Qui

.

.

Tescalier? (le)

est ce qui atteindrait le palier? (le)

s'il

allait


BEGINNER (b)

4.

(a)

(b) 5.

(a)

(b)

S

FRENCH

205

Qui s'avancerait a tatons vers la porte de sa chambre a coucher? Qui est ce qui tirerait la cle de sa poche? (Ten) Qui I'introduirait dans la serrure? (y) Qui tournerait la cle et le bouton? (les) Qui est ce qui ouvrirait la porte? (la)

(In the answers to the following questions, use the

second person plural of the conditional.) 6.

Si nous allions a

un

bal,

par exemple, a quelle heure

rentrerions nous? 7.

(a) Apres etre rentres, qu'est ce que nous ferions?

(b)

Comment

8.

(a)

Qu'est ce que nous atteindrions

le

monterions nous? ?

(b) Vers guoi nous avancerions nous? (c) 9.

(a)

10.

(a)

De quelle maniere nous avancerions nous? Que tirerions nous de notre poche? (eii)

(b) Oil rintroduirions nous?

Que

tournerions nous?

(b) Qu'est ce que nous ouvririons?

413. 1.

let

Grammar

They attained/ you do not

us attain,

I

2.

have attained, you* used to

We

attain,

had he attained? ?^ I attain, was

should not attain, did he attain

she attaining? you will attain, shall

Drill

we have

not attained,

we

attain.

were introducing, have we introduced? they are

introducing, they had introduced, do not introduce, you did

not introduce,^ he introduces, will they introduce?

I

intro-

duced,^ she would have introduced, you used to introdiKe. 3. He opened,^ will you open? she has opened, had they opened? we were opening, he does not open, shall we have opened? you* would not have opened. 1

Use the

preterit.


BEGINNER^S FRENCH

2o6

414.

Translation

Do

your brothers go sometimes to a ball? 2. They there. 3. At what time- do they go out every 4. They generally go out at 8 o'clock. 5. At what time do they come home? 6. They come home about I.

seldom go evening?

half past one a. m.

7.

They open

hear them going up the 9. I

stairs.

the doors noiselessly, but

8.

Do

very seldom go out with them.

when they reach the door? when we reached^ the door,

11.

I

they take you along? 10.

What do

On^ Monday,

they do

for instance,

the elder took^ the key of the

house out of his pocket and gave^ it to the younger, saying^ to him: " Open the door." 12. The latter took^ it and put^ into the lock. 13. Then he turned^ the key and the knob and opened^ the door. 14. If I am with them, they do not go up the stairs noiselessly. 15. When we have reached the landing, we grope our way towards our bedrooms. 16. When I have found my door, I put the key into the lock. 17. Then I turn the key and the knob and I open my door. 18. I hear my brothers opening theirs when I am already in my it

room.

FORTY-THIRD LESSON Rules

Review §§ I37, 234, 3o8, 364, 365. The candle {having been) 415- La bougie allumee. lighted.

La

ville prise.

The town {having been)

taken.

Past participles conjugated without any auxiliary must

be treated as adjectives. 1

Omit.

2

Use the past

indefinite.

^

Supply whiU

(en).


:

:: :

:

:: :: :

BEGINNERS FRENCH

207

416.

dormir

Infin.

Iteindre {to

pourvoir^

extinguish)

{to sleep)

{to provide)

craindre 385 or atteindre 408.)

(Cf.

(Cf. sortir 357.)

Past part.

dormant dormi

eteint

pourvu

Pres. ind.

je dors

j'eteins

je pourvois

tu dors

tu eteins

tu pourvois

Pres. part.

\ \

..

V^^

i'ne

pourvoyant

eteignant

elle

etemt

jpou'-^oit

die

nous dormons nous eteignons nous pourvoyons vous pourvoyez vous dormez vous eteignez

Imperf. ind. Preterit

Past indef

.

:

ils

)

dor-

elles

\

ment

ils

)

elles \

elles

\

P^^^voient

^^^^^"^"^

je

dormais

j'eteignais

je pourvoyais

je

dormis

j'eteignis

je

j'ai eteint

j'ai

j'ai

dormi

pourvus pourvu

Future

je dormirai

j'eteindrai

je pourvoirai

Condit.

je dormirais

j'eteindrais

je pourvoirais

Imperat.

dors

eteins

pourvois

Pres. subj.

dormons eteignons dormez eteignez que je dorme que j'eteigne

Impf. subj.;

que je dor-

417.

que j'eteignisse quejepourvusse

Vocabulary

le

bee de gaz, the gas burner.

le

le

perfectionnement, the improvement.

rallumette

the bed.

mur, the wall. (f.), the

la

lampe, the lamp.

wax

match,

la

bougie, the

lavabo, the washstand.

la

lumiere, the light.

the carpet.

la

commode,

le lit, le

pourvoyons pourvoyez que je pourvoie

le tapis, 1

the bureau.

Is conjugated like voir (see 331), except in the

conditional.

candle.

preterit, future

and


208

BEGINNER

FRENCH

S

la sorte, the kind.

eclairer, to light up.

de lit, the bedside la mousseline, the muslin, [rug. moderne, modern.

orner de,

descente

la

adorn with.

to

tapisser de, to paper,

hang with.

dormir sur

oreilles,

eleetrique, electric.

deux

les

to

sleep soundly.

frotter, to rub, scratch, strike.

eteindre, to extinguish.

allumer, to light.

a petites fleurs, with small fig

presser, to press.

ures.

418.

Mes

1.

freres

Text

{Sutfe et Fin)

prendraient

une

allumette,

la

une lampe, une bougie ou un bee de gaz. 2. Si la maison etait pourvue des perfectionnements modernes, ils presseraient le bouton de la

frotteraient et allumeraient

lumiere eleetrique et eclaireraient Ils

3.

un

verraient le

fauteuil,

descente de

mousseline

lit,

le

des chaises, une lit,

les fenetres

ou de dentelle

la

chambre.

lavabo, la table,

commode,

le

tapis,

la

ornees de rideaux de et

les

murs

tapisses

d'un papier a petites fleurs. 4.

et

Ils^eteindraient

la

lumiere, se coucheraient

dormiraient sur les deux 419. 1.

first 2.

oreilles.

Transposition

Conjugate every sentence

in the conditional.

(The

clause of the second sentence should not be altered.)

Replace the conditional and the imperfect (a) by the present in the third person singular;

(&) by the imperfect in the second person plural; by the future in the first person plural;

(r)

(fl?)

by the imperative

in the first

person plural.


?

BEGINNER (In c and

with 3.

20g

use the present in the clause beginning

d,

Use

the interrogative forms.

(a)

Vos

ils

une allumette? (en)

la f rotteraient

une lampe? (en) pourvue des perfectionnements moderhes, presseraient ils le bouton de la lu-

(c) Allumeraient

(a)

Questions

freres prendraient

(b) Est ce qu'ils

2.

FRENCH

si.)

420. 1.

S

ils

Si la maison etait

miere electrique? (le) (b) Est ce qu'ils eclaireraient la chambre? (la) 3.

(a) Verraient

commode,

la

ils le lit,

les chaises, etc.?

(les)

(b)

De

quelle espece de rideaux les fenetres sont elles

ornees

4.

?

(c)

De quelle sorte de papier

(a)

Est ce

les

murs

sont

(b) iVpres Tavoir eteinte, se coucheraient (c)

ils

tapisses

?

qu'ils eteindraient la lumiere?" (la)

Comment

dormiraient

ils?

ils?

(In the answers to the following questions, use the

first

person singular of the conditional.) 5.

6.

(a) Qu'est ce que vous prendriez?

(b)

La

(c)

Qu'est ce que vous allumeriez?

(a)

Si la maison etait pourvue des perfectionnements

(b)

Qu'est ce que vous eclaireriez?

frotteriez

vous?

modernes, que presseriez vous?

7.

(a) Quels meubles verriez vous?

(b) Est ce que vous verriez aussi

de 8.

lit,

les

le tapis, la

descente

rideaux, etc.? (les)

(a) Qu'est ce que vous eteindriez?

(b) Apres avoir eteint (c)

Comment

la

lumiere, que feriez vous?

dormiriez vous?


BEGINNERS FRENCH

2IO

Grammar

421.

You were

1.

they have slept?

we had sleep 2. is

sleeping,

we

slept

?

do not sleep, will I do not sleep,

slept,

they sleep?

slept,^ will

have you*

slept,

have

I

Drill

I

was not

sleeping, does she

?

She

will

have extinguished,

not extinguishing,

we extinguish? he we extinguish, they

shall

extinguished,^

I

would not have extinguished, were they extinguishing? I should not extinguish, let us extinguish, you had not extinguished, have they extinguished? 3.

we

extinguished.^

We provided,^ you will not provide, provide,

provided ? you would have provided, he not use to provide,

I

is

have you*

providing, she did

have provided, are you providing?

will

he provide ? we used to provide, they provided.^ 422. Translation I.

Why

do you scratch a match? 3. I must light up the

a gas burner.

you not press the button of the is

6.

provided with

not yet

Do you

see the staircase

out that lamp.

We

at last

door of

9.

We

all

?

7.

am

going to light

staircase.

electric light?

4. 5.

Why

bedroom.

do

Our house

the modern improvements. Take another match. 8. Put

shall climb the stairs gropingly.

reach the landing.

my

I

2.

11.

Wait.

I

10.

cannot find the

While waiting, you hear your and the and lights strikes a match He 13.

12.

friend putting the key into the lock, turning the key

knob and opening a door.

wax candle. 15. You can see

a

14.

Enter;

we

shall

sleep

in

this

room.

have chosen the largest in the house.

that I

Muslin curtains adorn the two windows. 17. Mine are 18. A blue paper with small adorned with lace curtains. 16.

figures covers the four walls. 1

Use the

19.

Those of

preterit.

my bedroom


:

BEGINNERS FRENCH are

211

hung with a green paper with large figures. 20. Here two beds, the washstand and the bureau that my

are the

mother has given me. 21. This carpet and this bedside rug 22. There are two armI (have) received^ from my aunt. chairs and half a dozen chairs. 24. I feel 23. Sit down. very tired. 25. Let us go to bed. 26. In what bed shall I sleep ? 27. Take this one I shall take that one. 28. Let us ;

sleep.

29. Sleep soundly.

you have gone-

30.

I

shall put out the light

when

to bed.

423.

Reading Lesson

UNE SUPPRESSION SPIRITUELLE

En

1640, Louis treize assiegeait la ville d' Arras que les

Espagnols occupaient.

Ceux

ci .firent

graver sur une des

portes

Quand

((

les

Frangais prendront Arras,

Les souris mangeront

La

ville

prise,

quatrieme mot

et

les rats.))

un soldat frangais effaqa la lettre p du on laissa subsister I'inscription ainsi mo-

difiee.

REPARTIE ROYALE Lors de gouta

le

la visite

vin que

le

de Louis quatorze a Beaune, Sa Majeste

maire de

cette ville lui offrit et le

trouva

excellent.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Oh Sire, dit le maire, il n'est pas comparable a celui que nous avons dans nos caves. Et que vous gardez sans doute pour une meilleure !

occasion, lui repartit 1

le roi.

Supply them.

2

Use the past

future.


BEGINNER

212

S

FRENCH

FORTY-FOURTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ ii8, 243, 356, 364, 365, 377424.

regardent, or on se regarde.

lis se

They look lis se

at themselves, or they look at one another,

regardent

They look

Tun

regardent les nns les autres, or reciproquement.

lis se

They look

at

one another.

Beside reflexive verbs there are reciprocal verbs which

1.

are conjugated on the

The

2.

when on

the subject.

is

other, one another are then translated

by nous,

se.

4.

uns

same model.

reciprocal verbs are used only in the plural except

Each

3.

vous,

Tantre, or reciproquement.

at each other.

To

avoid a misunderstanding,

les autres

Pun Tautre (two),

les

(more than two) or reciproquement may be

added. 425. le tour, le

Vocabulary

the turn.

retour, the return.

I'oreiller

(m.). the pillow.

se deshabiller, to undress.

se parler. to speak to

one another.

s'enfermer a double tour, to shut one's self in by locking the door.

le

traversin, the bolster.

le

matelas, the mattress.

s'endormir, to fall asleep.

le

drap, the sheet.

se dire bonsoir,

le

couvre pieds, the counterpane.

le

bonsoir,

good evening, good

night. la

couverture. the blanket.

baisser, to pull

down.

bid one an-

promptement. quickly. immediatement. immediately.

comme, de

double, double.

to

other good night.

as.

retour

from.

de,

on coming back


; ;

beginner's FRENCH

2I3

Text

426.

1. De retour du bal, mes soeurs se sont^enfermees a double tour dans leur chambre.

2.

le

Apres^avoir baisse

elles^ont^ouvert

les stores,

lit.

3.

Alors elles^ont vu

les oreillers, le traversin,

matelas, les draps, la couverture et le couvre

le

pieds.

promptement

4.

Elles se sont

5.

Apres^avoir eteint

deshabillees.

la lumiere, elles

se sont

comme

de cou-

couchees. 6.

Elles ne se

sont pas parle

tume. 7.

Apres

bonsoir, elles se

s etre dit

sontjmme-

diatement endormies. Transposition

427.

,

I.

Replace the third person (a) by nous, (b) by vons.

2.

Replace the past indefinite (a) by the pluperfect in the first person plural (masculine)

;

(b) by the past future in the second person plural

(feminine)

;

(c) by the past conditional in the third person plural

(masculine)

(d) by the preterit

;

in the

second person plural

(e) by the future in the first person plural; (/)

by the imperfect

in the third

person plural;

(g) by the present in the second person plural (h) by the imperative in the first person plural.


.

beginner's FRENCH

214

428. â&#x20AC;˘

(a)

I.

De

retour du bal, qu'est ce que vos soeurs ont

A.: Elles se sont.

fait?

(b)

Questions

Comment

.

.

se sont elles enfermees?

(a) Qu'est ce qu'elles ont baisse?

2.

(b) Qu'ont elles ouvert? (a) Qu'est ce qu'elles ont vu?

3.

(b)

Ont

elles

vu

matelas

le

et le traversin?

(negative)

(les) 4.

Se sont

5.

(a) Est ce qu'elles ont eteint la lumiere? (la)

6.

Se sont

elles

lentement deshabillees ?

(b) Apres Tavoir eteinte, qu'ont

(b)

Quand

se sont elles

8.

De

fermes

.

mon

retour du bal, qui s'est enferme a double tour dans

A.:

Mon

frereet moi, nous nous

sommes

(a)

Qui a

baisse les stores? (les)

Qui a vu

lit?

(le)

les oreillers, les draps, la

couverture, etc.?

(les)

12.

en-

.

(b) Qui a ouvert le

11.

frere

nous as subjects.)

sa chambre?

10.

endormies?

In the answers to the following questions, use

et moi,

9.

elles fait?

comme de coutume?

(a) Est ce qu'elles se sont dit bonsoir?

7.

(

elles parle

Qui

s'est

(a)

Qui a

promptement deshabille? eteint la

lumiere? (la)

(b) Alors, qui s'est couche? 13.

A

14.

(a)

qui n'avez vous pas parle

A

comme

-de

qui avez vous dit bonsoir?

(&) Qui s'est immediatement endormi?

coutume?


BEGINNERS FRENCH

Grammar

429. r.

We

fell*

fall

Drill

have fallen asleep?

asleep, will they

am

I

you* were falling asleep, asleep, they would fall asleep, I had not fallen asleep, you fall asleep ? let us not fall asleep, he would not' have

falling asleep, has she fallen asleep

will

215

we used

fallen asleep,

We

?

to fall asleep.

one another good night, were you bidding one another good night? had they bidden one another 2.

shall bid

good night? you bid one another good night, they will not have bidden one another good night, we have bidden one another good night, they bade* one another good night, bid one another good night, we should bid one another good night, let us bid one another good night, vs^ould you not have bidden one another good night? 430. Translation 2. Yes, my brother and P I. Did^ you go^ to the ball? went there and we enjoyed ourselves very^ much.^ 3. At what time did you go home? 4. It was^ i o'clock a. m. when we arrived at our house? 5. Did you light a lamp or a gas burner ? 6. No, we groped our way towards the door of our bedroom. 7. Nobody heard us coming home. 8. Did you shut yourselves in by locking the door? 9. No, we did

not shut ourselves with^ ball,

our

who

in.

10.

door open.

We 12.

fear nothing.

On coming

lighted the candle?

13.

My

We

sleep

from

that

11.

back

brother lighted

it.

15. /* pulled them down. 14. Who pulled down the shades? 18. (It is opened He*' 16. Who opened the bed? 17. also) P (who) took the pillows and the counterpane and it.

1

Use the

2

Put every past tense

3

Replace by

*

Supply

preterit.

:

there.

in the past indefinite

betake yourselves. "^

*

throughout this exercise.

See 315.

Use the imperfect.

^

Omit.


;

beginner's FRENCH

2i6 threw them on a

on another

it

chair.

He^ took

19.

20. It

chair.

the blanket

was^ not cold.

and the mattress.

the bolster, the sheets

21.

and placed

We

kept only

While undress-

22.

we spoke to each other. 23. We conversed about what'^ we had done, said and heard at the ball. 24. Who ex-

ing,

P

tinguished the light?

25.

bed

going

26. After

first."*

each other.

2y.

We

extinguished

immediately

431.

it,

fell

went

for he^

we bade good

to bed,

to

night to

asleep.

Reading Lesson

ACROSTICHE

Pour comprendre

cet acrostiche, le lecteur doit se rap-

une piece d'or de 20 francs. Autrefois, il valait 24 livres. On I'appela louis parce que la fabrication en fut commencee sous le regne du roi Louis treize. On suppose que I'acrostiche suivant fut fait sur Louis quatorze, peler que

le

lonis est

par quelque solliciteur pauvre. Louis est un heros sans peur et sans reproche.

On

desire le voir.

Aussitot qu'on I'approche,

d'amour enflamme tous les coeurs II ne trouve chez nous que des adorateurs; Son image e§t partout, excepte dans ma poche. Tin sentiment

FORTY-FIFTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 118, 243, 277, 286, 375He washes II se lave les mains.

432. II

lui lave les mains.

He

washes

his

his (own) hands. (somebody else's)

hands. Elle 1

me

See 315.

lave les mains. 2

She washes

Use the imperfect.

«

my

See 252.

hands. i.

*

Supply

(At,


: : :

:: : : : :

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

217

Before nouns expressing parts of the body, the possessive is generally replaced in French by the definite and the possession expressed by a corresponding personal pronoun object.

adjective article

433ÂŤ J'ai bien dormi; je well; I got up rather

me

suis leve assez tard.

/ slept

late.

Adverbs are placed

after

the

auxiliary

in

compound

tenses.

Exception. Adverbs especially expressing time and and all adverbial phrases are placed after the past

place

participles in

434. Infin.

compound :

tenses.

servir {to serve)

vetir {to dress)

(Cf. sortir,357.)

Pres. part.

servant

vetant

Past part.

servi

vetu

Pres. ind.

je sers

je vets

tu sers

tu vets

il

or

il

or

elle

vet

nous servons

nous vetons

vous servez

vous vetez

ils

Imperf

elle sert

or elles servent

ils

or elles vetent

je servais

je vetais

je servis

je vetis

j'ai servi

j'ai

Future

je servirai

je vetirai

Conditional

je servirais

Imperat.

sers, servons,

Pres. subj.:

que que

.

ind.

Preterit

Past indef

.

Imperf. subj.

le

je vetirais

â&#x20AC;˘

servez

je servisse

Vocabulary

bonjour, good day, good morn-

I'essuie

champ, the

main

(m.),

the

towel

(especially for the hands),

ing. le

vets, vetons, vetez

que je vete que je vetisse

je serve

435.

vetu

field.

la

main, the hand.


beginner's FRENCH

2l8 la dent, the tooth. la serviette

de

s'aider

the haste.

la hate,

laver, to

(a), to help one another

toilette, the towel.

se servir, to

wash.

make

use.

se vetir, to dress (up).

brosser, to brush.

assez, rather, pretty.

souhaiter, to wish, bid.

profondement, soundly. sur le champ, at once. tout de suite,

s'evciller, to

awake.

se pcigner, to

comb

one's hair.

a

la hate, hastily.

436. 1.

Mes

lendemain 2.

soeurs

Text

ont profondement dormi et

le

elles se sont^eveillees assez tard.

Elles se sent souhaite le bonjour et elles se

sont levees sur le champ. 3.

Elles se sont lave les mains et le visage et

elles se sont brosse les dents. 4.

Elles

se

sont

servies

d'essuie

mains

et

de

serviettes de toilette. 5.

Elles

se

sont

peignees

et

se

sont^aidees

Tune Tautre. 6.

Enfin

elles se sont

7.

Elles

se

salle

sont

vetues a

la hate.

rendues tout de suite

a

la

a manger. Transposition

437. 1.

Replace the third person (a) by nous, (b) by vous.

2.

Replace the past indefinite (a) by the past conditional in the first person plural

(feminine)

:

(b) by the pluperfect

(masculine)

;

in

the second

person plural


?

beginner's FRENCH (c) by

the

2ig

future in the third

past

person plural

(masculine; more than two.

See 424. 4) (d) by the imperfect in the second person plural (masculine) (e)

;

by the present culine)

;

person plural (mas-

in the first

;

(/) by the future in the third person plural (masculine)

;

(g) by the preterit in the culine)

person plural (mas-

first

;

(h) by the imperative in the second person plural (masculine).

Questions

438. 1.

(a)

Comment

(b)

Le lendemain,

(a)

Que

vos soeurs ont

elles

dormi?

sont elles eveillees de bonne

se

heure ? 2.

se sont elles souhaite?

Se sont elles levees sur le champ? (a) Se sont elles lave les mains? (les) (6) Est ce qu'elles se sont lave le visage? (c) Se sont elles brosse les dents? (les) (b)

3.

4.

De

5.

(a)

quoi se sont

Se sont (b) Se sont

6.

Comment

7.

Ou

elles

(le)

elles servies?

peignees

elles aidees

?

reciproquement

se sont elles vetues?

se sont elles rendues tout de suite?

(In the answers to the following questions, use votre cousin et vous, vous as subjects.) 1.

(a) Qui a profondement dormi vous, vous

2.

(b)

Qui

(a)

A

.

.

^..\Votre frere

?

.

tard

le

lendemain?

qui avons nous souhaite

le

bonjour?

(b) Qui

s'est eveille assez

s'est leve

sur

le

champ?

(le)

et


BEGINNERS FRENCH

220 3.

(c)

Qui Qui Qui

Qui

s'est servi d'essuie

(a)

(b)

4.

lette? 5.

6.

7.

(les)

visage? (le)

est ce qui s'est brosse les dents? (les)

mains

de serviettes de

et

toi-

(en)

Qui Qui Qui

peigne?

s'est

hate?

s'est

vetu a

s'est

rendu tout de

la

suite a la salle a

Grammar

439. 1.

mains ?

s'est lave les

s'est lave le

manger? (y)

Drill

I dress myself, will they dress

themselves? she has

dressed herself, dress yourself, they would have dressed themselves, she

was dressing

we dress we should

yourselves, do yourselves,

you did not dress* ? have dressed not dress ourselves, had they not herself,

ourselves

you

will not

dressed themselves? 2.

I

make use

of pencils,

we used

to

they did not make* use of them, will he

make use

make use make use

of them,^

them?

of

make use of paper, I should. make use of it,^'let us not make use of it, you have not made use of it, had she made use of it ? we shall have made use of it, you* would have made use of it. of them; they

440.

When my

Translation

P

awoke* the next day, we each other good morning. 2. I asked him:*^ "Did you sleep well?" 3. He answered me that he had slept soundly. 4. I said to him " You may I.

brother and

spoke to each other and

we bade

:

still

remain

sleepy?

6.

in^

I

bed one or two hours.^

am

going to get up."

*

Use the preterit. Put every past tense

â&#x20AC;˘

Say: at the.

1

2

g^e 182.

in the past indefinite. '

5. 7.

Are you no longer I got up at once. '

See 315.

^

Supply

Say: one hour or two.

i.

to.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

My brother asked me

"

221

" 9. I answered had awakened later than usual. 11. My brother got up with me. 12. I had already washed my hands and he had already washed his

8.

him:^ "

face

of

It is

when

them

heard at

What

time

quarter past seven."

10.

:

I

the waiter brought us towels. once.

at

He had

14.

Go^ to the dining room." have not yet dressed. 18. I shall

dress quickly.

16.

Do

I shall

20.

13.

We

already dressed

last the bell for^ the breakfast.

"

19.

is it ?

15.

I

made use when we

said to

not wait for me.

much

hasten as

And

him: 17. I

as I can.*

he went^ at once to the

dining room.

441. Reading Lesson

LA TOM BE ET LA ROSE

La tombe ((

a

dit

la rose:

Des pleurs dont

I'aube t'arrose

Que f ais tu, f leur des amours ? La rose dit a la tombe: « Que fais tu de ce qui tombe

»

Dans ton gouffre ouvert toujours?)) La rose dit « Tombeau sombre, :

De

ces pleurs je fais dans I'ombre

Un

parfum d'ambre

et

de

miel.))

La tombe dit « Fleur plaintive, De chaque ame qui m'arrive :

Je fais un ange du

ciel.))

Victor Hugo. 1

Supply

to.

2

Say:

3

of. 6

Betake

Cf. note 3.

thyself.

*

Use the future.


:

BEGINNER

222

S

FRENCH

FORTY-SIXTH LESSON Rules

Review the formation of tenses (p. 137), the present and present subjunctives of the preceding irregu-

participles lar verbs.

442.

The

INFINITIVE

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

parler

parlant

punir

punissant

perdre

perdant

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

que je parle que je punisse que je perde

present subjunctive of any verb

present participle by replacing -ant by

is

- e,

formed from the -es, -e, -ions, -iez,

-ent.

443- Exceptions. Infin.

Pres. part.

:

Pres. subj.

:

^

avoir (to have)

etre (to be)

ayant

etant

que j'aie, that I may have que tu aies

que tu

qu'il ait

qu'il soit

qu'elle ait

qu'elle soit

que nous ayons que vous ayez

que nous soyons que vous soyez

qu'ils aient

qu'ils soient

qu'elles aient

qu'elles soient

make)

que

je sois

sois

pouvoir (to be able,

Infin.:

faire (to do, to

Pres. part.

faisant

pouvant

Pres. subj.

que je fasse que tu fasses

que je puisse que tu puisses

qu'il fasse

qu'il puisse

qu'elle fasse

qu'elle puisse

may, can)


BEGINNERS FRENCH

223

que nous fassions que vous fassiez

que nous puissions que vous puissiez

qu'ils fassent

qu'ils puissent

qu'elles fassent

qu'elles puissent

Faire, pouvoir

and etre are the only verbs the present is irregular throughout. The first and

subjunctive of which

second persons plural of the other irregular verbs are regular. 444.

II

I.

faut qu'il soit puni.

necessary that he

// is

should be punished.

do

que je fasse ce

se peut

II

Pensez vous

2.

travail.

It

may

be that I shall

work.

this

qu'il

Do you

vienne?

think that he

may

come? Je ne pense pas 3.

Je veux

qu'il vienne.

/ do not think he will come.

(je doute, je suis heureux, je regrette, je

crains, je suis triste, etc.) qu'ils reussissent.

I

am

happy, I regret, I fear, I

am

/ wish (I doubt,

sad, etc.) that they should

succeed. 4.

Vous

etes le seul (le meilleur)

ami que

j'aie.

You

are

the only (the best) friend I have.

to

5. Je veux vous parler avant que vous partiez. speak to you before you go away.

The replaces

The It is

subjunctive

mood

The

has no future tense.

/ zvish

present

it.

subjunctive

used

in

mood

is

not used in a principal clause.

secondary clauses

in the

following cases

:

SECONDARY CLAUSE

PRINCIPAL CLAUSE '

1.

Impersonal verbs implying necessity or

uncertainty. 2.

Negative or interrogative verbs.

3.

Verbs expressing

except hope. 4.

Superlatives.

will,

feeling,

emotion

m c n


:: :

:: ::

:

:

BEGINNER

224 5.

FRENCH

S

After one of the following conjunctions

â&#x201E;˘"^'

afin que, in order that.

pour que,.\ de peur que, de crainte que,

bien que,

\

although. **

in

c

J

avant que, before. lest.

a moins que, unless.

sans que, without.

jusqu'a ce que,

o

////.

que (used for any of the above conjunctions and for si), and a few others. 445. Infin.

:

vouloir {to will,

ecrire

wish, want)

{to write)

Pres. part.

ecrivant

voulant

Past part.

ecrit

voulu

Pres. ind.

j'ecris

je

tu ecris

tu veux

il

or

elle ecrit

il

veux or elle veut

nous ecrivons

nous voulons

vous ecrivez

vous voulez

ils

or elles ecrivent

ils

or elles veulent

Imperf. ind.

j 'ecrivais

je voulais

Preterit

j'ecrivis

je voulus

j'ai ecrit

j'ai

Past indef

Future

.

j

:

voulu

je voudrai

'ecrirai

Condit.

j'ecrirais

je voudrais

Imperat.

ecris, ecrivons, ecrivez

veuille, veuillez

Pres. subj.:

que que

j'ecrive

que

je veuille^

j'ecrivisse

que

je voulusse

Imperf. subj.:

Sonffrir {to suffer)

is

entirely conjugated

on the same*

model as ouvrir (which see 400). 446. Vocabulary le

medecin, the physician.

la langue, the tongue.

le

docteur, the doctor.

la

le

pharmacien, the druggist.

le

pouls, the pulse.

garde malade. the nurse. gauche, left.

1

The

1st

prescription, the prescription.

la

and 2d persons plural are regular.

See 443.


BEGINNER

S

possible, possible.

FRENCH faire

225

preparer,

to

have

{some-

thing) prepared.

penser, to think.

se porter (bien), to be {in

tater, to feel.

soigner, to attend, to take care of.

good

health).

guerir, to cure.

dangereusement, dangerously.

souffrir, to suffer.

tot,

ecrire, to write.

^^^" ^^^' pour que,

remettre, to hand, give. vouloir, to will, want, wish.

send

faire venir, to

for.

soon. j

in order that.

)

necessary.

il

faut,

il

vaut mieux,

it is

it is

better.

447. Text 1.

Quand vous ne vous

que vous gardiez

restiez

le

portez pas bien,

il

faut

dans votre chambre et que vous

lit.

mieux que vous fassiez venir un 2. II vaut medecin afin qu'il vous soigne. vient, vous lui dites: "Docteur, 3. Quand^il je souffre beaucoup; je veux que vous me guerissiez le plus tot possible." 4.

Vous

lui

tendez la main gauche pour qu'il pouls et vous lui montrez votre

vous tate le langue afin qu'il puisse I'examiner. 5. II ne pense pas que vous soyez dangereusement malade. 6. II ecrit une prescription et la remet a la garde malade pour qu'elle la fasse preparer chez le pharmacien.

448. I.

Transposition

Replace everywhere the second person by the

second and third persons singular. discourse.

Ex.:

i.

Quand

je

No

change

ne me...,

il

first,

in the direct

faut que je.

.

.


beginner's FRENCH

226

Replace the second person by the

2.

first

and third per-

sons plural, the third singular by the third plural and mededocteur and garde malade by medecins, doctenrs and

cin,

garde malades.

In the direct discourse, use the

first

person

plural.

No 3. Replace the present indicative by the future. change in the direct discourse and in the subordinate clauses except in the one beginning with quand. Questions

449. (a)

1.

Quand

je ne

me

porte pas bien, ou faut

A.: M., quand vous ne.

reste?

.

il

.,

il

que

je

faut que

vous ... (5) Que faut 2. (a) Qui vaut

que

il

je

garde?

mieux que je fasse venir? (b) Pourquoi vaut il mieux que j'en fasse venir un? (a)

3.

Quand

il

il

que faut

vient,

il

(b) Qu'est ce que je veux que

que je lui dise? medecin fasse?

le

4.

(a) Qu'est ce qu'il faut que je

5.

que je la lui tende? (c) Que demande-t-il que je lui montre? (d) Pourquoi demande-t-il que je la lui montre? Le medecin pense-t-il que je sois dangereusement (b) Pourquoi veut

lui

tende?

il

malade ? (a) Enfin, que faut

6.

A

il

que

le

docteur fasse?

mieux qu'il la remette? (c) Qu'est ce que je veux que la garde malade fasse? (b)

qui vaut

450. I.

we

il

Grammar

Drill

She has not wished, are you wishing? I was wishing, you had wished, we wished,^ would you

shall not wish,

wish

?

she will not have wished, he

wished,

I

am

is

wishing,

sorry that he wishes to^ depart. 1

Preterit

*

Omit.

I

should have


.

BEGINNER 2.

Were we

P'RENCH

S

22^]

writing? write, will he write? you wrote,^

we should write, I have not written, she is had written, we should have written, you*

they do not write, writing, you*

must^ write.

She has not suffered, shall we suffer? they did not am suffering, you would not have suffered, you* would suffer, we have suffered, let us not suffer, I had suffered, were you suffering? I do not wish you to^ suffer. 3.

suffer,^ I

451. Translation I.

My

remain

in

What

4.

deal.

father

6.

is

dangerously

room.

his

3.

He

We

2.

ill.

wish him

must^ keep his

(the)

to*

bed.

5. He suffers a great must® send for your physician as soon as pos-

the matter with him?^

is

You

you [should] also send for a nurse [may] take care of him. 8. When the physician comes,^ you will say to him " Doctor, we wish you to^ attend our father." 9. When he enters^ the^ bedroom, he will say " Good day, sir how are^ you ? What is the matter with you?^^ Where do you suffer? Hold out your left hand to me, in order that I [may] feel your pulse. 10. You must® also show me your tongue in order that I [may] examine it." 11. Afterwards, he will sit down at the desk.* 12. He must® write a long prescription. 13. After handing it to the nurse, he will get up and go out. 14. You must® wait for him in the anteroom. 15. You will ask him :" ''Can you cure him? what must® we do?" 16. He will answer you '' It^^ jg nothing he must® remain in^^ bed. It sible.

7.

It is better that

in order that she

:

:

;

:

is

;

possible that I

[may] cure him within a few days.

17.

You

must® have the prescription prepared as soon as possible." 18. You will send the nurse to your druggist. 1

Preterit.

* Cf. ^

W

2

Say

note 3 above. Use the future. Cf. note 6 above.

:

il faut ^ »

11

que

tii

.

.

.

cf „ote ^ above. Supply ////r;, Supply to. 1* Say at the. :

^

Say « ^ 12

that you should Say: what has he. Use: se porter. Replace by that. :

.

5*

.


::

:

:: : :

228

BEGINNERS FRENCH

FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 305, 444, 445-

Do yon

452. Craignez vous que je tombe?

fear I shall

fallf

Je crains que vous ne tombiez. / fear you will fait. Je ne crains pas que vous tombiez. / do not fear you will fall.

-

Formerly, after verbs meaning fear (craindre, avoir peur, take care (prendre garde) and prevent (em-

trembler),

pecher),

when used

affirmatively,

tions de penr que, de crainte que, a

and after the conjuncmoins que (see 444* 5)>

was required before the verb of the secondary According to the new decree,

the particle ne

clause, although affirmative.

ne^may be

out in this case.

left

453.

Infm.

mourir

mourant mort je meurs tu meurs

Pres. part.

Past part. Pres. ind.

vivre

rire

{to die)

{to laugh)

ri

vecu

je ris

je vis

tu ris

tu vis

il

ille

["•'^'^

.

Preterit

Past indef

.

.

nt

lis

riez )

.

"^"^

f"^^^^^^* mourais

je

mourus

je suis

vous

mort(e)

vit

\

lis

je

r

11

elle

)

nous rions

dies

Imperf

)

i

11

elle

nous mourons vous mourez )

{to live)

vivant

riant

nous vivons vous vivez ils

)

..

).

.

,

vivent

elles }

elles

je riais

je vivais

je ris

je

j'ai ri

j'ai

J

vecus

v^cu


::

:

.

BEGINNER mourrai

S

FRENCH

229

Future

je

Condit.

je mourrais

Imperat.

meurs ris mourons rions mourez riez que je menre^ que je rie queje mourusse que je nsse

Pres. subj.

Impf

.

subj

je rirai

je vivrai

je rirais

je vivrais

vis

vivons vivez

que je'vive

que

je vecusse

454. Vocabulary le

surlendemain, two days

later.

I'intervalle (m.), the interval. le

medicament, the medicine.

devenir, to become. revenir, to

la visite, the visit.

rire de, to

la crainte, the fear.

en vouloir

the

la pilule,

la cuilleree,

la

against,

pill.

the spoonful.

convalescence,

the

convales-

desagreable, disagreeable.

at.

to

a,

bear a grudge

very

be

much

dis-

to

be-

convalescent.

toutes les

deux heures, every two

hours.

to order, to prescribe.

remercier de, to thank for. s'en aller, to go away. parti r, to depart, to

laugh

entrer en convalescence,

come

avaler, to swallow, to take.

mourir,

back.

pleased with.

cence.

ordonner,

come

revivre, to revive.

avant que, before. a moins que, unless.

go away.

quoique,

although.

bien que,

de plus en plus, more and more.

to die.

455. Text 1.

faut 2.

Avant que que Je

le

docteur parte (s'en

remercie de sa

je le

lui dis qu'il faut qu'il

aille),

il

visite.

revienne

le surlen-

je ne meure dans Tintervalle. craintes et je lui e'n veux, mes de 3. quoique (bien que) ce soit le meilleur^ami que j'aie.

demain, a moins que rit

II

1

The

1st

and 2d persons plural are regular

(see 443).


)

BEGINNER

230

FRENCH'

S

Il^ordonne que j'avale une pilule toutes les deux^heures et que je boive une cuilleree d'un 4.

medicament desagreable avant chaque repas. 5. Ma famille craint que je ne devienne de plus en plus-dangereusement malade. 6. Mais, apres quelques jours,

-j

entre en con-

valescence, je revis, je suis gueri(e). Transposition

456. 1.

Replace everywhere the

first

person singular

(a) by the second and third persons singular;

(b) by the

first,

second and third persons pkiral and

docteur by docteurs. 2.

Replace the present indicative by the future.

3.

Use

the interrogative forms.

457. Questions 1.

le

Avant que

docteur s'en

le

aille,

de quoi faut

il

que vous

remerciiez? 2.

(a)

Que

(b)

Le medecin tervalle

3.

(a)

De

quoi

(b) Faut (c) 4.

5.

6.

vous

lui dites

il

?

craint (

qu'il faut qu'il fasse? il

que vous mouriez dans V'm-

Negative.

rit il?

que vous

N'est ce pas

le

lui

en vouliez?

(Negative.)

meilleur ami que vous ayez?

ordonne que vous avaliez? que vous en avaliez une? (c) Qu'ordonne-t-il que vous buviez? (a)

Qu'est ce

(b)

Quand

faut

(d)

Quand

faut

qu'il il

il

que vous en buviez une?

Qu'est ce que votre famille craint? (a) Apres quelques jours, que faites vous?

(b) Est ce que vous revivez? (c)

ÂŁtes vous gueri(e)

?


1

BEGINNERS FRENCH 458. 1.

We

Grammar

23

Drill

were starving;^ are you very thirsty?^ we are f they died ;* she will have starved ;^ let u§

tired to death

you* shall not die; is she starving?^ we should be very you would have been tired to death ;^ he wants us

die;

thirsty;^ die.

to**

2.

We

are not laughing, they have laughed, were you

had not laughed, will you laugh ? I am laughing, they laughed,* you* would have laughed, they would not

laughing ?

I

we must®

laugh, laugh, 3.

We

live,

we have

shall

have

ing? you lived,

not

we

not laugh.

he is living, were they livyou would not live, she had

lived,* will they live? lived,

lived, let

us

459. I

.

I

Translation

say to the physician

as possible.

2.

I

fear that

:

You must^ come back

my

father will die.

laugh at

my

you.

Before you depart, you must^

is

fear that they will

live, I

live.

4.

much

fears or I shall be very

dangerously

ill.

5.

You must

tell

3.

as soon

Do

not

displeased with

me

whether^ he

not® laugh at me.

6.

You

my father has. 7. I wish you to^^ cure him quickly. 8. When the nurse comes" back, your father must*^ take two pills every three hours. 9. When must 10. It is not disagreeable. 11. He he^^ take the medicine? are the best friend that

must*^ take

it

before his meals.

How many

12.

spoonfuls

You

?^*

must^ do you prescribe (for) him to^^ 13. send for me give him two spoonfuls.^* 14. You must not® (more and more unless in the interval he becomes worse drink

^

mourir de faim.

*

Preterit.

*

Say: Say: Say:

'

'

^

it

^1

Use

^8

Cf. note

.

.

5

above.

mourir de fatigue. .

.

.

.

.

the future.

^

soif.

Say: that we should

not necessary that we will be necessary that you is not necessary that you ...

it is

it

^ mourir de

.

.

^ "^^

*'^

^*

Say: if. Say: that you should Cf. note 7 above. Supply of it :

.

.

.


:

:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

2^2 sick).

The physician comes back two days

15.

you send for him.

You say to him: we have, we* shall

16.

the best friend that

my

pleased with you unless you cure

He

17. "

days."

will not die.

laugh at your fears.

will

20.

He

will

thank

21.

will revive.

me

my

for

19.

He

later before

" Although

be very

you are

much

dis-

father within a few

In five or six days you

18.

He

will

will

be cured.

become convalescent. 22. And you

visits."

460. Reading Lesson

UN

Un

COURTISAN PRIS AU PIECE

XIV

au marechal de Grammont: je vous prie, ce petit madrigal et voyez si vous en avez jamais vu un si imperParce qu'on sait que depuis peu j'aime les vers, tinent. «

matin, Lx)uis

Monsieur

le

on m'en apporte de toutes

Le marechal,

dit

marechal,

les

lisez,

fagons.w

lu, dit au roi: Votre Majeste juge divinement bien de toutes choses est vrai que voila le plus sot et le plus ridicule madrigal

apres I'avoir

«

il

que

j'aie

Le

jamais

roi se

« N'est

lu.))

mit a rire

et lui dit

pas vrai que celui qui

il

I'a fait est

bien fat?

— n*y a pas moyen de donner un autre nom. — Oh bien bonneque vous m'ayez moi qui ment; — Ah! trahison que Votre Majeste me rende! brusquement. — Non, monsieur marechal, premiers sentiments Sire,

lui

il

!

I'ai

sire,

je

I'ai

parle

je suis ravi

c'est

si

fait.

quelle-

le

!

lu

les

le

sont tou jours les plus naturels.))

Le

roi a fort

que voila

la

ri

de cette

folic et tout

le

monde pense

plus cruelle petite chose que Ton puisse faire

a un vieux courtisan.

Mme

de Sevigne.


:

:: : : :.:

BEGINNERS FRENCH

233

FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 443, 444, 452. 461. Infin.

paraitre

instruire (/o

Pres. part.

Past part.

:

Pres. ind.

:

instruisant

taire (not

(to appear)

instruct, teach)

to

say)

paraissant

taisant

paru

tu

instruit

instruis

je parais

je tais

tu instruis

tu parais

tu tais

1

il

il

instruit

>

\'

die

parait

Itait

elle

elle

nous instruisons nous paraissons nous taisons vous instruisez vous paraissez vous taisez ils

elles

Impf

)

.

.

V incfriiic/anf instruisent

ils

) \

elles

)

ils

.

paraissent

|tai taisent elles

)

j'instruisais

je paraissais

Preterit

j'instruisis

je

Past indef

j'ai instruit

j'ai

Future

j'instruirai

je paraitrai

je

Condit.

j'instruirais

je paraitrais

je

tais

.

ind.

Imperat.

Pres. subj.

Impf. subj.

je tus

paru

j'ai

tu

me me

tairai

tairais

instruis

parais

instruisons

paraissons

taisons

instruisez

paraissez

taisez

que j'instruise que je paraisse que j'instruisisseque je parusse

Decouvrir (to uncover) 307), and convenir (see 366),

je taisais

parus

(to

is

conjugated

agree,

to

que que

je taise je tusse

like couvrir

he proper)

like

(see

venir


.

beginner's FRENCH

234

462. le

parapluie, the umbrella.

le

samedi, Saturday.

Vocabulary convenir, to be proper. se laire, to be silent.

incertain, -e, threatening.

se decouvrir, to take off one's hat

or cap.

respecti-f, -ve, respective.

rare, rare.

excepte, except.

gronder, to scold.

de peur que, ^'''' de crainte que, . 1 en classe, to school.

instruire, to instruct, to teach.

paraitre, to appear, to seem.

463. 1.

Les parents veulent que leurs^enfants

en classe chaque

jour,

dimanche, afin que 2.

Text

Lo;-sque

mieux

qu'ils

le

les

excepte

le

aillent

samedi

et

le

maitres lesjnstruisent.

temps paralt

incertain,

il

prennent leurs parapluies de peur

vaut qu'il

ne pleuve. est tres rare qu'ils soient

en retard.

3.

II

4.

En^entrant dans leurs classes respectives,

il

convient qu'ils se decouvrent, qu'ils se taisent et qu'ils s'asseyent 5.

suite

II

a leurs places accoutumees.

faut qu'ils se mettent au travail tout de

de crainte que

le

maitre ne les gronde.

464. Transposition

Replace every third person plural representing enfants by the other persons singular and plural. Ex.: i. Mes 1.

parents veulent que

que tu 2.

.

j'aille

en classe.

.

Tes parents veulent

Replace everywhere the present of the indicative by

the future. 3.

.

.

Use

the interrogative forms.


.

BEGINNERS FRENCH Questions

465. 1.

(a)

Quels jours de

la

semaine nos parents veulent

que nous allions a Tecole? vous y (b) Faut il que nous y allions .

.

2^$

A.:

ils

veulent que

Ils

.

le

samedi

et

le

di-

manche ? (c)

Pourquoi nos parents veulent allions

2.

(a)

Lorsque

le

temps parait

incertain,

mieux que nous prenions? (b) Pourquoi vaut il mieux que nous 3.

4.

que nous y

ils

?

que vaut

les

il

prenions?

Sommes nous souvent en retard? (a) En entrant dans nos classes respectives, que

con-

que nous fassions? (b) Convient il aussi que nous nous taisions? (c) Oil convient il que nous nous asseyions? vient

5.

(a)

A

il

quoi faut

il

que nous nous mettions tout de

suite ?

(b) Pourquoi faut

il

que nous nous y mettions tout

de suite? 466.

Grammar

Drill

1 They taught^ their pupils had they taught you ? she was teaching her daughter teach us would she teach you ? we have taught them I teach the pupils will you teach me? ;

;

he wishes

me

;

;

;

to teach his sons.

"Will he appear? they

have appeared, she does not appear, you would not appear, appear, had you appeared? you appeared,^ I should not have appeared, we were ap2.

pearing, I fear that the weather will appear threatening. 3.

Let us be

silent,^ is

we should we have been

silent,

she silent?

1 Preterit.

not be

silent,

silent, will

they were

you be

silent?


beginner's FRENCH

2'}^(i

she had not been

been

silent, I

silent,

you were

wish you to be

467.

silent,

you would not have

silent.

Translation

I. On^ what days do you go to school? 2. We must go there every day except Saturday and Sunday. 3. Who wishes you to go there? 4. Our parents wish us to go there. 6. They 5. What do they wish the teachers to do? wish them to educate us. 7. Do you take your umbrellas

every day? it

8.

It is

rare that

we

be better for you to take them?

when

take them. 10.

We

9.

When

will

them Why do

shall take

the weather appears to be threatening.

11.

you hurry? 12. We are late and we hurry lest our parents and our teachers should scold us. 13. Do you fear that it will rain ? 14. Yes, the weather seemed to be threatening this morning. 16. What 15. I fear that you will be late. does the teacher want you to do when you enter your respective class rooms? 17. He wants us to take off our hats. 18. Is it proper that you should be silent on^ entering the school?

19.

Yes, but

it

is

rare that

When

we

are

silent.

you are seated at your usual places, what does the teacher say to you? 21. " Gentlemen, be silent, start to work at once lest I scold you or punish you." 22. And we are silent and start to work at once. 20.

1

Omit.

2 gn.


::

::

BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

237

FORTY-NINTH LESSON Rules

Review §§ 444, 452; note

e,

bottom of

468.

p. 138.

SECOND CONJUGATION

FIRST CONJUGATION

punir

Infin.

parler

Preterit

je parlai

je punis

tu parlas

tu punis

que je parlasse, that I might speak que tu parlasses

que

Impf. subj.

:

je punisse,

might punish que tu punisses that I

or

qu'il or elle parlat

qu'il

que nous parlassions que vous parlassiez

que nous punissions que vous punissiez

elle

punit

qu'ils or elles parlassent qu'ils or elles punisser ;

THIRD CONJUGATION Jnfin.

perdre

avoir

Preterit

je perdis

j'eus

tu perdis

tu eus

que

que

Impf. subj.

:

je perdisse,

might lose

j'eusse,

que tu perdisses

might que tu eusses

qu'il or elle perdit

qu'il or elle eut

que nous perdissions que vous perdissiez

que nous eussions que vous eussiez

that I

that I

hofue

qu'ils or elles perdissent qu'ils or elles eussent ;

Infin.

gtre

Preterit

je fus

tu fus

Impf. subj.

:

que

je fusse,

that I

que tu fusses qu'il

or

que nous fussions

might he elle fut

que vous fussiez qu'ils

or

elles

fussent


:: :

BEGINNERS FRENCH

238

The

first

person singular of the imperfect subjunctive

of any verb, regular or irregular,

formed by adding

is

-se

to the second person singular of the preterit.

469. Je suis content

)

Je serai content /

qu'il travaille.

C qu'il ait travaille.

am

glad

I shall he

glad

)

that he works.

\

that he has worked.

Je doutais je doutai j'ai

qu'il partit.

doute

qu'il fut parti.

je douterais

I used to doubt

I doubted

I

I have doubted

that he departed,

that he

had departed.

I should doubt

SEQUENCE OF TENSES PRINCIPAL CLAUSE

SECONDARY CLAUSE

Present.

Present subjunctive.

Future.

Past subjunctive.

Imperfect.

Imperfect subjunctive.

Preterit.

Compound

Pluperfect subjunctive.

tenses.

Conditional.

470. Infin.

:

acquerir (fa

croire (to believe;

acquire)

see 263).

Pres. part.

acquerant

croyant

Past part.

acquis

cm

Pres. ind.

j'acquiers

je crois

tu acquiers

tu crois

il

or

elle

acquiert

il

or

elle croit

nous acquerons

nous croyons

vous acquerez

vous croyez

ils

or

elles

acquierent

\\s

or elles croient


:: : :: :: ::::::

:

BEGINNER Iniperf ind.

:

.

S

FRENCH

239 je croyais

j'acquerais

je crus

'acquis

Preterit:

j

Pastindef.

j'ai

Future:

j'acquerrai

je croirai

Condit.

j'acquerrais

je croirais

Imperat.

acquiers

crois

Pres. subj.

Impf. subj.

acquis

j'ai

cru

acquerons

croyons

acquerez

croyez

que j'acquidre^ que j'acquisse

que que

Infin.

savoir (to

Pres. part.

sachant

Past part.

su

Pres. ind.

je croie je crusse

know thoroughly)

je sais

tu sais

,

or elle sait

il

nous savons vous savez ils

Imperf. ind.

or elles savent

jc savais

:

Preterit

je sus

Pastindef.

j'ai

Future:

je saurai

Condit.

je saurais

su

Imperat.

sache, sachons, sachez

Pres. subj.

que que

Impf. subj.: Connaitre

(to

je sache je susse

know,

to

be acquainted with)

is

con-

jugated like paraitre (see 461). Connaitre is never used before a clause, and savoir never used before a name of a person. 1

The

first

and second persons plural are regular.

is


.

BEGINNER

240

FRENCH

S

471. Vocabulary progres, the progress.

le

essentiel, -le, essential.

-

the seal.

le zele,

satisfait (-e)

the heart.

le coeur,

I'effort (m.), the effort.

jeunes gens (m.

work.

acquerir, to acquire.

the care.

le soin,

les

la

travailler, to

devoir, the written exercise.

le

de, pleased with.

exiger, to require.

croire, to believe. pi.), the

young

connaitre, to be acquainted with.

people.

savoir, to knozv.

connaissance. the knowledge.

jamais, ever.

la legon,

par coeur, by heart. de leur mieux, the best they can or could.

the lesson.

studieu-x,

-se,

studious.

rapide, rapid, quick.

472. Text 1.

Le

maitre voulait que ses^eleves acquissent

beaucoup de connaissances

et fissent

des progres

rapides. 2.

ILexigeait

grand 3.

qu'ils

travaillassent avec le

plus

zele et qu'ils sussent leurs le9ons par coeur.

II

mieux a

de leur que leurs devoirs fussent

etait essentiel qu'ils repondissent

ses questions et

avec le plus grand soin. Cependant, les^eleves ne craignaient pas que leur maitre les punit. 5. Celui ci etait satisfait de leurs^efforts et il croyait que c'etaient les jeunes gens les plus stuecrits 4.

dieux

qu'il

eut jamais connus. 473. Transposition

I.

Replace every third person plural representing ยงUves i. Le maitre plural. Ex.

by the other persons singular and voulait que j 'acquisse .

.

:


.

..

.

BEGINNER 2.

FRENCH

S

24I

Replace the imperfect indicative (except c'etaient in 5) (o) by the preterit. Ex. i. Le maitre voulut que. :

(b) by

the

past

voulu que (c)

by the que.

3.

469).

.

Ex.:

indefinite. .

Le maitre a

i.

.

conditional.

Ex.

i.

:

Le maitre voudrait

.

Replace the imperfect indicative by the present (see

Ex.:

I.

Le maitre veut que

ses eleves acquierent.

4. Replace the imperfect indicative

every third person plural representing eleves by the

person plural.

Ex.:

i.

Le

.

by the future and â&#x20AC;˘

first

maitre voudra que nous acque-

rions ...

474. Questions 1.

(a)

Qu'est ce que A.:

siez?

.

.

(a)

(b)

Comment

(a)

(b) 3.

maitre voulait que vous acquis-

voulait que nous.

Que voulait il que vous fissiez? Comment exigeait il que vous travaillassiez ? Comment exigeait il que vous sussiez vos legons? De quelle maniere etait il essentiel que vous

(b) 2.

le

II

repondissiez a ses questions?

ecrits

etait

il

essentiel

que vos devoirs fussent

?

4.

Qu'est ce que vous ne craigniez pas que

5.

(a)

(&)

475. I.

le

maitre

fit ?

De quoi celui ci etait il satisfait? Que croyait il que vous fussiez?

Have

Grammar

they acquired?

we

Drill

v^ere not acquiring, he

is

acquiring, will you acquire? you* acquire, will she acquire? acquire, they will have acquired,

you acquired/ we had not

acquired. 1

Preterit.


BEGINNER

242

FRENCH

S

2. Would you believe? she had not believed, we believe, we used to believe, one would have believed, we believed,^ does she believe ? we shall believe, let us believe, they did not

believe.^ 3. They have known, did you know?^ we knew,^ you would know, know, you will not have known, do they know ? we shall not know, you* do not know, you must know. 4. They are acquainted with, she was acquainted with,^ you will not be acquainted with, were we acquainted with?^ they had been acquainted with, are you acquainted with?

we have

not been acquainted with.

476. Translation I.

What did your teachers wish^ you to* do? 2. They me to^ work the best I could. 3. They wished me

wished to**

be very industrious.

know your

lessons?

4.

How

did they require you to^

They required every pupil to*^ know was rare that we knew them by heart.

5.

them by heart, but it Had you to® write your exercises with much care? 7. Yes, each exercise had to^ be written with the greatest care. 8. What was it essential for the students to* do? 9. It was

6.

essential for us to® reply the best

of the teachers.

day?

II.

10.

What

we

could to the answers

did your teachers

Every teacher used

to scold us

12. "I should wish your progress wish you to^ work with more zeal.

to^ I

tell you every and to tell us:

be quick,

of you to^ acquire a great deal of knowledge.

parents wish us to° teach you, but pleased with your efforts. ^

Preterit

'

Put Say Say Say

* ^ *

14.

You 2

it

I

should

should wish each one

is

13.

rare that

are the

least^**

Your

we

are

studious

imperfect.

in the imperfect every past t«ise of the principal clauses. :

that you should ...

*

Cf. note 4 above.

:

was

'

Cf. note 6 above.

:

that the students should ...

^

Cf. note 8 above.

it

necessary that you ...

^^

mains.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

243

known." 15. Did you fear punish you? 16. No, we used to would that your teachers amiable men that we had most believe that they were the ever known.

young people

that I have ever

477. Reading Lesson

BONS MOTS DE DIOGENE I

Diogene, voyant un maladroit lancer des javelots, s'asseoir pres il

repondit

:

du but

et

comme on lui en demandait ne me frappe.))

le

alia

motif,

« Je crains qu'il

II

Un et

jour, le

meme

philosophe visitait

la ville

voyant qu'elle avait des portes tres grandes

fiques bien qu'elle

f ut petite,

il

s'ecria

:

«

de et

Myndus magni-

Habitants de

Myn-

dus, fermez vos portes de peur que votfe ville ne s'enfuie.))

l'animal le plus nuisible

On

demandait au philosophe Bias quel

plus nuisible. le

II

repondit

tyran est I'animal

le

:

<(

etait I'animal le

Si vous parlez des betes feroces,

plus nuisible que je connaisse;

vous parlez des animaux apprivoises,

c'est

le

si

flatteur.))

REPONSE DE SOCRATE

Dans

sa derniere entrevue avec son mari, I'epouse de

Socrate, Xantippe, connue pour son criait

en pleurant

:

«

Mourras

ment? Prefererais tu, condamne justement?))

lui

humeur acariatre, s'econdamne injuste-

tu done

repondit

il,

que je mourusse


;

POEMS FOR MEMORIZING

List of

poems

for

memorizing prescribed for elementary classes by

the Regents of the University of the State of

New

York.

prescribed poems have been given as reading lessons

Mendiante," on page 163, and

"La Tombe

et la

:

Two

of the

"

Petite

La

Rose," on page 221.

LE COLIMAgON Sans ami, comme sans

famille,

Ici

bas vivre en etranger;

Se

retirer

Au

signal

dans sa coquille

du moindre danger;

S'aimer d'une amitie sans bornes,

De En

soi seul

emplir sa maison

sortir suivant la saison,

Pour

faire a

son prochain

les

cornes;

Signaler ses pas destructeurs

Par les traces les plus impures; Outrager les plus belles fleurs Par ses baisers ou ses morsures; Enfin, chez soi comme en prison Vieillir,

de jour en jour plus

triste;

C'est I'histoire de I'egoiste,

Et

celle

du colimagon.

Arnault. 244


;

:

beginner's FRENCH

245

LA FEUILLE DESSECHEE De

ta tige detachee,

Pauvre

Ou

feuille dessechee,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Je n'en sais L'orage a brise le chene vas tu ?

Qui

De

seul etait

mon

rien,

soutien.

son inconstante haleine

Le zephir ou I'aquilon Depuis ce jour me promene

De De

a

la foret

montagne au

la

Je vais ou

Sans

la plaine,

me

le

vent

vallon.

me mene,

plaindre ou m'effrayer;

Je vais ou va toute chose, Ou va la feuille de rose

Et

la feuille

de laurier.

Arnault.

LE PETIT PIERRE Je suis

le petit Pierre,

Du

faubourg Saint Marceau, Messager ordinaire,

Facteur J'ai plus

Pour

et

porteur d'eau.

d'une ressource

faire

mon chemin

Je n'emplis pas

Mais

je

ma

gagne mon

bourse; pain.

Je n'ai nl bois, ni terre,

Ni chevaux,

ni laquais


;;

beginner's FRENCH

246

Petit proprietaire,

Mon

fonds est deux crochets.

comme

Je prends

arrive

il

bon grain Dieu veut que chacun vive, Et je gag^e mon pain. L'ivraie et le

Contre un bel edifice J'ai place

mon

comptoir

La, sans parler au Suisse,

On

peut tou jours

me

voir.

Pour n'oublier personne, Je

me

Et

la

leve matin

joumee

Quand

je

Comme Feu

On

bonne

est

gagne mon

le

Blaise,

pain.

disait Blaise,

mon

parrain.

est tou jours a I'aise

Lorsque Ton n'a pas faim.

Dans

les

jours de misere

Je m'adresse au voisin; II a pitie de Pierre,

Et

je trouve

mon

pain.

Boucher de Perthes.

BEAU SOIR Lorsqu'au soleil couchant les rivieres sont roses Et qu'un tiede frisson court sur les champs de ble, Un conseil d'etre heureux semble sortir des choses

Et monter vers

le

cceur trouble.


:

BEGINNER

Un

S

FRENCH

247

charme d'etre au monde Cependant qiron est jeune et que le soir est beau, Car nous nous en allons, comme s'en va cette onde nous au tombeau. EUe a la mer, conseil de gouter le

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Paul Bourget.

ETOILES FILANTES Dans

les nuits

d'automne, errant par

Je regarde au ciel avec mon desir, Car si, dans le temps qu'une etoile

On

forme un souhait,

il

file,

doit s'accomplir.

Enfant, mes souhaits sont toujours

Quand un

la ville,

les

memes:

astre tombe, alors, plein d'emoi,

Je fais de grands voeux afin que tu m'aimes Et qu'en ton exil tu penses a moi.

A

cette chimere, helas

!

N'ayant que cela pour

je

me

veux

croire,

consoler.

Mais voici Thiver, la nuit devient Et je ne vois plus d'etoiles filer.

noire,

FRANgOIS COPPEE.

CONSEILS A UN ENFANT Oh!

bien loin de

la

voie

Ou

marche le pecheur, Chemine ou Dieu t'envoie! Enfant! garde ta joie! Lis! garde ta blancheur!


!:

;

beginner's FRENCH

248

Sois humble! que t'importe

Le

riche et le puissant!

Un La

souffle les emporte.

force la plus forte,

un

C'est

coeur innocent!

Bien souvent Dieu repousse

Du

pied

les

Mais dans

Ou

hautes tours

le

nid de mousse,

chante une voix douce,

regarde toujours

II

Victor Hugo.

PARTANT POUR LA SYRIE Partant pour

Le jeune

la Syrie,

beau Dunois Venait prier Marie

De

benir ses exploits:

Faites,

((

Lui

dit

Que

ÂŤ

Et

et

il

Reine immortelle,)) en partant,

j'aime la plus belle

sois le plus vaillant.))

trace sur la pierre

II

Le serment de I'honneur Et va suivre a

la

Le comte, son

seigneur.

Au

noble voeu fidele,

II dit

ÂŤ

guerre

en combattant

Amour

a

la plus belle,

Honneur au

plus vaillant.))


; ;

;

BEGINNER^S FRENCH

On

lui doit la victoire:

((

Vraiment,)) dit

((

Puisque tu ferai ton

Je

249

De ma

fille

seigneur,

le

fais

ma

gloirti,

bonheur. Isabelle

Sois I'epoux a I'instant,

Car elle est la plus belle Et toi le plus vaillant.))

A

I'autel

de Marie

lis contractent

deux

tous

Cette union cherie

Qui seule rend heureux. Chacun dans la chapelle Disait en les voyant: ((

Amour

a la plus belle,

Honneur au

plus vaillant.))

La Reine Hortense.

TROIS FILS D'OR La

bas sur

la

mer comme

Je voudrais m'enfuir

Mais

j'ai

A

mon

lie

L'un

Le

est

et

I'hirondelle

plus loin encor

beau vouloir, puisque coeur avec trois

son regard

;

la cruelle

fils d'or.

I'autre son sourire

troisieme enfin est sa levre en

Mais

je I'aime trop, c^est

Avec

trois fils d'or elle a pris

un

f leur

vrai martyre:

mon

ccEur.


!

!

BEGINNERS FRENCH

250

si je pouvais denouer ma chaine Adieu! pleurs, tourments je prendrais I'essor. Mais non non Mieux vaut mourir a la peine Que de vous briser, 6 mes trois f ils d'or

Oh,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

!

!

Leconte de

Lisle.

CHANSON DE BARBERINE Beau

chevalier qui partez pour la guerre,

Qu'allez vous faire Si loin d'ici?

Voyez vous pas que

la nuit est

profonde,

Et que le monde N'est que souci ?

Vous

qui croyez qu'une

De

la

amour

delaissee

pensee

S'enfuit ainsi,

Helas! helas! chercheurs de renommee, Votre fumee S'envole aussi.

Beau

chevalier qui partez pour la guerre,

Qu'allez vous faire Si loin de nous?

J*en

vai's

pleurer,

moi qui

Que mon fitait si

me

laissais dire

sourire

doux.

Alfred de Musset.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

251

AUXILIARY VERBS I.

Avoir

PRESENT INFINITIVE avoir,

to

PAST INFINITIVE avoir eu, to have had.

have.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ayant, having.

eu, -e, had.

PRESENT INDICATIVE j

'ai,

/ have.

or

elle a.

il

nous avoiis. vous avez. {\s

/ have had, I had.

tu as^^^.

tu as. il

PAST INDEFINITE j'ai_£t4,

or

or elle a eu.

nous avons eu. vous avez eu. ils or elles ont eu,

elles ont.

IMPERFECT j'avais, / had, I

used

PLUPERFECT to have.

tu a-^ais. il

tu

or elle avait

il

.

nous avioflg. vous aviez. ils

or elles

j'avais eu, /

or

elle avait eu.

nous avions eu. vous aviez eu.

avaient.

ils

or elles avaient eu.

PAST ANTERIOR

PRETERIT j'eus,

/ had.

j'eus

tu eus. il

eUj,

il

or elle

or elles eurent.

ils

eu.

or elles eurent eu.

FUTURE or will have.

tu auras.

or elle aura.

nous aurons. vous aurez. ils

^t

nous eiimes eUj, vous eutes eu^

j'aurai, / shall

il

/ had had.

tu eus^fiu,

or elle eut.

nous pjjrrip^ vous eutes. ils

had had.

avals eu.

or elles auront.

PAST FUTURE j' aurai

eu, / shall

have had.

tu auras^ eu. il or elle aura eu. nous aurons_eu. vous a urez e u. ils or elles auront

eu.


beginner's FRENCH

252

PRESENT CONDITIONAL /

PAST CONDITIONAL

would or should have.

/

would or should have had.

'aurais_ey.

j'aurais.

j

tu aurais.

tu aura is eu^

or

il

elle aurait.

il

ils

or eile aurait _fiu,

nous auriong.fiii. vous auriez eu.

nous aurions. vous auriez. or elles auraient.

ils

or elles auraient eu.

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE that I

may

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

have, that I have.

that I

que j'aie. que tu aies, or qu'elle ait

qu'il

que nous ayons. que vous ayez. qli^ls or qu'elles

qu'il

ait

^u.

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE that I might have had. que j'eusse eu. que tu eusses eu.

que j^gusse. que tu Qijssfcs.

^.

qu'il

or qu'elle eut eu.

que nous eussions eu. que vous eussiez eu.

que nous eussionยง. que vous eussiei. qu'ils

or qu'elle

qu'ils or qu'elles aient eu.

aient.

IMPEgPECT SUBJUNCTIVE

or qu'elle

had.

que nous ayons eu. que vous ayez eu.

that I might have, that I had.

qu'il

may have

que j'aie eu. que tu aies eu.

qu'ils or qu'elles eussent eu.

or qu'elles eussent.

IMPERATIVE aie,

have.

ayons,

let

ayez, have.

us

liave,


BEGINNER

2.

FRENCH

S

Etre

PRESENT INFINITIVE

PAST

avoir ete, to have been.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

PAST PARTICIPLE

etant, being.

ete, been.

PRESENT INDICATIVE

am.

PAST INDEFINITE j'ai ete,

tu es.

/'

' ;

.'

or^We est

il

or elles sont

have been, I was.

/

tu as ete.

or

elle

a ete.

nous avons ete. vous avez ete.

nous sgrnmes. vous etfis. ils

ils

.

or elles ont ete.

IMPERFECT j'etais,

/ waSj I used to be.

tu etais. il

or elle

PLUPERFECT j

'avals ete, /

etait.

il

wCriJG^

or elles etaient.

or

elle avait ete.

nous avions ete. vous aviez ete. ils

or elles avaient ete.

PRETERIT

PAST ANTERIOR

je fus, / was.

j'eus ete, /

tu fus.

tu eus ete.

il

or ellefut.

il

nous fumes. vous futesT" ils

had been.

tu avals ete.

nous etions. vous etiez. ils

INFlit^ITIVE

etre, to be.

je suis, /

il

253

'^

"^

r-O^t

or elles furent.

or

had been.

elle eut ete.

nous eumes ete. vous eutes ete. ils

FUTURE

or

elles

eurent ete.

PAST FUTURE

je serai, / shall or will be.

j'aurai ete, / shall

tu seras.

tu auras ete.

il

or elle sera.

nous serons, vous serez. ils

or

elles seront.

have been.

il or elle aura ete. nous aurons ete. vous aurez ete.

ils

or elles auront ete.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

254

PRESENT CONDITIONAL je serais, /

should

PAST CONDITIONAL j'aurais ete, / should have been.

be.

tu aurais ete.

tu serais.

or

il

elle aurait ete.

nous aurions ete. vous auriez ete.

nous serions. vous seriez. ils

or

il

elle serait.

or elles seraient.

ils

or elles auraient ete.

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

que

je sois, that I

may

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

que

be, that

qu'il

ete,

that I

que tu aies

sois.

or qu'elle

ete.

or qu'elle

qu'il

soit.

ait ete.

que nous soyons. que vous soyez.

que nous ayons ete. que vous ayez ete.

qu'ils or qu'elles soient.

qu'ils

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

that I might have been. que j'eusse ete. que tu eusses ete.

que je fusse. que tu fusses, or qu'elle

fut.

que nous fussions. que vous fussiez.

or qu'elles aient ete.

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

that I might be.

qu'il

may have

been.

I be.

que tu

j'aie

qu'il

or qu'elle eut ete.

que nous eussions ete. que vous eussiez ete.

,

qu'ils or qu'elles fussent.

qu'ils

or qu'elles eussent

IMPERATIVE sois. be.

soyons,

let

soyez, be.

us be.

ete.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

257 .->

§22 si

I

Mm

IK

1

s/

p o

a t«

in

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§\

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CO

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S

ico

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^

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2

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3

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a "si

3

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BEGINNER

258

= cr

g E ^ S

^/^/S S|£'S

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5

cj c

5:

o

S

FRENCH

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BEGINNER ,

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FRENCH 1

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to

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ABBREVIATIONS

adj..

adjective.

m..

masculine-

art.y

article.

n..

noun.

cond.y

conditional.

part,.

participle.

conj.,

conjunction.

plur..

plural.

dent.,

possessive.

demonstrative.

poss..

/..

feminine.

pres..

present.

A/.,

future.

prep..

preposition.

imperfect.

pret.

preterit.

impers., impersonal.

pron..

pronoun.

imperf. indie.

indicative.

prop..

proper.

inUrj.,

interjection.

sing..

singular.

irr..

irregular.

sub;.,

subjunctive.


,

!

VOCABULARY FRENCH-ENGLISH

I.

ah! interj., oh ai, pres. indie,

of avoir.

a, pres. indie,

aider, to help.

a, prep., to,

aie, pres. subj. of avoir.

of avoir. at, in, on, for.

wing.

abricot, m., apricot.

aile,

abricotier, m., apricot tree.

aillent, pres. subj. of aller.

acariatre, pee/ish.

aimable, amiable, kind. aimer, to love, like, be fond of; fond of one's self. s* , to be aine, m., elder or eldest son or

accident, m., accident.

accompagner, to accompany. accomplir, to accomplish s' , to be accomplished. accord, m., agreement etre d' ;

;

brother.

ainsi,

-e, usual. s*

,

to

aise,

et

f.,

de suite,

ease,

a j outer, to add. Alfred; see Musset. alite, -e, bedridden.

acheter, to buy. acquerir, irr., to acquire, get. acquissent, imperf. subj. of ac-

allee,

f.,

lane;

contre

,

side

path.

querir.

allemand,

acrostiche, m., acrostic. acteur, m., actor. f.,

so;

forth.

air, m., air.

direct one's

steps.

actrice,

thus,

and so

to agree.

accoutume, acheminer:

f.,

German. go; s'en

,

to

go

away.

actress.

adieu, m., good-by, farewell. administrateur, m., administrator. admirer, to admire. adorateur, m., worshipper. adresse, f., address. adresser, to ask s' , to apply. affecter, to affect, pretend. afin que, in order that. agreable, agreeable, pleasant. ;

-e,

aller, irr., to

allumer, to light. allumette, /., match. alors, then.

ambassadeur, m., ambassador, ambassadrice, /., ambassadress. ambre, m., amber. ame, f., soul. amener, to bring.

ami, m., friend. 261


BEGINNERS FRENCH

262 amie,

friend.

/.,

assistants, w. pi, persons pres-

amiral, m., admiral. amitie, f., friendship, affection. amour, m. or f., love, affection. amuser, to amuse; s' , to enjoy one's self.

an, m., year.

ange, m., angel. anglais, -e, English. animal, m., animal. annee, f., year. anniversaire, m., anniversary; de naissance, birthday. annoncer, to announce.

antichambre,

f.,

at.

astre,

tn.,

heavenly body.

attarder, to delay; s* , to tarry. atteindre, irr., to reach.

attendre, to wait for. attention, /., attention. attrister, to sadden, afflict.

anteroom.

aiOVLt{pronounce ou), m., August. apercevoir, irr., to perceive, notice,

ent.

assister a, to attend, be present

see.

au {contraction of a

aube, f., dawn. aucun, -e, any, no, none. auditoire, m., congregation. aupres de, prep., near, aussi, also, as. [soon aussitot, at once que, autant, as much, as many. ;

appeler, to call. applaudir, to applaud. apporter, to bring.

automne (do not sound m.,

approcher de, to approach.

autre, other.

aux (contraction

to stop.

arroser, to water, bathe, wet.

or

in.

f.,

quels), to or at which. avaler, to swallow, avancer; s' a tatons, to grope

artist.

avant que, avec, with.

to seat

;

s*

,

to sit

down.

avant, prep., before; en ward,

aspect (pron. aspe), m., aspect, view. irr.,

of a les), to or

auzquels (contraction of a les-

as, pres. indie, of avoir.

asseoir,

avenue,

/,,

irr.,

to

have

;

— besoin de, — six

assieger, to besiege. assiette,

a,

assiettee,

/".,

plateful.

assis, -e, past part, of asseoir.

for-

avenue.

to be in need of. need ans, to be six years old

plate.

,

conj., before,

avis, m.. advice.

avoir,

assez, enough, rather.

f..

m),

at the.

one's way,

arriver, to arrive. artiste,

the

autrefois, formerly.

Arnault, prop, n., a French poet (1766-1834). Arras {pronounce the s), f., Arras, a city in northern France. ,

as

automobile, /., automobile. autour de, prep., around.

aquilon, m., north wind. arbre, m., tree.

as,

fall.

apres, prep., after. apres midi, ;;/. or f., afternoon.

s'

autel, m., altar.

apprivoise, -e, tame.

arreter:

le), to or at

the.

;

there

avril,

;«.,

is

;

il

y

or there are.

April.

ayez, ayons, pres.

siibj.

of avoir.


BEGINNER B

S

FRENCH

263

bissextil, -e, leap

(year).

Wane, blanche, white. blancheur, f., whiteness. ble, m., wheat.

baiser, m., kiss.

baisser, to pull

down.

bal, m., ball.

bleu, -e, blue.

broom.

balai, m.,

bande; plate

,

f.,

banc, m., bench. Barberine, prop,

n.,

blond, -e, blond, light, boire, irr., to drink.

border.

Barberine. Bastille, f.. Bastille, a famous prison, destroyed by the Parisian people on July 14, 1789. bas, -se, low see ici and la. bateau, m., boat.battre, irr., to beat; se , to ;

fight.

beau, bel, belle, beautiful; avoir

do something

{infin.), to

in

vain. deal.

Beaune, prop, n., small city in the department of Cote d'or, fa-

mous for its wine. bee de gaz, m., gas burner. bel, belle; see beau. benir, to bless.

besoin, m., need

be in need

;

avoir

de, to

of, need.

bete,

f., beast, animal. beurre, m., butter.

Bias {sound the s), prop, n., one of the seven wise men of Greece (b. c. 600?). bibliotheque, bicyclette,

bien, well

/.,

f.,

marche, good; cheap; mot, witticism. bonbon, m., candy. bonheur, m., happiness. [day. bonjour, m., good morning, good -ne,

bonnement, simply, frankly. bonsoir, m., good evening. bonte, f., kindness. bord, m., bordeir, edge. borne, f., limit sans

;

bound-

bosquet, m., grove, thicket. Boucher de Perthes, prop, n., a French poet (1788-1868). boue, f., mud. bougie, /., wax candle. boulevard, m., boulevard. Bourget (Paul), prop, n., a modern French novelist. bourse, f., purse. bouton, m., button, knob. branche, f., branch. brave, brave, good. briller,

to shine.

briser, to break. f.,

brush.

brusquement, abruptly, rudely.

beer.

{sound the

s,

brun, -e, brown. brunir, to turn brown.

very.

billet, m., ticket.

less.

brosser, to brush.

bijou, m., jewel.

bis

box.

f.,

bon,

brosse,

library.

bicycle.

bien que, conj., although. bienvenue, /., welcome. f.,

wood.

boite,

;

beaucoup, much, many; a great

biere,

bois, m.,

fair.

[encore. s), adv.,

bravo,

biscuit, m., biscuit, cracker.

bureau, m., desk. but, m., aim. buvez, pres. indie, of boire. buviez, pres. subj. of boire.


.

BEGINNER

264

S

FRENCH cet; see ce, adj.

cetera; et , and so forth. cette; see ce, adj.

C = ce. cacher, to hide. cadet, m., younger, youngest son

or brother. cafe,

;;/.,

ceux; see celui. chacun, -e, pron., each one, every one. chaine,

coffee.

chain, fetter.

f.,

cahier, m., note book.

chaise,

calembour, m., pun. calme, calm. campagne, f., country.

chambre, f., room; bed room.

capitale,

champ, m.,

f.,

map.

cause, f., cause. causer, to chat. cave,

f.,

adj., this, that .

ce,

.

.

.

f.,

ce

ces, pi. . . .

ces

.

.

.

. .

.

dem.

cet

ci,

la, cet

ci,

.

.

this,

la, cette

la, that, those.

. .

.

;

ci,

.

.

,

chapeau, m., hat.

ce, cet, m., cette,

;

le

chanter, to sing.

cellar.

ci, cette these ce ... la, ces

;

chanson, f., song. chansonnette, f., Jittle song, chant, m., singing, song,

car, conj., because, for.

carte,

field

— a coucher, sur — on the

spot, at once.

capital.

f.,

chair.

/.,

dem. pron.,

that, he,

she,

it,

chapelle,

chapel,

/.,

chaque, adj., each, every, charger, to intrust, ask.

charmant, -e, charming, pleasant, charme, m., charm, charme, -e, pleased, chateau, m., castle. chaussee, /., causeway, street, chef d'oBUvre, m., masterpiece. de f er, chemin, m., way, road

they. ceci, pron., this.

ceder, to yield. cela, pron., that.

;

railroad,

celebre, celebrated. celebrer, to celebrate.

cheminer, to walk, go, advance,

sec celui. celui, m., celle, /., ceiix, celles, pi dem. pron., this, that, these, those, the one, the ones.

chene, m., oak. cher, chere, dear, expensive,

celle;

celui

ci,

celles

ci, f., ceux ci, dem. pron., this,

m., celle ci,

pi.

this one, these, the latter.

celui la, m., celle la,

ceux

f.,

la,

celles la, pi. dem. pron., that, that one, those, the former.

cent, hundred.

centaine,

f.,

cependant, ceremonie,

to find.

chercheur, m., seeker. cheri, -e, beloved, dear, cherir, to be fond of, like. cheval, m., horse, chevalier, in., knight,

cheveu, m., hair. chez,

at,

about one hundred.

shop)

however;

home

que,

f.,

ceremony.

to,

of; ;

soi, at

while.

look for, seek, try

chercher, to

chimere,

the house (or moi, home, at nous, among us ; in

home. f.,

idle fancy.

certain, -e, certain.

chocolat, m., chocolate,

ces; see ce, adj.

choisir, to choose, select.


,

BEGINNER choix, m., choice. chose,

thing; quelque

/.,

w.,

something.

cle,

f.,

f.,

fifth.

class,

classroom

key.

;

en

[to school.,

consonant,

/.,

contre-allee,

f.,

convenir,

bell.

side path,

f.,

convalescence; become con-

to

,

cocher, m., coachman. coeur, m., heart.

coquille,

;

faire les

coin, m., corner.

couchant, setting.

colimagon, m., snail. combattre, irr., to fight. combien, how much, how many. comedie, /"., comedy. comique, comic. commander, to command, order.

coucher, to put to bed

comme, as, like, how. commencement, m., beginning.

cousine,

to lead, take, drive.

;

,

to

court, pres. indie, of courir.

comparable, comparable. composer, to compose. comprendre, irr. (like prendre), to understand. comptoir, m., counter, desk. comte, m., count. condamner, to condemn. behavior. confortable, comfortable. confusion, f., confusion. connaissance, f., knowledge ac[tre. quaintance, connaisse, pres. subj. of connaiconnaitre, irr., to be acquainted with, know.

color,

/.,

court, -e, short.

f.,

se

s a, to

coup, m., blow; time; rap. courage, m., courage. courir, irr., to run.

commencer, to begin. [drawers. comment, how. commode, f., bureau, chest of

irr.,

;

go to bed; set; chambre a bedroom. couleur,

to

be proper.

shell.

f.,

come, f., horn laugh at.

coiffer, to fix the hair of.

venir),

(like

irr.,

(impers.)

agree;

clocher, m., steeple.

conduite,

on.

valescent.

climat, m., climate.

conduire,

go

contractor, to contract, contre, against.

convalescence, entrer en

clerc, m., divinity student.

f.,

to advise.

content, -e, pleased. continuer, to continue,

clement, -e, clement, mild.

cloche,

past part, of connaitre.

-e,

conseil, m., advice,

consonne,

cinq, five. classe,

265

consoler, to console.

of del.

cinquieme,

FRENCH

conseiller,

see ce and celui. del, m., sky, heaven. pi.

S

connu, ,

ci;

cieux,

,

courtisan, m., courtier. cousin, m., cousin. cousin.

/.,

couteau, m., knife.

coutume,

/.,

custom; comme de

as usual. couverture, /., blanket. couvre pieds, m., counterpane, (like ouvrir), to couvrir, irr. ,

cover. craindre, crainte,

irr.,

f.,

to fear,

fear,

crayon, m., pencil, creme, f., cream, cri,

111.,

cry.

crier, to cry,

exclaim,

critiquer, to criticise.

crochet, m., rag-picker's hook.


,

;

BEGINNER

266

S

FRENCH

croire, irr., to believe,

descente {f.) de

cruel, -le, cruel,

deshabiller,

cueillir, irr., to gather, pick,

cuilleree,

/.,

to

desirer, to desire.

desobeir a, to disobey. desquels de lesquels. desseche, -e dried up.

=

d'

— de.

dessert,

f.,

de,

f.,

of,

date.

from,

+

dessert.

tn.,

dessiner, to draw.

lady.

danger, m.. danger. dangereusement, dangerously. dans, in, into, to. danser, to dance. date,

;

to undress one's self. desir, m., wish.

spoonful.

cure, m., curate, priest

dame,

lit, bedside rug. undress se

by,

with

;

than

any, some. debout, adv., standing, erect,

decembre, m., December. decor, m., scenery, decouvrir, irr. {like couvrir), to

uncover se , to take off one's hat or cap defendre, to forbid. deja, already. dejeuner, to breakfast. delaisser, to forsake. delicieu-x, -se, delicious, delightdemander, to ask, ask for. [ful. ;

demeurer, to live, reside, demi, -e, half,

destination,

destination. f., detacher, to detach. deux, two.

deuxieme, second. devant, before (place), [come. devenir, irr {like venir), to bedevenu, -e, past part, of devenir. deviens, prcs. indie, of devenir: deviner, to guess.

have

devoir, must, ought, to

to,

be obliged to owe. devoir, m., duty written exerdevorer, to devour. [cise. ;

;

dictionnaire, m., dictionary. diete,

/.,

Dieu,

;».,

diet.

God.

difference,

f.,

difference.

difficile, difficult.

diligent, -e, diligent, industrious.

dimanche, m., Sunday.

demoiselle, f., young lady, denouer, to untie.

diner, to dine; m., dinner. Diogene, prop, n., Greek Cynic philosopher (b. c. 4i9?-324?).

dent,

dire, irr., to

f.,

dentelle,

tooth, /".,

lace,

,

say, tell

deposer, to lay down,

directement, directly.

depouiller, to strip,

directeur,

depuis, since, from,

diriger, to direct

demi-er,

ere, last.

;;?.,

manager. ;

se

,

to direct

one's steps.

derober, to steal.

discours, m., speech.

derriere, behind.

dit, pres. indie,

des {contraction of de les), of or from the. desagreable, disagreeable, descendre, to come down, go

dit, -e,

down.

se laisser

;

to let one's self believe.

and

of dire.

pret.

past part, of dire.

divertir, to

amuse

;

se

,

to en-

joy one's self. divinement, divinely, admirably. division,

f.,

division.


;

!

BEGINNER

FRENCH elancer:

dix, ten.

s'

spring,

to

,

indie, of devoir.

dois, doit, pres.

done, therefore ; then see ecouter. donner, to give. dont, whose, of whom, of which. ;

to sleep.

elephant, m., elephant, eleve, m. or f., pupil, elle,

she,

it,

her.

elles, they,

them,

eloigner:

s*

go away,

to

,

embellir, to beautify,

doucement, gently, noiselessly. double, double; see enfermer.

eminent,

-e,

double.

emmener,

to take along,

doubler, to douleur,

empereur, m., emperor,

doute, m., doubt. dou-x, -ce, sweet, soft.

douzaine, f., dozen half a dozen. douze, twelve. dotizieme, twelfth. drap, m., sheet. drapeau, m., flag, drogue, /., drug.

demi

tine

;

,

emplir, to

fill

up.

employer, to employ, use. emporter, to carry away. en, prep., in, into

;

as

a.

en, pron., of him, of her, of

them

;

for

it,

about

it,

it,

from

of it

thence.

encor (poetical), encore,

droit, -e, right.

right side; de on , f., the right. du {contraction of de le), of or

droite,

from

eminent, great,

emoi, m., emotion, excitement.

grief.

/.,

iXy

electrique, electric,

docteur, m., doctor.

irr.,

2(i'J

away,

dixieme, tenth.

dormir,

S

encre,

f.,

yet.

still,

ink.

encrier, m., inkstand.

endormir,

s*

,

irr.

dormir)

(like

:

to fall asleep,

enfant, m. or f., child, enfermer, to shut; s' a double tour, to shut one's self in by locking the door.

the.

Dumoulin, proper name. Dunois, proper name.

enfin, at last.

£

enflammer, to inflame. enfuir,

eau,

water.

f.,

eclairer, to light up.

ecole,

f.,

ecouter,

school to

;

a

1'

listen

,

to ,school.

to;

ecoutez

done, do believe.

effacer, to erase, scratch out. effort, m., effort.

effrayer, to frighten; frightened.

s'

,

to be

church.

ah

s*

,

to

!

— bien!

enti-er, -ere, entire.

entonner, to strike up. entourer, to surround. entre, prep., between. entree, f., entrance. entrer, to enter; dans, to en-

egoiste, selfish. eh, interj.,

:

afterwards. entendre, to hear, enthousiasme, m., enthusiasm,

edifice, m., building.

/.,

(like fuir)

ensuite,

ecrire, irr., to write.

eglise,

irr.

run away. enigme, f., enigma, riddle, enlever, to take away, enorme, enormous, flee,

well

ter.


;

BEGINNER

;68 entretenir,

{like tenir), to irr. entertain s' , to converse. entrevue, f., meeting. envoler; s' , to take flight. envoyer, irr., to send. epouse, f., wife.

;

epoiiz,

in.,

equipage, errer, to

FRENCH examiner, to examine, excellent, -e, excellent excepte, except,

exclamation,

/.,

exclamation,

executer, to play; carry out execution, f., execution,

exemplaire, exemplary, exemple, m., example ; par

husband. equipage.

in.,

S

wander.

escalier, m., staircase.

exercice, m., exercise,

espace, m., space. Espagnol, m., Spaniard. espece, f., sort, kind.

exiger, to require,

exploit,

mind, wit

essentiel, -le, essential. essor, m., flight;

prendre

soar away. essuie main,

towel.

1*

,

to

fabrication,

and. etalage,

face,

et,

display,

show-win-

dow. ete,

rn.,

in. pi.,

United States.

summer.

etourdiment, heedlessly.

etc.,

to

have gone, come,

narrow.

fait, -e, past part, of faire.

famille,

eu, -e, past part, of avoir.

Eugenie, empress of the French, wife of Napoleon III. Europe, f., Europe. eut, imperf. suhj. of avoir. eux, they, them.

awaken; awake, wake up.

eveiller,

to

f.,

faites, prcs. indie, of faire. falloir, irr., to be necessary,

fameu-x,

etc.

etroit, -e,

n),

like

to be hungry.

fais, fait, pres. indie, of faire.

etranger, m., stranger, foreigner. alle(e), veetre, irr., to be;

nu(e),

m ,

star.

f.,

irr., to do, make, take venir, to (weather) to be; preparer, to have send for; (something) prepared.

etes, pres. ind. of etre. etoile,

porter, postman.

;«.,

faim {pronounce hunger avoir faire,

to extinguish.

irr.,

;

;

ete, past part, of etre.

eteindre,

making, casting.

f.,

de, opposite. face en fagon, /., fashion, kind. f.,

facteur,

£tats Unis,

f.,

;;/.,

est, prcs. indie, of etre.

m.,

for

experience, deed. expression, /., expression, exquis, -e, exquisite. experience,

essayer, to try.

in.,

,

exil, m., exile,

esperer, to hope. esprit, m.,

instance.

s*

,

to

-se, /.,

must

famous.

family.

fasse, pres. suhj. of faire. fat {sound the t), m., fop, cox-

comb. fatalite,

f.,

fatality.

fatigue, -e, tired. fatuite, f., foppishness, faubourg, m.. suburb.

conceit.

faut, pres. indie, of falloir.

armchair.

evenement, m., event.

fauteuil,

eviter, to avoid.

favori, -te, favorite.

>«..


,

BEGINNER femme,

f.,

by

wife.

rail,

faire.

frisson, m., shiver.

fromage, m., cheese.

ferocious.

f rotter, to rub, strike.

ferveur,

f.,

fete,

feast, festival.

f.,

frere, m., brother.

froid, m., cold.

fermer, to shut, feroce,

269

froid, -e, cold.

fut of

f erai,

FRENCH frapper, to strike, rap.

/'.,

m^

fer,

woman,

window. iron; en chemin de

fenetre,

S

fervor,

fruit, m., fruit.

fumee,

smoke.

f.,

feu, -e, late, deceased,

furieu-x, -se, furious.

feuillage, m., foliage,

fussent, fussiez, imperf. subj. of fut, pret. of etre. [etre. fut, imperf. subj. of etre.

feuille,

leaf,

f.,

fevrier, m., February, fidele, faithful. fidele, m.,

figue, fil,

faithful.

fig.

f.,

m., thread.

filant, -e, shooting.

(of stars) to shoot, daughter.

filer,

fille, f., girl,

fils

{pronounce the

fils, pi.

fin,

of

fil,

end;

f.,

s), m., son.

which

see.

stiite

et

,

con-

[eluded,

fin, -e, fine. fini, -e, over,

finir, to finish, end.

firent, pret. of faire. fissent, imperf. subj. of faire. flatteur, m., flatterer. fleur,

/._,

flower

;

en

,

bloom-

ing, rosy. f., folly; joke. fonds, m., capital, force, f., strength.

folie,

foret,

f.,

forest.

former, to form, make,

foumeau, w.,

very much,

stove.

frais, fraiche, fresh.

fraise,

f.,

strawberry.

franc, m., frank.

frangais, -e, French, t

Frangais, m., Frenchman. France, /,, France. franchir, to cross.

;

;

garder, to keep. gateau, m., cake. gauche, left. gauche, /., left side

de

;

,

on the

gaz, m., gas. [left. geler, to freeze. general, m., general. generalement, generally. gens, m. and f. pi., people; jeunes , m., young people. gloire, f., glory.

gouffre, m., abyss. -e, gluttonous, vora-

gourmand,

fort, -e, strong, fort, adv., very,

gagner, to gain, earn. gai, -e, cheerful, merry. gaiete, f., mirth. gargon, m., boy; waiter. garde, m. and f., guard malade, m. and f., nurse prendre de, to take care not to, be careful not to.

cious.

gout, m., taste. gouter, to taste. grain, m., grain.

Grammont, one of the

wittiest

courtiers in the court of Louis

XIV. (1621-1707). grand, tall.

-e,

grand,

great,

large,


,

BEGINNER

270

grandir, to grow, gratitude, f., gratitude,

S

FRENCH 'huitieme, eighth,

humble, humble. humblement, humbly, humeur, f., humor, disposition, temper.

graver, to engrave, carve, gris, -e, gray,

gronder, to scold, guerir, to cure,

guerre,

war.

f.,

guichet,

m.,

ticket-office.

ici,

here

— bas, here below,

;

ideal, -e, ideal.

know,

ignorer, to ignore, not to '

means h formerly

aspirate

;

see p. 16.

he,

il,

ils,

it.

they.

image,

habile, skilful. habiller, to dress;

s*

,

to dress,

dress up. habitant, m., inhabitant.

image, picture,

/.f

immediatement, immediately, immense, immense. immortel,

-le,

immortal.

habiter, to inhabit.

impatiemment, impatiently,

'hair, to hate.

[sical. imperatrice, f., empress, impertinert, -e, absurd, nonsenimporter, to be of importance, importuner, to annoy, impossible, impossible, impur, -e, unclean, incapable, unable,

haleine,

breath.

f.,

'harangue, f., harangue. 'hate, /,, haste a la , hastily. 'hater: se , to hasten.

;

'haut, -e, high,

tall.

*haut, m., top. helas,

{pronounce the s),

incertain, -e, uncertain, inconstant, -e, fickle,

alas.

'heros, m., hero.

hesiter, to hesitate.

hour; de bonne [early. heureu-x, -se, happy. heure,

f.,

hier, yesterday.

hirondelle, histoire,

f.,

swallow.

history, story.

f.,

hiver {sound the r), m., winter. homme, m., man. honneur, m., honor. Hortense, wife of Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland (1783hote, m., host. [1837). hotel, m., hotel.

hotesse,

Hugo est

huile,

/.,

hostess.

(Victor), one of the greatFrench poets (1802-1885). f.,

oil.

'huit, eight.

infliger, to inflict, give, f., misfortune, injustement, unjustly. innocent, -e, innocent, innocente, f., innocent little

infortune,

inscription,

instant,

f.,

m.,

girl.

inscription, [once,

instant;

a Y

,

at

instituteur, m., schoolmaster, institutrice,

instruire,

schoolmistress,

f.,

irr.,

to instruct, teach,

educate.

instrument, m.. instrument, intention,

f.,

intention,

interessant, -e, interesting, intervalle, m., interval,

introduire,

to introduce, put.

irr.,

inutile, useless.

invite, m., -e,

f.,

guest.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

271

inviter, to invite.

lancer, to throw, cast.

Isabelle, ^prop. n., Isabella, ivraie, /., tares.

langue, f., tongue. laquais, m., footman. laquelle; see lequel. large, wide, broad.

laurier, m., laurel.

lavabo, m., washstand.

jamais, ever; {with neg.) never. Janvier, m., January. jardin, m., garden. jaune, yellow. javelot, m., javelin. je,

I.

jeu, m., play;

game. jeudi, m., Thursday. jeune, young. f.,

joli,

-e, pretty.

joue,

lequel,

de, to play. jouir de, to enjoy. joujou, m., toy. ;

de — en —

day;

,

from

laquelle,

which one,

juillet, m., July.

les,

,

till,

that.

pron., them.

lettre,

letter.

f.,

adj., their.

to.

,

la

,

[theirs.

les

,

s,

to get up.

Her, to bind, tie.. lieutenant, m., lieutenant. f.,

lemonade,

lion, m., lion. lire, irr.,

justement, justly.

lever, to raise; se levre, /., lip.

limonade,

juin, m.j June.

les-

which,

les, art., the.

leur, pron., le

joyeu-x, -se, joyful, joyous. juger, to judge.

lesquels,

whom,

who,

leur, poss.

day to day. journal, m., newspaper. joumee, f., day.

jusqu'a, until,

Leconte de Lisle, prop. n.,a rnodern French poet.

quelles,

cheek. jouer, to play f.,

jour, m.,

art, the.

pron., him, it. legon, /., lesson.

legume, m., vegetable. lendemain, m., next day. lentement, slowly.

'

joy.

joie,

le, le,

lecteur, m., reader. leg-er, -ere, light.

throw, utter.

Jeter, to

laver, to wash.

lis

to read,

(sound the

s), m.,

lily.

m., bed. livre, m., book. lit,

r

= le

la,

livre,

or

la.

art, the.

long,

la, pron., her,

la,

there

and

;

it.

— bas,

yonder

celui.

lac, m., lake.

f.,

;

see ce

^

pound.

loin, far;

-ue,

de, far

from.

long,

lors, at the time of. lorsque, when.

louer, to rent. -

laisser, to leave, let.

Louis,

prop, n.; Louis XIII., king of France (1601-1643) Louis XIV., king of France ;

lait, m., milk.

lampe,

f.,

lamp.

(1638-1715^.


,

BEGINNER^S FRENCH

2^2 m.,

loiiis,

twenty-franc

louis,

gold piece,

lundi,

(the holy

[March

(pronounce the s), martyre, m., martyrdom.

Monday.

tn.,

Mary

mars

light.

/.,

n.,

marquis, m., marquis.

lire,

he, to him, to her.

lumiere,

Marie, prop, virgin).

past part, of

lu, -e, liii,

;

m.,

matelas, m., mattress. matin, m., morning; adv., early. mauvais, -e, bad. me, me. medecin, m., physician.

medicament, m., medicine.

M. =. Monsieur. m* me. ma, f. poss. adj., my.

meilleur, -e, better, best che, cheaper.

=

madame,

f.,

melodrame, m., melodrama. membre, m., member. meme, same self.

madam, Mrs.

mademoiselle, f., miss. madrigal, madrigal, m.,

;

love

ditty.

magasin, m., store. magnifique, magnificent. mai, w.. May. main, f., hand. maire, m., mayor, mais, but. maison, f., house,

mistress.

;

f.,

,

m. and

nurse.

maladroit, m., unskilful man. manant, tn., boor,

manger, to maniere,

f.

eat. ,

manner

;

par

de

plaisanterie, in a joking way.

manquer, manteau, marche, cheap ;

to fail

;

de, to lack,

m., cloak, bon m., market; meilleur , cheaper.

marcher, to walk, mardi, m., Tuesday, marechal, m., marshal shoer mari, tn., husband.

menagerie, f., menagerie. mendiante, f., beggar. mener, to lead, take. meprise, f., mistake, blunder. mer, f., sea. mercredi, m.,

maitre, m., master, teacher, maitresse, f., mistress, school

majeste, f., majesty. mal, adv., badly. malade, ill. sick garde

— —

;

— — vaut,

it

is better.

ministre, m., minister.

minute. mirror. misere, f., misery, poverty. missent, imperf. suhj. of mettre. mit, pret. of mettre. miroir,

horse-

Wednesday.

mere, f., mother. mes, pi poss. adj., my. messager, m., messenger. messe, f., mass, metal, m., metal. mettre, irr., to put; se a (mau piaf in.), to begin to; se no, to sit down at the piano; se au travail, to start to work. meuble, m., piece of furniture. midi, ;«., noon. miel, m., honey. mien, poss. pron.; le ne, , la les nes, mine. s, les mieux, adv., better, best de leur or could , the best they can

minute,

;

— mar-

;

f.,

tn.,


,

BEGINNERS FRENCH moderne, modern. modifier, to modify, alter. moi, I, me, to me. moindre, less, least. moins, less, least, fewer; a que, unless. mois, m., month. moitie, f., half; a

Napoleon, prop, n.; Napoleon

,

;

;

half.

,

to

— be

alive, living.

monseigneur, m., my lord. monsieur, m., sir, Mr., gentle-

man. montagne,

/., mountain. monter, to mount, go up. montrer, to show. morceau, tn., piece. morsure, f., bite, sting. death, mort, f., death; lit de

bed.

, witticism. mot, m., word bon motif, m., motive, cause. mourant, m., dying man. ;

mourir, irr., to die. mourras, fut of mourir.

mousse,

1873). f.,

napkin.

national, -e, national. nature, f., nature, naturel, -le, natural. le

moss. f., muslin. moutarde, f., mustard. moyen, m., means, way. muet, -te, mute, dumb. /.,

mousseline,

mur, -e, ripe. mur, m., wall. murmurer, to murmur, mutter. Musset (Alfred de), a French poet (1810-1857). music. f.,

not

ne,

;

... pas,

only;

que,

not

— ...

;

neuvieme, ninth. neveu, m., nephew. ni, neither, nor.

nid, m., nest. niece,

f., niece, noble, noble.

Noel, m., Christmas. noir, -e, black, dark.

nom, m., name. nombreu-x, -se, numerous. non, no. nos,

pi.

poss. adj., our.

notre, sing.

poss.

adj.,

our.

nous, we, us, to us. nouvelle, f., news a cette ;

nuit,

f.,

nul,

-le

de

,

,

on

night.

any;

(with neg.)

none.

inter}.,

o!

obliger, to oblige, compel,

obscur, -e, dark, /., occasion,

occasion,

occuper, to occupy. birth; anniversaire birthday.

hearing this news. novembre, m., November. nuisible, harmful, injurious.

6,

f.,

no

neuf, nine.

obeir a, to obey.

= ne.

...

[longer,

f.,

Myndus, a proper name.

naissance,

plus,

snow. neiger, to snow. neige,

musique,

n*

I.,

emperor of the French (1769Napoleon III., em1821) peror of the French (1808nappe,

mon, poss. adj., my. monarque, m., monarch. monde, m., world tout everybody; etre au

273

octobre, m., October, oeil,

m., eye»

no;


;

BEGINNER

274 OBUvre,

work; chef

/.,

d'

,

m.

masterpiece. off icier, vu, officer. offrir, irr., to offer. oh, interj., o

!

ho

!

oiseau, m., bird, olive,

olive,

f.,

ombre,

shade.

f.,

on, I'on, one, they, people. oncle, m., uncle.

onde,

f.,

water.

S

FRENCH parait, pres. indie, of paraitre. paraitre, irr., to appear.

parapluie,

umbrella.

iii.,

pare, m., park.

parce que, because. pardessus, di., overcoat. pardonner, to forgive. pareil, -le, such du au

;

ont, pres. indie, of avoir. on2ieme, eleventh.

parfum, m., perfume.

opera, m., opera.

parler, to speak.

or, conj., or, m.,

now.

gold.

orage, m., storm. orange, f., orange ordinaire, ordinary, usual.

ordonner, to prescribe. ordre, m., order. oreille,

f.,

ear.

oreiller, m., pillow.

organiste, m., organist.

orgue, m., organ, original, m., eccentric man.

omer, to adorn. oser, dare.

on, or.

parrain, m., godfather. parterre, m., flower-bed. partie,

part.

f.,

to depart, go away. partout, everywhere. parvenir, irr., to reach. partir,

irr.,

pas, m., step

;

ne

.

.

.

not.

,

passer, to pass.

pasteur, m., minister. pauvre, poor. pays, m., country, fatherland. paysan, in peasant. pecheur, m., sinner. peigner, to comb se to comb one's hair, comb each other's

,

hair.

ou, where. oublier, to

Paris, m., Paris.

;

oter, to take off.

meme,

for tat. parent, )n., parent, relative. parfois, sometimes. tit

peine, forget,

oui, yes.

outrager, to outrage. ouvert, -e, past. part, of ouvrir. ouvreuse, f., (female) usher. ouvrir, irr., to open.

pain, m., bread. pale, pale. palier, m., landing.

panier, m., basket. papier, m., paper. par, by, through, out of, about.

a la

f.,

,

pain,

sorrow, trouble

in the attempt.

pelouse, f., lawn. pendant, during. pendre, to hang.

penetrer, to enter. pensee, f., thought. penser, to think. pension, /., boarding-house. pensionnaire, m. and f., boarder. perdre, to lose. pere, m., father.

perfectionnement, m., improvement. permettre, irr., to allow. permission, f., permission..


, ,

,

BEGINNER^S FRENCH personne,

person

/.,

ma

sur

;

about me. personne,

anybody;

m.,

(with

nobody.

neg. )

peu, adv., little, few. peur, f., fear; de que, lest. pent, pres. indie, of pouvoir.

pharmacien, m., druggist. philosophe, m., philosopher. piano, m., piano. piece, f., piece; play. pied, m., foot; du , with his

foot.

piege, m., trap, snare. pierre, f., stone. Pierre, prop, n., Peter, pitie,

f.,

place,

plaindre, plaine,

place.

to pity; se

irr.,

,

to

plain.

/.,

complaint,

doleful

-ve, plaintive,

mourn-

f.,

story.

plainti-f, ful,

sad.

niere de plaisir,

/.,

joke; par majoking way.

in a

,

m., pleasure.

plate bande, -e,

,

porteur, m., carrier. portiere,

/.,

car window.

portrait, m., portrait, picture. poser, to ask.

pourquoi, why, the reason why. pourvoir, irr., to provide. pousser, to utter. pouvoir, irr., to be able, can,

may; il se pent, it may be. pratique, /., practice. preau, m., playground. preceder, to precede. precis,

plat, -e, flat. plein,

population, /., population. porte, /., door, gate. porter, to carry; se to be (in reference to health).

precieii-x,

plaire, irr., to please.

plaisanterie,

not

,

[at all.

complain. plainte,

ne...—

point;

pear.

/.,

that.

place.

to

poire,

pocket.

pour, prep., for, to, on account of, in order to; que, in order

pity.

f.,

placer,

m.,

possible, possible. pouls, m., pulse.

pill.

/.,

/.,

poisson, m., fish. poivre, m., pepper. poll, -e, polished, polite.

petit, -e, small, little.

pilule,

poche, point,

275

-se,

-e,

precious.

precise,

make a more definite statement, to state the names. .preferable, preferable. preciser, to

preferer, to prefer. f.,

border.

premi-er, -ere, first

full.

mon

,

my

pleur, m., tear. pleurer, to weep.

prendre, irr., to take; catch; garde, take care, be careful not. prenne, pres. subj. of prendre, preparer, to prepare; faire

pleut, pres. indie, of pleuvoir. irr., to rain.

pleuvoir,

plume, f., pen. plus, more, most ne more, no longer; de ;

more and more; ber) more than. plusieurs, several. plutot, rather.

;

first syllable.

.

.

.

de,

to ,

en

no

(num-

have (something) prepared,

pres de, prep., near, prescription,

/"., prescription, presenter, to present, introduce, presque, almost. presser, to press, urge,

pretre, m., priest.


,

!

BEGINNER

276 prier, to pray,

beg. prayer, princesse, f., princess, printemps {pron. tan), w., spring, pris, -e, past part, of prendre, priere,

prise,

prison,

f.,

capture, taking,

f.,

f.,

prison,

prix, m., price,

probablement, probably, prochain, m., neighbor, professeur, «z., professor, teacher, profond, -e, deep, great, profondement, soundly, progres, m., progress. promenade, /.. walk. promener, to take out for a walk, drive se take a walk, , to ;

S

FRENCH whom, what;

que, pron., which, see ce. quel,

what,

-le,

what a

.

.

which;

...!

.

quelconque, some ... or other. quelque, some; chose, m., something. quelquefois, sometimes, quelqu'un, somebody. question, /., question il est the question is. qui, who, whom? which, that;

;

see

ce.

quiconque, whoever. quoi, what de needs. quoique, although.

;

,

what

one

promeneur, m., promenader.

promptement (pron.

mp

like

n),

R

quickly.

prononcer, to pronounce, proposer, to propose, propre, clean. proprietaire, m., landlord, owner, protester,

to

protest,

public, m., public,

radis,

radish.

jn.,

raisin, m., grape.

raison,

f.,

reason;

avoir

rapide, rapid, quick. rapidement, rapidly,

puis, then.

puisque, since, puissant, powerful, puisse, pres. subj. of pouvoir. punir, to punish, punition, f., punishment. pupitre, m., desk.

,

to

[be right.

quickly.

rappeler: se , to remember. rapporter, to bring back. rare, rare.

rarement, seldom. rat, in., rat.

ravi, -e, delighted.

recevoir,

to receive.

irr.,

recherche,

f.,

search.

recommander, to recommend. reconnaissance, f.. gratitude. regu, -e, past part, of recevoir.

=

que. qu* qualite, f., quality,

refuser, to refuse, decline.

quand, when,

regaler, to regale; se

quart,

;«..

quarter.

quatorze, fourteen, quatre, four, quatrieme, fourth, que, conj., that, than, as; ne.. only. ,

reflechir, to reflect.

,

to re-

gale one's self, have a feast of. regard, m., look. par la regarder, to look at; portiere, to look out of the

car-window. regne, m.. reign.


BEGINNERS FRENCH

277

to withdraw.

regner, to reign.

retirer; se

regret, m., regret.

retour, m., return; de

reine,

f.,

rejeter,

send

repel,

refuse. rejouir, to rejoice; se

,

to re-

revenir, irr. (like venir), to

re-

come

back,

remercier, to thank, remettre, irr. (like mettre), to

hand, give. remplir, to

revenu, -e, past part, of revenir. revienne, pres. subj. of revenir. revivre, irr. (like vivre), to revive.

fill,

riche, rich, wealthy.

fulfil,

rencontrer, to meet.

rideau, m., curtain.

rendre, to render, make, return,

ridicule,

ridiculous.

give back; se , to betake one's [self. renommee, /., fame. rentier, to reenter, go or come

rien,

renverser, to upset. [home. repartie, f., repartee, retort. repartir, irr. (like partir), to

rire, irr., to

reply,

pass again,

m., anything;

riposter, to retort, reply. riviere,

robe,

f.,

/.,

dress.

roman, m., novel. rond, -e, round. rose,

rose, rosy.

repondre, to reply, answ^er. reponse, f., answer.

rouge, red.

repos, m., rest.

route,

,

rose.

to blush. f.,

road;

en

,

on the

way. royal, -e, regal, kingly. :

go back

to

de,

/.,

rougir,

to rest.

repousser, to repel, push back. reprendre, irr. (like prendre)

chemin

'

m., king.

repliquer, to reply.

laugh.

river.

repeter, to repeat,

se

(with neg.)

nothing.

roi,

repas, m., meal. repasser, to repass,

le

on

retourner, to return. reussir, to succeed.

remarquer, to notice,

,

away,

joice,

reposer:

turning.

queen. to

,

royaume, m., kingdom. rue,

/.,

street.

to.

representation, f., performance, representer, to play, reproche, m., reproach,

reputation, f., reputation. resoudre, irr.: se to decide.

,

respecti-f, -ve, respective,

respectiieusement, respectfully. respirer, to breathe, inhale, ressource, /., resource. restaurant, ;«,, restaurant, tester, to remain. retard, tn., delay; en late.

,

s'=rse; also sa,

f.

si

before

il

pass, adj., his, her,

and

ils.

its.

n., a former a part of Paris. season.

Saint Marceau, prop, suburb, saison, sait, salir,

salle,

f.,

pres.

now

indie,

of savoir.

to soiK /.,

class

room

— a manger,

auditorium dining-room.

salon, m., parlor.

:

;


.

BEGINNER

278 saluer, to

bow

greet,

salute,

samedi, m., Saturday. sans, without, but for; without. satisfaction, satisfait,

to.

que,

scene,

conj.,

if.

adv.,

;

sien, poss. pron.: le

les

know,

to

irr.,

stage,

f.,

si,

so yes. siecle, ni., century,

sauvage, wild. savoir,

seul, -e, alone.

si,

pleased.

-e,

FRENCH severe, severe, stern,

satisfaction,

/,,

S

—nes,

les

s,

signal, m., signal,

sign,

signaler, to signal,

mark,

sculpteur (do not pronounce the

silence,

p), rn., sculptor, se, one's self, himself, herself, themselves, one another, to

simple, simple, mere.

one's

self,

m., sire,

sire,

six, six.

etc.

sixidme, societe,

mon

syllable.

sel, m.,

my

,

second

sixth.

prop,

Socrate,

company.

society,

f.,

Socrates,

n.,

famous Greek philosopher (b.

seconde (pronounce seigneur,

[one's,

monkey.

singe, m.,

second, -e (pronounce c like g), ;

—ne,

silence.

;».,

sec, seche, dry.

second

la

,

his, hers, its.

c like

g) f., [second

m., lord.

,

salt.

a c.

468-399)soeur, soi,

sister.

f.,

one's self

;

chez avoir

at

,

home, be

semaine, f., week. sembler, to seem.

soif,

sens, pres. indie,

soigner, to take care of, attend.

sentiment,

m.,

ing.

that one

is

.

;

se

,

to 'feel

seven.

septembre, m., September. septieme (do not pronounce the condit.

servir,

to

/..

irr.,

to

soldat, m., soldier, soleil, m.,

sun.

serve;

/.,

solution,

pres.

indie,

se

,

to

of etre.

son, m.. sound.

napkinr.

make use

evening party,

imper. of etre. soit, pres. siibj. of etre. soixante, sixty.

son, sa, ses, p-oss. pron., his, her,

maid-servant.

service, m., service.

serviette,

evening.

/.,

sommes,

lock.

f.,

soiree,

;

shake.

f.,

servante,

m., care. 7n.,

sombre, gloomy, dark, somme, /., sum. sommeil, m., sleep avoir be sleepy,

serpent, m., snake. serrure,

soin, soir,

solution,

of etre.

serment, m., oath, pledge, sermon, m., sermon. serrer, to

to

soUiciteur, m., solicitor,

seventh.

serais, serait,

,

sois,

.

sept (do not pronounce the p),

p),

thirst;

thirsty.

of sentir. sentiment, feel-

sentir, irr., to feel

f.,

de,

of.

ses, plur. poss. adj., his, her, its.

[its

songer, to dream, think, sonner. to ring, sonnette.

f.,

(small)

bell.

sont, pres. indie, of etre.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

279

sorite, m., series of syllogisms.

surprise,

sors, pres. indie, of sortir.

sussent, imperf. subj. of savoir. Syrie, prop, n., Syria.

sorte,

f.,

sort, kind.

sortir, irr., to

go

f.,

surprise.

out.

sot, m., silly fellow, fool. sot, -te, foolish.

=

souci, m., care, anxiety.

t'

souffle, m., breath.

ta,

souffrir, irr., to suffer.

table,

souhait, m., wish. souhaiter, to wish.

tableau, m., blackboard. taire, irr., not to say; se

te.

poss. adj., your.

f.

souper, to sup, eat supper. souriant, -e, smiling.

tant, so

sourire, m., smile.

tante,

souris,

f.,

keep

mouse.

aunt. presently

now

.

.

now

.,

;

.

.

spectacle, m., spectacle, show.

tard, late.

spiiituel, -le, witty.

tasse,

statue,

statue.

tater, to feel,

shade, blind.

subitement, suddenly.

tatons; a gropingly. te, you, to you. tel, -le, such. temoigner, to show.

subsister, to subsist.

temps, m., time

m.,

studieu-x,

-se,

indie,

of etre and of

suivre. Suisse, m., porter,

door keeper,

suit, pres. indie, of suivre.

suite, fin,

continuation /., concluded; tout de ;

_

— —

,

terre,

tete,

once,

weather

;

/., /.,

earth,

ground

;

to

follow; a

tiede, tepid, ,

to

m.,

subject.

superbe, superb. supposer, to suppose. suppression, f., suppression.

toit,

upon, about, surlendemain, m., two

sur, on,

days

lukewarm.

stem, stalk. tigre, m., tiger. tirer, to drav/, take out. toi, you, to you. tige,

f.,

toilette,

sur, -e, sure, certain,

dans

estate.

head.

the, m., tea.

irr.,

la'ter.

;

theatre, m., theater.

be continued, sujet,

,

at

m.,

.,

cup.

que, while. tendre, to extend, hold out. tenir, irr., to hold, terminer, to end. le

et

suivant, -e, following. suivant, prep., according to. suivre,

f.,

. .

carpet.

studious.

subir, to undergo, get.

suis, pres.

m.,

tapis,

.,

...

tapisser, to cover, hang.

store,

to

,

much, so many,

f.,

soutien, m., support. souvent, often.

/.,

silent.

tantot,

sous, prep., under.

table.

/.,

f.,

toilet,

roof,

tombe, f., grave, tombeau, m., grave, tomber, to fall. ton, ta, tes, poss. adj., your.


s

BEGINNER

j8o

wrong; avoir

tort, m.,

FRENCH

to be

,

[wrong.

soon.

tot,

S

always. tower. tour, m., turn; a votre your turn; se£ enfermer.

and imper. of

toujours^

ya.,pres. indie,

tour,

vaillant, valiant, brave.

f.,

tourelle,

f.,

,

in

-e,

turret,

whole, any; everybody. all,

valeur,

tout,

the whole word, adv., wholly,

trace,

/.,

,

entirely,

trace, track.

f.,

trahison,

[quite.

draw.

tracer, to trace,

tragedie,

mon

tragedy. treason,

f.,

treachery.

traverser, to cross,

traversin,

tn.,

trente, thirty; tres,

[one.

Trinity Sunday, f., days after Easter, triste, sad, gloomy, sorry,

56

bet-

vas, pres. indie, of aller. vaste, vast.

vaudeville, m., vaudeville.

vaut, pres. indie, of valoir. vendre, to sell. vendredi, m., Friday.

windy.

it

verrez, fut. of voir. verrou, m., bolt. vers, prep., about, toward.

vert,

green.

-e,

vetement,

troisieme, third.

garment;

m.,

clothes, dress.

much,

vetir,

trottoir, m., sidewalk,

irr.,

to

dress

:

se

veulent, veut, veux, pres.

trouver, to find, tu, you.

of vouloir. viande, f., meat.

tyran, m., tyrant

victoire,

vide,

,

to

/.,

,

;

vieillir, to ;

indie,

victory.

empty.

vieil, vieille; see

un, -e, art, a, an. un, -e, adj., one 1' pron., one r I'autre, each other les les autres, one another. union, f., union.

/>/.,

dress.

troubler, to disturb.

;

,

verser, to pour.

trois, three.

du

-

vers, m., verse, line.

sadness.

trop, too, too

vaut

verre, m., glass.

et un, thirty-

Trinite,

f.,

il

it is

to be worth;

verrais, eondit. of voir.

very.

tristesse,

irr.,

ter.

is

bolster.

valoir,

venir,

tn.,

treize, thirteen.

value.

f.,

irr., to come. vent, m., wind; il fait

work, travailler, to work, travail,

valoir.

vallon, m., little valley, dale.

mieux or mieuz vaut,

tout, pron., everything, all;

adj.,

monde,

le

vainly.

man-servant.

m.,

valet,

toutes,

tous,

pi.

,

vais, pres. indie, of aller. valait, imperf. indie, of

tourment, m., torment. toumer, to turn, tout,

vain; en

aller.

grow

vieux. old.

vieux, vieil, vieille, old. vilain, ugly. village lage.

(pronotmee

11),

tn.,

vil-


; ,

BEGINNER (pronounce

ville

vin, m., wine.

11),

f.,

FRENCH

281

vous, you, to you, each other, to meme, yourself, each other

city.

;

deux, twentyhuit, twenty-eight; two; neuf, twenty-nine. violon, m./ violin. vingt, twenty;

S

viser, to aim.

voyage, m., trip, travel, vbyager, to travel, voyageur, m., traveller, voyant, pres. part, of voir, voyelle, /., vowel, voyez, pres. indie, of voir,

visite,

vrai,

visage, m., visage. visit.

f.,

vite,

quickly.

fast,

vitrine,

true.

-e,

vraiment, truly. vu, -e, past part, of voir.

visiter, to visit.

shop- window.

f.,

vive, pres. subj. of vivre. vivement, quickly. vivre,

vow, wish.

here

voici,

voie,

to live.

irr.,

voeu, m.,

f.,

is,

m., sleeping-car.

lit,

Washington, prop.

n.

way, road.

voila, there

is,

there are.

voyez vous pas voyez vous pas.

voir, irr., to see

= ne

wagon

here are.

;

voisin, m., neighbor. voisine,

f.,

Xantippe, prop,

neighbor.

n.,

wife of So-

crates.

voisinage, m., neighborhood. voiture, f., carriage. volee,

volley; a toute

f.,

voler, to fly; steal.

,

full

[peal.

voluptueusement, with delight. vos, pi. poss. adj., your.

votre, sing. poss. adj., your. votre, poss. pron.;' le les

s,

voudras, vouloir,

en

,

la

yeux,

a,

it,

there

pi.

of

to is,

oeil,

it,

to

irr.,

eyes.

of vouloir. to will, wish,

want

bear a grudge against, be displeased with. a,

to

zele,

m.,

them;

there are.

yours.

fut.

y, there, in

zeal.

zephir, m., west wind.

il


.

II.

ENGLISH-FRENCH

Verbs marked with an * require the auxiliary Hre

;

acquainted; to be

with, con-

acquaintance, connaissance, acquire, acquerir,

f.

irr.

m.

actress, act rice,

;

add, a j outer. f.

administrator, administrateur, m. admiral, amiral, m. admire, admirer. adorn with, orner de. advice, avis, m.

(person) de

(in fin.). after, prep., apres. after, conj., apres

la,

de

V,

;

;

;

;

que (indie).

afternoon, apres midi, m. or afterwards, ensuite.

f.

agree, etre (irr.) d'accord.

aim, viser.

m.

adj., tout, toute;

apricot, m., abricot.

»

plur. tous,

toutes. all,

f.

des de. any, adj., tout, quelque; (with neg.) aucun, nul, pas de. any, pron., quelqu'un, quelques uns en; (with neg.) nul, aucun one, quelqu'un (with neg.) personne. anybody, quelqu'un (with neg.) personne. anything, quelque chose; (with neg.) rien. appear, paraitre, irr. applaud, applaudir. ;

advise, conseiller a

air, air,

-e.

answer, repondre a. anteroom, antichambre, any, part, art., du, de

f.

address, adresse,

an, un,

and, et; see forth. animal, animal, m. anniversary, anniversaire, m. another, un autre see one.

naitre, irr.

all,

tenses.

ambassador, ambassadeur, m. ambassadress, ambassadrice, f. amiable, aimable.

pouvoir, irr. able; to be , about, de vers see hundred.

actor, acteur,

compound

also, aussi. [subjunctive). although, quoique, bien que (with always, tou jours.

A.; see o'clock. a, un, -e.

;

in their

apricot tree, m., abricotier.

armchair, fauteuil, m.

pron., tout, m.

arrive, *arriver.

almost, presque. along; see take, already, deja.

artist, artiste,

as,

que; 283

m. or

f.

— — aussi — soon — aussitot que

comme

;

... ,

,

.

.


;

BEGINNERS FRENCH

284 (indie.)

;

soon

possible,

plus tot possible see much, many, same, so and usual. ask, demander a (person) de le

;

— (infin.) — somebody a ;

demander;

for,

question, poser

or adresser une question a quelqu'un. at, a; see last, once, present, school, the.

'

vant

before,

avant de

;

(i>e-

avant

conj.,

que

(sub-

junctive).

commencer a (infin.) ; se mettre (irr.) a (infin.). beginning, commencement, m. begin,

behavior, conduite, believes,

bell,

attend, soigner. attention, attention, /. attentively, avec attention.

(place)

fore infin.).

cloche,

nette,

f.

croire, irr.

(small),

/.;.

son-

f.

bench, banc, m. best,

meilleur,

adv.; the

attract, appeler.

adj.;

-e,

mieux,

— they can or could,

auditorium, salle, f. aunt, tante, f. automobile, automobile, /. avenue, avenue, /. avoid, eviter de (infin.).

de leur mieux. betake one's self, se rendre. better, meilleur, -e. adj.; mieux, (irr.) valoir , be adv.; mieux.

awake,

bicycle, bicyclette,

away;

s'eveiller.

see carry, go and take.

B back; see bring, come, give and bad, mauvais, -e. [go. badly, mal. ball, bal,

m.

basket, panier, w. be,

etre,

irr.;

(weather)

faire,

there is or are, il y a (when pointing to) voila. beautiful, beau^ bel, belle. beautify, embellir. irr.;

because, parce que (indicat.). become, *devenir, irr. convalescent, entrer en convales;

cence.

m. ; bedroom, chambre a coucher; bedside rug, descente (f.) de lit; see flower

bed,

lit,

(f.)

and

go.

beer, biere,

f.

before, prep., avant

(time)

;

de-

/.

bid one another good night, se dire (irr.) bonsoir. bird, oiseau, m. birth, naissance, f. birthday, anniversaire (w.) de biscuit, biscuit m. [naissance. black, noir, -e. blackboard, tableau, m. blanket, couverture, f. blind, store, m. blue, bleu,

blush

-e.

rougir de. boarder, pensionnaire, m. or boarding house, pension, f. boat, bateau, m. for,

bolster, traversin,

book,

m.

m. border, plate bande, f. boulevard, boulevard, m. livre,

box, boite, f. branch, branche,

f.

bread, pain. m. breakfast, dejeuner, m. breakfast, dejeuner.

breathe, respirer.

f.


BEGINNER bring,

— (persons), — back, rapporter.

apporter;

amener

;

to

brother, frere, m.

brown, brun,

S

FRENCH city, ville,

285 f.

class, classe, f.\ f.; salle,

— room,

clean, propre.

-e.

brush, brosser. building, edifice, m. bureau, commode, f. burner; see gas.

climate, climat, m. climb, monter.

but, mais.

clothes, vetements, m. pi.

m. button, bouton, m.

coffee, cafe, m.

cloak, manteau, m. cloth; see table.

butter, beurre,

buy, acheter. by, par; see

coachman, cocher, m. cold, froid, -e;

rail.

faire

color, couleur,

venir,

cake, gateau, m.

calm, calme. can, pouvoir, irr. candle; see wax. candy, bonbon, m. car window, portiere, /.; sleeping car, wagon lit, m.

soin, m.; take of, soigner; take not to, prendre (irr.) garde de (infin.).

carpet, tapis, m.

carry away, emporter. celebrate,

celebrer.

f.

f.

back, *re-

coming

;

back

-ne.

f.

congregation, auditoire, m. convalescent; see become. converse, s'entretenir, irr.

counterpane, couvre pieds, m. country, campagne, f. cousin, cousin, m.; cousine, /. cover with, couvrir {irr.) de.

f.

criticise, critiquer.

cry, cri,

m.

cup, tasse, f. cure, guerir. curtain, rideau, m.

-e.

cheese, fromage, m. child, enfant, m. or

chocolate, chocolat, choice, choix, m.

choose, choisir.

church, eglise,

on

cross, traverser, franchir.

f.

charming, charmant, -e. cheap, bon marche. cheaper, meilleur marche. cheerful, gai,

f.

irr.;

comic, comique. confusion, confusion,

cream, creme,

ceremony, ceremonie,

cheek, joue,

{weather),

cracker, bisctiit, m.

century, siecle, m. chair, chaise,

from, de retour de down, descendre home, *rentrer. comedy, comedie, f. comfortable, confortable, bon, ;

appeler.

care,

irr.;

be

froid.

{irr.)

come, *venir,

call,

classe,

f.

f.

f.

m. dance, danser. dangerously, dangereusement. dark, noir,

-e,

obsciir. -e.


;

BEGINNER

286

daughter, fille, f. bonjour, , day, jour, m.; good lendemain. ul; , in.; next surlendelater, le two s

main. dead, mort, -e. deal; a great

and

go, lay

dozen, douzaine,

sit.

sec half,

/.;

draw, dessiner. dress or

— up,

s'habiller, se ve-

irr. /.,

robe,

drink, boire,

irr.

druggist, pharmacien, m.; to the

decevoir,

se

self,

irr.

resoudre

decide,

down; sec come,

dress,

beaucoup.

,

dear, cher, chere. one's

FRENCH

tir,

deceive

S

de

{irr.)

(tn-

,

chez

le

pharmacien.

dry, sec, seche. during, pendant,

duty, devoir, m.

fin.).

deep, profond,

-e.

delicious, delicieu-x. -se.

delight;

ment; {irr.)

— —

with take

voluptueuse-

,

plaire

se

in,

each, chaque

a {in fin.).

— other,

delightful, delicieu-x, -se.

depart,

*partir,

irr.;

s'en

aller,

desire, desir,

desire,

ease, aise, eat,

irr.

m.

;

— one, chacun,

Tun /.

manger.

educate, instruire, effort, effort,

desirer.

-e

I'autre.

irr.

m.

desk, bureau, m.; pupitre, m.

eight, huit.

dessert, dessert, m.

quatre vingts; one, quatre vingt un. elder son or brother, aine, w.

die,

*mourir,

/.

irr.

diligent, diligent, -e.

electric, electrique..

elephant, elephant, m.

dine, diner.

dining room, salle

(/.)

a

man-

one's

eleventh, onzieme. end, fin, f. English, anglais,

ger,

dinner, diner, m. direct

steps,

diriger,

se

s'acheminer.

;

{infin.) fin.)

disobey, desobeir

disturb,

troubler.

division, division,

f.

;

or se divertir a {inone's self, s'amuser,

se divertir.

a.

m. very

be much with, en vouloir {irr.) a.

displeased;

enormous, enorme. enough, assez. enter, *entrer dans,

entrance, entree, f. equipage, equipage,

nt.

do, faire. irr.; see 86. I.

essential, essentiel,

doctor, docteur. m.

evening, soir, m.; good soir, m.; reception, event, evenement, m.

door, porte,

f.

doubt, doute, w.

,

disagreeable, desagreable. etalage,

-e.

enjoy {something), jouir de {doing something) s'amuser a

directly, directement.

display,

eighty,

destination, destination,

-le.

,

bon-

soiree, /.


BEGINNERS FRENCH ever, jamais. every, chaque, tout; three hours, toutes les trois heures. everybody, tout le monde. everything, tout, m.

examine, examiner. excellent,

excellent,

-e.

-e.

f leur,

/.

;

— bed, parterre,

m. irr.

following, suivant, for,

-e.

pour;

prep.,

{during) pendant; instance, par exemple; rent, a louer sale, a ven-

;

dre. for, conj., car.

yeux, m.

s,

plat,

m. m.

follow, suivre,

expensive, cher, chere. experience, experience, f. expression, expression, f. exquisite, exquis, -e. extend, tendre. extinguish, eteindre, irr.

m.;

premi-er, -ere.

first,

flat,

,

oeil,

fine, beau, bel, belle.

flower,

written

de.

finish, finir.

flag, drapeau,

exemplary, exemplaire. exercise, exercice, m.; devoir, m.

eye,

filled with, plein(e)

find, trouver.

fish, poisson,

except, excepte.

287

pi.

forbid,

defendre a

{person)

de

{in fin.).

form, former.

F fail,

faithful, fidele,

*tomber;

de

-

et

et

four, quatre.

m.

[mir, irr. asleep, s'endor-

fourteen, quatorze. freeze, geler.

family, famille, /.; see head. c61ebre, fameu-x, -se.

fresh, frais, fraiche. friend, ami, m.; amie,

far, loin;

from, de des;

famous,

cetera,

suite.

forty, quarante.

iinfin.).

fair, blond, -e.

fall,

and so

forth; ainsi

m. manquer de

face, visage,

— from,

loin de.

[peur.

avoir

irr.;

feast, fdte, /.; to regaler de. feel, sentir, irr.;

have a

{irr.)

of, se

le

commencement.

front; in

fruit, fruit, fulfil,

{pulse) tater.

full,

f.

de la, de 1', the beginning, depuis

favorite, favori, -te. fear, crainte, /. fear, craindre,

— the, du,

;

of,

devant.

m.

remplir.

plein,

-e; see ring, furniture; see piece.

ferocious, f6roce. fervor, ferveur, /.

few, peu de; a quelques, adj.; , quelques-uns, pron. fewer, moins de. .

fifth,

cinquieme.

fifty,

cinquante.

fig, figue, /.

figure; with small (large) petites (grandes) fleurs.

game,

jeu,

m.

garden, jardin, m. gas burner, bee (m.) de gaz. gather, cueillir, irr. s,

i

general, general, m. generally, generalement.


BEGINNER

288 gentleman, monsieur,

m.; gen-

tlemen, messieurs, m. pi get up, se lever. girl, fille,

give,

/.

donner

m.

glass, verre,

gloomy, go,

— back, rendre.

;

irr.;

hate, hair.

have, avoir, irr.; to (something) prepared, faire preparer; to (with past part, of intrans. verbs of motion), etre,

he,

away,

s'en

— back *rentrer a — retourner down, descendre; — home, *rentrer, retourner a maison (chez soi) — out, *sor— to bed, se coucher; —

aller, irr; *partir, irr.;

to,

FRENCH

irr.

triste.

*aller,

S

a,

;

la

;

tir;

il,

lui.

head of a family, pere

de

(;».)

famille.

health; to be in good ter

se por-

,

bien.

hear, entendre.

by

heart, coeur, m.; help, aider.

up, monter. God, Dieu, m.

her, pron., elle,

good, bon, -ne. grand, grand, -e. grape, raisin, m.

here,

la,

,

par coeur.

lui.

her, poss. adj., son, sa, ses. ici

;

is

or are, voici.

hers, le sien, la sienne, les siens. les siennes.

gratitude, gratitude,

high, haut,

f.

-e.

gray, gris, -e. great, grand, -e.

him,

green, vert,

his, poss. pron., le sien, la sienne,

le,

lui.

his, poss. adj., son, sa, ses.

-e.

greet, saluer.

les siens, les siennes.

grope one's way, s'avancer a talons.

gropingly, a tatons. ground, terre, f. grove, bosquet, m.

hold out, tendre. home, chez moi (toi, soi, lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles) ; a la maison see go. horse-shoer, marechal, m. ;

grow, grandir.

host, bote, m.

guess, deviner.

hostess, hotesse,

guest, invite, rn.; invitee,

f.

f.

hotel, hotel, w.

s, f.; every three toutes les trois heures one or

hour, heure,

two

cheveux, m. half, demi, -e hair,

;

pi.

a dozen, une

demi douzaine. hand, main, f. hand, remettre, irr. [tapisser de. hang from, pendre a; with, happy, heureu-x, -se. hasten, se hater de (infin.).

hastily, a la hate. hat, chapeau, m.

;

s, une ou deux heures or une heure ou deux. house, maison, f.; at, to or in my (your, etc.) , chez moi (toi, soi, lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles) at, to, in the of, chez le, la, 1', les.

;

— —

comment much, many, combien de is the

how,

;

;

weather? quel temps however, cependant

fait il?


;

.

BEGINNERS FRENCH hundred, adj., cent. n., centaine; hundred, , une centaine. one avoir hungry; to be f

knife, couteau, m.

about

je,

knob, bouton, m. thoroughly, savoir, irr.; to a little, connaitre, irr. knowledge, connaissance, f.

know

{irr.)

faim.

I,

289

moi.

ideal, ideal, -e. if,

lace, dentelle,

si.

lack,

immense, immense. impatiently, impatiemment. improvement, perfectionnement, m. in,

dans, en

— front

;

— winter, en hiver

industrious, diligent, inflict

inhabitant, habitant, m. inkstand, encrier, m. instance; for par exemple. , instrument, instrument, m.

into, dans, introduce, introduire,

{to

irr.;

lake, lac, m. lamp, lampe,

,

f.

allee,

f.

large, grand, -e; nombreu-x, -se. last; at en fin. ,

en retard {person.)-, later, le surlende-

main. laugh at, rire {irr.) de. lawn, pelouse, /. lay down, deposer. lead, mener. f.

gauche, /.; see side. leisurely, a mon (ton, son, notre, left,

la, ce, cela.

le,

son,

ladies

f.;

leaf, feuille,

presenter.

invite, inviter.

adj.,

de.

f.;

two days

interesting, interessant, -e. interval, intervalle, m.

its,

moiselle,

late, tard;

it, il, elle,

dame,

young deand gentlemen, mesdames et messieurs.

lady,

lane,

-e.

upon, infliger a {person).

another person)

manquer

curtain, ri-

dentelle.

landing, palier, m.

devant.

of,

/".;

deau (m.) de

malade. immediately, immediatement. ill,

sa,

ses

;

en

.

.

.

le,

votre, leur)

lesson, legon,

jewel, bijou, m. joyful, joyeu-x,

aise,

f.

lemonade, limonade, f. less, moins de {noun).

la, les.

f.

de peur que, de crainte que {subjunctive)

lest, -se.

let, louer; to , a louer. library, bibliotheque, f.

light, lumiere,

light,

keep, garder. key, cle, f. kind, aimable, bon, -ne. kind, sorte, f. kindness, bonte, /.

allumer

/. ;

to

aimer, cherir. lion, Hon, m. listen to, ecouter. like,

little,

adj.,

petit,

little,

adv.,

peu

-e.

de.

up, eclairer.


;

.

BEGINNER

290 live,

f.

lock; sec shut. [plus. long, long, -ue no er, ne look, regarder; to at, regarder to out of, regarder par. ;

;

— —

.

.

lose, perdre.

— use

faire, irr.; to

servir {irr.) de.

;

,

;

,

trop de {noun). /.

marquis, marquis, m. master, maitre, m.; piece, chef (m.) d'oeuvre. match, allumette, /. mattress, matelas, m.

may, pouvoir,

.

.

;

.

,

,

;

— —,trop de(noMn). ,

of, se

man, homme, m. manner, maniere, f. many, beaucoiip de as ... as, autant de {noun) que; how combien de {noun) so ...as, tant de {noun) que; carte,

singe, m.

month, mois, m. more, plus de {noun) ; no ne plus and , de plus en

magnificent, magnifique. maid, servante, f.

too

lundi, m.

plus.

M.; see o'clock.

map,

Monday, monkey,

morning, matin, vi.; good bonmost, plus. [jour, m. mother, mere. f. much, beaucoup de {noun) as ... as, autant de ( noun ) que ...as, tant de {noun) 80 que; how combien de

Madam, Madame.

make,

FRENCH modem, moderne.

demeurer.

lock, serrure,

S

;

too

mud, boue, f. music, musique, f. muslin, mousseline, tain, rideau (m.)

f.;

cur-

de mousse-

line.

must, devoir,

irr.;

falloir,

irr.,

impers.

mustard, moutarde, mute, muet, -te. my, mon, ma, mes.

/.

napkin, serviette, f. narrow, etroit, -e.

irr.

me, me, moi. meal, repas, m. meat, viande, f. medicine, medicament, m. meet, rencontrer. melodrama, melodrame, m. member, membre, m. menagerie, menagerie, f. merry, gai, -e. mild, clement, -e. milk, lait, in. mine, le mien, la mienne, miens, les miennes. minister, ministre. tn. minute, minute, f. mistress, maitresse, f.

{noun)

nature, nature, near, pres de.

f.

necessary; to be , falloir, impers. need, besoin, m.; to be in avoir {irr.) besoin de. need, avoir {irr.) besoin de. neighbor, voisin. m.; voisine, neighborhood, voisinage, m. nephew, neveu, m. jamais. never, ne newspaper, journal, m. next day, lendemain, m.

irr.,

les

.

.

niece, niece,

night, nuit,

of,

f.

.

f.

f.;

good

,

[m. bonsoir,


.

BEGINNER ninety, quatre vingt dix quatre viiigt onzc. ninth, neuvieme.

ne

no,

ne

.

.

.

.

.

pas

.

aucun

aucun

de,

nul

;

— one,

;

nul ; no, non.

more, ne

nobody,

personne,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

m.

aucun

ne,

.

.

ne

ne, .

order,

.

(with [neg.).

.

.

ne^ ne

.

. aucun n'en pas, nor, ni; (a//^r prendre garde) ou. not, ne pas a, any, ne .

.

;

.

.

.

.

.

.

;

pas de ne aucun. notebook, cahier, m. nothing, rien ne, ne rien, notice, remarquer, apercevoir, .

.

.

;

.

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

291

open, ouvrir, irr. opera, opera, m. opposite, en face de. or, ou.

plus.

noiselessly, doucement.

none, nul

.

ne,

FRENCH

S

novel, roman. m. [irr. numerous, nombreu-x, -se. nurse, garde malade, m. or f.

ordre, m.; in that, pour que, afin que {suhjunct.) organ, orgue, m. organist, organiste, m. other, autre; some... or , un

quelconque. ought, devoir, irr. .

.

.

our, notre, nos. ours, le notre, la notre, les no' out of, par. [tres.

over; to be , etre {irr.) overcoat, pardessus, m.

fini, -e.

pale, pale.

paper, papiet, m. parent, parent, m. park, pare, m. obey, obeir a. obscure, obscur, -e. occupy, occuper. o'clock, heure, /.; two

parlor, salon,

part, partie,

party; evening

A.M.,

deux heures du matin six du soir. ;

de; des ;

office;

— the, du, de — — them, ticket — guichet,

de

la,

en.

it,

m.

,

oil, huile,

1',

f.

on, sur; omitted before dates.

once; at

,

aussitot, tout

one, adj., un, -e

de

suite.

— or two hours,

;

une heure ou deux or une ou deux heures.

one, pron., on;

's

self,

se;

another, se, se...run I'autre; the , celui, celle the this s, ceux, celles , ce-

lui la,

;

:

celle ci

ci,

celle la.

only, ne

.

.

.

que.

;

that

— — celui ,

,

soiree,

/.,

passenger,

voyageur, m.

, contre-allee, peal, volee, f.; see ring.

f.

pen, plume, f. pencil, crayon, m. people, on, m.; young , jeunes gens, m. pi. pepper, poivre, m. perceive, apercevoir, irr. performance, representation, f. perfume, parfum, m. permission, permission, f. s presperson, personne, f.;

f.

olive, olive,

pass, passer.

path; side

P. M., six heures of,

m.

f.

ent, assistants, w.

pi.

physician, medecin, m. piano, piano, m. pick, cueillir,

irr.

morceau, m.; niture, meuble, m.

piece,

of fur-


BEGINNERS FRENCH

292 pill, pilule,

pupil, eleve, m. or

f.

pillow, oreiller, w. pity, pitie, /.; to

put, placer;

have

on,

f.

mettre, irr.; to

on, mettre, irr.

avoir (»Vr.) pitie de. pity, avoir (»Vr.) pitie de. place, placer,

plate, assiette,

plateful,

f.

assiettee,

/.

play, piece, f, play, jouer; {instrument) joiiei de; playground, preau, m. pleasant, charmant, agreable. please, plaire {irr.)

a.

pleased, content (e) de (infin.) with, satisfait(e) de. pleasure, plaisir, m. pocket, poche, /.

poor, pauvre

;

mauvais,

possible, possible; it is

quiet, calme. ;

radish, radis, m.

-e.

,

il

se

peut.

pound,

quality, qualite, f. quarter, quart, m.; a of an hour, un quart d'heure. question, question, /. quick, rapide. quickly, rapi dement

rail;

by

railroad, livre,

en chemin de fer. chemin de fer, m.

rain, pleuvoir, irr.

f.

raise, lever.

pour, verser. practice, pratique,

rap, coup, m. rapid, rapide.

f.

pray, prier.

rapidement.

precise, precis, -e.

rapidly,

prefer, preferer.

rare, rare.

preferable, preferable. prepare, preparer; to (something) prepared, (irr.) preparer.

rather, plutot.

have faire

a.

tion.

reception; evening

to a une puni-

irr.;

subir

,

soiree,

recommandcr

f.

de

(infin.).

-e.

red, rouge.

f.

probably, probablement. progress, progres. m. proper; be , convenir, irr. provide with, pourvoir (irr.) de. public, public, m.

puU down,

recevoir,

recommend,

press, presser.

princess, princesse,

lire, irr.

punishment,

f.

present; to be at, assister present, presenter,

a; attein-

(irr.)

dre, irr. receive,

prescription, prescription,

joli,

reach, parvenir read,

prescribe, ordonner.

pretty,

,

baisser.

pulse, pouls, m. punish, punir.

punishment, punition,

f.

reflect upon, reflechir a.

refuse, refuser. reign, regner. rejoice,

(somebody)

rejouir;

(doing something) se rejouir de (infin.). relative, parent, m. remain, *rester. rent, louer for , a louer. ;


;

BEGINNERS FRENCH seem, sembler; paraitre,

repass, repasser. repeat, repeter. reply, repondre, repliquer. represent, representer.

reputation, reputation,

— to

f.

demeurer.

m.

seven, sept, seventy, soixante dix. several, plusieurs.

{go back) retourner; on returning from, de retour de. revivre, droite,

irr.

f.;

on the

shade, ombre,

,

de

a full peal,

sonner a toute volee. mur, -e.

m.

show, montrer. etalage, m. shut one's self in by locking the door, s'enfermer a double ^

tour,

— —

m.; path, contre-alon the right de droit on the left de gauche. sidewalk, trottoir, m. silence, silence, m. silent; to be se taire, irr. lee,

f.

f. ;

sir, ,

a vendre.

same, meme. Saturday, samedi, m.

scratch, frotter. sculptor, sculpteur,

irr.

sixteen, seize,

[en classe. , a I'ecole,

f.

m.

f.

skilful, habile,

sleeping car, wagon lit, m. avoir (irr.) sleepy; to be , slowly, lentement. [sommeil. small, petit, -e. smiling, souriant, -e. snake, serpent, m.

snow, neige,

-e.

second, seconde, f. see, apercevoir, irr.; voir,

sixty, soixante. sleep, dormir, irr.

f.

seated, assis,

f.

s'asseoir,

six, six.

schoolmaster, instituteur, m. schoolmistress, institutrice, scold, gronder.

seat, place,

down,

sixth, sixieme. pi.

school, ecole, /.; at

season, saison,

monsieur.

sister, soeur, sit

say, dire, irr. scenery, decors, m.

,

sing, chanter,

sad, triste.

m.

,

since, depuis.

S

salt, sel,

,

round, rond, -e. rug; see bedside.

store,

[m.

sheet, drap,

side, cote

f.

rosy, rose,

sale; for

{blind)

show window,

ripe,

room, chambre,

/.;

she, elle.

short, court, -e.

droite; see side, ring, sonner; to

road, route,

m.

coucher.

set, se

restaurant, restaurant, w. return, {give back) rendre;

revive,

service, service,

rest, se reposer.

right,

to

seldom, rarement. vendre. [{irr.) venir. send, envoyer, irr.; for, faire sermon, sermon, m.

respective, respecti-f, -ve. rest, repos,

irr.;

be, paraitre, irr.

sell,

require, exiger. reside,

293

so, si irr.

;

f.

much

as,

— many

tant de {noun) que.

as,


BEGINNERS FRENCH

294 soil,

salir.

some, part, art, du, de la, de V, ... or des quelque, certain quelconque. other, un some, pron., quelques uns en. somebody, quelqu'un. something, quelque chose, m. sometimes, quelquefois, parfois;

;

;

.

.

.

;

son,

...» fils,

tantot

. . .,

.

.

m.

as {indie).

sible;

tan-

[tot

song, chant, tn. soon, bientot; as possible,

.,

.

.

.

sorte,

suffer,

sun, soleil, m. {last or next) dimanche,

Sunday,

m.; {every) le dimanche. superb, superbe. supper; to take , souper.

sure,

take, prendre,

cloth, nappe,

(o person)

irr.;

mener;

{drink) {s-djalloiv) avaler

;

boire,

irr.;

— away, emporter {steal) enlever; to — along, emmener; to — care soigner; to — care not prendre garde de (mse to — delight plaire a {in to — off to one's hat, se decouvrir. — out, tirer; to — supper, souper to — a walk, se proto

;

;

spoonful, cuilleree, stage, scene, /.

{irr.)

fin.)

in,

;

fin.)

f.

:

irr.;

m.

stairs, escalier,

standing, debout

to,

of,

m.

staircase, escalier,

,

{adv.).

start to work, se mettre

{irr.)

travail.

;

mener, faire menade.

{irr.)

une pro-

talk, parler.

statue, statue,

tall,

/.

grand,

tarry,

stay, *rester.

derober.

-e.

s'attarder a

teach, instruire.

encore.

irr.

teacher, maitre, m.

magasin. m.

tell, dire, irr.

stove, fourneau, m.

ten, dix.

stranger, etranger, m. f raise,

street, rue, /.; strike, f rotter.

{infin.).

m.

tea, the,

stop, s'arreter.

strawberry,

-ce.

table, table, f.;

oreilles.

store,

-e.

f.

space, espace, m. speak, parler. spectacle, theatre, m. spend, passer.

still,

siir,

sweet, dou-x,

steal,

irr.

m.

ete,

plus tot; as le plus tot posas, aussitot que

sound, son, m. soundly, profondement to sleep dormir {irr.) sur les deux ,

au

souffrir,

summer,

er,

sorry, triste. sort,

succeed, reussir. such, tel, -le.

than, que.

thank

f.

{causeway) ch2i\is[see,

/.

for,

remercier de.

that, dem. adj., ce, cet, cette; ce ... la,

cet

.

.

.

la.

cette ...

— one, dem.

strip, depouiller.

that or

studious, studieu-x, -se. subject, sujet, m.

that, relat. pron., qui, que.

celle

;

celui

la.

la.

pron., celui,

celle la

;

cela

;

ce.


,

;

BEGINNERS FRENCH that, conj., que. the,

celle;

— ones,

towards, vers.

les;

1',

la,

le,

towel, serviette de toilette, suie mains, m. tower, tour, /. toy, joujou, m. tragedy, tragedie, /. travel, voyager,

one, celui,

ceux, celles.

theater, theatre, m. their, leur, leurs.

theirs, le leur, la leur, les leurs;

en them,

.

.

.

les.

1',

la,

le,

eux,

les, leur,

traveller, voyageur,

elles.

then, alors; puis. there,

y

la,

;

or are, ces

;

.

.

these, de7n. pr., ceux, celles celles

y a

il

trip,

;

to) voila.

these, dem. adj., ces ci,

/.; es-

m.

m. voyage, m.

tree, arbre,

is

{when pointing

295

.

ci.

ceux

;

trouble, peine, f.; see worth, try, essayer de {infin.).

Tuesday, mardi, m. turn, tourner.

ci.

they, ils, eux, elles. ^hink, penser. thirsty; to be avoir , thirteen, treize.

(irr.)

twelve, douze. twenty, vingt. two, deux.

[soif.

thirty, trente.

dem.

this, .

;

.

ci,

this or celle

adj., ce, cet, cette; ce

cet

— one,

ci,

celui

ci,

;

.

.

.

cette

.

.

.

ci.

dem. pron., celle

ci

celuT,

ceci

;

ce.

those, dem. adj., ces

dem.

those,

ceux

pr.,

celles

la,

;

ces

.

ceux,

.

.

la.

celles;

ugly, vilain, -e. umbrella, parapluie,

unless,

{subjunc\tive).

us, nous.

use; -e.

to

make

of,

se

useless, inutile,

through, par. ticket, billet,

m.;

usher, ouvreuse,/.

accoutum^, -e; as coutume. usually, gdndralement, de cou-

office, gui-

usual,

comme de

m.

tiger, tigre,

m.

time, temps, m.; {o'clock) heure, , I'heure du repas; f.; meal what is it? quelle heure

[tume.

utter, Jeter.

est il? tired, fatigue, -e.

de;

the, au, a la, a 1', the end, jusqu'a la fin see house, tongue, langue, f. too, trop; much, many, trop de {noun). to,

a,

aux;

vast, vaste. vaudeville, vaudeville,

vegetable, legume, m, very, tres, bien.

;

top, haut,

servir

{irr.) de.

three, trois.

chet,

moins que

k

until, jusqu'k.

la.

thousand, mille. threatening, incertain,

m.

uncle, oncle, m. undress, se ddshabiller.

m.

m. m.

village, village, violin, violon, visit, visite, f.


?

BEGINNER

296

W —

S

FRENCH why, pourquoL wide, large.

for, attendre. wait, attendre waiter, garden, m.

wild, sauvage. wind, vent, m.

walk, promenade, f. walk, marcher. wall, mur, w. want, vouloir, irr. wash, laver. washstand, lavabo, in.' water, eau, f.

window,

;

wax

candle, bougie,

f.

way, chemin, m.; on the

,

en

is

bien.

what, what,

interr. pron., qu'est ce

the

lequel? laquelle? etc.; of

work, work, worth

travail,

,

le jardin.

qui? qui est

pron., que.

«

;

to

tiie

d'etre regarde.

write, ecrire,

irr.

year, annee, f. yellow, jaune. yes, oui; (after negat question)

sL yet, encore. yield, ceder.

you, tu,

toi,

te,

young, jeune; selle,

vous. lady,

demoi-

/.

younger eon or brother, cadet, m. your, ton, ta, tes; votre, vos. yours, le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes; le votre, la votre, les votres. yourselves, vous.

ce que? relat.

m.

travailler.

duquel? etc. which, relat. pron., qui, que; of duquel, etc.; dont. while, en (pres. partic.). white, blanc, -he. who, qui, qui est ce qui? whoever, quiconque. garden, tout whole, tout; the

whom,

irr,

be , valoir, irr.; to be trouble or the while, en valoir (irr.) la peine; that is looking at, cela vaut la peine

qui? qu'est ce que? que? quoi? lequel? laquelle? etc. what, relat. pron., ce qui, ce que. when, quand, lorsque. whenever, quand, lorsque. where, ou. which, interr. adj., quel, -le. which, interr. pron., qui? que?

interr. pron.,

car.

(impersonal),

wine, vin, m. winter, hiver, m. wish, desir, m. wish, desirer, vouloir, with. avec.

interr. adj., quel, -le?

whom,

within, en. without, sans.

well,

(shop) vi-

du vent

faire (irr.)

f.;

show and

windy; to be

route.

we, nous. weather, temps, m.; how ? quel temps fait il? week, semaine, /. weep, pleurer.

fenetre,

trine, f.; sec

whose, de qui, duquel, dont; toy is this, a qui est ce jou-

zeal, zele,

m.


INDEX Numbere

refer to

paragraphs unless preceded by

p.

= page.

aprSs, 392.

after

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

moins que, 444.

s,

accent, p. 13;

tonic accent, p. 18.

replacing

29; exceptions, 29. i and 2, 38 note, 148, 161, 171. 2, 172;

general

plural:

ceptions,

rule,

170.

147,

30;

ex-

interrogative,

264;

230. i; numeral:

cardinal,

75;

ordinal, 76; possessive, 40, 367; replaced by the definite article,

432; replaced definite

auxiliary verbs, see dtre, avoir, do,

and verbs. avant que, 444. avoir:

367.

2;

formation, 118.

243, 288.

B bel for beau, 147. bien que, 444. 5.

position, 118.

son, 118.

2,

433;

C cardinal numbers, 75. ce: demonstrative adjective, 41;

130;

demonstrative

compari-

251, 252, 253; ceci, 251.

I.

afin que, 444. 5. after, see apres.

agreement,

see

2.

boire, 393, p. 256. by, 392.

superi,

past

participle conjugated with avoir,

lative, 39.

adverbs:

5.

conjugation, p. 251;

by en and the

article,

9;

aspirate h, p. 16.

comparison, 38; position, 149, demonstrative, 41, 116; 160; indefinite,

i,

asseoir, 366. atteindre, 408.

171. i;

2,

2.

partitive, 63, 62; 137, 150, 162, 308. i; replacing possessive adjective, 367, 432,

English

passive voice, 267, 346. adjectives: agreement, 28, 163. i and 2; feminine: general rule,

2,

indefinite,

452-

acquerir, 470. active voice

i.

contraction with i, 97; with de, generic, p. 80 footnote; 48;

before infinitives 97; certain verbs, 384;

article,

definite,

article:

k: contraction with the definite

pronoun,

221,

C*est, 221.

cedilla, p. 14.

adjectives

and

cela, 251. celui, celle, ceux, celles, 220.

participle.

-cer, verbs ending in, 139.

aller, 306, 324, p. 256.

cet, cette, 41.

anterior, see past.

any, see partitive under and en. apostrophe, p. 13.

article,

ci,

116, 220.

I

note.

comparison, 38. compound: nouns, 375; 297

tenses,


beginner's FRENCH

298

footnote, 235, 138 305; vowels, p. 15. conditional, 201, p. 137 footnote, p. p.

dont, 232, 252. dormir, 416, p. 257.

E

255-

conjugation: regular verbs, p. 255; irregular verbs, pp. 251-254, pp. 256-259. conjunctions: quand, 262, 347; lorsque, 347; si, 261; requiring the subjunctive, 444. 5. connaitre, 470, p. 257. consonants, p. 16, 75 note i; final, p. 17.

construction:

interrogative,

20, 21, 31, 52, 119.

18,

i;

19,

negative,

21,64,119,265,452.

the subjunctive, 452. que, 444. croire, 470, p. 257.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

5,

mute or silent, p. 14; final e replaced by e, 86. 2; change of e before last syllable of infinitive' 193, 204.

e,

I.

change of e before

last syllable

of infinitive, 192, 203.

each other, 424. ecrire, 445, p. 257. -eler, verbs ending in, 194, 204. 2, 205. 2. elision, 9,

contraction, 48, 97. convenir, 461. couvrir, 307, p. 257. craindre, 385, p. 257; followed CTainte: de

e:

18, 48. 3, 64,

65,

221,

347-'

en: pronominal adverb, 182, 288,

by

452.

cueillir, 287, p. 257.

367; position, 286; preposition, 392. endings of regular verbs, p. 255. envoyer, 297, p. 257. est ce que, 52. gteindre, 416, p. 257 footnote i. -eter, verbs ending in, 194, 204. 3, 205. I.

de:

partitive, contraction, 48; 63, T-n, 150. 162, 308. i; translating with, 308. 2 translating in ;

after a

supyerlative,

222;

after

etre, p. 253; used for avoir, 306; with reflexive verbs, 364.

-evoir, verbs ending in, see recevoir, p. 258.

adverbs of quantity, 181; after nouns of quantity and measure, 191; after rien, quelque chose, faire, 307, p. 257.

266.

decouvrir, 461. definite, see article

falloir, 316, p. 257.

and

preterit.

demi, 207. demonstrative, see adjectives and pronouns. derived tenses, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote. diaeresis, p. 14.

diphthongs, p. 15. dire, 377, p. 257. division into syllables, p. 18.

do, 86. 1.

verbs of fear requiring the subjunctive, 444. 3, 452. feeling: verbs of feeling requiring fear:

the subjimctive, 444. 3. feminine, see gender and

adjec-

tives. final consonants, p. 17. formation of tenses, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote. future, 201, p. 137 footnote, p. 138

footnote, p. 255.


beginner's FRENCH

G

Ton, 267.

gender, i. generic article, p. 80 footnote, -ger, verbs ending in, 138. graphic signs, p. 13.

h: aspirate, p. 16; mute, p. 16. hair, 316.

he

is,

lorsque, 347.

M madame,

95 footnote, mademoiselle, p. 95 footnote, masculine, i. mettre, 324, p. 258. moins: a que, 444. 5, 452. p.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

monsieur, p. 95 footnote. mourir, 453, p. 258.

221.

hope, see feeling,

hyphen,

299

mute

p. 13, 66.

or silent e, p. 14;

mute

h,

p. 16.

I

N

imperative: p. 138 footnote, p. 255; position of personal pronouns

nasal sounds, p. 15. ne, 18, 21, 64, 119, 265, 452. negation or negative construction,

261.

if,

with, 296. imperfect: indicative, p. 137 footnote, p. 255; subjunctive, p. 138 footnote, p. 255. impersonal verbs, 444. i. in, 392;

after superlatives, 222,

indefinite,

see

adjectives,

article,

and pronouns.

p. 137 footnote, p. 255; without preposition, 384; with

infinitive,

de,

384;

junctive, 444.

2.

no, not, not a, not any, 18, 64, 264.

nouns:

gender,

i;

eral rule, 2. 2;

88, 96,

51,

number: genexceptions, 49-

170.

I,

183;

com-

pound, 375.

indicative, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote, p. 255.

kj

18, 21, 64, 119, 265, 452.

negative verbs requiring the sub-

replacing

present

number:

of adjectives:

general

rule, 30; exceptions, 147, 170. 2,

171. i; of nouns: general rule, exceptions, 49-51, 88, 2. 2; 170.

96,

I,

183;

of

compound

nouns, 375.

participle, 376, 392. instruire, 461.

numeral adjectives,

75, 76.

interrogative, see adjectives, construction, pronouns,

introduire, 408. irregular verbs, pp.

and verbs.

as subject, 10; it is, 221, 323; as object, 277, 286, 296. its, 367.

it:

L U,

116, 220. I note,

liaison, p. 17.

linking of words, p. 17. 400, p. 257.

lire,

see personal under pronouns. -oir, verbs ending in, 152, p. 251, pp. 256-259.

object,

251-254, pp.

256-259.

on, 267. on, 206, 392. one another, 424. only, 65. ordinal' numbers, 76. orthographic peculiarities of verbs of

the

first

conjugation,

138,


beginner's FRENCH

300 139, 192, 205, 263. oui, 119. 2.

193,

194,

203,

204,

pronouns:

demonstrative, 220, 251; indefinite, 264, 265; interrogative, 223, 230. 2, 3, 221,

and 4, 233; personal, 277, 315; position, 277, 286, 296, 315; possessive, 242; relative, 220. 2,

ouvrir, 40x5, p. 258.

231, 232, 252. paraitre, 461, p. 258. participle: present, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote; replaced

by the infinitive in French, 376, 392; past, 234; agreement, 243, 288, 306, 364, 415.

pronunciation, pp. 13-18.

quand, 262, 347. que: conjunction

that, 444. 5; as or than, 38; relative or interrogative pronoun, see pro-

partir, 316, p. 258.

partitive, see article.

nouns.

passive, see voice.

past: anterior, footnote p. 179, p. 251, p. 253; definite, see preterit;

and

questions, see construction.

quoique, 444.

5.

see participle.

R

jersonal, see pronouns.

peur: de

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; que,

444. 5, 452. plaire, 348, p. 258. pleuvoir, 307, p. 258. pluperfect, see compound under tenses. plural, see

position,

number. see

adjectives, adverbs,

pronouns. possessive, see adjectives

and pro-

recevoir, 152, 153, p. 258. reciprocal verbs, 424. reflexive verbs, 355, 356, 364, 365,

432. regular verbs, 84, p. 255. relative, see pronouns. resoudre, 377, p. 259. rirCf 453, P- 259.

nouns.

pour que, 444.

S

5.

pourvoir, 416, p. 258. pouvoir, 393, p. 258.

prendre, 339, p. 258. prepositions, see H, apr^s, de, en, by, in, with.

present: indicative, p. 255, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote; par-

137 footnote, p. 138 footnote, 376, 392; subjunctive, p. 255, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 ticiple, p.

footnote. preterit or past definite, p.

255,

que, 444. 5. savoir, 470, p. 259. sentir, 366, p. 259. sequence of tenses, 469. servir, 434, p. 259. she

is,

221.

si:

if,

261;

yes, 53.

simple tenses, p. 255. simple vowels, p. 14. some, see partitive under article, indefinite under adjectives, and en.

p.

137 footnote, p. 138 footnote. primitive tenses or principal parts,

sortir, 357, p. 259. souffrir, 445, p. 259.

p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote.

sounds, nasal, p. 15.


BEGINNER

S

FRENCH

301 or

negative

subjunctive: tenses, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote, 442, 443, 468, p. 25s; uses, 444, 452. superlative: adjectives, 39; adverbs, 118. i; followed by sub-

interrogative

junctive, 444. 4. syllabication, p. 18.

infinitive, 192, 203; change of e before last syllable of infinitive,

-t-,

when

2;

reflexive,

355, 356, 364, 365, 432; reciprocal, 424; -cer, 139; change of 6 before last syllable of

193, 204. i; -eler, 194, 204. 2, 205. 2; -eter, 194, 204. 3, 205. i; -evoir, see recevoir, p. 258;

inserted, 66.

-ger,

138; -oir, 152, p. pp. 256-259; -yer, 263.

taire, 461, p. 259.

tenir, 393, p. 259. tenses: simple, p. 255;

fol-

lowed by subjunctive, 444.

compound,

formation, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote; conjugation, pp. 251p. 138 footnote, 235, 305;

255; sequence, 469. they are, 221.

time of day, 323. tonic accent, p. 18. tu, p. 23 footnote.

251,

vfitir,

434, p. 259. vivre, 453, p. 259. voice: active replacing

passive, passive, 305, 306. voir, 331, P- 259vouloir, 445, p. 259. vowels: simple, p. 14; compound,

267, 346;

p. 15.

W

while, 392.

wiU: verbs of will subjunctive, 444. with, 308. 2.

valoir, 377, p. 259. venir, 366, p. 259.

verbs: regular, p. 255;

86. i;

pp.

Y

irregular,

256-259; do, 251-254; impersonal, 444. i;

251-254, pp. auxiliary, pp.

followed 3.

y, 278, 286, 298.

-yer, verbs ending in, 263. yes, 53, 119. 2.

by


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