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MEMBACA KEMERDEKAAN

Reading Independence

Perpustakaan Hamzah Sendut 1, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hamzah Sendut Library 1, Universiti Sains Malaysia

12 - 31 Ogos / August 2009


MEMBACA KEMERDEKAAN Reading Independence adalah sebuah pameran multi-dimensi yang meliputi catan, foto, cetakan, objek jumpa, fosil batu permata, manuskrip lama, pedang, perisai, pakaian perang, cetakan digital dan projeksi video. Ia memaparkan hasil karya Raja Azhar Idris, Nur Hanim Mohamed Khairuddin, Yasmin Al Kahari, Redza Piyadasa, Azman Yusoff, Mohd Shaparel Salleh, Yee I-Lann, Azmin Hussein dan instalasi video oleh USMart team: Afzanizam Mohd Ali, Mohd Firdaus Khairuddin, Aizuan Azmi, Shamsul Ikhmal Mansori, Nor Mohammad Abd Rahim, Adlan Redzuan, Rosli Hamzah, Noordin Ban, Salim Ibrahim, Azizi Yahya, Muhammad Husni Abd Latiff, Izrul Abd. Aziz, Mohamad Yazdi Yaacop, Noor Rashid Shabidi dan Ravi a/l Vansamy. is a multi-dimensional exhibition of paintings, photographs, prints, found objects, fossil, gemstone, old manuscripts, swords, shield, body armour, digital prints and video projections. It features the works of artists Raja Azhar Idris, Nur Hanim Mohamed Khairuddin, Yasmin Al Kahari, Redza Piyadasa, Azman Yusoff, Mohd Shaparel Salleh, Yee I-Lann, Azmin Hussein and a video installation by USMart team: Afzanizam Mohd Ali, Mohd Firdaus Khairuddin, Aizuan Azmi, Shamsul Ikhmal Mansori, Nor Mohammad Abd Rahim, Adlan Redzuan, Rosli Hamzah, Noordin Ban, Salim Ibrahim, Azizi Yahya, Muhammad Husni Abd Latiff, Izrul Abd. Aziz, Mohamad Yazdi Yaacop, Noor Rashid Shabidi and Ravi a/l Vansamy.


Membaca Kemerdekaan/Reading Independence 12 - 31 Ogos/August 2009 Perpustakaan Hamzah Sendut I, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Pengarah Projek & Penyunting / Project Director & Editor Hasnul Jamal Saidon Kurator Bersama / Curatorial Collaborators Mohd Firdaus Khairuddin, Aizuan Azmi, Nur Hafizah Ab. Aziz, Nor Mohammad Abd. Rahim, Shamsul Ikhmal Mansori, Noordin Ban, Rosli Hamzah, Muhammad Husni Abd. Latiff, Mohamad Yazdi Yaacop, Izrul Abd. Aziz, Noor Rashid Shabidi Konsep Rekabentuk / Design Concept Afzanizam Mohd Ali

Tel: 04 6533888 ext-3261/2137/4789/4788/4786/3294 Fax: 04 6563531/6535060 Email: dir_muzium@notes.usm.my Website: www.mgtf.usm.my www.mgtfusmpenang.blogspot.com www.tagged.com/mgtfusm www.facebook.com/mgtfusm www.twitter.com/mgtf www.youtube.com/mgtfusm

Pembantu Penerbitan / Publication Assistants Nor Laila Abd. Rozak@Razak, Safinawati Samsudin Pembantu Kewangan / Financial Assistant Rohaya Sanapi Promosi & Publisiti / Promotion & Publicity Nurul Ashikin Shuib, Azizi Yahya, Adlan Redzuan, Salim Ibrahim Sokongan Umum / General Supports Radhiyah Abu Bakar, Salmiah Mohamad, Faridah Hashim, Ravi Vansamy Pameran Atas Talian / Online Exhibition http://mgtf.usm.my/exhibit/php

Membaca kemerdekaan = Reading independence (Exhibition) (2009 : Pulau Pinang) Membaca kemerdekaan : Perpustakaan Hamzah Sendut 1, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 12 - 31 Ogos 2009 = Reading Independence : Hamzah Sendut Library 1, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 12 - 31 August 2009. ISBN 978-967-10008-7-8 1. Art--Exhibitions. 2. Universiti Sains Malaysia. Muzium & Galeri Tuanku Fauziah. 709.595 Š2010 Hasnul J Saidon, Muzium & Galeri Tuanku Fauziah, Universiti Sains Malaysia. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced except for the purpose of research, critism and review, without prior permission in writting from publisher.


“Membaca Kemerdekaan” menggunakan beberapa prinsip kuratorial yang penting dalam mencerminkan anjakan transformasi USM ke arah pameran yang bersifat rentas-disiplin dan mesra-pengunjung. Ia juga menggambarkan pendekatan penyegaransemula USM, terutama sekali dalam melakarkan penerokaan baru, mempergiatkan kelestarian dan berganjak dari paradigma yang sudah lesu. Makna kemerdekaan dipersembahkan menerusi prinsip-prinsip seperti mudah-alih, ditakrif pengunjung, pilihan, modular, saling-bergantungan, kontekstual, tidak berturutan, saling-tindak, serentak, percambahan, pertautan, keanjalan dan percantuman. Koleksi seni tradisi, seni moden dan seni kontemporari USM yang meluas dan unik telah digabungkan sebagai bahan antara-teks yang dapat mencetuskan pelbagai bacaan tentang kemerdekaan, yang melangkau kelaziman naratif sejarah rasmi. Menerusi pendekatan sebegini, pameran ini menghidangkan ruang yang inklusif dan kewacanaan yang menggamit pengunjung meluahkan pembacaan mereka tentang kemerdekaan. Ciri penyertaan dan antarateks dalam pameran ini membuka pembacaan baru, selain dari memindah makna kemerdekaan dari ditentukan oleh kerajaan kepada ditafsirkan oleh rakyat. “Reading Independence” employs several key curatorial principles that reflect USM’s transformative shift towards a transdisciplinary and audience-friendly exhibition. It epitomises USM’s continuous rejuvenation mode, especially in charting new territories, advocating sustainability and shifting from defunct paradigm. The notion of independence is presented through the principles of portability, people-defined, choice, modularity, inter-independence, contextual, non-liner, interactivity, simultaneity, multiplicity, connectivity, flexibility and convergence. USM’s unique and diverse collections of traditional, modern and contemporary art are brought together as inter-textual materials that may trigger multiple readings of independence beyond the convention the official historical narrative. In doing so, the exhibition serves as an inclusive and discursive space that invites the audience (library users) to express their own readings of indepence. The participative nature and inter-textuality of the exhibited materials have also unveiled new readings, other than shifted the notion of independence from government-dictated to people-defined.


Jiwa yang merdeka persis permata yang bersinar dan bercahaya! Apakah makna kemerdekaan terletak di hujung mata pedang (kuasa)? Ataupun di hujung mata pena (pengetahuan)? Ataupun mata akal (kesedaran)? Atau ... jauh di dalam mata hati (hikmah)? A free soul is like a glowing and shining gem. What is the meaning of Independence? Do we place it at the tip of a sword (power)? Or at the tip of a pen (knowledge)? Or at the tip of our mind (consciousness)? Or ... deep inside a corner of our heart (wisdom)?

Tajuk / Title Usia / Estimated Age Asal / Place of Origin Saiz / Size

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: Batu Delima / Garnet Stone : 100, 000 tahun / years : Myanmar : 10cm x 6cm x 4cm


Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Estimated Date Asal / Place of Origin Bahan / Material Saiz / Size

: Senjata & Perisai/Weapons & Body Armor : Abad ke 16 -18 / 16th–18th Centuries : Kerajaan Melayu Bugis / Malay Kingdom of Bugis : Besi, Tembaga / Iron, Copper : 122cm x 75cm

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Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Estimated Date Asal / Place of Origin Bahan / Material Saiz / Size

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: Pedang Monggol / Monggol Sword : Abad ke 18 / 18th Century : Kerajaan Monggol China / Monggol Kingdom of China : Besi, Tembaga, Permata Biru / Iron, Copper, Turquoise Gemstone : 132cm x 12cm


Apakah perjuangan kita sudah selesai? ... atau kita sudah selesa di ‘penjara’ oleh nafsu sendiri? Has our struggle ended? ... or have we been contended by the prison of our own desire?

Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

: Redza Piyadasa : To Be Completed : 1978 : Kayu + Akrilik / Wood + Acrylic : 66cm x 134cm

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Tabir antara keinginan & kebebasan adalah sangat nipis. The veil between desire and freedom is very thin.

Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

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: Raja Azhar Idris : Kurungan dan Kebebasan : 1976 : Cetakan / Print : 15cm x 23cm


Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

: Mohd Shaparel Salleh : High Five : 1999 : Akrilik / Acrylic : 175cm x 127cm

Siapa yang melihat? Siapa yang dilihat? Siapa yang lebih merdeka? Who is looking? Who is being looked at? Who is more independent?

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Sudah merdekakah kita? Atau minda dan rasa kita masih terpenjara? Have we attained independence? Or, are our mind and feeling still being prisoned?

Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

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: Yasmin Al Kahari : Interior of a Malay House I : 2006 : Media Campuran / Mixed Media : 88cm x 58cm


Janganlah ke’sombong’an terhadap pencapaian material menjadi pagar yang memakan padi! Do not let our ‘arrogance’ in regards to our material achievements become the fence that devours our sustenance.

Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

: Yee I-Lann : Horizon Series: Fencing (Ed.7/8) : 2003 : Cetakan Digital Hitam & Putih / Digital Print Black & White : 45.5cm x 91.6cm

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Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

Adakah kita sudah bersih dari segala ‘penjajahan budaya’? Are we free from all forms of ‘cultural imperialism’?

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: Azman Yusoff : Penarik Beca : 1986 : Cat Air / Water Colour : 50cm x 71cm


Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

: Nur Hanim Mohamed Khairuddin : Lakaran (Tali Gantung) : 2002 : Cat Minyak / Oil Paint : 30cm x 45cm

Teka-teki kebebasan. The riddles of freedom.

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Adakah kita sudah sebenar-benarnya merdeka? Atau masih dijajah? Adakah selera, gaya hidup, pilihan & budaya kita sudah merdeka? Bagaimana pula dengan ekonomi & ilmu? Kita sebenarnya ialah pewaris ilmu yang merentas alam. Have we really attained independence? Or are we still being colonised? Are our taste, lifestyle, choice and culture really independent? What about our economy and knowledge? We are actually the inheritors of a knowledge that cuts across time and space. Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Estimated Date Asal / Place of Origin Bahan / Material Saiz / Size

Artis / Artist Tajuk / Title Tarikh / Date Bahan / Media Saiz / Size

: Celestial Globe : Abad ke 18 / 18th Centuries : Iran : Besi, Tembaga/Iron, Copper : 38cm x 27cm

: Azmin Hussein : Red Crate : 2000 : Cetakan & Akrilik atas kayu dan botol lama / Printage & acrylic on wood with vintage bottles : 10cm x 8cm


Apakah yang sepatutnya kita pertahankan? What do we really need to defend?

DATO’ JANNATON Sebelum kedatangan Francis Light ke Pulau Pinang pada tahun 1786, Pulau tersebut telahpun didiami oleh orang–orang melayu yang berasal daripada Sumatera Timur dan Barat. Tempat-tempat seperti Batu Uban, Dato’ Keramat dan Jelutong adalah penempatan awal orang Melayu di Pulau Pinang. Dato’ Jannaton dan adiknya Dato’ Setia merupakan peneroka terawal yang mengasaskan penempatan di Pulau Pinang iaitu pada awal tahun 1700. Mereka berasal dari Pagar Ruyung, tempat bersemayam kerajaan Minangkabau di Sumatera Barat. Mereka belayar bersama 180 orang pengikut ke tanah besar Kedah. Di Kedah, mereka mendapat kebenaran daripada Sultan Kedah untuk menetap di Pulau Pinang. Penempatan awal Dato’ Jannaton terletak di antara Gelugor, Batu Uban dan Minden. Dato’ Jannaton meninggal dunia pada tahun 1789 dan dikebumikan di Taman Sentosa di belakang Minden Heights, Gelugor iaitu berhampiran belakang kampus Universiti Sains Malaysia. Kubur ini sangat panjang dan bersebelahan dengannya terletak kubur Dato’ Setia dan beberapa orang pengikutnya. DATO’ JANNATON Before the arrival of Captain Francis Light in 1786, the Island was already inhabited by the Malays who originated from Eastern and Western Sumatera. Areas such as Batu Uban, Jelutong and Dato’Keramat were the early residential areas of the Malays. In the early 1700, Dato’ Jannaton and his younger brother Dato’Setia arrived from Pagar Ruyung, the administration capital of the Minangkabau Kingdom in Western Sumatera. They sailed along with 180 followers to the mainland state of Kedah where they acquired the permission of the Sultan of Kedah to reside on the Island of Penang. Dato’Jannaton and his followers made their settlement at Batu Uban and the adjacent areas of Gelugor and what is today the Minden Heights. Dato’Jannaton died in 1789 and was buried alongside his brother Dato’ Setia and a few of his followers at a grave site close to Taman Sentosa located near Minden Heights and the Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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“Orang yang berjiwa merdeka, tidak gentar menghadapi tanggungjawab. Dan kemerdekaan budi, tidak dapat dibeli dengan harta benda.” “A person with a free soul, is not afraid to face responsibility. And wisdom of independence, cannot be bought by material wealth.” Hamka DAVID BROWN David Brown merupakan seorang saudagar Inggeris dan pemilik tanah terbesar di Pulau Pinang. Beliau merupakan seorang ahli perniagaan kaya yang berhijrah ke Pulau Pinang (sekitar tahun 1700) semasa pentadbiran EIC (East India Company) yang diketuai oleh Francis Light. David Brown membuka ladang yang dikenali sebagai Gelugor Estate, iaitu ladang rempah ratus yang menghasilkan buah pala, cengkih dan lada hitam. Selain Gelugor Estate, David Brown turut memiliki dua ladang yang tidak kurang luasnya iaitu di Sungai Nibong dan Sungai Dua Estet. Selain itu, beliau juga menceburkan diri dalam perniagaan bersama James Scoot iaitu rakan perdagangan kepada Francis Light. Selepas kematian James Scoot, David Brown mengambil-alih perniagaannya dan akhirnya menjadi pemilik tanah yang terbesar di Pulau Pinang. Keluarga Brown adalah antara keluarga yang paling kaya di Pulau Pinang. Selain memiliki ladang getah dan rempah ratus, mereka turut memiliki tiga buah rumah di puncak Bukit Bendera. David Brown juga merupakan salah seorang dermawan terkenal yang banyak menderma untuk pembangunan di Pulau Pinang. Antaranya, 12 ekar tanah di Padang Brown di mana terdapatnya tugu peringatan beliau, yang telah di dermakannya untuk Majlis Perbandaran. David Brown meninggal dunia pada tahun 1825. Selepas kematian beliau, pentadbiran ladangnya diambil-alih oleh anak beliau dan seterusnya oleh waris beliau yang lain. DAVID BROWN David brown was a wealthy trader who migrated to Penang during the time of Captain Francis Light and the East India Company. During his time of residence on the Island, he acquired and became the major land owner on the Island. He established an estate known as “Ladang Rempah Ratus” in the Gelugor area where Nutmeg, Coriander and Black Pepper were grown. David Brown also owned estates in Sungai Nibong and Sungai Dua. Beside that, he also became a trading partner to James Scott, a fellow trader with Francis Light. With the death of Scott, David Brown bought over and owned the largest tract of land in Penang. The Brown Family with their estates and plantations became the wealthiest family in Penang, owning not only estates and plantations but several houses built on top of the Penang Hill. He was also known for his philanthropic and charitable nature. He made numerous donations in the development of Penang and donated a 12 acre piece of land to the Penang City Council that is known till this day as Padang Brown where a monument attributed to him can be found. After his death in 1825, the Brown estate was taken over by his son, followed by succeeding generations of the Brown family.

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“Kemerdekaan adalah memperhambakan diri ataupun mengakui menjadi kebenaran.” “Independence is to slave oneself or to confess of being the truth.” Hamka ASKAR JEPUN Pada 8 Disember 1941, tentera Jepun mula menyerang Tanah Melayu. Kezaliman sewaktu pemerintahan dan penjajahan Jepun adalah pahit. Jepun berjaya menakluki Tanah Melayu kerana telah mendapat sokongan daripada anak negeri yang terperangkap dengan janji-janji kemerdekaan yang telah dijanjikan. Jepun juga turut menghampakan harapan mereka yang terperangkap dengan janji-janji Jepun untuk memberikan kemerdekaan dengan semboyannya “Asia untuk Orang Asia”. Mereka yang disyaki menentang Jepun akan dibunuh. Akibat kezaliman Jepun itu, semangat cintakan tanah air telah dipupuk. Tentera Jepun telah berjaya menakluki seluruh Tanah Melayu pada 15 Februari 1942. Dengan penawanan Singapura, keseluruhan Tanah Melayu telah jatuh ke tangan tentera Jepun. Peristiwa kedatangan Jepun ini telah melibatkan seluruh negeri di Tanah Melayu. Walau bagaimanapun, tentera Jepun hanya melakukan serangan besar–besaran bagi menawan bandar–bandar utama di Tanah Melayu iaitu Alor Setar, Kota Bharu, Pulau Pinang, Ipoh, Slim River, Kuala Lumpur, Port Swettenham, Muar, Batu Pahat, Johor Baharu, Mersing, Kuantan dan Singapura. Pada 9 – 10 Disember 1941, pihak Jepun telah berjaya menawan lapangan terbang Sungai Petani, Butterworth dan Alor Setar. Sehari selepas itu, pada 11 Disember 1941, 85 buah pesawat pengebom Jepun membuat serangan ke atas kawasan awam di Pulau Pinang, menyebabkan lebih 700 kematian dan lebih 1,300 lain cedera. Pada 15 Disember 1941, pesawat udara Jepun terus mengebom pangkalan udara Butterworth. Kemudian, pihak British menyerahkan Pulau Pinang kepada pihak Jepun pada 16 Disember 1941. Pada hari berikutnya iaitu pada 17 Disember 1941, Tentera Jepun menawan Pulau Pinang tanpa menghadapi sebarang tentangan sehinggalah pada 15 Ogos 1945, Jepun menyerah kalah kepada Tentera Berikat tanpa sebarang syarat setelah Hiroshima dan Nagasaki dibom. JAPANESE SOLDIER On the 8th December 1941, the Japanese invading army landed on Malaya’s soil and the years that followed this occupation were full of suffering and bitterness . The Japanese occupation was made possible partly due to the support of the locals who were promised to be liberated from the British rule of the country under the banner of “Asia for Asians”. This promise however was not kept and those found opposing the occupation were caught and executed. The Japanese atrocities and betrayal gave birth to a spirit of nationalism in the country. By the15th February 1942, the Japanese was able to occupy the whole of Malaya. With the fall of Singapore, the whole of the Malay Peninsular came under Japanese occupation and this included all the Malay States. However, most of the heavy fighting were faught in and around larger urban areas and states capitals such as Alor Star, Kota Bharu, Pulau Pinang, Ipoh, Slim River, Kuala Lumpur, Port Swettenham, Muar, Batu Pahat, Johor Bharu, Mersing, Kuantan and Singapore. By the 9th - 10th December 1941, the Japanese army was able to capture the air strips at Sungai Petani, Butterworth and Alor Star. A day later, on the 11th December 1941 some 85 Japanese Bombers attacked and bombed Penang causing a death toll of 700 with some 1300 injured among the local population. Then, on the 15th December 1941, the Japanese bombed the British air base at Butterworth. The British and Allied forces surrendered Penang to the Japanese invasion forces on 16th December 1941. The occupation forces took over Penang the next day without any resistance and occupied the Island until the end of the war. On 15th 19 of August 1945, Japan unconditionally surrendered to the Allied forces after the bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


“Sesungguhnya tidak ada yang lebih menyayatkan dari melihat bangsaku dijajah. Tidak ada yang lebih menyedihkan dari membiarkan bangsaku dihina. Tugas kita belum selesai rupanya, hanya kerana bangsa yang berjaya akan sentiasa dihormati.” “There is nothing more heartbreaking than to see my own people being colonised. There is nothing more sad than to allow my own people being belittled. Our role is far from completion, because only successful people will always be respected.” Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad

PENJAGA EMPAYAR Ini adalah langkah pertama bagi M.Hanif dalam ketepatan kostum filem. Watak Imperial Royal Guard ini muncul dalam filem Star Wars bagi episod II, III dan VI. Beliau mendapat inspirasi dari motto “Ketaatan Tidak Berpenghujung” yang dipegang oleh karektor ini. Ini juga menjadi sebab kenapa watak ini dikenali sebagai “Red” (merah) di kalangan peminat-peminat kostum dalam dan luar negara. Topinya diperbuat dari kertas, gam dan gentian kaca. Peniruan ini hampirhampir sempurna. Penghasilannya mengambil masa berbulan bagi kajian dan eksperimen untuk sempurna dan kostum ini telah muncul beberapa kali dalam majlis yang berkaitan. IMPERIAL ROYAL GUARD This was M.Hanif’s first step into “screen-accurate” movie costumes. The Imperial Royal Guard is a character from the Star Wars movies, appearing in Episodes II, III and VI. He was inspired by the motto “Loyalty Never Dies” that these guardsmen live by. This was also the reason why he is know as “Red” amongst costumers and cosplayers both local an abroad. The helmet was made from paper tape, layered with epoxy putty and automotive cement. It is almost an accurate rendition of the movie prop. This costume took months of research and experimentation to complete and had appeared in several costuming and cosplaying sessions.

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Naib Canselor USM, Profesor Tan Sri Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak sedang membaca ‘pembacaan’ pengunjung tentang kemerdekaan. USM Vice Cansellor, Profesor Tan Sri Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak is reading the audience’ ‘reading’ of independence.

Naib Canselor USM sedang meluahkan pembacaannya di atas pad kuning. USM Vice Cansellor expressing his reading on a yellow pad.

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Naib Canselor USM sedang mendengar pesanan-pesanan kemerdekaan. USM Vice Cansellor listening to the messages of independence.

Majlis perasmian Opening reception.

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Salah satu panel pameran One of the exhibition panels.

Makhluk asing datang menjajah? Allien coming to colonise?

Para pembaca dan pentafsir kemerdekaan. The readers and interpretors of independence.

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Antara botol-botol ‘coke’ dengan artifak warisan dan ilmu. Between ‘coke’ bottles and an artifact of knowledge and heritage.

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Melagukan kemerdekaan. Singing independence.

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Saya ingin merdeka dari .... Pemandangan pameran.

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I want to be free from .... Exhibition view.


Instalasi video oleh USMart dan Tech Team. Video installation by USMart and Tech Team. 27


Makhluk asing, remaja punk dan seorang askar Jepun zaman Perang Dunia Kedua bersama-sama meraikan kemerdekaan. Aliens, a punk teenage and a World War II Japanese soldier celebrating independence together.

Sudut pengunjung.

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Visitors’ Corner.


Pembacaan Pengunjung / Visitors’ Readings

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Reading Independence - Membaca Kemerdekaan  

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