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Why your next decision will be an easier one The Level of Service (LS) tools are the best validated and most widely used risk/needs assessments in the world. The tools measure an offender’s likelihood to reoffend and guide you through the decision process that follows. LS tools can be used to help make decisions surrounding resource allocation, placement, case planning, appropriate security level classification, and treatment progress.

• Generate results that have a real impact

Offenders recidivated at a rate of 15% less than offenders managed by officers not using the LS tool with RNR principles.

A recent study showed that offenders managed by officers using the LSI-R recidivated at a rate of 15% less than offenders managed by officers not using the tool

• Research you can trust

Proven to accurately predict recidivism, violence, and a large number of other relevant outcomes. It is valid across age, gender, ethnicity, and offender type.

• Accurately assess any population

Valid and reliable in different countries, states, provinces, offender populations, genders, various minority groups, and settings.

• Widely accepted

One of the most widely used instruments for the assessment of recidivism, the LS instruments are currently being used by probation, parole, community corrections, prisons, psychologists and mental health professionals across the country and around the world.

• Save time and money

Developing scientifically driven case plans will ensure offenders are receiving the services they need.

• Stay current with continuous improvement •

The LS/CMI is actively supported by ongoing scientific research and continues to evolve as our understanding of recidivism and assessment technology evolves. Support your decisions Using a widely validated risk/need assessment can provide support where judgments are questioned.

Scientific Validation

Unsurpassed in research support, the LS tools feature the highest level of predictive criterion validity across the following outcomes:

• General recidivism • Prison Misconducts,

• Violent recidivism • Halfway house success • Positive early case closures

• Domestic abuse • Technical violations

including violence

in the community

LS tools accurately predict individuals who are at a high risk of reoffending Offender One-Year Recidivism (to Prison) as a Function of LS/CMI Score** 80

Offender Group (recidivism rate) Probationers (14%)

Percent Recidivism

Inmates (41%) 60















LS/CMI Score







Inmates (N=923) Probationers (N=561); **From Andrews (1995)





Quick Reference

Age 16+

SPANISH espaĂąol Available

Administration time 30-45 minutes

Administration type Structured Interview Professional-completed

Qualification Level

How it works The LSI-R is a semi-structured interview that can be administered using software or handscored formats. It is comprised of 54 questions that are based on legal requirements and includes relevant factors for making decisions about risk and treatment.

Areas Measured



Criminal History


Education/ Employment

Don Andrews, Ph.D. James Bonta, Ph.D.

Handscored Software


$ $

Leisure/ Recreation Companions


Alcohol/ Drug Problems

Family/ Marital

Emotional/ Personal


Attitudes/ Orientation

Normative Data The LSI-R normative sample consisted of 26,091 North American offenders – 19,481 American inmates, 4,240 American community offenders and 2,370 Canadian inmates.

Quick Reference

Age Age 16+ 16+

SPANISH espaĂąol Available

Administrationtime time Administration

20-30minutes minutes per form; 30-45 interview varies

How it works The LS/CMI is a revision of the LSI-R with the addition of case management sections. Section 1 of the LS/CMI combines the 54 LSI-R items to 43 LS/CMI items while maintaining the item content.

Administration Administrationtype type Structured StructuredInterview Interview Professional-completed Professional-completed

Areas Measured

Qualification QualificationLevel Level BB

Authors Authors

DonAndrews, Andrews,Ph.D Ph.D. Don JamesBonta, Bonta,Ph.D Ph.D. James J. Stephen Wormith, Ph.D.

Formats Formats

Handscored Handscored Software Software Online

LS/CMI Sections 1. General Risk/ Need Factors 2. Specific Risk/Need Factors 3. Prison ExperienceInstititional Factors 4. Other Client Issues

Criminal History

Alcohol/Drug Problems

Progress Report

Education/ Employment

Antisocial Patterns

Discharge Summary

Family/ Marital

Procriminal Attitude Orientation

Specific Risk/Needs Factors

Leisure/ Recreation

Barriers to Release

Prison Experience

Case Management Plan

Special Responsivity Considerations


5. Special Responsivity Considerations 6. Risk/Need Summary and Override 7. Risk/Need Profile 8. Program/Placement Decision 9. Case Management Plan 10. Progress Record 11. Discharge Summary

Normative Data The LS/CMI normative sample consisted of 157,947 North American youth and adult offenders – 60,156 American adult and youth offers from 10 jurisdictions and 97, 791 Canadian community and institutionalized adult and youth offenders.

Reports 1. Profile Reports summarize the results of an individual administration, providing scores for all areas measured.

2. Comparative Reports combine the results of up to five different raters to provide an overview of an individual’s scores.

3. Case Management Reports provide an administrative summary of the criminogenic and non-criminogenic needs of the offender, lists special responsivity considerations, and includes a discharge summary where applicable (LS/CMI only).

4. Aggregate Reports export all of your data for analysis, providing rich evidence-based data for auditory and funding purposes.

Which is best for me? Caseworker


• Collect and record client information • Facilitate communication among professionals • Provide protection where judgement is questioned • Track changes over time

• Ensure consistency in • Collect valid and decision making reliable information • Assist in resource allocation on offenders within the agency • Provide quality information for auditing and funding purposes

• Same as LSI-R • Guidance with case planning

• Same as LSI-R • Collect and record data on services provided

• Screen offenders where it is not feasible to complete full LS assessment

• Indicate offenders who may require a complete LS assessment

• Integrate your current case management process with a risk/needs assessment

• Maintain current case • Collect valid and reliable management practices while information on offenders using the most current risk • Measure the effect of assessment research offender strengths

• Equivalent to the LS/CMI for youth ages 12–18

• Equivalent to the LS/CMI for youth ages 12–18


• Same as LSI-R • Provides data to measure the effectiveness of interventions

• Quickly identify candidates for research

• Equivalent to the LS/CMI for youth ages 12–18

Join our Community of Users

The Level of Service Community of Users is an email group composed of the LS users, leaders, and researchers in public safety organizations across world. It is a free-of-charge online community that allows professionals to share best practices, research policies, and procedures that work. If you are interested in registering please send your contact information to: or 1-800-456-3003 ext. 269.

Speak to an assessment consultant about implementation options

USA: Tel: 1.800.456.3003 CAN: Tel: 1.800.268.6011 Email:

Related Assessments M-Pulse™ Inventory

Youth Level of Service/ Case Management Inventory 2.0™

Robert D. Davis, Ph.D., M.P. & Cary D. Rostow, Ph.D., M.P.

Robert D. Hoge, Ph.D. & Don Andrews, Ph.D.

Outperforms the MMPI-2 in liability prediction.

Accurately classify and predict re-offending within juvenile populations. Hare Psychopathy-Scan™ Research Version Robert D. Hare, Ph.D. & Hugues F. Hervé, M.A.

Only psychopathy assessment in the world that can be administered by front line agents.



Juvenile Interview for Functioning


Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale

Kay Hodges, Ph.D., ABPP

Predicts service use and cost better than any other indicator or measure.

Profile for MHS Assessments

LS Brochure 2017  

LS Brochure 2017