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МАКЕДОНСКО ГЕОГРАФСКО ДРУШТВО MACEDONIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY

ЗБОРНИК НА ТРУДОВИ МЕЃУНАРОДЕН НАУЧЕН СИМПОЗИУМ

PROCEEDINGS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА

- ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ

HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS - PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES КНИГА 2 / TOME 2 ОХРИД/OHRID 12-15.09.2013


ОРГАНИЗАЦИСКИ ОДБОР

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Олгица Димитровска Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Билјана Апостоловска-Тошевска Д-р Дејан Илиев Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Olgica Dimitrovska, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Biljana Apostolovska-Tosevska, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD

НАУЧЕН ОДБОР

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Д-р Благоја Маркоски (Македонија) Д-р Драгица Живковиќ (Србија) Д-р Михаило Зиков (Македонија) Д-р Маријана Николова (Бугарија) Д-р Никола Панов (Македонија) Д-р Марко Кревс (Словенија) Д-р Роситса Кендерова (Бугарија) Д-р Славољуб Драгичевиќ (Србија) Д-р Рахман Нурковиќ (Босна и Херцеговина) Д-р Александар Лукиќ (Хрватска) Д-р Радислав Тошиќ (Босна и Херцеговина)

Blagoja Markoski, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Dragica Zivkovic, PhD (Univ. Belgrade, Serbia) Mihailo Zikov, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Mariyana Nikolova, PhD (Univ. Sofia, Bulgaria) Nikola Panov, PhD (Univ. Skopje, Macedonia) Marko Krevs, PhD (Univ. Ljubljana, Slovenia) Rositsa Kenderova, PhD (Univ. Sofia, Bulgaria) Slavoljub Dragicevic, PhD (Univ. Belgrade, Serbia) Rahman Nurkovic, PhD (Univ. Sarajevo, BIH) Aleksandar Lukic, PhD (Univ. Zagreb, Croatia) Radislav Tosic, PhD (Univ. Banja Luka, BIH)

УРЕДУВАЧКИ ОДБОР

EDITORIAL BOARD

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски Д-р Дејан Илиев Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ТЕХНИЧКО УРЕДУВАЊЕ

TECHNICAL EDITORS

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ДИЗАЈН НА КОРИЦА

COVER DESIGN

Д-р Благоја Маркоски Владимир Златаноски

Blagoja Markoski, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

ИЗДАВАЧ

PUBLISHED BY

Македонско географско друштво

Macedonian geographical society


ПОСЕБНО ИЗДАНИЕ

ЗБОРНИК НА ТРУДОВИ ОД МЕЃУНАРОДНИОТ НАУЧЕН СИМПОЗИУМ НА ТЕМА „РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА-ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ“

Издавач МАКЕДОНСКО ГЕОГРАФСКО ДРУШТВО

Уредувачки одбор Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски Д-р Дејан Илиев Владимир Златаноски

Организациски одбор Д-р Благоја Маркоски Д-р Олгица Димитровска Д-р Ивица Милевски Д-р Билјана Апостоловска-Тошевска Д-р Дејан Илиев Д-р Свемир Горин Д-р Иван Радевски

Согласно принципите при организација на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество „Ридско-планински подрачја –проблеми и перспективи“ трудовите се објавени во авторски облик. Во контекст на тоа целокупната одговорност за научната содржина, лектура, стилски, семантички и други недостатоци паѓа на товар на авторите.


SPECIAL EDITION

PROCEEDINGS PROM INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM ON THE SUBJECT „HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES“

Publisher MACEDONIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY

Editorial board Blagoja Markoski, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Vladimir Zlatanoski

Organizing committee Blagoja Markoski, PhD Olgica Dimitrovska, PhD Ivica Milevski, PhD Biljana Apostolovska-Tosevska, PhD Dejan Iliev, PhD Svemir Gorin, PhD Ivan Radevski, PhD

According to the organizational principles of the scientific symposium with international participation „Hilly mountain areas -problems and perspectives“, proceedings were published in their authentic form. In that context, full responsibility for the scientifi content, style, semantic form, grammar and other mistakes, falls on the authors themselves.


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

СОДРЖИНА / CONTENTS КНИГА 1 / TOME 1 ПЛЕНАРНА СЕСИЈА PLENARY SESSION ПРЕДГОВОР ..................................................................................................................................................... XI PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................................... XII ПОЗДРАВЕН ГОВОР Проф. д-р Благоја МАРКОСКИ, Претседател на Македонско географско друштво ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА .........................................XIII PRESIDENT WELCOME Blagoja MARKOSKI PhD. President of Macedonian geographic society PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS .......................................................... XV ПОЗДРАВНИ ГОВОРИ / WELCOME SPEECHES ................................................................................. XVII Проф. д-р Никола ПАНОВ Продекан на Природно-математичкиот факултет, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј“, Скопје ............................................................................................... XVII Prof. Dragica ZIVKOVIC, PhD University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Republic of Serbia ................................................................ XVIII Assistant Professor Dubravka SPEVEC, PhD President of the Croatian Geographical Society................................................................................................. XIX Prof. Georgi LEONIDOV GEORGIEV, PhD South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria....................................................... XX Prof. Milena MOYZEOVA, PhD Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic ........................... XXI Проф. д-р Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ Продекан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип, Република Македонија ................................................................... XXII ЗАВРШЕН ДЕЛ НА НАУЧНИОТ СИМПОЗИУМ, ЗАКЛУЧОЦИ ................................................................................................................................................. XXIII THE FINAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM CONCLUSIONS ..............................................................................................................................................XXIV ФОТОГАЛЕРИЈА / PHOTOGALERY ...................................................................................................... XXV ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Rossitza KENDEROVA, Ahinora BALTAKOVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) GLACIER ENDS GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY IN SOUTH BAY AREA, LIVINGSTON ISLAND (SOUTH SHETHLANDS ARCHIPELAGO) ................................................................ 3

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Ivan RADEVSKI, Svemir GORIN, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA, Snezana TODOROVSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) SPATIAL PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTION IN PRESPA BASIN (REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA) ............. 9 Aleksandar SARAFOV, Tsveta STANIMIROVA, Ekaterina FILCHEVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) TOWARDS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KHUMBU HIMALAYAS PEDOGENESIS ....................... 15 Marta JOVANIĆ (Vinkovci, Republic of Croatia) DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA) CAUSED BY THE SOCIO-ECONOMICAL PROCESSES ................................................................................ 23 Sherwet FADL (Damanhour, Egypt) THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GREEK MOUNTAINS IN THE LIGHT OF GREEK SOURCES ............................ 31 Mihailo ZIKOV, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN KRIVA REKA WATERSHED ................... 39 Dimitar KRENCHEV, Tsvetelina MONEVA (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) WEATHERING PROCESSES AND RELATED PRODUCTS IN GRANITE ROCKS IN SOUTH PIRIN, SOUTH-WEST BULGARIA................................................................................................................................ 45 Marjan TEMOVSKI (Prilep, Republic of Macedonia) KARST IN MARIOVO – EXTENSION, CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPORTANCE ................................... 53 Plamen PATARCHANOV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) THE MOUNTAIN AREA IN BULGARIA – THEORY, METHODS AND PRACTICE................................... 63 Georgi ZHELEZOV, Aleksander TODOROV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) PRESENT STATUS OF THE LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY IN KRAISHTE MOUNTAIN REGION ................ 73 Anton IVANOV, Georgi ZHELEZOV (Sofia, Republic of Bulgaria) MOUNTAINS CLIMATE INFLUENCE ON RIVER STREAMFLOWS AND LOCAL MEAN SEA LEVEL 79 Anita TODOROVA, Dragan KOLCAKOVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) PROTECTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE KATLANOVO HILL ........................................................... 89 Mladen PAHERNIK, Marta JOVANIĆ (Zagreb/Vinkovci, Republic of Croatia) GEOMORPHOLOGIC DATABASE IN THE FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL LIKA LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY (REPUBLIC OF CROATIA)..................................... 97

ДЕМОГРАФСКИ ПРОБЛЕМИ, ПОЛИТИКА НА ЕКОНОМСКИ И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS, POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Sanja KLEMPIĆ BOGADI, Dubravka SPEVEC (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) DEMOGRAPHIC REALITY, PERSPECTIVE AND CHALLENGES IN CROATIAN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS– CASE STUDY GORSKI KOTAR ....................................... 109 Risto MIJALOV, Goran KITEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) REVITALIZATION OF HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS AS A BASIS FOR DEMOGRAPHIC PROGRESS OF MACEDONIA ............................................................ 117 Nikola V. DIMITROV (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMO-GEOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ............................................................. 125 Milena MOYZEOVÁ, Július OSZLÁNYI (Bratislava, Slovak Republic) DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS IN THE RESEARCH OF HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES ........ 133 Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ,Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIĆ (Niš, Republic of Serbia) LIMITATIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF DESIGNING INDIVIDUAL HOUSES OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS ...................................................... 141 Emiliya PATARCHANOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE VILLAGES IN PODGORIE (BELASITSA) ................................................ 149

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Maria SHISHMANOVA, Rozina POPOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA .................................................... 159 Zdenko BRAIČIĆ, Jelena LONČAR (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF FORCED MIGRATIONS – CASE STUDY OF KOSTAJNICA REGION (ZRINSKA GORA MOUNTAIN, CROATIA) ...................... 169 Marija LJAKOSKA, Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEPOPULATION OF THE VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE FORMER MUNICIPALITIES VRANESHTICA AND DRUGOVO .................................................................................................................. 177 Milica IGIĆ, DušanRANĐELOVIĆ, Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV (Niš, Republic of Serbia) URBAN PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION OF HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS IN INDIA ............................ 185 Kole PAVLOV, Gjorgi PAVLOVSKI (Skopje/Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC HOUSEHOLD DISCHARGE IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF TIKVEŠ BASIN .................................................................. 195 Boštjan KERBLER (Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia) DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIALS OF MOUNTAIN FARMS IN SLOVENIA: ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SUCCESSION FACTORS ................................................................................ 203 Željka ŠILJKOVIĆ (Zadar, Republic of Croatia) WHAT IS THE FUTURE SCENARIO FOR RURAL MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA? ................................................................................................................. 221 Nikola CEKIC, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIC, Dusan RANDJELOVIC, Hristina KRSTIC (Niš, Republic of Serbia) PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS ................................................................................................. 229 Branko AJ TURNŠEK, Svetlana VREĆIĆ, Ljiljana JEVREMOVIĆ (Niš, Republic of Serbia) ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF VILLAGES IN THE AREA OF NIS - HILLY VILLAGES ....................... 237 Miroslav DODEROVIĆ, Dragomir KIĆOVIĆ, Tatjana L. ĐEKIĆ, Dragica MIJANOVIC (Niksic, Montenegro; Kosovska Mitrovica/Nis, Republic of Serbia) BASIC TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL POPULATION OF MONTENEGRO AND SOME PROBLEMS OF ITS REVITALIZATION ................................................ 247 Boštjan KERBLER (Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia) CARE POTENTIALS FOR THE ELDERLY IN THE PERIPHERAL RURAL AREAS ................................. 255 Milena SPASOVSKI, Danica ŠANTIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) POPULATION POTENTIALS OF THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA OF SERBIA – TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES ................................................................................................................... 267 Biljana APOSTOLOVSKA TOSHEVSKA, Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) INFRASTRUCTURE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY, HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AND MOUNTAINOUS VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF BABUNA AND TOPOLKA ........................................ 275 Hristina KRSTIĆ, Nikola CEKIĆ, Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIĆ, Dušan RANĐELOVIĆ (Nis, Republic of Serbia) MODERN APPROACHES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF HOUSES IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS ................................................................................................ 283 Mirjanka MADJEVIKJ (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN SETTLEMENTS OF MUNICIPALITY OF SOPISHTE ......................... 291 Milka BUBALO-ŽIVKOVIĆ, Tamara LUKIĆ, Bojan ĐERČAN, Branko RISTANOVIĆ (Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia) SETTLEMENTS ON FRUŠKA GORA IN THE URBAN AREA OF NOVI SAD........................................... 303 Biljana APOSTOLOVSKA – TOSHEVSKA, Mirjanka MADZEVIC (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) PROBLEMS WITH THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING IN THE HILLY, HILLY – MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAINOUS VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE NORTHEAST REGION ......................................... 313 Bojana JANDŽIKOVIĆ (Kosovska Mitrovica, Republic of Serbia) SOCIO-GEOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN GORAŽDEVAC 1999-2012 ........................................................... 325

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Cane KOTESKI, Zlatko JAKOVLEV, Vladimir KITANOV (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DEMOGRAPHIC AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS OF VILLAGES IN THE HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF PRILEP .................................................... 335 Tihomir LICHEV (Svishtov, Republic of Bulgaria) DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF THE MUNICIPALITIES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE PREBALKANS .......................................................................................................................................................... 347 T. MICESKI, R. TEMJANOVSKI (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF BIRTHS IN RURAL AREAS IN R. MACEDONIA ........................................................................................................ 353

КНИГА 2 / TOME 2 ЕКОНОМСКА ПОЛИТИКА И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ НА РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Amra ĆATOVIĆ, Edin HRELJA (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) VLAŠIĆ MOUNTAIN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES ...................... 369 Dejan ILIEV, Marija LJAKOSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) TOURISM AND ITS FUNCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY RADOVISH............................................. 377 Marija MAKSIN, Saša MILIJIC (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) PLANNING SUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN SERBIA ......................................................................................................................................................... 387 Nikola KRUNIĆ, Dragutin TOŠIĆ, Olgica BAKIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) CHALLENGES OF SPATIAL PLANNING FOR THE NETWORKS OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAIN AREAS OF SERBIA .......................................................................................................... 397 Nikola PANOV, Milena TALESKA, Hristina DIMESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE RURAL TOURISM IN THE REGION OF MARIOVO-GENERAL REVIEW OF THE POSSIBILITIES AND THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM ..... 407 Georgi Leonidov GEORGIEV, Ilinka TERZIYSKA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) SOME PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS UNDER NATURA 2000 IN BULGARIA.................................................................... 413 Благоја МАРКОСКИ, Ивица МИЛЕВСКИ, Ј. Вртески (Скопје, Република Македонија) ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РАЗВОЈОТ НА ОПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО .......................................... 421 Dejan ILIEV (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAINʹS AREAS ..................................... 433 Aleksandra TERZIĆ, Željko BJELJAC, Ana JOVIČIĆ, Radmila JOVANOVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN HIGH-MOUNTIN AREAS OF SERBIA AS ALTERNATIVE TO DEPOPULATION TREND ......................................................................................... 443 Ilinka TERZIYSKA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND TOURISM IN BULGARIA – PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES ........ 453 Ivan SARJANOVIĆ (Zagreb, Republic of Croatia) WESTERN SLAVONIA: IDENTITY ASPECTS IN THE BORDER PART OF THE TRADITIONAL REGION......................................................................... 459 Maria SHISHMANOVA (Blagoevgrad, Republic of Bulgaria) PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA ........................................................................................................ 469

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Biljana PETREVSKA (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF TOURISM PLANNING IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS ............................. 479 Vaska ATANASOVA, Ile CVETANOVSKI, Nikola KRSTANOSKI, Dushica TRPCHEVSKA ANGELKOVIK (Bitola, Republic of Macedonia) PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT MODES IN THE NATIONAL PARK OF MAVROVO ................................................................................................... 489 Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ, Нако ТАШКОВ, Дејан МЕТОДИЈЕСКИ (Штип, Република Македонија) РЕГИОНАЛНА РАСПРОСТРАНЕТОСТ НА РУРАЛНИОТ ТУРИЗАМ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА НА РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА ............................................................................................ 497 Miomir VASOV, Milica IGIC, Dusan RANDJELOVIC, Hristina KRSTIC, Nikola CEKIC (Nis, Republic of Serbia) ARCHITECTURE OF THE NATURE PARK STARA PLANINA MT. AS A TOURISM POTENTIAL ...... 503 Saša MILIJIĆ, Nikola KRUNIĆ, Jasmina ĐURĐEVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS – EXPERIENCES OF SERBIA AND COUNTRIES IN THE REGION ............ 511 Ile CVETANOVSKI, Verica DANCHEVSKA, Vaska ATANASOVA (Bitola, Republic of Macedonia) IDENTIFICATION OF OBJECTS IN MOUNTAIN RESORTS USING RFID TECHNOLOGY ................... 521 J. BASARIĆ, J. STEVANOVIĆ STOJANOVIĆ, J. PETRIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) THE ROLE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REVITALIZATION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN VILLAGES . 527 Riste TEMJANOVSKI, Trajko MICESKI (Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) IMPACT OF ROAD NETWORK ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RURAL COMMUNITY AND PROCESS OF DEPOPULATION IN R. MACEDONIA ........................... 537 Nikola PANOV, Milena TALESKA, Hristina DIMESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) THE IMPORTANCE OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ..................................................................................................................... 547

КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГЕОГРАФСКИ ИНФОРМАЦИСКИ СИСТЕМИ, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT Dragica ŽIVKOVIĆ, Aleksandar VALJAREVIĆ (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) DIGITAL MODELLING OF FRUSKA GORA TOPOGRAPHIC EXPOSITION ............................................ 559 Blagoja MARKOSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) MAPPING AND CARTOGRAPHING OF THE DEPOPULATED AND ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE LANDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ......................................... 565 Svemir GORIN, Ivan RADEVSKI, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Ivica MILEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) GIS ASSESSMENT OF THE LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN THE GEVGELIJA-VALANDOVO BASIN .... 575 Ivica MILEVSKI, Slavoljub DRAGIĆEVIĆ, Radislav TOŠIĆ (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia; Belgrade, Republic of Sebia; Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska) GIS AND REMOTE SENSING ASSESSMENT OF EROSION RISK AREAS IN PEHCHEVO MUNICIPALITY ................................................................................................................................................ 581 Jasmina M. JOVANOVIC (Belgrade, Republic of Serbia) CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL OF HILLY-MOUNTIAN AREAS OF SERBIA.......................................................................... 591 Vladimir ZLATANOSKI, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA, Svemir GORIN, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) INVENTORY OF SMALL ARTIFICIAL LAKES IN FUNCTION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS DEVELOPMENT ON THE TERRITORY OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ............................................... 599

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Milena MOYZEOVÁ (Bratislava, Slovak Republic) ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FOR RURAL SETTLEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 613 Igor PESHEVSKI, Milorad JOVANOVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) MORPHOLOGY AND INSTABILITY OF THE TERRAIN AS LIMITING FACTOR IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT ........................................................................................................................... 619 Mila MIHAJILOVIĆ (Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia) THREATS (NATURAL AND DIRECT HUMAN IMPACT) IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS ......................... 627 Shkëlzim UKAJ, Fatbardh SALLAKU, Albona SHALA, Odeta TOTA, Fadil MILLAKU, Elez KRASNIQI (Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; Tirana, Republic of Albania) THE DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS IN DRENAS REGION, KOSOVO ..................................................................................................................... 633 Odeta TOTA, Bujar HUQI, Eugen SKURAJ, Edmira OZUNI, Fatbardh SALLAKU (Durres\Tirana, Republic of Albania) HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF SOILS AROUND METALLURGICAL COMPLEX OF ELBASANI, ALBANIA ........................................................................ 637 Shkëlzim UKAJ, Fatbardh SALLAKU, Fadil HASANI, Elez KRASNIQI, Odeta Tota, Albona SHALA (Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo; Durres\Tirana, Republic of Albania) HEAVY METALS OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS IN NORTHWEST PART OF DRENAS, REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO ................................................................................................................................. 643 Hristina ODZAKLIESKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) FUNCTIONALITY OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CAPACITIES IN NATIONAL PARKS ON THE EXAMPLE OF NP MAVROVO......................................................................................................... 649 Hristina ODZAKLIESKA, Olgica DIMITROVSKA (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREA DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................................... 655 Kole PAVLOV, Gorgi PAVLOVSKI, Ivan RADEVSKI (Skopje\Shtip, Republic of Macedonia) HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME RIVERS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF TIKVEŠ ....................................................................... 661 Risto MIJALOV, Goran KITEVSKI (Skopje, Republic of Macedonia) DEMO - SPATIAL PERSPECTIVES OF HILLY - MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN THE COUNTRY WITH EUROPEAN INTEGRATION .............................................................................. 671

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ПРЕДГОВОР Зборникот „Ридско-планински подрачја - проблеми и перспективи“ содржи трудови од научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество на тема Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја, одржан во Охрид од 12-15.09 2013 година. На собирот учествуваа околу 120 научни учесници, од кои околу 80 научни работници од Македонија, Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Словенија, Словачка, Србија, Хрватска, бројни учесници од универзитети и факултети, како и учесници од наставниот кадар од основните и средните училишта од Република Македонија. Редоследот на трудовите во основа е даден според редоследот во работната програма на научниот симпозиум. Содржините се групирани во следните целини:  Природните ресурси и употребата на земјиштето во ридско-планинските подрачја;  Демографските проблеми во ридско-планинските простори;  Политика за економски и регионален развој на ридско-планинските области;  Картографија, географски информациски системи, проблеми на животната средина и нејзина заштина, европски политики и програми за развој. Трудовите се припремени според бараните стандарди од страна на уредувачкиот одбор. Зборникот е публикуван во печатена и електронска форма. Печатената форма е изработена во една боја, така што графичките прилози (карти, дијаграми и друго) кои авторите ги припремија во боја не се репродуцирани со адекватен квалитет. Меѓутоа сите трудови во оригинална колор верзија се публикувани во електронското издание на зборникот. Соодветно на претходно воспоставените организациски поставки би сакале да потенцираме дека одговорноста за изнесените содржини, податоци и ставови паѓа на самите автори. Организациониот одбор на научниот симпозиум и уредувачкиот одбор на зборникот изразуваат искрена благодарност кон сите инволвирани институции и поединци во реализацијата на научниот симпозиум. Особена благодарност изразуваме на Институтот за географија при Природно-математичкиот Факултет во Скопје кој финансиски ја помогна организацијата на научниот симпозиум. Изразуваме голема благодарност и до научните работници кои со својот научен потенцијал со искуства од девет држави дадоа придонес кон разрешување на проблемите кои се почесто се појавуваат во ридско-планинските подрачја. Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски

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PREFACE The proceedings “Hilly–mountain areas – problems and perspectives” contains papers from the scientific symposium with international appearance with the topic Problems and perspectives of the hilly - mountainous areas, held in Ohrid on 12-15.09.2013. At this meeting participated around 120 scientists, out of which around 80 were from Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, numerous participants from universities and high schools in The Republic of Macedonia. The order of the papers is basically given according to the schedule in the work program of the scientific symposium. The contents are grouped in the following units:  Natural resources and land use in hilly-mountain areas,  Demographic problems in hilly-mountain areas policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Cartography, Geographic Information Systems, environmental problems and protection, european policies and programs for development. The papers are edited according to the required standards from the editing board. The proceedings are published in printed and electronic form. The printed form is made in one color, so that the graphic contributions (carts, diagrams and other) which the authors have prepared in color are not reintroduced with the adequate quality. However, all of the works in the original color version are published in the electronic edition of the proceedings. Accordingly to the previously established organizational settings we would like to emphasize that presented content, data and positions are the authors’ responsibility. The organizational board of the scientific symposium and the editing board of the proceedings, express sincere appreciation to all involved institutions and individuals in the realization of the scientific symposium. Especial appreciation is expressed towards the Institute of Geography at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje that financially supported the organization of the symposium. We are expressing large appreciation to the scientific workers as well, who with their scientific potential and with experience of nine countries contributed towards resolving the problems that appear more and more often in the hilly – mountainous regions. Prof. Blagoja Markoski, Ph.D

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ПОЗДРАВЕН ГОВОР ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски Претседател на Македонското географско друштво Почитувани колеги, уважени гости, дами и господа, Добредојдовте во Македонија, на брегот на Охридското Езеро. Добредојдовте на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество на тема ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА! Македонското географско друштво во тесна координација со Институтот за географија при Природно-математичкиот факултет во Скопје меѓудругото во своите програмски активности го има поставено и одржувањето на научни собири. Оваа година како тема на научниот симпозиум (како што е познато) се поставени ПРОБЛЕМИТЕ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИТЕ НА РИДСКО ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА. Повод за расправа на оваа проблематика се сеуште нерешените проблеми во руралната средина во целост, а осбено во ридско-планинските простори. Тие и во најновите општествени услови на живеење и работа се повеќе се продлабочуваат. Низ предходните проучувања и концепции за развој преовладуваа размислувањата за опстанок на населените места по секоја цена, а без притоа да бидат погодени вистинските правци на развој. Формирањето и локацијата на населените места низ вековите наназат се базираат врз концептот да се избере локација каде што ќе има вода, дел од територијата да е погодна за земјоделско стопанисување, да има ридско-планински простор со шумски предели и соодветни површини под пасишта заради развој на сточарството. Значи производните аспекти скоро исклучиво се базираа на примарните дејности. Меѓутоа, модерните текови и култура на живеење согласно општиот техничкотехнолошки разво, процесите на индустријализација и урбанизација претпоставуваат сосема поинакви претпоставки за развој и живот на населението и во ридско планинските територии. Поради процесите на општественото планирање (запоставена рурална средина за сметка на урбаната), просторното планирање (ненавремена реализација на просторните планови), забрзаната индустријализација, забрзаната урбанизација, задоцнетото инфраструктурно опремување и уредување на инфраструк¬турните системи во руралната средина, навлегувањето на моторизацијата и земјоделската механизација, несоодветната аграрна политика, културното и просветното ниво на населението, историско нелогичните фактори за локација и развиток на населбите (населбите формирани врз економски, за одреден период оправдани критериуми, во денешниот начин на организација неможе да опстанат) функционално лошата организација на селските територии кај населбите од разбиен тип и т.н. руралната средина во ридско планинските простори се повеќе се деградира и популациски и економски.

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Состојбата во руралната средина во целост е загришувачка, а особено проблемите се изразени во ридско планинските територии. Енормно голема е депопулацијата, а соодветно на тоа и процесите на деаграризација. Поради тоа интересот за ревитализација и инфраструктурно уредување и опремување на населените места е многу мал. Меѓутоа, ридско-планинските територии во државите на Балканскиот Полуостров се прилично големи и неминовно е искористувањето на природните и антропогените ресурси во нив. Поради тоа перспективите за ревитализација на овие подрачја мора да бидат ориентирани кон преземање на одредени мерки во смисла на: • целосно оформување и квалитетно подобрување на патната инфраструктура до населените места, селишта и важни вкрстувања, локалитети и објекти во ридскопланинските простори. • Дисперзија и дислокација на индустриските капацитети во местата на суровини, односно поблизу до руралната средина; • Мобилност на работната сила од местото на живеење до местото на работа; • Пренасочување на фондовите за развој во руралната средина; • организација, изградба и санација на објектите за снабдување со вода на секое населено место во смисла на довод на вода до секое домаќинство и изградба на модерни хигиенски и санитарни елементи. • организација и изградба на канализациона мрежа во населените места заради подобрување на општите хигиенски услови во населените места. • модернизација на селските населби со асфалтирање или поплочување на уличната мрежа, подобрување на селските огради и јавни објекти. • подобрување на електроенергетската мрежа и во линиска и во квалитативна смисла. • Спроведување на политика за мерки на комасација и арондација на земјиштето, заради поефикасно искористување на истото, • Изградба на водни акумулации со полифункционална намена, а особено со мон офункционалан намена во функција на примарните дејности • експлоатација на метални, неметални минерални и други суровини; Почитувани колеги, Без претензии за целосна елаборација на правците на дејствување убеден сум дека низ вашите трудови кои доаѓаат како искуства од 10-тина земји како што се Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Македонија, Словачка, Словенија, Србија и Хрватска, ќе дадеме свој придонес во контекстот на значењето на географијата во изнаоѓање решенија за перспективите на развој и ревитализација на ридско-планинските простори. Во таа смисла ви посакувам искрено добредојде и пријатен престој во Република Македонија и плодна и успешна работа на овој симпозиум. Благодарам на вниманието.

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PRESIDENT WELCOME PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HILLY MOUNTAIN AREAS Prof. Blagoja Markoski, PhD President of the Macedonian Geography Society

Dear colleagues, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to Macedonia, on the coast of the Ohrid Lake. Welcome to the scientific symposium with international participation on the topic PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HYLLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS! The Macedonian Geography Society coordinating with the Institute of Geography by the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje, beside the planned activities, it sets the realization of scientific symposiums. At as already known the topic of this year are the PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS. The unsolved problems in the rural area as a whole, especially in the hilly-mountain areas, stimulates the discussion on this topic. The problems become more prominent even in the modern societal conditions of living and working. During the previous researches as well as concepts for development, the most common were the cogitations of populated areas existence, without enclosing discussion of development. The establishment and location of settlements through the centuries, based on the concept to be chosen a location which are abundant with water, where a part of the territory is suitable for farming, with existence of a hilly-mountain area with forests plants and suitable grass fields due to the development of animal husbandry. Therefore, the aspects of producing are mainly based on primary activity. Тhe modern way of living as well as the culture of living, along with the general development in technology, the processes of industrialization and urbanization assume entirely different aspects for development and life of the population in the hilly-mountain areas. Due to the processes of development planning of the country (the neglected rural areas), the spatial planning (the untimely realization of the spatial plans), the accelerated industrialization, the accelerated urbanization, the delayed infrastructural supply and managing of the infrastructural systems in the rural spatial areas, the usage of motorization and agricultural mechanization, incompatible agricultural policies, the cultural and educational level of the population, the historically illogical factors for settlements localization and development (settlements established upon economically, for a particular time period, justified criteria, with today's way of organization cannot exist), functionally poor organization of the rural district at the dispersed type of settlements and especially rural environment in the hilly-mountain areas becomes more degraded in economical and population aspect. The state of the rural area is entirely worrying, and the problems are mostly pronounced in the mountain areas. The depopulation is enormous that results with processes of deagrarization. Because of this, the interest for revitalization and infrastructural management, as well as supply for the populated areas is very small. However, the hillymountain areas in Balkan Peninsula countries are rather large and the usage of the natural as XV


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well as anthropogenic resources is inevitable. In this way, the perspectives for the revitalization of these areas must be oriented towards taking action in the sense of: • Complete forming and quality improvement of the road infrastructure to the settlements, important crossroads, localities and objects in the mountain areas; • Dispersion and dislocation of the industrial capacities into the areas with raw materials capacities (closer to the rural area); • Mobility of the work force from the place of living to the place of work; • Redirection of the funds for development to the rural areas; • Organization, constructing and sanction of the water supplies objects in each settlement, in sense of, water supply in every household, as well as construction of modern, hygienic and sanitary facilities. • Organization and constructing of sewerage in the settlements due to improvement of the general hygienic conditions in the settlements. • Modernization of the rural areas by asphalting the road network, improvement of the rural fences as well as public objects. • Improvement in the electro-energetic network in quality and qualitative sense. • Implementation of measuring policies of reallocation and land consolidation of the land due to more efficient usage. • Building artificial lakes with a poly-functional usage and especially with a mono-functional usage in terms of the primary deeds development. • exploitation of metallic, non-metallic and other types of raw materials. Dear colleagues, Without pretenses of complete elaboration, I am convinced that in your scientific papers which come as experiences from ten countries, such as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia and Croatia, we will give our own contribution in context of the importance of geography in the process of finding solutions for the perspectives of development and revitalization of the hilly-mountain areas. In this regard, I wish you a sincere welcome and a pleasant stay in Republic of Macedonia, as well as a successful work on this symposium. Thank you for your attention.

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ПОЗДРАВНИ ГОВОРИ / WELCOME SPEECHES

Проф. д-р Никола ПАНОВ Продекан на Природно-математичкиот факултет, Универзитет “Св. Кирил и Методиј“, Скопје

Почитувани географи, почитувани гости, дами и господа Во оваа прилика би сакал да го изразам моето огромно задоволство што, во име на раководството на Природно – математичкиот факултет а како негов продекан, имам чест лично да присуствувам на овој еминентен Меѓународен научен симпозиум и, со својот кус говор, да го поздравам и подддржам одржувањето на истиот. Воедно, одржувањето на овој значаен настан сакам да го поздравам и од името на деканот на Природно-математичкиот факултет, проф. д-р Ицко Ѓоргоски, како и од раководителот на Институтот за Географија, проф.д-р Ристо Мијалов. Во оваа прилика би сакал да го издвојам и потенцирам токму одржувањето на научни манифестации од овој вид кои, покрај другото, само дополнително ја збогатуваат географската научна мисла не само во нашата земја, туку и пошироко. Моето задоволство е уште поголемо кога ќе се земе во предвид дека на овој научен симпозиум со наслов „Ридско – планински подрачја, проблеми и предизвици“, кој се одржува крај брегот на прекрасното Охридско Езеро, ќе земат учество претставници од повеќе земји а ќе бидат претставени повеќе од осумдесет научни трудови. На крајот од овој мој кус воведен говор, би сакал на сите Вие кои сте присутни во древниот Охрид, покрај бистрите води на Охридското Езеро, да Ви посакам пријатен престој во лулката на Христијанството, успешна презентација на Вашите трудови и, покрај другото, успешна работа во текот на овие неколку симпозиумски денови, но и понатамошни учестава на вакви видови меѓународни собири кои се од голема важност не само за иднината на географијата и географската наука, туку и пошироко. Ви благодарам на вниманието.

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Prof. d-r Dragica ZIVKOVIC, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Geografski fakultet Republic of Serbia

Poštovani skupe, uvaženo Predsedništvo, drage kolege, Pozdravljam Vas u ime svih zaposlenih na Geografskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Beogradu, koji ove godine proslavlja 120. godina postojanja institucije i 160. godina nastave geografije. Pozivam Vas da učestvujete na našem skupu, posvećenom ovom jubileju, koji će se održati početkom decembra. Saradnja između Geografskog fakulteta u Beogradu i Instituta za geografiju Prirodnomatematičkog fakulteta u Skoplju i Makedonskog geografskog društva je veoma uspešna i nadamo se da će se tako nastaviti i u budućnosti. Ovo je prilika da i sa ostalim kolegama proširimo saradnju. Želim uspešan rad skupu, da se družimo i bolje upoznamo.

Prof. Dragica ZIVKOVIC, PhD University of Belgrade Faculty of Geography Dear present, distinguished Presidency, dear colleagues, I greet you in the name of all employees of Geography, University of Belgrade, which this year celebrates its 120th institution anniversary and 160 years of teaching geography. I invite you to participate in our conference, dedicated to the anniversary, which will take place in early December. Cooperation between the Faculty of Geography, Belgrade and the Institute of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje and the Macedonian Geographical Society was very successful, and we hope this will continue in the future. This is an opportunity to expand cooperation with other colleagues. I wish you a successful work alltogether, to socialize and to meet better each other.

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Doc. d-r Professor Dubravka SPEVEC Predsjednik Hrvatskog Geografsko Društvo Poštovane kolegice i kolege, dragi gosti i uvaženi domaćini, dame i gospodo, čast mi je i zadovoljstvo pozdraviti vas na početku međunarodnog znanstvenog simpozija „Problemi i perspektive brdsko-planinskih područja“ u ime Hrvatskog geografskog društva i svoje osobno. Hrvatsko geografsko društvo, jedna od najstarijih udruga te vrste u ovom dijelu Europe, osnovano je 1897. godine, i uz povremene prekide djeluje već 116 godina. Društvo organizira znanstvene i stručne skupove, s ciljem razvoja znanstvenog polja i popularizacije znanosti, a poseban trud, kroz brojne projekte, ulažemo u jačanje položaja i ugleda geografije i geografa koji svojim znanstvenim, nastavnim i stručnim kompetencijama pridonose brojnim segmentima suvremenog društva. Znanstveni odbor ovoga Simpozija za izlaganje je prihvatio više od sto radova koji se bave problematikom brdsko-planinskih područja – njihovim prirodnim resursima, korištenjem zemljišta, demografskim i gospodarskim razvojem, zaštitom okoliša. Referenti će svojim referatima i prezentacijama zasigurno dati odgovor na mnoga pitanja o problemima i perspektivama brdsko-planinskih područja, ali i izreći smjernice te ukazati na mogućnosti njihova razvoja u budućnosti. Zahvaljujem Makedonskom geografskom društvu i njegovu predsjedniku prof. dr. sc. Blagoji Markoskom na uloženom trudu u pripremi ovog Simpozija i čestitam na izvrsnoj organizaciji. Zahvaljujem i svim referentima, moderatorima, članovima znanstvenog i organizacijskog odbora, a posebno pokroviteljima koji su prepoznali važnost ovoga skupa.

Assistant Professor Dubravka SPEVEC, PhD President of the Croatian Geographical Society Dear colleagues, distinguished guests and organizers, ladies and gentlemen, it is my pleasure to greet you at the beginning of the International Symposium Problem and perspectives of the hilly-mountain areas on behalf of the Croatian Geographical Society. The Croatian Geographical Society, one of the oldest Associations of this kind in this part of Europe, was founded in 1897. The Society organizes scientific and professional conferences with main aims of science popularization and further development of geography scientific field. The Croatian Geographical Society makes a lot of effort in strengthening the position and status of geography and geographers who with its scientific, professional and teaching competences contribute to many segments of contemporary society. The Scientific Board of this Symposium accepted for presentation over one hundred papers that deal with hilly-mountain areas – its natural resources, land use, demographic and economic development, environmental protection. Many questions concearning the problems and perspetives of the hilly-mountain areas will be answered, and certain guidelines for its future development will be given. That will significantly contribute to the quality and overall scientific value of this Symposium. I would like to thank to the Macedonian Geographical Society and its president Professor Blagoja Markoski for their effort to organize this Symposium. A special thanks to all participants, members of the Scientific and Organizing Committees, and sponsors who recognized the importance of this conference.

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Prof. Georgi LEONIDOV GEORGIEV, PhD South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad Republic of Bulgaria Dear Prof. Blagoya Markoski, dear colleagues, On behalf of the Bulgarian participants in the Scientific Symposium with International Participation “Problems and Perspectives of the Hilly-Mountain areas" organized by the Macedonian Geographic Society in the pearl of Macedonian Tourism – Ohrid, let me offer you the warmest greetings. Our presence here is confirmation of longtime friendly and creative connections that exist between the geographical communities of both countries. I would also like to express my satisfaction from the fact that in organizing this symposium and choosing the most appropriate themes once again you have shown that your research work has always been associated with the solution of a number of topical problems of modern society. The presence of a number of established professionals among the geographical community from so many countries prove the international prestige enjoyed by the Macedonian geographers. At the same time, I think that such scientific events are also the place where we can discuss the opportunities for expanding the cooperation between geographers of Bulgaria and Macedonia. We firmly believe that there are quite a few opportunities for joint developments including projects, especially in terms of border regions in the two countries. Let me once again congratulate you with the opening of this highly authoritative scientific forum, hoping that it will be held as always in a creative and friendly spirit.

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Prof. Milena MOYZEOVA, PhD Institute of Landscape Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences Štefánikova 3, P.O.Box 254, 814 99 Bratislava Slovak Republic

Greet Dear professor Markoski, dear colleagues, Herewith I would like on behalf of the Institute of Landscape Ecology of The Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislavato greet you at the accession of the opening this Symposium. I feel very honourees to have the possibility to participate, as we have common problems in the mountainous regions and their solution is in our common hands. I wish that the Symposium is fruitful and brings effective solutions for solving the problem in the mountains of West Carpathians and of the Balkans. All the Best.

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Проф. д-р Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ Продекан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип Република Македонија

Почитуван Претседател на Македонското географско друштво, проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски, Почитувано Работно претседателство, почитувани гости учесници на Меѓународниот научен симпозиум „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско – планинските подрачја“ Дозволете да Ве поздравам од името на проф. д-р Саша Митрев, ректор на Универзитет „Гоце Делчев“ – Штип, како и од името на вон. проф. д-р Нако Ташков, декан на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија, од мое име вон проф. д-р Никола В. Димитров, како продекан, и од професорите и соработниците на Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика, учесници на овој научен симпозиум. Се надевам дека од големиот број реферати што ќе бидат изнесени на Симпозиумот, ќе произлезат корисни идеи кои ќе придонесат во разрешувањето на некои дилеми и проблеми за подобрување на условите за живот и создавање на перспективи на ридско – планинските подрачја. Искуствата од другите држави, за состојбите во нивните ридско – планински подрачја пренесени од истакнати научни работници учесници на Симпозиумот, ќе ни бидат од корист во утврдувањето на натамошните правци за перспективите на ридско – планинските подрачја во Република Македонија. Почитувани учесници, искрено се надевам дека, престојот и дружењето овде меѓу другото, ќе биде искористен и за запознавање на град Охрид и Охридското Езеро, и се разбира, поблиску запознавање од кое ќе произлезе и збогатување на меѓународната научна соработка. На сите Ви посакувам успешна и плодна работа. Ви благодарам.

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ЗАВРШЕН ДЕЛ НА НАУЧНИОТ СИМПОЗИУМ Во изминатите неколку денови од 12-15.09.2013 година, во хотел Силекс Охрид, на научниот симпозиум со меѓународно учество под наслов „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја“ учествуваа околу 120 учесници. На симпозиумот беа пријавени околу 100 научни реферати, а на самиот симпозиум беа презентирани 76 научни трудови кои се поместени во содржините на зборникот на трудови. Работата на симпозиумот се одвиваше во следните работни сесии:  Природните ресурси и употребата на земјиштето во ридско-планинските подрачја;  Демографските проблеми во ридско-планинските простори;  Политика за економски и регионален развој на ридско-планинските области;  Картографија, географски информациски системи, проблеми на животната средина и нејзина заштина, европски политики и програми за развој. Во научните презентации земаа активно учество научни работници од Македонија, Албанија, Босна и Херцеговина, Бугарија, Египет, Косово, Словенија, Словачка, Србија, Хрватска. Низ научните содржини беа презентирани голем број податоци и ставови кои претставуваат основа за формирање на голем број заклучоци за перспективите во развојот на ридско-планинските подрачја. Во продолжение се презентирани следните генерални: ЗАКЛУЧОЦИ • Посоодветен третман на ридско-планинските подрачја од страна на државните институции; • Нова административно-територијална организација во ридско-планинските простори; • Спроведување на Попис на населението во Република Македонија; • Изградба на предвидените капитални објекти во ридско-планинските простори; • Мобилност на работната сила од демографски посилните региони кон ридскопланинските подрачја; • Регистрација на родените според местата на живеење на родителите; • Инфраструктурно опремување и уредување на населените места воопошто во руралната и особено во ридско-планинските подрачја; • Изработка на стратегија за развој на ридско-планинските простори; • Заеднички настап на научниот и истражувачки кадар од соседните земји и пошироко во решавањето на проблемите во ридско-планинските подрачја. Наведените заклучоци, организациониот одбор на научниот симпозиум под насолов „Проблеми и перспективи на ридско-планинските подрачја“ ги дистрибуира до поширокиот круг на институции и поединци понепосредно поврзани со овие проблеми. СТРУЧНА ЕКСКУРЗИЈА Работната програма на научниот симпозиум заврши со стручна екскурзија на научните работници (особено гостите од странство) по крајбрежјето на Охридското Езеро на релација Охрид-Св. Наум. Попатно беа презентирани поголем број објекти, а особено внимание беше посветено на Националниот Парк „Галичица“, Заливот на коските, езерото Острово со изворите Свети Наум и манастирскиот комплекс Свети Наум на брегот на Охридското Езеро. Македонско географско друштво Претседател Проф. д-р Благоја Маркоски XXIII


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА - ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN - AREAS PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

THE FINAL PART OF THE SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM In the past few days from 12-15.09.2013 in hotel „Sileks“ - Ohrid, a scientific symposium with international participation on the topic „Problems and perspectives of hillymountainous areas“ participated about 120 participants. On the symposium were reported about 100 scientific papers, of which 76 were presented and set in the contents of the proceedings. The work of the symposium took place in the following working sessions:  Natural resources and land use in hilly-mountain areas,  Demographic problems in hilly-mountain areas policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Policy of economic and regional development of hilly-mountain areas,  Cartography, Geographic Information Systems, environmental problems and protection, european policies and programs for development. The scientific workers from Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Kosovo, Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia took active scientific presentations. Through the scientific content were presented many views and data that are the basis for establishing many conclusions about the perspective in the development of hilly-mountain areas. Below are presented the following general: CONCLUSIONS • More appropriate treatment of the hilly-mountainous areas of the state institutions; • New administrative- territorial organization in hilly-mountainous areas; • Conducting a census of the population in Macedonia; • Construction of planned capital facilities in hilly-mountainous areas; • Mobility of the workforce from demographic stronger regions to hilly-mountainous areas; • Registration of births according to the places of residence of the parents; • Infrastructural equipment and organization of rural settlements at all, especially in hillymountainous areas; • Creating a strategy for hilly-mountain areas development; • Common approach to scientific and research workers from neighboring countries and wider, in solving the problems in hilly-mountain areas. The aforementioned conclusions, were distributed to a wider range of institutions and individuals more directly related to these problems by the scientific organizing committee of Symposium on topic „Problems and Prospects of mountainous areas“. PROFESSIONAL EXCURSION The work program of the scientific symposium ended with an excursion of scient workers (especially foreign visitors) upon the coastal route Ohrid Lake - St. Naum . Along the way were presented larger number of objects , and particular attention was given to the National Park „Galichica“, Museum on water „Bay of the bones“, „Lake Ostrovo“ with springs „St. Naum“ and monastery complex „St. Naum“ on the Ohrid Lake cost.

Macedonian Geographical Society President Professor Blagoja Markoski, PhD XXIV


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ФОТОГАЛЕРИЈА / PHOTOGALERY

Фото 1 Панорама на Охрид и Охридското Езеро Photo 1. Panorama of City of Ohtid and Ohrid Lake

Фото 2. Дел од учесниците на научниот симпозиум Photo 2. Part of participants from scientific symposium

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Фото 3. Во посета на Музеј на вода - Заливот на коските Photo 3. Visit a Museum on water - Bay of the bones

Фото 4. Манастирски комплекс „Св. Наум Охридски“ Photo 4. Monastery complex „St. Naum Ohridski“ XXVI


ЕКОНОМСКА ПОЛИТИКА И РЕГИОНАЛЕН РАЗВОЈ НА РИДСКОПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА POLICY OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 338.48-6:379.845(497.6:23)

VLAŠIĆ MOUNTAIN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES Amra ĆATOVIĆ, Edin HRELJA

Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet Sarajevo, Odsjek za geografiju, Zmaja od Bosne 33-35, 71 000 Sarajevo, e-mail: amra-catovic@hotmail.com, edin_hrelja@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT Subject of this study is Vlašić Mountain, problems and perspectives of its tourism development. Main purpose of mountain ski centers, such as Vlašić is to meet tourists needs for recreation, respectively physical and mental rest. This requires preserved natural environment, which in addition to the existence of various infrastructure and socio-psychological comfort, provides rest and recovery for tourists. However, due to dysfunctional system, mountain areas often experience unforeseen consequences lead to their deterioration. One of the biggest problems for the future tourism development of Vlašić Mountain are government officials, who interpret tourism according to their departmental responsibilities, and as various interest groups pursue an interpretation which serves their particular purposes. Improper functioning of the political system resulted in constructing a large number of illegal facilities that damage or cause permanent alteration of the Vlašić Mountain natural environment.Key indicators have been determined according to statistical data and field survey in order to identify crucial process and their implications for sustainable developmnet of Vlašić Mountain.This study points out the role of carrying capacity in ski tourism planning, which were not considered when planning tourism development on Vlašić Mountain, and therefore led to rapid degradation of the enviroment caused by excessive construction work. Key words: Vlašić, carrying capacity, planning, ski center, problems, perspectives.

INTRODUCTION With the increase of free time and free money more and more people are involved in the tourist industry. Tourism development has contributed not only to employment increasing and economic income of local people, but also the creation of large traffic jams, accumulation of waste, destruction of natural resources, and many social problems. However, provided that tourism development is planned and methodical, rather than random and haphazard, tourism can enhance the quality of the natural environment and conditionally create an entirely new use of space. Frequent examples of the tourism negative effects on the environment in recent years has led to a new kind of tourism in response to mass tourism, which primarily aims to protect the natural environment and improve local livelihoods. In theory, we can find different names for this new type of tourism, such as responsible tourism or sustainable tourism, eco-tourism etc., which in many cases have very similar definitions, principles and policies, and give attention to healthy geographical environment, as one of the tourist movement factors. Simultaneously, with the new forms of tourism, concept of carrying capacity of the environment has developed. Carrying capacity of the environment is used in a variety of scientific disciplines, independently, without the need of cooperation, which often leads to degradation of geosystems. Methodology of calculating the carrying capacity, has found extensive application in spatial planning, primarily in the special purposes plans. When talking about the carrying capacity of a tourist ski centers, it should be taken care about tourism demand and supply, and that the pressures on heographical environment do not exceed its resistance / capacity. As a normal consequence of the increased tourist demand, development and construction of ski areas received a special significance in tourism planning process of mountainous areas.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

When talking about the development of Vlašić as ski center, planning ski areas and construction of ski lifts are strategic elements that must be considered as the main priorities . Ski slopes and lifts are the essence of winter tourism demand and their creation must be a prerequisite for completing the other elements of the offer such as accommodation, food and recreation. However, no detailed analysis of the carrying capacity, can very often lead to negative excess, which causes many negative environmental consequences and psycho- social problems to locals and tourists. Through proper planning of ski centers tourism development beside the benefits for the local population and higher level tourist needs satisfaction, raising awareness and creating habits that are consistent with the principles of sustainability is also provided. MOUNTAIN VLAŠIĆ - GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Vlašić mountain range, which belongs to the inner zone of the Dinaric mountain system has a central position in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vlašić steeply rises above the town of Travnik and Lašva River, which forms the southern boundary. In the north, river Velika Usora forms boundary, in the east river Bila and the western boundary is mountain ranch Čemernica. Vlašić is connected to the main road M5, which is part of the European road, with Sarajevo (M17), Zagreb (M5, M16), Split (M16). Over Vitovlje, regional road R 413 provides access from the direction of Banja Luka, Zagreb and beyond.

Figure 1. Mountain Vlašić

Mount Vlašić belongs to the zone of paleozoic and mesozoic shale and calcite. Vlašić has a transitional character, because it forms part of the border area between the Central-bosnian paleozoic and zone of younger paleozoic marine sediments zone of Peripannonian regime. Carbon sediments (shales and sandstones) were discovered on the southern border, where they form a narrow band extending from settlment Turbe through Lasva river valley to the village

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Čosić. Cretaceous and jurassic-cretaceous sediments are the most common and have the biggest spread. Younger sediments, miocene and oligo-miocene, are represented by clay and sand sediments and limestones. All these sediments formsoutheastern part of Vlašić. The youngest sediments of quartar are represented by fluvio - glacial sediments northwest from settlement Turbe, then the village Mudrike area and village Jasika area. They are composed of sand and gravel pebbles made of limestone, gabbro and hornfels. Alluvial sediments are placed along the river. Vlašić is formed of steep cliffs of Paklars and Devecan rocks with amphitheater position exposed to south with numerous notches on one side and a mild plateau of Vlašićka surface with a gradual decline to the north on the other side. Vlašić is therefore vast plateau from which rise numerous peaks. These peaks are: Paljenik (1943 m asl), Vlaska gromila ( 1919 m asl), Čavao (1817 m asl), Oštrica (1860 m asl), Pavo (1806 m asl) etc. As for the rest of the Central-bosnian limestone mountains, for Vlašić are also typical some minor forms of karst relief as uvala and sinkhole. The uvalas are usually smaller, and one of the most famous is Devečanska uvala. There are also many cracks, holes and caves. Caves are usually small and hardly affordable, such as Velika and Mala cave on the hill Bukovica ( 1627 m asl). Climate on Vlašić mountain is characterised by long, cold winters and snowy and short cool summers. The average annual precipitation is 1418 mm. The main characteristic of Vlašićs climate are harsh winters, with temperatures that range from -2.4 to -3.4°C. The highest monthly temperatures is in the month of July and ranges from 14.8 to 18.7 °C. Month with lowest temperatures is January with averages in the range from -3.5 to -6.8 ° C. The average height of the snow cover ranges from 40 to 60 cm , and its average duration is over 90 days, at altitudes higher than 1,600 meters above sea level. Frosts occur from early October to mid-April, and fog occurance is also frequent. Vlašić is quite windy mountain with prevailing northwesterly and northeasterly winds. The central part of Mount Vlašić has no water flows and they appear only on the western (river Ugar ) and eastern (river Bila ) regime, while in the southern part is a series of wells and springs that come in contact of limestone with impermeable rocks, eg: Bašbunar , Handek, Šumeća. Many villages and the town of Travnik are placed here. Special tourist landmark is 15 m high waterfall on river Ugric which flows into the river Ugar, located under the ski – lift. On Mount Vlašić meet and cross two large floral areas: Euro- Siberian and Irano Turanian elements. Vegetation complex of Vlašić is characterized by a wide spread of dark coniferous forests and mountainous and subalpine zone, up to a height of about 1700m . Above this belt, before human impacts ecosystem of pine (Pinetum mughi illyricum) was developed, and now is completely vanished and turned into an ecosystem of mountain meadows on limestones. Floral alpine species found on Vlašić are viola tricolor (heartsease), narcissus, carnations, gentian, etc. According to the census of 1981., in 29 villages of Vlašić lived 16,884 inhabitants. Maline is the most populous village with 1,370 inhabitants, while the smallest number has Orlica, only 70 inhabitants. Negative population growth rate that occured recently is the result of migration of residents in the valley areas and urban settlements. Traditional occupations are farming and agriculture. Vlašić has no industrial facilities, while today tourism is becoming an increasingly important economic activity of the area.

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TOURIST TRAFFIC ON VLAŠIĆ Travnik municipality highlights tourism as a base of local and regional development. In this endeavor, Vlašić stands out as an oasis of winter, recreation, sports, health and hunting tourism, which has been recognized as a winter tourist center with a huge potential for the development of summer and winter tourism. Although mountain tourism as a form of tourist movement is characterized by two seasons (winter and summer), currently at Vlašić, winter tourism is most important . The biggest challenge is the extension of tourism season from two winter months on entire year for which Vlašić has all the advantages. Due to the quality air that positively affects the blood, and is particularly recommended for all patients (bronchitis, pulmonary disease ), children, the elderly, sports teams, etc., Vlašić can develop the image of mountain air spa and altitude center for the preparation of athletes, then affirm as a center of congress, adventure, fishing and hunting tourism, ecoturism etc. and thus create an image of a mountain town that is active throughout the year. Tradition of sheep farming is present here for centuries and the most popular product is Vlašić cheese, which is among the best white cheese in brine. The assumption is that the technique of making this cheese, was brought by farmers nomads from the east called Vlachs. Hence the name Vlašić. During the summer months tourist on Mount Vlašić can enjoy in the following tourist activities: organized hiking tours by the river Ugar and its source, excursions to Devečani (mountain lodge) and to the Opaljenik peak at an altitude of 1943m asl , where a broadcasting relay is situated. So, even though Vlašić is known as a ski center, in recent times, following the tourism trends other types of tourism are developing. Due to the existence of the natural resources and development of receptive factors, congress, adventure and sports tourism develop. Through school excursions and day trips, significant tourist traffic is realized. Table 1 Number of nights at Vlašić for year 2005 and 2009 Year 2005. 2009. Number of nights 7077 8421

From the above table can be concluded that in this period there was an increase in the number of visits and overnight stays. Also, considering the fact that approximately 10,000 beds located in private accommodation at Vlašić are not registered, obviously there is a far greater number of nights .

2% 2%

3%

2% Summer houses

7%

Hotels Mountain lodge Apartments 84%

Pensions Villa

Figure 2 Accommodation structure on Vlašić

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Given that the data presented relate to the period until year 2009, certain indicators point out that in the last few years, a strong reduction in the number of visitors occurs on Mount Vlašić. Some of the reasons for this situation are: expansion of other ski centers, insufficient and outdated infrastructure of vertical transportation, recession and exceeded capacity of the geographical environment, which significantly affects the psycho - physical state of tourists. The largest number of nights at Vlašić is realized in the winter period. Length of stay is between 7 to 10 days, and the main reason for coming is mostly skiing. In winter, the largest number of nights realize tourists from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, while in other seasons prevail tourists and visitors from Bosnia and Herzegovina . The main problem on Vlašić Mountain is unplanned illegal construction along the mountain and alpine routes, which reduces its attractive value, and turns it into a typical village. After reconstruction of ski lift „Babanovac“ explosive expansion of renovation and construction of accommodation facilities began and in short time completely got out of spatial planning principles and the fundamentals of human reason. Water supply network that was designed and built exclusively for the purposes of pre-war Ski resort „Babanovac“ and objects within it, was taken in the direction of the village Mudrike and Vitovlje, so soon first water restrictions began to happen. Pre-war underground electrical lines simply could not bear such a burden, and all the problems mentioned came as a result of terrible but completely unregulated development and reconstruction of Ski resort „Babanovac“. Finally, creating of the Regulatory plan in spring 2006. stopped the illegal construction, but also largely legalized the existing condition. THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE SKI CENTER VLAŠIĆ Carrying capacity of the ski centers are based on the area capacity of basic tourist attraction, which relates primarily to determining the carrying capacity of the physical space. On the example of ski resorts, application of this methodology relates to the capacity of ski terrains, primarly slopes. Normal capacity of ski terrain presents the maximum number of skiers who can ski at the same time, without interfering to each other. There are several categories of ski slopes capacity due to the skiers comfort. According to some estimates, 0.1 ha/skier slope surface is assessed as a comfortable capacity; 0.05 ha/skier slope surface as normal, and 0.02 ha/skier slope surface as a minimum. Capacity saturation is considered double normal capacity, or 0,025 ha/skier slope surface. 1 Table 2 Summary of key parameters needed to calculate the carrying capacity Area trails Path lenght Average path width Beds in Parking space for (ha) (km) (m) accomodation objects day visitors approx. 50 14 35 9469 350

Number of skiers on the mountain areas is calculated as a total number of visitors divided by 1.3, due to the fact that about 30% of all visitors to the ski centers are non-skiers. According to the indicators of the total tourist traffic, based on the previously presented methodology , it can be concluded that there are 6477 skiers during the year on Vlašić. As the ski tourism season lasts only for two months of the year, then it can be said that averagly per day there are 108 racers on ski slopes of Mount Vlašić or 0.46 ha /skier. When compared with capacity standards and available land per skier on Vlašić, one can conclude that this ski center has ski slopes with a comfortable capacity. However, as stated earlier, if it is taken into account the fact that approximately 10,000 beds in private accommodation at Vlašić are not 1

Marinović-Uzelac, A., 2001.: Prostorno planiranje, „Dom i svijet“, Zagreb str. 473;

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registered, the number of overnights and visitors is much bigger, and therefore reduces the ski slopes comfort. CARRYING CAPACITY OF VERTICAL TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE Equipment in tourist centers varies according to their types, sizes and categories. Special attention is focused on sports and recreational equipment in winter sports centers, primarily related to the arrangement of skiing slopes and vertical transport infrastructure. Table 3 Available ski lifts on Mount Vlašić Name Type Capacity (skier/h) Functioning Babanovac I chair 700 Yes Babanovac II anchor 1400 Yes Ugar chair 650 No Markovac anchor 1300 Yes Visovi chair 700 No Baby I 450 yes Baby II 450 yes TOTAL 5650

Based on the presented table it can be concluded that the ski center Vlašić is very well equipped with vertical transport infrastructure with a total of 4,300 skiers/hour. Comparing the average number of tourists and lift capacity , this area meets the standards of a modern ski center. However, there are many problems related to the tourism infrastructure. One of the main problems is fairly outdated infrastructure. Tourism infrastructure should be renewed as soon as possible, in order to continue the tradition of winter tourism. Also, one of the problems is uniformity of lift types that are used. Ski lifts or tow ski lifts in the form of anchors, can only meet winter tourism needs and can not be used when there is no snow, and then they also depend on the snow height. This type of lift is only used directly on the ski slopes, which excludes the possibility of their use for other types of tourism outside the winter season, which largely reflects the overall tourism development. MOUNT VLAŠIĆ TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Tourism increasingly includes environmentally conscious people who want to promote the " new tourism" , one that suits man of modern times. Trend in tourism demand is equated with authentic experience, contacts with the local culture and local people, enjoying the original environment of the countryside or the mountains with active recreation. Accordingly, the stronger will develop various forms of alternative tourism; eco - tourism in the country, sports and recreational tourism, adventure tourism etc. As a result of the location, exceptional natural beauty, cultural and historical values, favorable climatic conditions and other circumstances, Municipality Travnik can present interesting and long term, attractive and challenging destination. It is a center of the meeting and intermingling of different cultures, religions, traditions and architecture, which adds value and enable the creation of specific tourism products. As a unique product of the municipality stands out Vlašić, center with huge potential for the development of summer and winter tourism. However, in order to become center of winter and summer tourism, Vlašić must meet certain conditions, which will contribute tourism industry development of the region and provide the development of sustainable tourism. One of these requirements is to improve the quality of tourists stay and prolonging the tourist season.

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Currently, Vlašić is center of ski tourism, but if in the future it wants to achieve strategic plans and grow into a mountain resort, without seasonal concentration of tourists, some new forms of tourism trends have to be developed, for which Vlašić has a reasonable basis. Based on presented data it can be concluded that this area has the ideal conditions for tourism development, however, represented parameters do not correspond to the actual situation, so it is primarily necessary to make an inventory of all facilities and supporting infrastructure, comparing with the standards of carrying capacity and to verify legality of their construction. Next it is necessary to exert strict control of the number of tourists and define limits in accordance with the carrying capacity areas. Also, one of the measures to improve tourism development is to strengthen environmental awareness of the local population and visitors, emphasizing the harmony between tourism development and environmental protection. CONCLUSION Mountain tourism is one of the most attractive tourist movements. It is a massive continental recreational form of movement, and is characterized by two seasons (winter and summer). Mount Vlašić, due to its natural characteristics is an area that attracts large numbers of visitors, and is one of the most beautiful mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the development strategies states that this area is attractive throughout the year, Vlašić is a ski center, with no significant visits outside the winter season. One of the reasons for seasonal concentrations of tourists is the lack of comparative tourist attractions and tourist movements. Also, in recent years during the winter season decrease in the number of tourists was recorded, due to various objective factors, but also the factors that caused by the local community and authorities. When talking about these factors, it primarily refers to the low level of concern for the environment, resulting in numerous problems in meeting many tourist needs. This primarily emphasizes illegal construction of residential buildings where it wasn't taken into account geographical environment capacity and ambient degradation, causing a number of psycho-physical consequences on tourists. So Vlašić based on natural resources, is very attractive for mountain tourism, but it takes planned activities to work on improving tourism development, and creating tourist center that is visited during the year, not only in winter. REFERENCES Marinović-Uzelac, A., 2001.: Prostorno planiranje, „Dom i svijet“, Zagreb, 473-475 Općina Travnik, 2005.: Strategija razvoja općine Travnik do 2010. godine, Travnik, 32-34

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845]:332.12.055.2(497.741:23)

TOURISM AND ITS FUNCTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY RADOVISH Dejan ILIEV, Marija LJAKOSKA Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: d.iliev@hotmail.com, ljakoska.marija@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT This scientific paper researches issues related to tourism and its function as a generic resource in the development of hilly-mountainous areas in the municipality of Radovish. The scientific work is characterized by its specificity and its own research methodology in which several scientific methods are used: geographic (spatial) method, method of field research, statistical method, method of analysis and synthesis, method of comparison, tabular method etc. The results of this research defines the role of tourism in local economic development and socio-cultural development of village settlements in hilly-mountainous areas in the municipality of Radovish, and tendencies in which direction could be tourism developed as it could affect the development of these areas in the future. Key words: tourism, economic development, socio-cultural development.

INTRODUCTION Radovish municipality is located in the southeast part of the Republic of Macedonia. It covers an area of 608 km² with 28.244 inhabitants in total. It is characterized by good gravitationalcontact-functional connections with the surroundings and a good tourist-traffic position because of the highway M-6, which easily attaches the Corridor 10 that passes near the municipality, it is 36 km away off the railway station and railroad in Shtip, 120 km from the international airport Alexander the Great in Skopje, as well as from the international port of Thessaloniki. In geomorphologic aspect, the territory of the Radovish municipality, in the north, north-west and south is surrounded by hilly-mountainous relief, and on the southeast spreads the alluvial plain of the Stara Reka. Specifically, in the north and in the northeast is bounded by the mountain Plachkovica and Goten, in the north-west is bounded by the hilly terrain Yurukluk and in the south by the mountain Smrdesh. The accessibility of the terrain, along with the spaciousness-relief features of the municipality, indicates the convenient use of the resources in these hilly-mountainous areas and development of many economic sectors such as: agriculture, forestry, hunting and tourism. The first activities are traditional and more exploitative in terms of tourism, which although is not a new sector in the region, but so far it has not reached any significant development. For this reason, the subject of this scientific paper is tourism and its function in the development of the hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish. The results of this survey are defined in three main subtitles (Analysis of the tourist potentials in hilly-mountainous areas, spatial segregations of the tourist zones and locations in the hilly-mountainous areas and Tourism in function of development of the hilly-mountainous areas) in which scientific knowledge is specified and well-argued, covering many topics in geographic, economic and social aspect.

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ANALYSIS OF TOURISAM POTENTIALS IN THE HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Natural potentials for tourism and recreation development In the tourism development of the Municipality of Radovish, the natural potential has significant importance on the base of which the level of tourist attractiveness and appeal of the area can be determined. In this case the hilly-mountainous areas which are characterized by impressive tourist attraction have the greatest significance, enriched with a favorable climate, some hydrographic phenomena and various flora and fauna. Hilly-mountainous areas. Within the municipality, mountains Plachkovica with Goten, Smrdesh and the hilly terrain Yurukluk are included as major morphological units in the area. The mountain Plachkovica, with its ground configuration, high and flattened peaks over 1.500 m above sea level (Asanlija, Kozbran, Lisec etc.) is distinguished as a place with the most significant tourist importance, out of all. These peaks are targets for the fans of hiking and reaching the highest points from where a nice view of the lower morphological units in this area can be seen. The mountain ridge is separated by narrow and deep valleys where the river flows (Radovishka Reka, Smijlanska Reka and Oraovichka Reka) have built attractive and gorges valleys that are interesting natural phenomenon for tourists. Both, Mountain Smrdesh and hilly terrain Yurukluk also have their own specific physiognomy in morphological aspect, but in touristic aspect they are falling behind Mountain Plachkovica. Generally, mountainous areas are potential areas for development of mountain tourism, health tourism, eco-tourism, picnic-recreational activities and more. The hilly part of the district Yurukluk as a more expressed morphological figure is located in the north-west part of the municipality and as a natural figure gave the opportunity for numerous housing to be formed and settled. Climate specifics. This kind of factor occurs in two climate variations as moderate continental climate in the hilly part of the area and mountain climate in the high mountain areas of Plachkovica. The mountain climate is characterized by pleasant cool summers and cold and longer winters. The average annual temperatures range is from 10-12º C. The climatic conditions in the mountainous terrain, especially Plachkovica created belts of fresh air which are important for the development of summer-stationary tourism, especially healthmountainous tourism. The opportunities for development of winter-sports tourism are limited because of the non lasting snow cover (southern exposure and influence of modifiedMediterranean climate) and on the other hand, the lack of adequate terrain and premises for tracing the ski slopes. Hydrographic phenomena. Represents an important natural factor that affects the changes and the processes of the natural environment, at the same time it is also an important natural resource for tourism and recreation development. In the hilly-mountainous areas you can find hydrographic appearance like natural water springs and natural watercourses. Most of the water springs are found at higher altitudes, especially under higher peaks, at the valley sides etc. Most of the water springs are located on mountain Plachkovica in the upper flow of the watercourses (Radovishka Reka and Oraovichka Reka, the highest and the middle parts of the drainage basin of the River Plavaja). Lower capacity springs are located at Mountains Goten and Smrdesh. These waters spring can be used as potable water for people who pass by through these areas for recreation and other reason. On the other hand, the flow surface which is in the form of smaller or larger streams enriches the recreational-landscape component of these areas in touristic aspect. Flora and fauna. The hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish are characterized by various, unequally deployed and rich flora and fauna. The natural conditions in these areas have allowed two vegetation belts (oak and beech) with more units to occur.

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The forests found in mountainous areas enable the development of summer and winter stationary tourism (firstly on Mountain Plachkovica), enriching the landscape, aesthetic, recreational and other component of tourism. Although, in the past fauna was more numerous, there are different types of feathered and hairy wildlife now days also. Among them you can find: Sur Eagle, White vulture, Wild Duck, Wild Cat, Otter, Roe, Wolf, Wild Boar etc. Fauna in combination with the forest represents excellent potential for the development of hunting tourism. Socio-cultural potentials for the tourism development The population of the village settlements in the hilly-mountainous area of Radovish Municipality shows different dynamism development through the census years from 1948 until 2002, influenced by the socioeconomic conditions and relations, functional relations with the surrounding areas and so on, thereby reflecting the process of depopulation and deagrarization. The state of the hilly-mountainous areas alerts that some village settlements already have been completely displaced (Drzhani-700 m a.s.l, Karalobasi-700 m a.s.l, Karadzalar-701 m a.s.l, Hudaverlija-701 m a.s.l, Durutlija-727 m a.s.l, Papavnica-741 m a.s.l , Koselija-772 m a.s.l, Ali Lobasi-911 m a.s.l, Cheshme Maale-932 m a.s.l, Shaintash-993 m a.s.l, Novo Selo-1.101 m a.s.l, Shipkovica-1.210 m a.s.l.) with the emigration of the Muslim population to Turkey from 1953 onwards, in some village settlements the process of reducing the number of population is ongoing, while some register increasing of the number of their population. Zone of expansibility of the hilly-mountainous village settlements with permanent residents of the Municipality of Radovish: • Hilly zone: Topolnica (520 m a.s.l), Damjan (550 m a.s.l), Buchim (670 m a.s.l). • Mountain zone: Kalauzlija (610 m a.s.l), Prnalija (660 m a.s.l), Shturovo (780 m a.s.l), Ali Koch (800 m a.s.l), Supurge (800 m a.s.l) Smilanci (851 m a.s.l), Kodzalija (899 m a.s.l) and Kozbunar (1.021 m a.s.l).

Village settlements Damjan Topolnica Buchim Prnalija Kalauzlija Papavnica Shturovo Ali Koch Supurge Smilanci Kodzalija Ali Lobasi Kozbunar Shipkovica

Table 1. Total number of population and population by gender Total number of population 1981 2002 Total Male Female Total Male Female 451 228 223 311 165 146 601 311 290 562 284 278 265 140 125 320 176 144 192 101 91 122 66 56 128 64 64 279 142 137 28 16 12 52 30 22 11 6 5 374 180 194 328 159 169 82 40 42 56 32 24 167 83 84 39 23 16 486 248 238 478 250 228 9 4 5 52 28 24 17 7 10 55 29 26 Source: State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia

In Table 1 it can be noticed that genders, males and females are about equally represented in the village settlements in hilly-mountainous areas of the Municipality of Radovish, so it is concluded that the productive forces of gender are at the same level.

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Village settlements Damjan Topolnica Buchim Prnalija Kalauzlija Papavnica Shturovo Ali Koch Supurge Smilanci Kodzalija Ali Lobasi Kozbunar Shipkovica

0-14 116 238 135 78 54 6 10 158 42 31 243 2 6 4

Table 2. Age structure of the population Total number of population 1981 2002 15-64 65> 0-14 15-64 65> 301 34 44 207 60 338 25 181 341 40 124 6 111 200 9 108 6 56 56 10 69 5 121 143 15 14 8 36 6 4 7 197 19 134 173 21 39 1 28 24 4 115 21 18 21 223 20 192 267 19 4 3 36 10 7 10 35 16 Source: State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia

The transformation in the age structure of the population occurs as a result of the changes in the natural movement of the population and in the migratory movements. From the analysis (Table 2) it can be concluded that in the most of the village settlements, the age structure of the population is in favor of the active (working) population, the number of young population declines, while the number of population older than 65 increased slightly due to the extended life span and the lower participation of this group of people in the process of emigration. In terms of ethnic composition of the population in the village settlements of the hillymountainous areas, in the Municipality of Radovish, Macedonian and Turks dominate. Existing residential village settlements with Macedonian population only, are: Kozbunar, Shturovo and Smilanci, while village settlements with Turkish population only are: Ali Koch, Buchim, Kalauzlija, Kodzalija, Prnalija and Supurge. Village settlements with mixed population are Topolnica (88.8% Turks, 9.8% Macedonians, 1.2% Albanians and 0.2% other) and Damjan (97.7% Macedonians, 1.9% Vlachs and 0.3% others). In cultural point of view, the hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish are characterized by the high level of ethnological, linguistic and cultural autochthony. It is a Turkish nomadic group coming from Anatolia that on several occasions settled in the east part of the Balkan Peninsula, at the same time covering the hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish, during the 14th and 15th century. In the municipality, a significant part of the Yuruk villages was established during the 17th and in the early 18th century. The population of these village settlement lives isolated and traditionally, and deals with tobacco, cereals, vineyards, gardening and farming. This ethnic community takes care of the religious, traditional and other customs, architecture, and the way of managing the area together with the changes and challenges of modern living. Of particular importance are their customs and folklore specifications (weddings, circumcision, holidays etc.) that serve to maintain the social life and integration in the community. Infrastructural factors in the tourism development Disposition of the village settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish besides that it has an impact on the population, it also affects the functional development of the villages, especially in tracing and constructing of the road infrastructure. Unfortunately, by some rule, the development of road infrastructure tends to stay behind the expansion of tourism and travelling that causes unpleasant situations. Generally, there is a breached road infrastructure leading to these village settlements and touristic sites that allows 380


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movement of the population. The paved road Radovish-Plachkovica in length of 18.5 km has the biggest importance. By this road you can reach some touristic localities and village settlements as Shturovo, Kozbunar and Shipkovica. With no less importance are the roads: Radovish-v. Alikoch-v. Kodzalija-v. Supurge-v. Prnalija in length of 19 km and Radovish-v. Kalauzlija-v. Drzhani in length of 6 km. The accommodation capacities as part of the touristic infrastructure in hilly-mountainous areas, because of their poor development represents a limiting factor for the tourism development. The new investments and the reorganization of the existing Children resort in the new hotel "Bel Kamen" as a sports and spa center are expected to raise the quality of the receptive touristic infrastructure in the future. As additional accommodation capacities (rooms and beds) at the mountain Plachkovica, also can be used private buildings (houses and villas). At the same time, it is necessary for rural households to adapt their houses and to offer an accommodation to tourists, and all of that in compliance with the ambient architecture of the rural area and villages. If we consider the criterion distance from the nearest city, in this case Radovish, planning and building accommodation capacities in the future, should be oriented to this hilly-mountain area. SPATIAL SEGREGATIONS OF THE TOURISTIC ZONES AND LOCALITIES IN THE HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Based on a complex inventory of natural and created conditions and resources in size, quality, quantity, dispersion, uniqueness and attractiveness in the hilly- mountainous areas of Radovish Municipality, according to the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Macedonia (2004): one tourist zone (West-Plachkovica zone) and three tourist localities (Kozbunar, Shipkovica and Child’s resort) can be distinguished.

THE TOURISM IN FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIONOUS AREAS The tourism in function of local economic development The village settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas of the Municipality of Radovish are mostly oriented towards the agricultural economy, but not all of them have the same agricultural function. According to the structure of agricultural area, three groups can be considered: agricultural-forestry function (Papavnica, Smilanci, Kalauzlija, Kodzalija, Kozbunar, Shipkovica and Shturovo); agricultural-farming function (Topolnica, Buchim, Supurge, Ali Koch and Prnalija) and agricultural function (Damjan). (Panov, 1993). Overall, the population in these villages is dealing with agriculture and farming. The problems that occur as a result of the processes of depopulation and deagrarization impose the necessity of transformation in the socioeconomic structure of the area, and the tourism is one of the most relevant spatial phenomena that affects on the structure and processes, changing the physiognomic and functional features of the area. So that, to avoid the process of depopulation in the hilly-mountainous areas of the Municipality of Radovish and these areas to become economically active, functionally organized and with great infrastructure, it is necessary for most of the agricultural settlements to be transformed from explicitly agricultural settlements into village settlements with more complex socioeconomic structure, through a process of transformation in the population from an agricultural into mixed one. Most of the village settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas of the Radovish Municipality have a good climate, fresh and unpolluted air, peace and quiet, cultural heritage and so on,

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respectively, they possess all the features that today's "urban man" requires for personal recreation and leisure. This is one great reason for which the purchasing power of the urban population can be directed to these areas. Taking into consideration the economic limitation of these areas, the tourism can be very soon imposed as an important economic activity which will provide additional income for the population. The hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish possess their own developing potentials and advantages (village settlements, population, agricultural areas, areas for leisure and recreation, ecological potentials, cultural and other values of the rural life etc.) which represent a base of their future development. The greatest attention in these areas is devoted to the agriculture and its intensification, but because the realized income from the agricultural activities is usually small and insufficient, this economic activity gets a profile of unattractive economic activity as an occupation of the population. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce an additional economic activity that would strengthen the local economic development, will keep the local population and will return part of the population that moved out of these areas earlier (for example, village settlements Shipkovica and Kozbunar as separate touristic localities). An additional economic activity that has a great importance in the development of rural areas is tourism. The positive effects of its development are employment, achieving additional income for the population, revival of the cultural heritage and so on. Creating employment opportunities in tourism are an especially important issue for the economically undeveloped areas, because that way, migration of the population towards the cities will be reduced and also the pressure on employment in other sectors will be reduced. The development of the tourism will provide employment support to specific target groups (young people, long term unemployed, vulnerable group of people, females, etc.). From the above demographic analysis (Table 1 and Table 2) it can be concluded that most of the village settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas have relatively good demographic potential, because the largest percentage of the population belongs to the age group of 15-64, and the tourism is an important factor for full utilization of the working population, which had never been involved in the economic activities before, or their working skills haven’t been used enough. The number of young people is not low, so they can get involved and help in private households which would provide accommodation and food for the tourists. In terms of gender structure, the number of female is quite high, which is especially important for the tourism sector, because this target group which previously had not been active can be included in several services (the role of a housekeeper that accepts and gives accommodation to the tourists, keep up the hygiene in the rooms, responsible for the decoration and the aesthetic look of the houses, in the preparation of breakfast, lunch and more, the decoration and the aesthetic look of the place-planting flowers but not only for decoration, also for commercial purposes, decorating the windows and balconies with flowers, producing souvenirs etc.). But as one of the key development tools for human resources management, an education is needed, tuition and training of the local population in these areas, to know how to provide tourism services in a level necessary for the tourist. The aim of these educational processes is to introduce the locals to the economic benefits of the touristic development and the fact that this sector, besides agriculture can be an additional activity for income achievement. Overall, the tourism as an economic activity has a direct and indirect impact on the economy. Direct effects refer to those activities that directly satisfy the needs of the tourists, such as: traffic, catering, trade, crafts and more. This means that by activating the hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish, in tourism point of view, the development of transportation and the quality of infrastructural equipment will be intensified, the issue of entrepreneurial business in hospitality and accommodation will become more current, the retail trade of products will become more active (souvenirs, handmade objects, home goods,

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postcards and other authentic products related to the place of residence) and so on. Opposite this, the indirect effects of tourism refer to those activities that do not participate in providing direct services to the tourists, such as: agriculture, construction and others. Hilly-mountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish by having the agriculture as main economic sector and by intensifying the agricultural production can provide an indirect benefit from the tourism development, as tourists through the tourism industry are significant consumers of these products. The impact of tourism in the civil engineering can be seen through the investments in building new tourism facilities, but also in the opportunity to engage the local population in the construction activities. In the hilly-mountainous areas of the Radovish Municipality, in its initial stage of development, there is a necessity of investments in the infrastructure of the place, and thus strengthening the material base of the tourism. The tourism in a function of socio-cultural development The social function of tourism gets round the reduction of the social differences between different human groups, classes, nations and races, while the cultural function shows the influence that receptive resorts have on this cultural conception on towards the tourists. (Vukonich, Chavlek, 2001). From the most important issues related to tourism, which no doubt have the implications in the socio-cultural development are those related to the authenticity, commodification and "demonstrative effect". The authenticity of the population, the culture and the place of visit in the full sense of the word, implies fascination of the tourists (visitors) with their uniqueness that is different in comparison with the well known cultures. In this context, the village settlements of the hillymountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish stand out as distinct authentic sociocultural phenomena. Yurukluk is separated as a special authentic cultural complex, but not only Yurukluk, village settlements with a Turk population (Yuruks) also. This ethnicity presents live cultural heritage and it is representative of the Turkish cultural heritage, with its own tradition and symbols, cast into their spiritual and material culture manifested through a variety of authentic and preserved cultural features. Throughout the years this ethical community succeeded in maintaining the awareness of its ethnic and cultural peculiarity expressed through various cultural characteristics: authentic costumes (male and especially the female festive costume and jewelry), holidays (Sheker, Eid al-Adha, Hiderlez etc.), events (famous wrestling battles that happen on holidays), musical instruments (drum and zurna), authentic weddings, circumcision, traditional dishes and so on. These values and content are possibilities of presenting of an authentic ethnicity in a particular micro location and they are main motive and reason which encourage the tourist desire to travel and to fulfill their needs for an authentic experience different from globalization and modern way of living. The visits by immigrated Yuruks who are coming to remind themselves on their forefathers is worth for pointing out. Playing a role of emissaries in spreading the culture as an inseparable link between Turkey and Macedonia. No less important are the village settlements (Kozbunar, Smilanci etc.) populated with the Macedonian population which are characterized by its own traditions (costumes, traditional dishes, etc.) and the ambient architecture of the houses, gave this area a special authentic. Commodification is a process of including the uncharacteristic objects in the purchase and sale and trade relations, that in terms of tourism is about the experience that the tourist gains by knowing the authentic places and cultures. Analyzing the experience as a product (which is sold and bought), studies in the tourism have shown that these types of products are very common. The commodification of experiences in the tourism necessities in the hillymountainous areas of the Municipality of Radovish can be accomplished in two ways:

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promotional material through the media (Internet positing, TV advertising etc.) and brochures for the tourism potentials of the area and through direct presentation of tourist localities. "The demonstrative effect" represents the change that occurs in the behavior of the locals influenced by the tourist’s behavior. Watching the tourists (behavior, appearance, attitude, etc.), local people at first start to imitate, and then to adopt the forms of behavior and the lifestyle of the tourists thus losing the authenticity of the locals. Sometimes this effect can have a positive impact and if the locals adopt certain forms of behavior or lifestyle of the visitors that improve the quality of life or in another case when tourists and locals have the same or similar cultural features (for example, the visit of the Yuruks from residents of Turkey). But, the intensity of this effect also depends on the differences between the tourists (visitors) and the local population, and in this particular case with the Yuruks it is the largest because as an isolated authentic ethnicity in this case they are the most vulnerable. Although the importance of the traditional values in these "isolated areas" is the largest, the dominant role of the globalization and global cultural trends, modernization, openness and frequency of these areas with the urban centers, the possibility for secondary education in the native language in Radovish etc., are factors that impose the new life style for the new generations who unconsciously accept changes in tradition (for example, traditional music features, etc.) and somehow they lose the knowledge of the historical tradition of this entity. Also, changes in the behavior, appearance and generally the lifestyle of the locals can happen through tourists activation of these areas, especially during a visit and contact with the tourists from developed countries with enormously different style and a new way of living different from the one of the locals. Therefore, during the tourist valorization of these areas, one should be especially careful on "the demonstrative effect" and commodification and their negative impact on the authenticity of the area. Leaving aside all the negative characteristics, it is noted that the tourism, nowdays represents an irreplaceable "tool" for bringing and gathering people together from the most distance areas, with different languages, races, religions and socio-economic systems and a tool of mutual understanding and promoting trust between the tourists and the locals from the hillymountainous areas in the Municipality of Radovish, at the same time developing feelings of long lasting friendship, and thus harmonization of the relations between the nations. CONCLUSION Municipality Radovish, despite favorable communication features and natural potentials, the population as a driving force in the organization of the space and infrastructure potential, nearly minimally has used these values for tourism development in the hilly-mountainous areas. The importance of tourism development in these areas arises as a consequence of the effects of its activity as reflected in the economic and social spheres of life, IE this economic activity is a resource that generates the total municipality development. Economic functions of tourism deserve the special attention of their direct influence in the development of hillymountainous areas in the municipality as undeveloped areas, through employment growth and investment activity. The direct effect of tourism is felt in other sectors, such as transport, catering, trade, crafts and more. These activities have the ability to supply services that are usually produced at the point of consumption. The indirect impact of tourism on other sectors of particular importance is the impact on agriculture that is the main economic activity in the hilly-mountainous areas, so that in a case of market surpluses of agricultural products, these products are consumed by tourists. The impact of tourism is reflected in the social sphere of life, that it is a factor of socio-cultural development of the hilly-mountainous areas, with special emphasis on presenting and preserving the authenticity of population and culture.

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Therefore, local self-government and all institutions involved in the tourism sector must encourage economic climate, investments (infrastructure, accommodation etc.), the development of entrepreneurship in the tourism sector etc. in the future, thus creating conditions for full exploitation of tourism potential in hilly-mountainous areas. REFERENCES Andrich, N. (1980): Tourism and regional development, Library of Economics XIII, Informator Zagreb; (in Croatian) Budinoski M. (2009): Development and planning of tourism, Faculty of Tourism, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Vukonich B., Chavlek N. (2001): Tourism glossary, Masmedija, Zagreb; (in Croatian) Group of authors (1984): Radovish and Radovish region, Radovish; (in Macedonian) Institute of Physical Planning Skopje-Ohrid (1988): Spatial Plan of the Municipality Radovish; (in Macedonian) Iliev D. (2007): Evaluation of physical capacity of the Strumica-Radovish Valley for sustainable development of the economic activities, master thesis, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Iliev D. (2008): The development of traffic and transport infrastructure in Strumica-Radovish Valley, Herald for Socio-economic geography 2, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Iliev D. (2010): Tourism in function of the integral development of the Republic of Macedonia, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Skopje; (in Macedonian) MEPP, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (2004): Spatial Plan of the Republic of Macedonia, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Panov M. (1993): Villages in the Republic of Macedonia, Book II, NIO “Studentski zbor”, Skopje; (in Macedonian) State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia, 1981, 2002; Hemmati M. (1999): Gender and Tourism: Women’s Employment and Participation in Tourism, Report to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development 7 Session, London; (in English)

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УДК: 332.146.2:551.4.035(497.11)

PLANNING SUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN SERBIA Marija MAKSIN1, Saša MILIJIC 2 1

2

Singidunum University, Danijelova Str. 32, Belgrade, Serbia, mmaksin@singidunum.ac.rs* Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Bul. kralja Aleksandra 73/II, Belgrade, Serbia, sasam@iaus.ac.rs

ABSTRACT Development restrictions in the hilly-mountain regions of Serbia include spatial, economic and political marginalization, as well as externally directing development, unfavorable demographics and population emigrate, endangering the economic, social and cultural existence of the mountain population, infrastructure poorly equipped areas, etc. The paper analyzes concepts and models used in regional spatial planning for the sustainable territorial development of hilly-mountain regions in Serbia. It refers to several key issues related to sustainable territorial development of these regions: accessibility, urban-rural development, rural settlement network and depopulation of peripheral mountain areas, tourism development, spatial and functional integration and potentials for trans-border cooperation. One of the models discussed is a model for rural settlement network. The activation of attractive tourism resources for sustainable tourism development would provide a support to economic development of hilly-mountain regions and local communities, as well as to the realization of higher quality of life of rural population. The benefits and constraints for implementing some of the proposed models are discussed. Short critical overview on constrains of regional development and implementation of regional spatial plans related has been indicated. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges and possibilities of regional spatial planning to contribute sustainable regional territorial development of hilly-mountain regions. Key words: key problems of sustainable development of hilly-mountain regions in Serbia, regional spatial planning, network of settlements and services, tourism development, accessibility.

INTRODUCTION Hilly-mountain (HM, Figure 1) regions face many developmental problems: depopulation, economic underdevelopment, high unemployment and poverty rates in rural areas, unused natural resources, poor accessibility, underdeveloped settlement network, etc. This paper points out the key issues related to sustainable territorial development of HM regions and discusses the solutions implemented at two analyzed regional spatial plans (RSP) in Eastern Serbia for: improving the accessibility, balanced polycentric urban system, new forms of development and partnership between urban and rural areas, tourism development, spatial and functional integration. The two key issues, as well as possibilities for more balanced development of HM regions, have been analyzed in more detail. The first possibility refers to the application of the model of polycentric urban system, urban and rural development, as well as models of rural settlement network development in HM regions. Aging of rural population and depopulation of HM regions hinder the preservation of micro rural centers, in particular the provision of public and commercial services. Emerging model is that of mobile services can be combined with the revitalization of micro rural centers. Other possibility refers to tourism development. Potentially, the most attractive nature tourism resources are located at HM regions of Serbia. Their activation for sustainable tourism development would provide a support for the economic development of HM regions and local communities, as well as for the realization of higher quality of life of rural population. The benefits and constraints for implementing some of the proposed models are discussed. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges and possibilities of regional spatial planning in order to contribute to sustainable regional territorial development of HM regions.

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KEY ISSUES RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS Regional spatial planning is an instrument for checking and coordinating the spatial/territorial impacts of all spatially relevant national and regional policies (economic development, natural resources, sustainable development, rural development, heritage protection, the tourism and cultural development, etc.). In the process of planning, local governments should cooperate on considering possible options to jointly solve problems and issues of common interest for their communities. Options for spatial planning should be the subject of public consultations and strategic impact assessment (Maksin et al., 2009). A major and the most difficult task in the planning process is to achieve sustainable development of HM regions through directing the general spatial distribution of the development and investments, as well as through the coordination of population dynamics, development of economic activities, infrastructure and public services, environmental and natural resources conservation. Analyzed cases of hilly-mountain regions covered by the regional spatial plans The two RSP for Eastern Serbia (Figure 2) comprise the territory of 4 districts and 21 towns/municipalities, in the total area of about 13,500 km2 (which represents about 15% of the territory of Serbia), with about 970 settlements and about 752,600 inhabitants (according to 2002 Census). Physically and geographically, these plans comprise most of the South Morava and Timok river basins, a part of the Danube River basin, as well as high mountains dominated by Stara Planina (Old Mountain) and Krajište with Vlasina. Starting points in defining the visions and planning solutions for sustainable territorial and regional development are based on the following spatial specificities: 1. Southern Pomorovlje (the South Morava River Basin): belongs to underdeveloped, economically and demographically depressed regions; region of Pan-European Corridor 10 (with partially developed highway system); agricultural-livestock and forest areas; areas of natural and cultural heritage and tourism assets (with high potentials for the development of tourism and complementary activities); water sources of national and international importance, 5 existing and 4 planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, potential navigable corridor, etc.; special purpose zones with existing and planned border crossings and border areas towards the Republic of Bulgaria (European Union), Republic of Macedonia and the security zone towards Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (which is, after 1999 NATO bombing, under international supervision), etc. 2. Timočka krajina (Timok Region): belongs to underdeveloped, economically and demographically depressed regions; region of Pan-European Transport Corridor 7 (the Danube with partly used navigability potential and unused nautical potential) and contact area between the Pan-European Corridor 10 to the west and Corridor 4 to the east; region with outstanding hydropower potential (two existing hydroelectric power stations: „Đerdap I“ and „Đerdap II“, as well as a possibility of building the reversible hydro power plant „Đerdap III“); agricultural-livestock and forest area; natural and cultural heritage and tourism assets (with exceptional tourism development potential at Stara Planina (Old Mountain) and on the Danube, together with complementary activities); water resources of national and regional importance, 3 existing and 3 planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, etc.; the region with significant reserves of mineral resources and developed mining (mining company RTB „Bor“, etc.); special purpose zones with existing and planned border crossings and border areas towards the Republic of Bulgaria and Republic of Rumania (European Union) in the length of 307 km; etc.

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2

1

1

RSP for South pomoravlje

2

RSP for Timočka krajina

Figure 1: Mountain areas of Serbia

Legend adopted drafting in progress (draft adopted) drafting in progress (draft phase) drafting in progress (concept phase) drafting in progress (bid preparation) district borders republic border Figure 2: Regional spatial plans in Serbia

Similarities in addressing the sustainable territorial development There are certain similarities in addressing the sustainable territorial development of HM regions within the coverage of two RSP. This primarily refers to the general sustainable development goals, such as: responsible and sustainable development, management and protection of space with realistic possibilities and limitations of natural and created values, as well as long-term requirements for economic and social development and environmental protection; more balanced development within regions and at the inter-regional level, encouraging the development of agriculture, tourism, energy sector, mining and infrastructure, improving the accessibility of Pan-European and the Danube river/nautical corridor, significantly improving the accessibility of highland and remote areas, initiating the cross-border cooperation programs; improving the quality of life and creating conditions for demographic renewal, encouraging people to remain in or return to their communities, particularly in economically vulnerable HM rural communities or centers thought investments for building, reconstruction and maintenance of infrastructure, public services, conservation and enhancement of the natural resources and cultural heritage, development of economically sustainable and status-attractive activities, particularly in tourism. 389


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Both analyzed RSP have defined the visions, major concepts and planning solutions for achieving more balanced regional and sub-regional development, higher competitiveness and greater integration of regions and districts an into the surroundings (neighboring functional areas, as well as neighboring municipalities, districts and regions, as well as with neighboring/border municipalities and regions in Bulgaria, Romania and Macedonia). Particular attention has been dedicated to attractiveness of the region for investment through defining the planning solutions for activating and mobilizing territorial capital; sustainable use of natural and created values; long-term renewal and development of human resources; increase of traffic accessibility; building the infrastructure and increasing the energy efficiency; development of economy and institutions; protection of natural resources and cultural heritage; as well as factors for the development of the region, environmental remediation, etc. ADDRESSING THE KEY ISSUES RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS Certain similarities and differences occur in addressing the key issues related to sustainable territorial development of HM regions within the coverage of four RSPs, as follows: Improving the accessibility The support to carrying out integration, more balanced and polycentric development of these regions is planned through improving the transport infrastructure and spatial accessibility. This particularly refers to the planning solutions for completing the construction, equipping and arranging the infrastructure corridor of E-75 motorway and better transport connectivity between surrounding areas and the motorway by building new transversal sections as follows: E75 – Bor – Zaječar; E75 – Stara Planina; E75 – Trgovište – Bosilegrad; E75 – Kriva Feja – Bosilegrad, etc.; completion of equipping and regulating the section of the Danube waterway/nautical corridor; reconstruction of the existing railroad tracks (Niš – Zaječar – Prahovo, Niš – Makedonija, etc.), with legs into Romania and Bulgaria and building the E85 high-speed railroad, the development of energy and telecommunications infrastructures. The planned construction of transport infrastructure should contribute to improving the transit and mediatory connections of Eastern and Southern Serbia to the Corridor 10 and to the roadways to Pan-European Corridor 5 to the west and Corridor 4 to the east; improving the spatial and functional positioning; raising the competitiveness of the region; as well as faster development of regional centres. The realization of internal integration, development of small towns, micro-developmental rural centres, as well as activation of highland and border areas has been supported by the planning solutions for improving the capillary, regional (category II state road) and local road network, especially transverse roadways, and their connections with roads and highways within the Pan-European corridors. Balanced polycentric urban system In applying the concept of balanced polycentric regional development, the model of dispersed concentrated development and distribution of population, economic and other activities has been used to slow down the population concentration and activities in primary development axis (Pan-European Corridor 10) and to stimulate dispersion of the development in communities with significant territorial capital and potentials. These are planning solutions for resolving the following problems: Development of functional urban regions in independent and dual urban centers (Bor – Zaječar, Leskovac – Niš, Vranje – Vladičin Han), strengthening of the regional functions in Bor, Zaječar, Leskovac, Vranje and Pirot and decentralization of the remaining functions in

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municipalities, sub-municipal and micro-development centers in rural areas as exponents of socio-economic development of rural communities and their functional integration with urban centers. Development of spatial functional connections (in Vlasotince, Lebane, Bojnik, Bosilegrad, Trgovište, etc.), inter-connection and connections with regional centers in the immediate and cross-border areas. Initiating the formation of secondary development axis in the peripheral Timok river valley (direction Niš – Knjaževac – Zaječar – Negotin – Kladovo, which is to be extended up to Bor) and primary development axis along the South Morava river (direction Niš – Leskovac/Vlasotince – Vranje – Vladičin Han – Bujanovac/Preševo) and development of the regional functional urban systems connecting the macro-region of Niš with the Danube Basin and immediate international surrounding. Development of the existing successful small and medium size enterprises which will, after the modernization, restructuring and specialization of their production, become leaders in regional economically linked clusters of production and services, and which will compete with companies in the region and surrounding areas (Niš, Belgrade and other industrial centers), namely in the field of energy, mining, transport, warehousing and logistics, tourism, as well as other activities. The problems so far in implementing the planning models and concepts for the development of centers within the settlement network are reflected in insufficient diversification of functions and job opening, as well as in the absence of investment and other measures for intensifying the specific sub-regional, municipal, economic, public and social functions for the purpose of slowing down the concentration of economic and other activities in regional centers, as well as for encouraging the economic and social development of other centers within the settlement network. From the viewpoint of the planned settlement network development, an insufficiently controlled building of suburban settlements and settlements along the public road corridors represents a particular problem. New forms of development and partnership between urban and rural areas Natural resources and quality environment in HM rural areas, on the one hand, and economic, scientific, research, innovative, information, development, administrative, cultural and other functions of urban centers, on the other hand represent one of the major strongholds in the planning solutions for establishing new forms of development and partnership between rural and urban areas. Implementation of new forms of development and partnership in rural and urban areas will be achieved by establishing a core of socio-economic transformation of rural and poorly urbanized peripheral areas in the region, as well as by developing the daily urban systems (DUS) and formation of functional urban regions (FUR). Daily urban systems will be developed in the areas covered by RSPs as an instrument of a balanced and polycentric development. Functional areas belonging to conventional functional urban regions are envisaged as sub-systems in the future polycentric urban integration. Daily commuting, as an instrument of territorial and functional cohesion in regions, will be developed at three levels as follows: the first level will comprise daily urban systems of regional centers – Leskovac, Vranje, Bor and Zaječar; second level will comprise daily commuting systems – Vlasotince and bipolar daily commuting systems and agglomeration of Vladičin Han – Surdulica (with the zone of somewhat lower influence); Knjaževac, Negotin, and Kladovo; while the third level will comprise other local commuting systems/local centers of work. By the end of the time horizon of the RSP, it is expected that the number of daily commuters of regional centers will increase as a result of strengthening their regional functions, as well as

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strengthening the sub-regional centers. In addition to these commutes, the strengthening and diversification of economy will influence migration of people with specific education and professions into regional centers, as well as centers of specific functions. Zones of influence of other municipal centers will become smaller in the forthcoming period (inertia of negative demographic trends), and will stagnate by the end of the planning horizon, but along with more intensive daily commutes between centers and settlements at periphery of urban regions. Based on a number of research activities carried out in Serbia, it has been confirmed that for the DUS formation and establishment of the FUR, it is necessary to have a certain population quantum and, in correlation with it, a higher development level of functions, i.e. higher functional capacity. Furthermore, it appears that the change of economic and social system in Serbia, particularly at the beginning of the 21 century, has only intensified the polarization effects in space through implementation of neoliberal economic principle. Precisely the foreign direct investments have contributed to this given that the FDI, as a rule, go to the most developed parts of the country, thus widening a gap between the urban and HM regions. The remaining settlements in the HM regions (not only in spatial meaning) constitute a heterogeneous system which is more or less integrated into systems and sub-systems of urban regions. These settlements will develop in a direct functional dependence on centers and general development tendencies. The development of public services in Serbia will be in discrepancy between constitutional rights and declared standards, on the one hand, and economic conditions, under the minimum demand principle, on the other hand. Favoring the economic viability over the equal social standard has conditioned the change in functioning and hierarchical organization of a part of public services (primarily of all social institutions and health care system, but also educational system in the future). Further effects will be manifested in a negative spiral („vicious circles“), thus a decrease in functions will encourage emigration so that it will be increasingly difficult to maintain budget-dependent administrative and public functions. It is necessary to support the policy of developing the job market, as well as other measures for more intensive specific regional, economic, public and social functions in small centers to slow down concentration of economic and other activities in big urban centers, as well as to stimulate economic and social development in other centers within the settlement network. Dilemmas have arisen concerning the application of long advocated, but never realized, model of dispersed concentration with greater number of micro-development centers in rural areas. The dispersed settlement system which, steadily losing permanent population, dominates in the HM rural areas covered by analyzed regional spatial plans. In conditions of depopulation and a very low population density, micro-development centers lose beneficiaries and functions. Special-function settlements, near to urban centers and with traffic-favorable position will have more chances for the development. To this end, three measures are crucial (Krunić, 2012): (i) planning, directing and allocating most of public services whose activities are spatially flexible; (ii) accepting and encouraging the seasonal „life“ of settlements; (iii) encouraging the „social segregation“ through developing those functions of settlements that make them attractive to population of certain age, social status, interests, etc. These measures would encourage the development of functionally directed, spatially grouped or independent settlements that would be destinations of interest-linked and complementary population structures in certain period of time: agricultural producers (e.g. wine producers), owners of complementary industrial plants, pupils and students, soldiers, policemen and other pubic servants, hunters and fishermen, yachtsmen, pensioners, „weekenders“, tourists and excursionists, etc. Tourism development A part of planning solutions for more balanced regional development is based on economic prosperity, development and improvement of living conditions in rural HM areas,

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conservation and improvement of rural values, strengthening of economic positioning of agriculture and agricultural producers, development of infrastructure, as well as raising of the utility and public standards in rural settlements. The main approach applied in RSP is that the tourism development is one of the possible solutions to problems faced by the economy of peripheral rural regions in Serbia. The planning solutions for sustainable tourism development in HM regions are conceived with the aim to provide support to: sustainable development of regions and local communities; balanced development of rural HM areas (e.g. integrated development of tourism and agricultural production, as well as development of other complementary economic activities); higher quality of life of rural population; environmental protection, as well as the protection of heritage and local culture (Milijić & Krunić, 2010). Regional tourism development models are based on the most important tourism assets and specific, recognizable and integrated all-year-round tourist offer (natural heritage, mountains, rivers, lakes, spas, cities and villages, cultural heritage, manifestations, etc.), as well as on joint marketing activities of the region. The combined development of three forms of tourism according to their importance for local community and region has been planned: modest tourism (small-scale tourism having a complementary role in the development and providing additional income to population), dominant tourism (as a leading development sector), and balanced tourism (a dynamic sector in a balanced local/regional economy). Planning solutions for the tourism development at Southern Pomoravlje and Timočka krajina are the following: (i) Completion and integration of existing tourism offer in the region (the Danube riparian area with Đerdap Lake and „Đerdap“ National Park, „Stara Planina“ Nature Park, Vlasina Lake, Sokobanja, Vranjska, Bujanovačka, Sijarinska and Gamzigradska Banja spas, Felix Romuliana and Lepenski vir archeological sites, etc.); (ii) Development of new tourism supply for creating all-year-round regional tourism offer (nautical and tourism infrastructure on the Danube, tourist centers and ski resorts on Stara Planina and Besna Kobila mountains, Roman Emperor’s cultural route, diversity of tourism other resources such as lakes, mountains, cultural heritage, Negotin wine cellars, traditional manifestations, spas, towns and villages, hunting and fishing resorts, etc.); (iii) Functional integration and diversification/specialization of tourism offer within regional surroundings in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Macedonia. The tourism development will provide one of the mechanisms for compensating the local population for limitations imposed by the peripheral position and by regimes for conservation and protection of natural resources, natural and cultural heritage. Spatial and functional integration The intention was to increase the degree of functional integration of areas covered by regional spatial plans at two levels. At the intra-regional level, the planned qualitative changes in spatial, transport, economic and social structures will allow harmonization of development and networking of sub-regional entities, especially hilly-mountain and border areas with pronounced dysfunctions of social and economic development. At the inter-regional level, functional integration with neighboring functional areas will enable the realization of prioritized planning solutions significant for several municipalities and regions, primarily for transport connectivity with corridors 10 and 7, the development of other infrastructure systems and formation of regional clusters (economy, tourism, education etc.). Connecting and cooperating with international surroundings, neighboring border municipalities and regions in Bulgaria, Romania and Macedonia, imply the preparation and implementation of cross-border cooperation programs for which certain planning solutions have been proposed by RSP in the domains of infrastructure, energy, tourism, ecology, urban centre cooperation, etc.

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CONCLUSIONS Regardless of insufficiently developed regional spatial planning system in Serbia, the key factors, principles and concepts of sustainable territorial development have been satisfactorily implemented within the analyzed regional spatial plans for HM regions, i.e. concepts of balanced polycentric regional development and urban systems, new forms of urban-rural partnership, development of networks of transport corridors, technical infrastructure and decentralization of services of public interest, sustainable use of natural resources, natural and cultural heritage, etc. The principles and concepts applied in the RSP for HM regions are oriented towards the realization of the following general goals: slowing down the depopulation process, providing the higher quality of life and earning of local population, sustainable development of local communities and regions. Problems have also been observed, primarily those of systemic character which, to a great extent, cannot at all be overcome through regional spatial planning, including the absence of investment and other measures for intensifying the specific sub-regional, municipal, economic and public and social functions so as to slow down concentration of economic and other activities in regional centers and to encourage economic and social development of other centers in the rural settlement network; absence of adequate cooperation between local, regional (in its infancy) and national management institutions; insufficient motivation of stakeholders for participation in spatial planning process, particularly at regional level; insufficient transparency in strategic decision making at national level; non-harmonized sector strategies, plans and programs, as well as insufficient support for implementing regional spatial plans; absence of data or not updated spatial data, etc. The regional spatial planning process implies an integral and participative approach to sustainable territorial and regional development. Based on available potentials, limitations, as well as recognized tendencies and requirements associated with the regional development, the vision of integrated development has been offered, as well as concepts and planning solutions for sustainable and more balanced regional development. Furthermore, all recommendations and initiatives of local communities, concepts, solutions and local strategic priorities (sustainable development, economic development, etc.), plans (local spatial plans, local environmental protection plans, etc.), programs and other development documents have been taken into account. Participative approach in the regional planning process has been only partially realized due to insufficient training and education of professional planners and local management, insufficient knowledge of regional problems and lack of motivation on the part of local stakeholders, as well as non-development of institutions at the level of regional governance. The cooperation with certain regional institutions (Center for the Development of Jablanica and Pčinja districts, Regional Agency for the Development of Eastern Serbia, regional chambers of commerce, etc.) has been important in preparing and developing the concepts/strategies of the plan, and has resulted in better quality and applicability of proposed solutions to the key problems of sustainable development of peripheral rural regions. Problems have manifested themselves in an unbalanced engagement and insufficient inclusion of local level of governance into the process of regional spatial plan preparation. This is not in correlation with the level of development of municipalities and towns, or development of local governance (e.g. the least amount of information and proposals has been received from the towns of Leskovac, which has one of the greatest administrations in Serbia by the number of employees of about 1000). We believe that this is a matter of not recognizing the importance of regional strategic planning, particularly the spatial planning, one the one hand, and inertia of certain local governments, on the other hand. Local stakeholders have expressed their dissatisfaction with the amount of funds allocated by the Republic of Serbia for the development of areas covered by regional spatial plans. Local stakeholders in Timočka

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Krajina further expressed the lack of trust and resistance towards cross-border programs initiated in the domain of economic cooperation and infrastructure development, including joint application of local communities from Serbia and neighboring countries for the EU funds and assistance of relevant international associations. The precondition for ensuring the participation in spatial and other types of strategic planning is to provide training, as well as the possibility for all professional planners at all administrative levels to motivate and include citizens and other stakeholders into the decisionmaking process and implementation of planning measures, particularly at regional and local level of management and planning. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The paper represents the result of research carried out on projects “Sustainable Development of Danube Area in Serbia” (TP 36036) and “The role and implementation of the National Spatial Plan and regional development in renewal of strategic research, thinking and governance in Serbia” (III 47014), financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES Maksin-Micic, M., Milijic, S., Nenkovic-Riznić, M. (2009) Spatial and environmental planning of sustainable regional development in Serbia, SPATIUM International Review, No 21 2009, pp. 39-52. The Regional Spatial Plan for Timočka krajina, “Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No 51/11. The Regional Spatial Plan for Južno Pomoravlje, “Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No 83/10. Milijić, S., Krunić, N. (2010): Održivi razvoj turizma i zaštita životne sredine u ruralnim područjima Srbije, U: Održivi razvoj banjskih i turističkih naselja u Srbiji, Posebna izdanja 64, Beograd, IAUS ISBN 978-86-8032966-6. Krunić, N. (2012) Spatial and functional relations and links in the network of settlements of Vojvodina, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Serbia.

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УДК: 711.2:551.4.035/.036(497.11)

CHALLENGES OF SPATIAL PLANNING FOR THE NETWORKS OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAIN AREAS OF SERBIA 1

Nikola KRUNIĆ1, Dragutin TOŠIĆ2, Olgica BAKIĆ1 Institute of architecture and urban&spatial planning of Serbia, Bul. kralja Aleksandra 73/2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, fax: +381-11-3370-20, nkrunic@gmail.com, 2 University of Belgrade, Faculty of GeographyStudentski trg 3/3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

ABSTRACT This paper summarizes the results of recent exploration of spatial and functional organization of settlements networks in the hilly and mountain areas of the Republic of Serbia. Conducted research is based on identification of the level of development of spatial and functional connections and relationships within these networks. This research is theoretically and methodically based on principles of regionalization and recent doctrines of regional development, contemporary spatial planning and social and economics disciplines of social geography. Results are, to a great extent, identifying and scientifically explaining problems of the spatial and functional organization of settlement networks in the remote areas. Models of development of the sustainable settlements networks as effective spatial planning instruments, have been given. Methodologically, development of these models were to a great extent based on the application of the modern GIS tools (especially for spatial and geostatistical analysis of the demographical phenomenon). Furthermore, these models were, in various forms, implemented in recent strategic spatial plans at regional level (regional spatial plans – RSP). This paper analyses some of these RSPs that are elaborated for peripheral hilly mountainous and predominantly rural regions of Serbia. Models applied within RSP`s refer to several key issues: urban-rural relations and development of daily urban systems, accessibility, rural networks of settlements, demographical processes and their influences to social and economical development of local communities, etc. Short critical overview on constrains of regional development and implementation of regional spatial plans related to the applied models, in terms of administrative and institutional organization has been indicated. Key words: Spatial and functional organization, regional spatial planning, settlements networks, hilly mountain areas, Serbia.

INTRODUCTION Development of cities and their role in the organization of space in Serbia has three key features: a) demographic growth of cities; b) increase in the number of urban settlements; and c) transformation of rural into urban/urbanized settlements and areas due to the spreading of urbanization from urban centers over regional surroundings-periphery. Social division of labor, mobility of capital, development of industry as well as local and regional trade have turned rural areas into influential spheres of cities which, due to this, acquire regional centrality and become places of concentration of complex functions (Tošić D., 2012). On the basis of the explorations of urban agglomerations development, as well as spatial and functional relations and connections in them, general model of the urban development level has been formed. According to this view, urbanization is considered as a transitional process, complex and continuous, which manifests itself through: 1) concentration of economic and social activities and population in the city; 2) spatial and functional integration of the city and surrounding settlements achieved due to the economic interactions and social mobility of population; 3) development of communication systems and infrastructure, which leads to the deconcetration of socioeconomic activities and the increase in the radius of the daily migration of population; 4) development of suburbs with various functional purposes and roles; 5) reduction of disparities between the quality of life of the population living in the center and the one living on the peripheries of urban regions; and 6) achievement of spatial and functional and socioeconomic equilibrium (Ravbar M., 1997; Tošić D., 2012).

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Recent explorations of urban regions and network of settlements in Serbia are theoretically and methodologically based on paradigms of spatial organization, that is, functional and process approach and nodal regionalism whose instrument is urban region (nodal/functional region, i.e. functional-urban region). Most of these urban-geographic explorations have been carried out for the purposes of regional spatial planning, with the objective of establishing spatial and functional relations and connections in the dynamic and hierarchical system of settlements. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE NETWORKS OF SETTLEMENTS The most intensive demographic, socioeconomic and socio-geographic changes on the Serbian territory, which drastically changed the organization and use of space, occurred during the last decades of the 20th century. The fundamental causes of these changes were pronounced planned industrialization of the then Yugoslavia, along with urbanization and deagrarization, all of these being politically initiated. Their synergistic effects essentially changed the socioeconomic structure of the society as a whole. The first phase of industrialization, immediately after the Second World War, was featured by crucial structural and spatial changes and consequences. In this period cities, as future industrial centers, became the centers of development and population concentration. Until the 1960s, the processes of demographic transition had been intensifying, however, they gained the character of acceleration with spontaneous effects afterwards (Derić et al. 2003). Urban concentration of population and functions in municipal centers and the demographic emptying of rural areas prompted by emigration or birth rate decline or, most frequently, by the combination of the two, led to the changes in the demographic size of the settlements, especially to the demographic reduction of villages (Krunić et al. 2009). Thus, demographic and social changes were faster than the economic ones which, after the 1970s became “rather oriented to extensive production than intensively productive” (Derić et al. 2003:261). In the network of settlements the processes of accelerated differentiated growth of cities and the establishment of functional and hierarchical relations between them were intensified. The initial effect of industry, by the principle of circular cumulative causality, stimulated the development and concentration of other functions in the cities, which resulted in the increase of their functional capacity and, consequently, the overall development. In the initial phase of spatial and functional transformation of the settlement network, urban functions were concentrated in the cities, while in the next phase, which coincides with the development of tertiary and quaternary sectors of the economy, urbanization spread to the settlements in the cities’ close vicinity, which meant the commencement of suburbanization. The processes of urbanization, deagrarization and industrialization had diverse effects on macro units and conditional regions of Serbia. The biggest transformations in space were evident in the places where the abrupt industrial development and hence triggered deagrarization provoked the abandoning of or changes in the previous lifestyle, both in periurban zones of large city centers and passive highland areas. The consequences of this transformation have been reflected in the intensive depopulation and demographic ageing of the population of rural settlements and, more recently, smaller urban centers on the one hand, and the concentration of population in regional centers and spheres-zones of growth and development on the other hand.

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SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE NETWORKS OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE HILLY AND MOUNTAIN AREAS OF SERBIA Specificities of Serbian urban system development and its morphological structure One of the latest models of urban systems in Serbia distinguishes 4 types of cities according to their functions (Tošić D., Krunić N., 2004; Tošić D., Maksin-Mićić M., 2007): 1) cities of great importance for the international integration of Serbia; 2) cities of great importance for the integration of Serbian geospace; 3) cities at the internal development axes; and 4) cities of local integrations. Primary axes of development are those of the Danube, the Morava (the Velika Morava and the Južna Morava) and the Zapadna Morava. Secondary axes of development are not sufficiently differentiated, or lack adequate infrastructure. In addition, the model distinguishes geospaces with demographic and economic depression, which are out of reach of the axes’ influences and include peripheral, border and mountain parts of Serbia. In most parts of the country the hierarchy of urban centers has been established, with the formation of zones of influence around these centers based on spatial and functional complementarity. It is worth emphasizing that the mentioned hierarchical relations are the consequence of the position of the centers in territorial and administrative organization of Serbia. Morphologically and structurally, several forms of nodal centers and areas have been formed (Tošić. D., 1999; Derić et al. 2003; Krunić et al. 2009): Smaller urban areas in rural surroundings have been constituted by the local concentration of population and functions in small municipal centres. These centres have been, by the allocation of industry, transformed from craftsmanship, trade and administrative centres into the urban kind of settlements with the well-developed functions of centres. Until the 1980s, they grew due to migrations, mostly those from the villages in their close vicinity. These urban centres, with their functional capacities and nodality, could not attract all migrants (population from the surroundings no longer engaged in agriculture) who moved to urban settlements with well-developed functions. They are the centres of local integration, that is to say, local centres of work. Most in terms of population small urban centres in Serbia belong to this category. Smaller and larger agglomerations of urban settlements are functionally compatible with more or less urbanized periurban and surrounding settlements with the evident spatial differentiation of the nucleus with higher level of nodality. Until the 1980s, the nucleuses had the functions of the growth poles and later on, the development poles. The structure of the fields of the economy which prevailed in them changed due to the industrial recession and the reduction, that is the increase, in the number of population employed in industrial centres, that is the centres of services sector, respectively. They influence the socio-geographic transformation and functional integration of the surrounding, and the creation of smaller or larger functional-urban regions and stable daily urban systems, that is, nodal regions. Regional functional-urban systems have been created by the combination of spatial and functional influences between the regional and local urban centres. They have the character of functional-urban regions and incorporate several settlements whose mutual connections originate from the functional relations and interactions between their structural elements. Belgrade agglomeration (Belgrade-Novi Sad metropolitan area), which is a complex and dynamic system of urban settlements with high level of functional and morphological connections, specific hierarchy, large zone of influence which surpasses the borders of Serbia, and which possesses the potential to become the centre of the future European metropolitan region.

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Daily urban systems in Serbia Daily migration of the population in Serbia was initiated by the society’s attempts to solve the issue of agrarian overpopulation by means of industrialization and relocation of the population into urban settlements. Thus urban settlements, paralelly with the allocation of industry and the development of the branches of tertiary-quaternary sector and public-social services in them, gained the role of development centers (Stamenković S., 1996.). In view of the fact that not all the population, following the transition from agrarian into non-agrarian sectors, migrated from rural into urban settlements – centers of work, the conditions were created for the daily migration in the form of daily urban systems. Due to the employment of population in urban settlements and partly in the periurban ones on the one hand, and the fact that it was impossible to definitely migrate to the centers of work on the other hand, daily migration was the outcome of economic compromises. Due to this, special socioeconomic category named ''worker-farmer'' appeared in the country. This is the implication of the incomplete allocation of work from agriculture into secondary, service and administrative sectors. This process had an impact on a certain kind of socioeconomic transformation of city surroundings (Tošić. D., 1999). In the last couple of years daily migration has started to gain the position that belongs to it in spatial plans. In strategic spatial planning, when preparing several regional spatial plans which were made in the Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia – IAUS (Krunić et al. 2009; Krunić et al. 2011) the segment related to the daily migration of population was implemented. In this case daily migration was researched for the purposes of analyzing the existing settlement network and the spatial and functional relations within it, on the one hand, and for the purposes of planning its sustainable and rational organization, on the other hand. The emphasis was placed on the correlation daily migration of population territorial reach of the functions of regional and local centers. ISSUES OF RECENT REGIONAL SPATIAL PLANNING PROCESS IN SERBIA There is an ongoing transformation of the planning system in Serbia along with expectations in acquiring its legitimacy and establishing greater efficiency of practice in planning and managing the development. The planning system and relevant legal bases will be recognized based on the EU strategic framework, regulations and instruments, primarily in the domain of strategic planning (Milijić et al. 2012). Brief analysis (Maksin, 2011; Maksin et al. 2013) shows that the legal basis does not provide an adequate support for achieving coordination and integration of strategic planning of sustainable territorial development in Serbia, especially the coordination and integration of spatial, regional, environmental and sector planning. Due to insufficiently developed regional policy, absence of regional level of governance and slowness in choosing an adequate form of regionalization, the practice in elaborating and, particularly, in implementing the regional spatial plans (RSP) in Serbia has not been sufficiently developed. Ten RSPs are currently in different stages of adoption and elaboration. Half of the RSPs have been prepared for peripheral rural regions, four of them in western and eastern Serbia (IAUS 2010; IAUS 2011; IAUS and JUGINUS 2013; IAUS and JUP “PLAN”, 2013). Peripheral rural regions face many developmental problems: depopulation, economic underdevelopment, high unemployment and poverty rates in rural areas, unused natural resources, poor accessibility, underdeveloped settlement network, etc. (Milijić et al. 2012). Regional spatial plans for peripheral regions The key issues related to sustainable territorial development of peripheral and rural regions and implemented solutions at four analyzed RSPs in western and eastern Serbia (Figure 1.) are: improving the accessibility, balanced polycentric urban system, new forms of

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development and partnership between urban and rural areas, tourism development, spatial and functional integration. The model of polycentric urban system, urban and rural development, as well as models of rural settlement network development in peripheral rural regions were applied. Aging of rural population and depopulation of peripheral mountain and border regions hinder the preservation of micro rural centers, in particular the provision of public and commercial services. Emerging model is that of mobile services, now developed dominantly for social and medical services, which can be expanded to almost all services, or combined with the revitalization of micro rural centers, namely those within urban region, main transport corridors or tourism destinations.

Figure 1. Peripheral rural regions covered by the regional spatial plans (Milijić et al. 2012)

The regional spatial plans for western Serbia comprise 4 districts (Mačva, Kolubara, Moravica and Zlatibor districts) and 28 municipalities/towns in the total area of about 15000 km2 (about 17% of the territory of the Republic of Serbia) with about 1090 settlements and about 1060000 inhabitants. Physically and geographically, the plans comprise regions of Mačva and lower Kolubara river basin to the north, hills and low mountains, mountain ranges of the Drina river basin (Podrinje) and Valjevo mountains, parts of the the Uvac, Lim, Zapadna Morava river basins, hilly-mountain zones of Tara, Zlatibor with Murtenica and Mučanj, Zlatar, Pešter plateau with Jadovnik, Ozren and Giljevo, Kamena gora, Rudnik, and a part of Golija with Javor mountain. The regional spatial plans for eastern Serbia comprise the territory of 4 districts (Bor and Zaječar districts - Timočka krajina and Jablanica and Pčinja districts - Southern Pomoravlje,) and 21 towns/municipalities in the total area of about 13500

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km2 (about 15% of the territory of Serbia), with about 970 settlements and about 752600 inhabitants. Physically and geographically, these plans comprise most of the South Morava and Timok river basins, a part of the Danube River basin, as well as high mountains dominated by Stara Planina and Krajište with Vlasina. Starting points in defining the visions and planning solutions for sustainable spatial and regional development of these dominantly rural and hilly-mountainous regions are based on the following spatial specificities: Kolubara and Mačva districts: pronounced economic, social and territorial polarization, mainly between regional centers of Valjevo and Šabac, on the one hand, and other municipal centers and settlements, on the other hand; water sources of national and regional importance, several existing and planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, etc.; infrastructure corridor Belgrade-South Adriatic area; potentials for the development of the Drina river belt; forest areas and agricultural and livestock areas; natural and tourism values; area with exceptional potential energy (Kolubara lignite basin, hydropower systems on the Drina river, geothermal water, etc.); area with significant reserves of mineral resources (particularly the reserves of lead and zinc, rare earth metals and building stone); special purpose zones, existing and planned border crossings and a long border area towards the Bosnia and Herzegovina; etc. (IAUS and JUP “PLAN”, 2013) Zlatibor and Moravica districts: pronounced economic, social and territorial polarization mainly between the northern and southern parts of both districts; water sources of national and regional importance, several existing and planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, etc.; area of the West Morava river infrastructure corridor and future infrastructure corridor Belgrade-South Adriatic; forest areas and agricultural and livestock areas; natural and tourism values (with potential for the development of all-year-round tourism at mountains of Zlatibor, Tara, Golija, etc., integrally with complementary activities); region with exceptional hydropower potential (Uvac, Lim, Đetinja, Drina, Beli Rzav and Crni Rzav rivers); region with significant reserves of mineral resources (Mining Energy Complex in Štavlje, etc.); special purpose zones, existing and planned border crossings and a long border area towards the Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Montenegro. (IAUS and JUGINUS 2013) Timočka krajina (Timok Region): belongs to underdeveloped, economically and demographically depressed regions; region of Pan-European Transport Corridor 7 (the Danube with partly used navigability potential and unused nautical potential) and contact area between the Pan-European Corridor 10 to the west and Corridor 4 to the east; region with outstanding hydropower potential (two existing hydroelectric power stations: „Đerdap I“ and „Đerdap II“, as well as a possibility of building the reversible hydro power plant „Đerdap III“); agricultural-livestock and forest area; natural and tourist values (with exceptional tourism development potential at Stara Planina and on the Danube, integrally with complementary activities); water resources of national and regional importance, 3 existing and 3 planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, etc.; the region with significant reserves of mineral resources and developed mining (mining company RTB „Bor“, etc.); special purpose zones with the existing and planned border crossings and border areas towards the Republic of Bulgaria and Republic of Romania (European Union). (IAUS 2011); Southern Pomoravlje (the South Morava River Basin): belongs to underdeveloped, economically and demographically depressed regions; region of Pan-European Corridor 10 (with partially developed highway system); agricultural-livestock and forest areas; areas of natural and tourism values (with outstanding potentials for the development of tourism with complementary activities); water sources of national and international importance, 5 existing and 4 planned water accumulations, water protection facilities, potential navigable corridor, etc.; special purpose zones with the existing and planned border crossings and border areas towards the Republic of Bulgaria (European Union) and FYROM. (IAUS 2010).

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An multi-level hierarchy of centers within the network of settlements has been proposed for western Serbia remote regions: the first hierarchical level comprises Valjevo, Šabac, Užice and Čačak as regional centers of similar functional capacities whose zones of influence exceed the borders of districts and areas covered by planning documents; the second hierarchy level comprises the following sub-regional centers: Loznica (integrating Mali Zvornik and Krupanj), Gornji Milanovac and, to a certain extent, Prijepolje and Požega; the third hierarchy level comprises local first-category centers which have local influence on settlements within their respective municipal territories, while second-category local centers have local influence on the settlements within their respective municipal territories, as well as on certain settlements in the neighboring municipalities/towns; the fourth category comprises microdevelopment centers including urban and rural settlements which are centers of union of settlements with general or specific functions (e.g. Banja Koviljača, Banja Vrujci and tourist centers of Divčibare, Guča, Zlatibor, Brodarevo, Rudnik, Seča Reka, etc.). The planning determination is for the municipal sub-centers, centers of unions of settlements and settlements having specific functions to have functions of micro-development centers. In applying the concept of balanced polycentric regional development in the eastern and souteastern Serbia, the model of dispersed concentrated development and distribution of population, economic and other activities has been used to slow down the population density and activities in primary development axis (Pan-European Corridor 10) and to stimulate dispersion of the development in communities with significant territorial capital and potentials. Planning solutions were: development of functional urban regions in independent and dual urban centers (Bor-Zaječar, Leskovac-Niš, Vranje-Vladičin Han), strengthening of the regional functions in Bor Zaječar, Leskovac, Vranje and Pirot and decentralization of the remaining functions in municipalities, sub-municipal and micro-development centers in rural areas as exponents of socio-economic development of rural communities and their functional integration with urban centers; development of spatial functional connections (in Vlasotince, Lebane, Bojnik, Bosilegrad, Trgovište, etc.), inter-connection and connections with regional centers in the immediate and cross-border areas; initiating the formation of secondary development axis in the Timok river valley (direction Niš-Knjaževac-Zaječar-NegotinKladovo, which is to be extended up to Bor) and primary development axis along the South Morava river (direction Niš - Leskovac/Vlasotince- Vranje-Vladičin Han - Bujanovac / Preševo) and development of the regional functional urban systems connecting the macroregion of Niš with the Danube Basin and immediate international surrounding; One of the major strongholds in the planning solutions for establishing new forms of development and partnership between rural and urban areas are great natural resources and quality environment in rural areas, on the one hand, and economic, scientific, research, innovative, information, development, administrative, cultural and other functions of urban centers, on the other hand. Implementation of new forms of development and partnership in rural and urban areas will be achieved by establishing a core of socio-economic transformation of rural and poorly urbanized areas in the region (in compliance with the principles of sustainable territorial development, particularly associated with the rational use of space, recourses, energy and transport), as well as by developing the daily urban systems (formation of functional urban regions). (Milijić et al. 2011). Daily urban systems will be developed in the areas covered by RSP’s as an instrument of a balanced and polycentric development. Functional areas belonging to conventional functional urban regions are envisaged as sub-systems in the future polycentric urban integration. Daily commuting, as an instrument of territorial and functional cohesion in regions will be developed at three levels as follows: 1. Daily urban systems of regional centers; 2. Daily commuting systems of the small bipolar cities and agglomerations, and 3. Local commuting systems/local centers of work.

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Within analysed regions there were about 428100 workers out of which about 120500 were commuters (in 2002). Over 91000 people worked in centers of work of the South Pomoravlje, out of which 32000 workers commuted daily within daily urban systems of Leskovac and Vranje. Daily urban systems of Bor and Zaječar in the Timok Region, for the same period consisting from about 74000 employees and about 16800 commuters. About 170500 people were employed in centers of work of the Zlatibor and Moravica district, while about 40350 workers made daily commutes within the daily urban systems of Užice and Čačak. Daily urban systems of Kolubara and Mačva Administrative Districts have about 92600 employees in the centers of work in the region, out of which about 31350 workers were commuting within daily urban systems of Valjevo and Šabac. Application of GIS in management and implementation of regional spatial plans Through elaboration and adoption of regional spatial plans, preconditions have been created for the implementation of goals associated with information support and assistance in decision-making process, a step towards a creation of National Infrastructure of the Geospatial Data. Spatial databases based on the GIS concept have been formed for the purpose of more simple monitoring and consideration of spatial phenomena and processes, and, in general, implementation of plans. The IAUS has created a spatial database from the very beginning of the process of elaboration of analyzed regional spatial plans. The database has been formed based on numerous indicators and information at different levels of detail. The point in implementation of spatial database system is that regional development agencies should dispose of the database which would be available to end users on the Internet, i.e. web sites of the republic institutions, regional agencies (i.e. www.centarzarazvoj.org), or via Internet to local authorities and all stakeholders. Based on such conception, central database and different types of users, a basis is obtained for further changes and monitoring of priorities in implementation of RSP planning solutions, but also other plans, programs and projects which may be integrated into the system. Such system makes up an open structure able to be changed and extended through the integration of spatial planning, urban and project documentation at a higher level of detail. This practically means that through a stability of the system it will be possible to find, in addition to the data on regional spatial plans, also the data from lower level plans, such as general plans, detailed regulation plans, plans for specific infrastructure facilities, etc., within the central database. CONCLUDING REMARKS Dilemmas have arisen concerning the application of long advocated, but never realized, model of dispersed concentration with greater number of micro-development centers in rural areas. Except for northern, low-land area of the Mačva district, a dispersed settlement system which, steadily losing permanent population, dominates in the remaining rural areas covered by analyzed regional spatial plans. In conditions of depopulation and by selective emigration of highly educated, fertile and active working population, the functional capacity of peripheral urban regions, their centers and settlements is decreasing, which raises the question about the competence and, generally, possibility of local communities to govern their own development. The question remains whether, and to what degree, the majority of cities/local communities in Serbia have the role in the even-balanced spatial development of their territories? Is the situation quite the opposite – is it possible that they simply encourage emigration and deeping of the space polarization for the reason of their modest functional capacities? (Krunić et al. 2013). Thus, it is necessary to reconsider the justifiability of applying the dispersed concentration model for rural areas. The option which includes smaller number of micro-development

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centers in periurban areas and along state road corridors appears to be more realistic, along with simultaneous development of mobile public and certain utility services (for collection of waste), other services, trade, etc. (Milijić et al. 2012). Special-function settlements, near to urban centers and with traffic-favorable position will have more chances for the development. To this end, three measures are crucial (Krunić, 2012): a) planning, directing and allocating most of public services whose activities are spatially flexible; b) accepting and encouraging the seasonal „life“ of settlements; c) encouraging the „social segregation“ through developing those functions of settlements that make them attractive to population of certain age, social status, interests, etc. These measures would encourage the development of functionally directed, spatially grouped or independent settlements that would be destinations of interest-linked and complementary population structures in certain period of time. Finally, following question also arisen: when and under which conditions do positive impulses from the center towards the surrounding settlements (especially in remote rural, hilly and mountain areas), which influence their socioeconomic transformation, become negative, thus causing the decrease in the functional capacity of the surrounding settlements putting them in the position of utter dependence on the center with accompanying degradation of their socioeconomic structure? (Krunić, 2012) The problems so far in preparing the planning principles and concepts for the development of centers within the network of settlements are reflected in: insufficient diversification of functions and job opening, as well as in the absence of investment and other measures for intensifying the specific sub-regional, municipal, economic, public and social functions for the purpose of slowing down the concentration of economic and other activities in regional centers, as well as for encouraging the economic and social development of other centers within the network of settlements. (Milijić et al. 2012). AKNOWLEDGEMENTS The paper represents the result of researches carried out on projects III 47014 „The role and implementation of the National spatial plan and regional development in renewal of strategic research, thinking and governance in Serbia“ and TR36036 “Sustainable development of Danube area in Serbia” financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES Derić B., Adamović J., Tošić D., (2003). Demoekonomske komponenete regionalizacije i urbanizacije. Demografske osnove regionalizacije Srbije. Beograd: Geografski institut „Jovan Cvijić“ SANU. IAUS, (2010). Regional spatial plan for municipalities of Southern pomoravlje, „Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, 83/10. IAUS, (2011). Regional spatial plan for Timočka krajina, „Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, 51/11. IAUS, JUGINUS, (2013). Regional spatial plan for Zlatiborski and Moravički administrative counties, „Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, 1/13. IAUS, JUP “Plan”, (2013). Regional spatial plan for Kolubarski and Mačvanski administrative counties, Draft Plan. Krunić, N., (2012). Spatial-functional organization of settlements of Vojvodina, Spatium International Review, 28, 23 - 29. Krunić N., Tošić D., Milijić S., (2009). Problems of spatial-functional organization of Južno pomoravlje Region`s network of settlements. Spatium International Review, 19, 20-29. Krunić N., Tošić D; Milijić S., (2011). The role of daily urban systems (DUS) in regional spatial planning in Serbia, The 3rd Congress of Serbian Geographers, October 2011, Congress Proceedings, Banja Luka, Rep. Srpska, 819-830. Krunić, N; Tošić, D; Milijić, S. (2013): Recent changes of spatial and functional organization of urban regions and cities in Serbia, Proceedings of the International Conference on “Changing Cities”: Spatial, morphological, formal & socio-economic dimensions, Skiathos island, Greece, pp. 1687-1697., ISBN 978-960-6865-65-7. Maksin M. (2011): Podrška zakonskog osnova ostvarivanju prostornog plana Republike Srbije i koordinaciji strateškog planiranja u Srbiji, br. 32., pp. 49-54.

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Maksin, M., Milijić, S., Krunić, N. (2013). Regional spatial planning in Serbia in the context of dynamic changes in regional spatial planning in the EU, Conference Proceedings: 2nd International scientific Conference Regional development, spatial planning and strategic governance - RESPAG 2013, Ed: M. Vujošević, S. Milijić; IAUS, Belgrade. p. 43-68. Milijić, S; Maksin, M; Krunić, N; (2011): Recent approach to the regional spatial planning in Serbia, Problems and chelenges of contemporary geographic science and teaching, Belgrade University Faculty of Geography. ISBN 978-86-82657-98-9 pp. 503-512, UDK 711.24(497.11) Milijić, S., Maksin, M., Krunić, N. (2012): Spatial planning of peripheral rural regions in Serbia, Regions in Motion - Breaking the Path, 52nd European Congress of the RSAI and 4th Central European Regional Science Conference, ERSA, Bratislava, Slovakia. Ravbar M., (1997): Slovene Cities and Suburbs in Transformation. Geografski zbornik, 37, 65-109. Stamenković S., (1996). Dnevne migracije stanovništva u geografskim proučavanjima naselja Srbije. Stanovništvo, XXXIV (3-4), 43-60. Tošić D., (1999): Prostorno-funkcijski odnosi i veze u nodalnoj regiji Užica. Beograd : Geografski fakultet, doctoral disertation. Tošić D., (2012): Principi regionalizacije. Beograd: Geografski fakultet. Tošić D., Krunić N., (2004): Urbane aglomeracije u funkciji regionalne integracije Srbije i jugoistočne Evrope. Glasnik Geografskog društva Republike Srpske, 9. Tošić D., Maksin-Mićić M., (2007): Problems and Possibilities for the Regionalization of Serbia, Journal of Southeast European Antropology, Berlin: Ethnologica Balkanica, Vol. 11, 279-299.

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845(497.761)

THE RURAL TOURISM IN THE REGION OF MARIOVO-GENERAL REVIEW OF THE POSSIBILITIES AND THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM PhD. Nikola PANOV 2, PhD. Milena TALESKA 3, MsC. Hristina DIMESKA 4 Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje

ABSTRACT Many rural areas in Republic of Macedonia, especially the region of Mariovo have been neglected for years and the purpose of this paper is to explore the strategies for developing rural tourism as one of the key factors for socio - economic development and growth. This paper is focused on the current issues that rural areas in this region are facing, with a special emphasis on the opportunities, perspectives and challenges associated with the development of rural tourism. Key terms: tourism, rural tourism, rural development, region of Mariovo, Republic of Macedonia

INTRODUCTION In today’s modern social and economic flows, tourism is slowly but surely developing as one of the most powerful and most profitable economic branches. Today with the overall development and growth of the living standards of the population, not only in the developed, but in the developing countries as well, the necessity for new, unusual and untypical tourist offers is inevitable. The rapid industrial development and very dynamic lifestyle of the population are creating the need of new tourist destinations that can offer something more than sun and water, and that is, above all clean air, peace and silence, but also food that has been cooked with ecologically raised groceries. This has led to growing interest in the rural areas where the needs and requirements of the tourists can be satisfied through the offer of rural tourism. Besides, there are other factors which are shifting the trend towards rural tourism like increasing levels of awareness, growing interest in heritage and culture and improved accessibility, and environmental consciousness. On the other hand, rural tourism today is considered as tourism that can also bring a range of benefits to rural areas, such as infrastructural development and enterprise opportunities that will create employment for the rural people and generate income for them and consequently prevent the rural-urban migration. That is why rural tourism today is widely regarded and identified as a key-tool for rural revitalization and development. The importance of rural tourism as a part of the overall tourism market depends on each country’s recreation/ tourism resources, infrastructure image, market access and the presence of other types of tourism products. So, the purpose of this paper was to explore the possibilities and the perspectives for developing of rural tourism as one of the key factors for socio - economic development and growth in the region of Mariovo that have been neglected for many years.

2

e-mail: npanov@pmf.ukim.mk e-mail: mtaleska@gmail.com 4 e-mail: hristinadimeska@gmail.com 3

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METHODOLOGY AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study was exploratory in nature and the research methodology involved both the desk research and the field research which was widely used to understand the concept of rural tourism and the various aspects that are involved in the successful development of this kind of tourism. The paper was focusing on Mariovo region and the main aim was to find out the best way of re-imaging of rural areas features and activities to make them tourist attractive, and to relate rural tourism with social cultural and economic elements of rural areas. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Opportunities of tourism development in Mariovo Mariovo, as a spacious area is located in the southern part of the Republic of Macedonia, in the immediate closeness to the border with Republic of Greece. This region covers the catchment area of River Crna and its Skochivirska Canyon, which in the geographic landscape presents a specific natural area surrounded by mountains from each side. With an area of 1038 km2, Mariovo takes about 4 % of the whole country’s territory and is the biggest rural area with an average population density of 0.8 habitants/km2, which makes it one of the most sparsely inhabited areas in the region. The potentials here for tourism development are numerous, and they are conditioned above all by the favorable touristic – geographical position. In continuation the main characteristics of the natural and the anthropological values in the function of tourism will be noted, with an emphasis on possibilities for rural tourism. Naturally -geographic potentials In the following text of the paper are valorized the qualitative and the quantitative features and the mutual relations of the natural – geographic characteristics of the researched area with their elements and in which way, with proper tourist utilization, they can be turned into categories with more specific and attractive natural motifs. Within the geological construction of the researched area are included rocks from different ages and different petrologic structure: sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic rocks from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quarterly age. So in this context we can mention the complex location Alshar that with its specific mineral structure is world rarity. This rarity is reflected in the meaningful concentrations of thallium present in this location, and which is reflected in the occurrence of numerous minerals of thallium. This locality is protected and it has the status of the Natural Monument. Concerning the relief specifications in Mariovo, three special groups are distinguished, Group of border mountains, the Valley of Mariovo (600-700 m), and the Valley of River Crna – represented with the Skochivirska Ravine (84 m), whose length in Mariovo is 50.4 km and with its attractiveness and landscape value offers multiple opportunities for tourist utilization (rafting, alpinism, birds observation etc.) The thermal regime in Mariovo is Temperate Mediterranean in the Valley of River Crna (12,4 °C), Temperate Continental in the valley part (11 °C) and the mountainous on the mountains (6 °C) with average temperature of 11,8 °C. The river network of Mariovo is presented by a part of the catchment of River Crna. The most interesting is the section between the estuary of River Konjarka and River Bela in River Crna, called Shejman Duvar with an incredibly high distance of 50 m. with fallen isolated rocks and blocks whereas the river creates a large number of slopes, whirls, and rapids. The present hydrographical network offers opportunities for picnic and recreational tourism, and

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with the building of the accumulations Chebren (1540ha) and Galishte (830ha) the possibilities for the tourism development will raise rapidly. The flora in Mariovo is characterized by diversity and vertical and horizontal spatiality. Mariovo is full of forests fruits and herbs, as well as many types of mushrooms, and the presence of Truffle is noted too. The fauna is presented with the small and big quarry, and in the waters of River Crna and the tributaries there is black and white barbell, carp, Caras, vardarka, chub, catfish, Popadic, skobal, lily, river trout. Here we can also find the White-headed eagle which is a relict before extinction and it has been put under special protection. Socio–economic characteristics Mariovo has been populated since the antique period and through the history some settlements were depopulated, and others were created. At the last population census, in Mariovo were registered 29 settlements, from which Manastir, Beshishte, Krushevica, Staravina, Gradeshnica and Rozhden have the biggest potential for tourism development. The population presents one of the basic potentials of the touristic development of every touristic region, including the Mariovo region. What is worth to mention is the process of the depopulation which is distinctively present in the period of the years between 1960 and 2000, when the population is diminished in about more than 50 %, and the same happens with the number of households which has rapid decrease, and what is remained today are mainly single – part households. According the census implemented by the State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia, Mariovo counts 869 habitants, and in 2011 according to regional researches the number is around 650. Socially-economic potentials Culturally – historical monuments are represented with Archeological localities and churches and monasteries. Besides them, here is the house – monument of Stale Popov (Melnica), the monument – plate of the fallen fighters in NOV (Ligurasa) and the monument grace of Tole Pasha and his son Veljan (Krushevica). Manifestations are represented with: Mariovsko-meglenski meetings, which have the aim to cherish the tradition and the customs of the Macedonian folklore, song, dance and folk dance, characteristic for this area. The Moto tour Mariovo has been held for the first time in 2008, and in 2011 it counted 500 motor bikers from Macedonia and abroad. This moto - tour has entered the world’s biker’s calendar. The Jeep tour Mariovo in 2012 has been held for third time with procession from 149 jeeps and 600 participants. The bicycle tour which has been held in 2009 and 2012 has brought closer the beauty of Mariovo to the foreign diplomats in the country. The village celebrations in the villages of Mariovo are the days when the houses are open for guests and part of the displaced population comes back. The Ethno – social values present very important mark of the area and here are characterized the Architecture of the Mariovo’s house, which presents a special mark of the area and increases its touristic value. Mariovo’s folklore clothing is one of the most characteristic in Macedonia, and today there are samples of it in numerous collections of private collectors. The food presented with the Mariovo’s honey, sheep cheese, snails and Mastika from peaches is a witness for the rich tradition and culture of the region. The stories and the legends about the name of the area, the grass which escapes, Crafty Pejo, the novels of Stale Popov, the folklore and the customs are attractiveness that needs to be utilized in the touristic promotion. Proposed measures for touristic revitalization of Mariovo In the last few decades in the world, inclusively in Macedonia the attention of the private and state institutions and organizations that are dealing with tourism is directed towards the rural

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region and the potentials that it has, as well as the opportunity for its utilization, first in touristic and then in economic sense. Today the rural tourism through the rare authentic examples in Macedonia has already shown the first benefits and positive measurable results. Therefore it is necessary to carefully and studiously build a strategy about the development of the rural tourism and its under types. In the development of rural tourism and tourism at all, the global trends of creation the sustainability in the rural regions through the development of the agriculture and additional activities for the families that live or are slowly coming back in the rural areas (villages) are in favor. Macedonian state institutions, presented with the relevant ministry and its branch – The tourism Sector, in recent years have prepared the National strategy for Rural Tourism 20122017, which is very likely to become a springboard in the development of this kind of tourism in the country, which is especially important if we know that Macedonia features very large number of regions that abound with unutilized potentials for development of the tourism of this kind. The main goals of this strategy for development of the Rural (village) tourism are: identification of the concept and the strategy of the development and creating a framework to encourage the development as a part of the whole touristic offer of Republic of Macedonia. In the strategy there are distinguished 8 planned regions of the country’s territory, including the Pelagonian region where Prilep is separated as a Coordination center of Rural Touristic Offer on the level of destination, and besides Mariovo, Prilep and Krushevo are mentioned as well. When thinking about the development of the rural tourism it is necessary to follow the worlds trends and to pay special attention on what is attractive and popular on the tourist market in the developed countries, of course, from touristic aspect. There should be followed The technological, through the usage of contemporary technology, demographical, where is thought of the analysis of the demographic structures of the countries which should present initiative centers, social and economic trends, as well as the protection of the nature with correlation to the sustainable development (to create standards in the protection of the region and the preservation of its authenticity). The next thing that needs to be done is providing the conditions of competitiveness of the Mariovo’s rural tourism, through analysis of the population’s opinion, potential investors, non-governmental institutions, local and state government. At the creation of the strategy for rural development it is necessary to be taken some activities, such as: -creating appropriate legal framework - which includes creation of master plan of tourism development in the region (2013-2018), in which will be defined the goals, the program and the plans of growth and development of tourism, as well as marketing and competing plans, creation of an Action Plan for the tourism development in the region (2013-2018) where will be defined the actual steps that have to be taken, and come from the master plan for tourism development; creation of a Study for optimal utilization of the natural treasure of the region in touristic goals; creation of Study for optimal utilization of the culturally-historical heritage of the region in touristic goals. -future development and improvement of the priority touristic offer – better coordination and regulation of the included subjects; better utilization of the available financial instruments; activities that are related to the specific problems in the field of tourism, -improvement of the capacity of the human resources as holders of the touristic activity – development of the entrepreneurship culture and skills; education in the field of services; communicativeness and direct sale; psychology of profiles of the potential visitors of Mariovo and their specific requirements; -organizing workshops for development of the creativity and innovativeness throughout creation and offering of the touristic services; creation of a service of educated tourist guides who will know the natural and culturally-historical characteristics of the region and licensing

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of the same for specific positions; in a later phase in the touristic development of Mariovo of a huge importance will be the creation of the training association of educating the farmers – tourismologists, which would have to deal with the development of the human potential and the creation of qualitative touristic service, as well as promotion of the alternative forms of tourism; -construction of a new one and a reconstruction of the already existing infrastructure includes placing information boards on the road section which lead to Mariovo with a content that will make a clear picture to the visitors of the fact how far is each village distanced separately; opening of a touristic info centers in the villages, the more important tourist regions and the time and quality of the road to reach the same; opening of tourist info centres in the rural areas, in which the rural tourism will develop; In the info centers visitors can get information about the tourist regions and contents that provides the area, to buy tourist maps and brochures, as well as souvenirs with a local theme , to rent a bike and tour guide etc.; construction of a hospitable facilities which will offer the visitors traditional Mariovo’s food, prepared by quality and environmental cultivated agricultural products, and developing specialized stores that will sell honey, cheese, berries and teas; editing hiking and biking trails, as well as Alpine routes with guidance markings and information boards; construction of facilities of culturally- entertaining character etc. -determining the possibility for including the public and the private sector as a strategic investors – The market evaluation of the touristic attractions in Mariovo should give a real picture of the value of the inherited touristic attractions in the studied area; SWOT analysis; quantitative analysis of the region; Benchmark analysis – which should be prepared according to the criteria and the standards implemented in the regions with the developed touristic chambers in the rural area. -regional branding and placement of carefully crafted marketing plan - The creation of a regional brand is not just a slogan or a logo that sounds tempting, contrary to it, the branding of Mariovo should be: a duty and responsibility which is accepted for the area and the experience it provides; a message that encourages the imagination of the potential visitors; a message that is correlated with real tourist potential of the area. CONCLUSION With the beginning of the urbanization and industrialization in the Republic of Macedonia, the rural area started experiencing meaningful changes which negatively reflected the social conditions. The migration village-city caused population transformation of the villages, numerous movement of the population began to make a negative trend, the depopulated population started aging, and thus the economic settlements to weaken, while investments in the infrastructure were reduced to minimum. The experiences from the developed touristic countries are showing that mono functionality of the rural regions represented with the agriculture as an economic branch can be changed, broadened and complemented with the tourism as profitable and sustainable category. The untouched nature, clean and unpolluted air, likeable views, specific stone architecture, complemented with the anthropogenic values are only a part of the excellent pre conditions for successful planning of the touristic development of Mariovo. For the rapid development of the tourism, especially the rural tourism it's necessary to be taken some actions, as bringing goals, plans, programs and strategies and their delimitation in long term as well as short terms in terms with separate events or activities, including international institutions and organizations with a goal to improve the touristic offer and its presenting to the foreign touristic markets and stock exchanges. Here, especial emphasis should be put on the immigrants from this exact region that are all over the world, who can be

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used as investors and promoters, as well as initiators for leading smaller or bigger tourist groups.

REFERENCES: -Dimeska H., 2011, Opportunities for tourism development in Mariovo, Master degree, Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje -Low of tourism, Republic of Macedonia -Low of Hospitality, Republic of Macedonia -Ministry of Economy, Sector of tourism, Skopje -National strategy for tourism development (2009-2013) -National strategy for rural tourism (2012-2017) -Strategy for sustainable tourism of the Republic of Macedonia (2010-2030) -Taleska M., 2009, Rural tourism, Selector, Skopje, -www.unwto.org. – tourism highlights, 2007

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УДК: 338.48-026.23(497.2)

SOME PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS UNDER NATURA 2000 IN BULGARIA Georgi Leonidov GEORGIEV, Ilinka TERZIYSKA Tourism Department at SWU “Neofit Rilski” – Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria ABSTRACT Bulgaria has an international image of a tourist destination offering a bipolar tourism product. It is popular as a country, developing summer tourism of the 3 "S" (sun-sand-sea) and winter tourism, known as "Snow and Ski". This bipolarity results in high seasonality, overbuilding of tourist resorts along the Black Sea coast, as well as the best mountain centers and mass consumption of tourist services. Following such a policy, Bulgaria underuses many other tourist resources which can contribute to the development of alternative forms of tourism. The aim of this study is to analyze the latent potential of alternative forms of tourism, with a particular emphasis on ecologic, cultural and rural tourism. Their content and specificity are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the process of developing these types of tourism in protected areas under NATURA 2000 in the mountainous and hilly areas in Bulgaria. It is considered that these forms of tourism support efficient utilization of various tourism resources, the majority of which are located in less economically developed regions. It is argued that the development of these three forms of alternative tourism will contribute to product diversification of Bulgarian tourism, and at the same time will help to reduce the seasonality and spatial concentration of tourism. Key words: eco tourism, cultural tourism, rural tourism, market diversification, sustainable forms of tourism

INTRODUCTION Tracing the development of tourism in the last two or three decades it is more than obvious that with their needs and behavior contemporary tourists go beyond the traditional mass seaside and mountain holiday tourism practiced in large tourist enclaves. Gradually making its way something new, different, and real appears, which allows real mental and physical relaxation. The need for direct contact with nature, in the absence of large groups of tourists and disturbing crowds arises 5. From this perspective, the main objective of this study is to analyze the latent potential of alternative forms of tourism, with a particular emphasis on the ecological, cultural and rural tourism. Their content and specificity are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the process of developing these types of tourism in protected areas under the Nature Conservation Law (1998) and the protected areas under NATURA 2000 in the mountainous and hilly areas in Bulgaria. It is believed that these forms of tourism support efficient utilization of various tourism resources, the majority of which are located in less economically developed regions. We argue that the development of these forms of alternative tourism will help to diversify the product of Bulgarian tourism, while it will help reduce the seasonality and spatial concentration of tourism. The concept for development of alternative forms of tourism complements the concept of sustainable tourism. Moreover, it reveals some of the approaches for achieving the desired results 6. Alternative tourism is defined as "inversion of the dominant models of tourism development at three key levels – social culture and tourism ethics, economic realism and protection of the environment." 7 Маринов, Ст. 2002. Селският туризъм в дестинация България. В „Специализирани туристически продукти“, изд.„Славена“, Варна, с.95 6 Ракаджийска, Св. 2007. Във „Въведение в туризма“, изд. „Наука и икономика“, Икономически университет-Варна,Варна,с.128 7 Wackerman, Gl. 1988. Le tourisme international. ARMAND COLIN, Paris 5

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According to the Bulgarian Association for Alternative Tourism (BAAT) alternative forms of tourism are packages or individual services which are defined as an alternative to mass tourism product in the presentation, course and commitment of human resources. Alternative tourism is impossible without alternative forms of hospitality, service and training of staff. Thus, alternative tourism is seen as a dynamic system which is explained by its component parts and the availability of stable, concurrent live connections between those parts that eliminate the drawbacks of mass tourism such as: concentration of tourist flows, impromptu tourist professions, mass "takeover" of large spaces, dissemination of advertising and product clichés etc. 8 Rakadzhiyska emphasizes the fact that the existing homogeneous and uniform forms of tourism products and the phenomenon of gigantism based on them are not able to meet the requirements of tourists, whose choice of holiday travel is based on specific motivation. Alternative tourism products are expected to possess orginal combinations of the elements of the environment to ensure safety, peace, comfort and specific binding effect, including regulation of tourist visits to a particular territory. Thus the forms of alternative tourism resist mass ones 9. According to Smith and Eadington 10 the characteristics of alternative tourism can be described as follows: in respect of accommodation, in terms of number of tourists, tourist behavior, business behavior, and commensurability with the reproductive capacity of the environment. За да могат да се прилагат принципите за устойчив и алтернативен туризъм в съвременнитеш условия, на срещата в Рио през 1992 бе препоръчано спазването на следните принципи: In order to apply the principles of sustainable and alternative tourism, the following principles were recommended at a meeting in Rio in 1992 11: Participation of local communities in tourism development and full transparency of the resulting processes; Relationships of collective responsibility in solving problems; A systematic approach to solving complex environmental, social and economic problems; Use of environmental constraints, limiting the development of tourism so that it does not affect biodiversity; Ensuring equality before the law; Providing long-term strategic planning, caring for the future. A crucial point, according to Rakadzhiyska 12, is that a "zero" impact on the development of tourism is virtually impossible, which is why the harmony of economic goals with social and natural environment can help minimize the negative effects. The most common forms of alternative tourism are: ecotourism, rural tourism, pilgrimage tourism, hobby tourism and others. Since a considerable part of the above forms of tourism have long existed, it is necessary to take into account that they acquire the quality the alternative only to the problems created by mass tourism, linking in a better way the diverse needs of tourists with nature and culture. Hence, the alternative forms of tourism demand and use more unique and essential tourist resources; they "penetrate" deeper into the authenticity of the environment which is a precondition for development. If you do not balance the individualization of leisure travel and the number of sales (usually at a higher price), Wackerman, cited by Ракаджийска Св. 2007. Въведение в туризма, изд. Наука и икономика, Икономически университет - Варна, Варна, с. 163 9 Ракаджийска Св. 2007. Op. cit., pp.129-130 10 Smith V., W.Eadington. 1995. Tourism Alternatives, UK, p.99-95 11 Agenda 21, 1992. Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro 12 Ракаджийска Св. 2007. Op. cit. 8

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alternative forms of tourism can intensify the problems that mass tourism creates and as a result lose their capacity for resistance 13. Rakadzhiyska agrees with Eidsvic 14, that despite the benefits of alternative tourism to ensure sustainability it is necessary to provide: 1. Acceptable ratio between the number of tourists and locals; 2. Limited access to endangered ecosystems; 3. Level of satisfaction of local residents. It is believed that they are an important precondition for maintaining its advantages. Achieving the desired results is possible only if tourism is carefully planned and its main parameters are regulated. Particular attention should be paid to the planning boundaries of permissible amendments 15. The biodiversity of Bulgaria, the existing protected areas and the cultural heritage are a solid foundation for the development of one of the most popular forms of alternative tourism – eco tourism. Ecotourism is seen as a form of tourism based on nature. In recent years, experts working in this area turned their attention as a tool of sustainable development. As a result, the term "ecotourism" is used on the one hand as a concept referring to the principles of sustainable development, and the other - to describe one market segment. Cebaloos-Lasscurian is the first author who made an attempt to define the term "ecotourism". According to him, this is a trip to relatively unpolluted places for studying, inspiration and enjoyment of nature and its wildlife and current events (past and contemporary) in these locations 16. From that time until today, the term "ecotourism" is the reason for more than one or two scientific debates about its meaning, scope and use. Despite the expressed disagreement between authors, there is a consensus on the main elements of this type of tourism, namely: 1. ecotourism focuses on nature; 2. it is educational; 3. it is managed in the context of sustainable development. A few years ago has been given a new definition, which reads: Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas, which is performed in order to preserve the natural environment and the welfare of the local population (TIES, 1990). Ecotourism brings together conservation, local community groups and the concept of sustainable tourism. This means that in this type of tourism it is necessary to observe the following principles: minimizing the impact on the environment; support for environmental awareness; providing a positive experience for both visitors and hosts; formation of direct financial performance and increase the level of employment for the local population; formation of an attitude towards the political, environmental and social climate of the host country. Ecotourism is a form of tourism inspired primarily by the natural history of the area, including local cultures. Eco-tourists visit relatively undeveloped areas, where they can receive satisfaction, empathy and personal responsibility to the local environment. 17 Ecotourism is an indirect consumer of wildlife and natural resources and contributes to the formation of the Ракаджийска Св. 2007. . Op. cit., p. 131 Eidsvic H.1995. UNESCO. Ethycally, Enviromentally and Economically Sustainable Tourism. In „Tourism of the 21 century“, World Conference of Sustainable Tourism,Lanzarote, p.24-25 15 Eidsvic H. 1995. UNESCO. Ethycally ,Enviromentally and Economically Sustainable Tourism . In „Tourism of the 21 century“, World Conference of Sustainable Tourism,Lanzarote, p.24-25 16 Cebaloos-Lasscurian, H. 1996. Tourism. Ecotourism and Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, p.20 17 Ziffer, 1989, cited by Fennell D. 2003. Ecotourism: an introduction. Education, 2.Oxon, UK, p.23 13 14

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direct and indirect benefits to the destination by raising employment rates and generating funds directed towards conservation activities and improving the economic welfare of the local population. The visit should promote personal satisfaction of tourists, and help shape the attitude towards the specific needs of local communities. Ecotourism is also a management approach in the country or host region who engages in the formation and management of destinations, with the participation of the population, ensuring appropriate marketing activities, integrate their management in accordance with the legal framework and use local investors for funding management areas 18. Wallace and Pierce believe that eco tourism is “travel to relatively undisturbed natural areas for study, enjoyment or volunteer assistance. It is travel that concerns itself with the flora, fauna, geology, and ecosystems of an area, as well as the people (caretakers) who live nearby, their needs, their culture, and their relationship to the land. It views natural areas both as ‘home to all of us’ in a global sense (‘eco’ meaning home) but ‘home to nearby residents’ specifically. It is envisaged as a tool for both conservation and sustainable development, especially in areas where people are asked to forgo the consumptive use of resources for others.” 19 Similar to this, the IUCN defines ecotourism as "environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features — both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations" 20. The clear and accurate orientation of ecotourism to the principles, guidelines and certificationbased sustainability standards, precondition its specific place in the field of tourism. It is part of a growing niche of the tourism industry. This means that for Bulgaria there is a tendency for dynamic growth of the potential markets of environmental products. There is a real opportunity for Bulgaria to become a regional and European leader in this growing market. 21 Attempts to define the concept of ecotourism have been made by the Department of National Park "Rila" Bulgarian Association for Alternative Tourism Bulgarian Association for Rural and Ecological Tourism and a number of other authors. According то Verezzi 22, а preliminary study by the World Tourism Organization shows that the use of the term "ecotourism" is still limited. Tour operators in most instances avoid the word "eco" in their advertising brochures and literature. Оther terms such as sustainable, responsible, ethical tourism are usually preferred, although they do not have the same meaning and do not cover the same area. Traveling with an emphasis on sustainability and responsibility may refer the whole tourism industry, and ecotourism covers mainly trips to natural areas with a strong cultural component. Although they do not use the term "ecotourism", a significant number of tour operators include some of its elements and adapt them to their own policy. The level of involvement of these is different in different countries. Their actions range from the distribution of behavioral rules to ecotourism guidelines for travelers, donations, support for conservation of the local environment and local communities by offering tour packages featuring mainly local suppliers and developing joint programs and partnerships 23. 18

Ziffer, 1989, cited by Fennell 2003. Op. cit. p.23 Wallace and Pierce 1996, цит. от Fennell, 2003. Op. cit., p. 23 20 Ceballos-Lascuráin, Héctor. 1993. Ecotourism in Central America. Technical Report for WTO/UNDP. Project CAM790/011 21 Ibid. 22 Вереци В. 2002. Резюме на изследователската програма на Световната туристическа организация за пазарите генериращи екотуризъм. Първи национален екотуристически форум и панаир „Екотуризъм, планини и защитени територии -партньори в благоденствието“, София, 2-5 октомври 2002 г.,с.2-3 23 Ibid. 19

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At this stage ecotourism in Bulgaria has emerged primarily as tourism in protected areas or protected zones under NATURA 2000. Proclamation of protected areas in Bulgaria is based on the Protected Areas Act (1998). These are the most valuable areas in bio-geographical terms in the country. In Bulgaria at this stage there are: 55 reserves covering an area of 77,124.05 ha, 3 national parks covering 193,047.9 ha, 350 natural sites with an area of 18,175.4 hectares, 11 natural parks with an area of 275,447.8 ha, 35 maintained reserves covering 4,571.79 ha and 449 protected places whose territorial range is 72 884.05 ha. The total area of protected areas in Bulgaria is 641,251 hectares, which is 5.7% of the country. The realization of the idea of building a "European network of protected areas - PAN Parks (Protected Areas Network Parks) played a very positive role in the development of ecotourism within the national parks. PAN Parks is network of protected areas that preserve the best of European wildlife stretching from Northern Europe to the Mediterranean. This is a European non-profit organization created by initiative of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and with support from the Dutch travel company Molecaten Grup. PAN Parks preserve the most precious wilderness areas on the continent by building a network of parks that develop sustainable tourism together with local communities. At this stage, parks from nine countries participate in this initiative - Georgia, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Bulgaria. Bulgaria is the first and only country in Europe with two parks in the PAN Parks network – National Park "Central Balkan" and National Park "Rila ". Obtaining a certificate in this international initiative means that those two national parks have covered five basic criteria for membership: natural values and preserved wildlife, long-term conservation and management of visitors, a strategy for sustainable tourism development and the availability of local business partners who hold certificates of PAN Parks. Meeting these high standards is verified by an independent expert review of the characteristics of nature, protected area management and administration of its links with local people. Territories that have successfully completed the course are issued a certificate giving the right to use the brand and logo of PAN Parks. Along with the responsibilities and obligations that the protected area takes in compliance with the set standards and criteria, membership in the network itself brings a lot of benefits for the protected area (benefits consist of increased international recognition through financial support for activities at the European public for the park) and benefits for its partners. Local tourism providers, artisans and others can use the brand of PAN Parks. The organization offers opportunities for distribution and presentation of local culture and traditions to international clients and customers. It is necessary to point out that the European Commission has identified the activities of PAN Parks as one of the best initiatives to develop and manage sustainable tourism in the NATURA 2000. A very positive role in the development of this type of tourism in the third national park in Bulgaria - National Park "Pirin" played its inclusion in its list of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. However, there are many serious environmental problems caused by the construction and aspirations for the expansion of the largest ski center in this part of SouthEastern Europe - Bansko. All 11 nature parks in Bulgaria have clear and precise strategies for the development of ecological tourism. In other categories of protected areas, ecotourism is mostly concentrated in the existing network of protected areas, mainly in the Eastern and Western Rhodope Mountains, some parts of the Predbalkana and the Western Balkan, the Black Sea coast and in big part of natural landmarks. Substantial progress in this direction has been achieved in the 11 Ramsar sites. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas. It is an instrument of the European Community for the conservation of natural habitats and species of Community interest. The

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construction of this ecological network is the responsibility of each EU member state under the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive. Subject to protection under both Directives are over 140 natural habitats and over 600 species of plants and animals of Community importance. Member States are required to determine the existence of these habitats and species in their territories and put some of them under protection. In Bulgaria, the Council of Ministers declared 116 protected areas for the conservation of wild birds (22.6% of the country) and 231 protected areas to conserve habitats, occupying 30% of the territorial scope of the country. Up to date there are 336 protected sites under NATURA 2000 covering 34.3% of its territory. We must emphasize that today in Bulgaria there are significant differences between the existing protected areas designated under the Protected Areas Act (1998) and protected areas governed by the Biodiversity Act (2002). While under the Directive regulating the construction of the European ecological network NATURA 2000 the designation of these areas (protected areas under the national legislation of Bulgaria) by member states shall only be based on relevant scientific information and scientific criteria set out in Annex 3 of the Directive (Article 7 of the Law on biodiversity), the aim of the NATURA 2000 network is not to create a strictly scientific nature reserves where all human activities are excluded . Focus on land management will ensure that their ecological, economic and socially sustainable future management is compatible with the conservation objectives of the protected areas. In many instances, the presence or renewal of a number of traditional and beneficial effects of human activities is essential to the maintenance of biodiversity, particularly in the agricultural and forestry areas. At present there are no specific prohibitions or restrictions on activities in the proposed protected areas resulting from the Habitats Directive or the Biodiversity Act. Prohibitions or restrictive activities contrary to the conservation objectives of the protected areas could be imposed, but should be limited to activities for which it is found will lead to very significant damage to the subject matter of protection. In the context of the tourism industry the idea of sustainable environmental, economic and social development of protected areas included in the NATURA 2000 can be achieved through balanced management of various tourist activities within these areas. The latter is reflected in the strategic planning and management of activities that can be implemented in future tourist regions of the country to be defined by the new Law on Tourism in Bulgaria (2013). Within their borders, sub-regions, micro and tourist centers are formed; the latter will essentially be the main structural units for planning and management of tourism in their respective areas. Regardless of the product specialization of each area, the specially protected areas NATURA 2000 within its borders and the directly related conservation activities of natural habitats requires the measurement of the level of tourism activity and its regulation in order to achieve and maintain sustainable environmental standards and indicators. In narrow terms this means that the design and establishment of the tourist centers in the area and locating them in key tourist destinations and places to visit should fall outside the boundaries of protected areas under NATURA 2000. The latter is crucial in view of the fact that the tourist centers and destinations are characterized by building massive complexes and their associated tourist and general infrastructure. In addition, they are generally focused around the tourist flow and the level of tourist activity is high. The intensity of recreational load should be limited when it comes to Special Protection Areas. Along with these initiatives, the policy framework for the development of ecotourism in Bulgaria involves national strategies and plans in the field of tourism, biodiversity, forest policy, environment, entrepreneurship, regional development, national legislation and international conventions, which Bulgaria has signed. The stakeholders in ecotourism are

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certain state institutions, regional and local authorities, NGOs, tourism companies and investors, local communities, national and international donors and tourists. Obviously, ecotourism has a great future in the further development of the tourism industry in Bulgaria. For the most part it is concentrated in the different categories of protected areas and protected zones under NATURA 2000 in the hilly and mountainous regions. It is justly regarded as a form of economic activity that can help to preserve the natural environment, rural culture and lifestyle, cultural heritage and contribute to the welfare of the local population. Considered a form of sustainable tourism, it is regarded nationally as a major opportunity for growth in the local economy in partnership and integration with other forms of economic activity in the mountainous and hilly areas. The experience of Bulgarian eco tourism, despite the efforts in this direction is still limited. Most of the activities and products remain relatively unknown and are not getting much support from local and central government. Encouraging the development and marketing of this type of tourism is not at the necessary level. Too often the major funding sources are international projects 24. It is obvious that in the future Bulgaria will benefit from the development of cost-effective eco-tourism in a rational and responsible use of natural, social, cultural and human resources, increasing the quantity and quality of tourism resources, optimizing the benefits and reducing the negative effects of tourism on the environment and natural resources. Very unfortunately, however, in the last decade, focusing on the development of coastal and mountain tourism the natural resources in the country were seriously undermined. There is a risk that Bulgaria will lose a significant part of its biological diversity. This in itself will cause serious damage on the opportunities for ecotourism and other forms of alternative tourism. Only if we manage to keep our Bulgarian nature, will we create conditions for the implementation of the marketing plan "Ecotourism - Naturally Bulgaria". REFERENCES Agenda 21, 1992. Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro Ceballos-Lascuráin, Héctor. 1993. Ecotourism in Central America. Technical Report for WTO/UNDP. Project CAM790/011 Cebaloos-Lasscurian, H. 1996. Tourism. Ecotourism and Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, p.20 Eidsvic H.1995. UNESCO. Ethycally, Enviromentally and Economically Sustainable Tourism. In „Tourism of the 21 century“, World Conference of Sustainable Tourism,Lanzarote, p.24-25 Smith V., W.Eadington. 1995. Tourism Alternatives, UK, p.99-95 Wackerman, Gl. 1988. Le tourisme international. ARMAND COLIN, Paris Fennell D. 2003. Ecotourism: an introduction. Education, 2.Oxon, UK, p.23 Алексиева, Йорданка, Стамен Стамов. 2005. Специализирани видове туризъм. Част Втора. Селски туризъм. Стара Загора, изд. Кота Вереци В. 2002. Резюме на изследователската програма на Световната туристическа организация за пазарите генериращи екотуризъм. Първи национален екотуристически форум и панаир „Екотуризъм, планини и защитени територии -партньори в благоденствието“, София, 2-5 октомври 2002 Георгиев Г., Р. Мадгерова. 2010. Въведение в туризма. Университетско издателство ЮЗУ„Неофит Рилски“-Благоевград Георгиев Г. 2010. Природа под закрила. Издателство„Гея Либрис“, София, 287 с. Георгиев Г. 2011. Някои особености и проблеми в развитието на селския и екологичен туризъм в България. В Сборника „Туризмът. Предизвикателства в условията на икономическа криза. изд. НБУ, София, pp.307-325. Маринов, Ст. 2002. Селският туризъм в дестинация България. В „Специализирани туристически продукти“, изд.„Славена“, Варна Ракаджийска, Св. 2007. Въведение в туризма, изд. „Наука и икономика“, Икономически университетВарна, Варна Алексиева, Йорданка, Стамен Стамов. 2005. Специализирани видове туризъм. Част Втора. Селски туризъм. Стара Загора,изд.Кота,с.298

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УДК: 332.12.055.2(497.735)

ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА РАЗВОЈОТ НА ОПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО 1

Бл. МАРКОСКИ1*, Ив. МИЛЕВСКИ1, Ј. Вртески2

Универзитет Св. Кирил и Методиј, Природно-математички факултет, Институт за географија, ул. Гази Баба б.б., 1000-Скопје, Репбулика Македонија 2 БДС Консалтинг - Скопје e-mail: blagojamarkoski@gmail.com

ИЗВОД Трудот е во функција на решавање на проблемите во ридско-планинските населени места. Земена е територијата на општина Пехчево, со цел да се евидентираат, потенцираат и предложат конкретни мерки за санација на депопулациските и деаграризациските процеси со цел да се овозможи одржлив развој на населбите. Опфатена е релативно мала територија, но главниот проблем во истражувањето е дефинирање на модел за одржливост на демографската и стопанската виталност во просторот. Клучни зборови: територија на општина, депопулација, деаграризација, одржлив развој на населби, модел за ревитализација на населби.

ОПШТИ ПРИРОДНО ГЕОГРАФСКИ ОДЛИКИ НА ТЕРИТОРИЈАТА НА ООПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО Географска положба Во источниот дел од Република Македонија, во делови од Малешевско-пијанечкиот регион, непосредно во пограничниот дел со Република Бугарија, се наоѓа територијата на општина Пехчево. Сообрајќајно е поврзана со регионалниот пат Делчево-БеровоСтрумица и Берово-Виница-Кочани. Општината Пехчево има периферна географска положба во рамките на Република Македонија. Релјеф Станува збор за простор со надморска височина над 800 м. Претежно се простира на западните падини на Влаина Планина и делови од Малешевските Планини. Релјефот го чинат површи кои достигнуваат до околу 1100 м н.в. На овие површи преовладува флувио-абразионен релјеф (Манаковиќ, 1980). Релјефот се одликува со изразита рецентна ерозија на поголем дел од територијата. Над овие површи се издигнуваат масивите на Влаина Планина (врвот Кадиица 1932 м н.в.) и Малешевските планини (Ченгино Кале 1745 м н.в.). Клима Климата на територијата на општина Пехчево поради надморската височина, односно, изолираноста на Малешевската и Пијанечката Котлина се карактеризира како типична умерено-континентална која во повисоките простори преминува во планинска клима. Средно-годишната температура е околу 90Ц. Просечната годишна количина на врнежи во Пехчево изнесува 672 мм (Мавродиев, 1980). Во повисоките планински делови врнежите се поголеми. Просечните вредности за останатите метеоролошки појави и елементи се прикажани во табелата 1.

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Табела 1. Преглед на просечни вредности на климатските елементи и појави во Малешевската и пијанечката котлина Среддно-годишна вредност на Метеоролошка станиница климатски елемент/појава Берово Делчево температура (0Ц) 9 10,9 влажност (%) 78 72 облачност (десетини) 5,2 5,1 сончев сјај (часови) 2375 2310 врнежи (мм) 678 541 преовладувачки ветрови (промили) NW-121, N-112 N-275, E-178 Извор: МАНУ (1980): Малеш и Пијанец 2, Природни и социо-географски карактеристики на Малеш и Пијанец, Скопје.

Хидрографија Најважен хидрографски објект во Малешевската и Пијанечката Котлина е реката Брегалница, како главен реципиент на водите во регионот. Меѓутоа, во контекст на хидрографијата на територијата на општината Пехчево посебно важни се изворишниот дел на реката Брегалница со притоките и неколкуте реки кои исто така се вливаат во р. Брегалница. Такви се Пехчевска Река, Умленска Река, реката Желевица со нивните помали притоки и др. Табела 2. Преглед на покарактеристичните речни текови на територијата на општина Пехчево Име на река должина на површина на слив водотек Брегалница (во опш.Пехчево Пехчевска Река 16,7 35,6 Умленско-Робовска 6,8 9,7 Желевица 20,0 112,0 Извор: МАНУ (1980): Малеш и Пијанец 2, Природни и социо-географски карактеристики на Малеш и Пијанец, Скопје.

Педолошка основа На територијата на општина Пехчево се среќаваат разновидни типови почви. Во планинските терени преовладуваат кафеави шумски почви и ранкери, во подножјата на планините, поточно во ридестите терени се среќаваат регосоли, циметни шумски почви и фрагменти од смолници и рендзини. Во рамничарските делови, односно покрај речните долини преовладуваат алувијални почви. Биогеографски одлики Растителната покривка на просторот на општината Пехчево во основа ја чинат пасишта и култури во пониските ридести простори, потоа, одејќи во височина се простира појас од високостеблеста листопадни и смесени четинарски шуми, а во повисоките делови од Влаина Планина и Малешевските Планини се простираат високопланински пасишта. Вака распространетата растителна покривка претставува посебен природен потенцијал за развој на општината. Од зивотинскиот свет се среќаваат вообичаените видови за овие простори и тоа срна, дива свиња, дива коза волк, лисица, зајак, куна и други видови диви животни.

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НЕКОИ СОЦИОГЕОГРАФСКИ, СТОПАНСКИ И ИНФРАСТРУКТУРНИ ОДЛИКИ НА ОПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО Социогеографски одлики Општината Пехчево зафаќа површина од 185 км2. Територијата е поделена на населените места Пехчево како општински центар и селските населби Негрево, Панчарево, Умлена, Робово, Црник и Чивлик. Во нив во 1961 година живееле 5998 жители, во 1981 год. 5859 жители и во 2002 година 5517 жители, односно бројот на население е во постојано намалување. Според пописот на населението во 2002 година бројот на население, население по пол, домаќинства и станови е прикажан во табела 3. Табела 3. Преглед на вкупното население, населението по пол, домаќинства и станови по населени места во општина Пехчево во пописната 2002 година населено вкупно мажи жени домаќин бр.ченови станови место население ства во домаќ. Негрево 97 42 55 53 1,8 118 Панчарево 375 200 175 143 2,6 184 Пехчево 3237 1649 1588 1125 2,9 1623 Робово 426 211 215 190 2,2 280 Умлена 354 170 184 155 2,3 190 Црник 707 355 352 242 2,9 304 Чифлик 321 160 161 117 2,7 178 Вкупно 5517 2787 2730 2025 2,7 2877 Извор: Државен завод за статистика, (204): Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002, Скопје

Националната структура на населението на територијата на просторот на општината Пех;ево е хомогена. Околу 95% од населението се Македонци, а останатите се турци и роми со незначителен број друго население. Проблемот на разгледување на националната структура во контекст на хазардите и ерозивните процеси во просторот се од аспект на традиционалните занимања на населението. Старосната структура на населението е главна одредница од која зависи виталноста на дадена популација. Во случајот на населениете места на територијата на општина Пех;ево се забележува дека поголемиот број од нив се одликуваат со значително поголема застапеност на зрелото и особено старото население. Населението според економската активност (лицата со возраст над 15 години) е мошне важна компонента во демографското проучување, бидејќи преку овие компоненти се согледуваат социоекономските одлики на одредена популација. Според тоа во контекст на проблемите од хазарди и ерозија на земјиштето важни се стопанските преокупации на населението. Во случајот главно станува збор за активност на населението во сверата на земјоделството, сточарството, шумарството а нешто помалку во сверата на секундарните и други гранки. Домаќинствата, членовите по домаќинство и бројот на станови се едни од важните показатели за виталноста на населението, работоспособноста и (компаративно) искористувањето на природните ресурси во одреден простор е бројот на домаќинствата и особено бројот на членови по домаќинство како главен елемент за проценка на можностите за стопанисување со примарните стопански дејности. Според податоците се констатира дека вкупниот број на населението во Пехчево бележи постојан пораст, наспроти бројот на населението во селските населби каде се намалува. Дел од населението се преселува во градот а дел емигрира во други градови и региони во Република Македонија или евентуално во странство. Бројот на домаќинствата иако има нивно раслојување во суштина се намалува. Тоа се гледа и од

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податоците за бројот на станови во населбите. Особено забележив е просечниот број на членови по домаќинство кој е релативно мал и се движи помеѓу 2-3 члена. Тоа значи дека во населените места забележителен е процесот на депопулација и деаграризација. Токму затоа, потребни се мерки за одржливост на населените места.

ВКУПНА ПОВРШИНА

НЕПЛОДНО ЗЕМЈИШТЕ

ШУМИ

ПАСИШТА

ВКУПНО ОБРАБОТЕНИ ПОВРШИНИ

ЛИВАДИ

ОВОШТАРНИЦИ

НИВИ

Табела 4. Преглед на земјоделските површини по катастарски култури, по населени места во општина Пехчево КУЛТУРА КУЛТУРА СОПСТВЕНОСТ. (ha)

НАЗИВ НА КАТАСТАРСКА ОПШТИНА

Стoпански одлики Стопанството во населените места во општина Пехчево претежно е ориентирано во сверата на примарните дејности. Исклучок е присуството на одредени индустриски капацитети во градчето Пехчево како што се: АД Риомк Бомекс Рефрактори, АД Фагус, Џузе пром ДООЕЛ, Ино-слај ДОО, 3-Аса ДООЕЛ, Стела ДООЕЛ, Ани мебел ДООЕЛ с.Робово, Дрвомак ДООЕЛ, Мивабо ДООЕЛ, Мебел ексклузив НХ ДООЕЛ, Март текс Фешн ДООЕЛ, Авто сервис Коце, Цеко - фам ДОО, Дрвопродукт ДООЕЛ, ЈМ Инженеринг ДООЕЛ, Кадиица метал ДООЕЛ, Текстил-М ДОО, Златко текс. Врз основа на податоците за големината на земјоделското земјиште по катастарски култури е согледана главната ориентација на населението во примарните дејности.

2 3 4 7 11 12 13 14 16 17 Негрево вкупно 366.1 31.8 126.3 524.2 757.1 473.4 221.5 1976.2 Панчарево вкупно 767.3 73.0 86.0 926.3 894.3 579.2 57.2 2457.0 Пехчево вкупно 552.4 214.4 202.3 969.1 3324.4 3840.1 158.2 8291.7 Робово вкупно 524,8 47,7 126,0 698.5 819.5 449.5 25.6 1993.2 Умлена вкупно 591.8 39.1 82.4 713.3 498.4 435.0 38.0 1664.7 Црник вкупно 897.1 65.2 227.5 1189.8 1043.6 881.8 184.3 3299.5 Чифлик вкупно 301.4 52.4 88.2 442.0 258.2 116.0 78.0 894.2 ВКУПНО вкупно 4000.9 523,6 938.7 5463.2 7595.5 6775.0 762.8 20596.5 % 19,4 2,5 4,6 26,5 36,9 32,9 3,7 100,0 Извор: Републичка геодетска управа. (1982): СР Македонија низ катастарска евиденција. Скопје.

Во табелата 4 се презентирани податоци за големината на површините по катастарски култури по населени места на просторот на општина Пех;ево. Опфатени се вкупно 7 атари на населени места кои зафаќаат 20596,5 хектари (205,9 км2). Тоа значи дека просечната големина на селските атари изнесува 2942,3 хектари (29,4 км2). Поради карактеристиките на територијата (претежно планински простор) обработливите површини зафаќаат околу 1/4 од територијата на проучуваното подрачје, поточно 5463,2 ха. Преовладуваат нивите со 4000,9 ха, потоа ливадите со 938,7 ха, овоштарниците со 523,6 ха и т.н. Поголемиот дел од обработливите површини се наоѓа во приватна сопственост. Со промената на начинот на живеење и стопанисување на населението во последните децении, дел од овие територии реално не се обработуваат, така што слободно може да се констатира дека истите ги надополнуваат необработливите површини, особено површините под пасишта и шуми. Необработливите површини (пасишта, шуми, трстици и мочуришта, неплодно земјиште) зафаќаат околу 3/4 од територијата на просторот на општината Пех;ево. Најголеми површини се наоѓаат под пасишта 7595,5 ха, потоа 6775,0 ха се под шуми, и

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762,8 ха се неплодно земјиште. Поголемиот дел од површините кај необработливото земјиште се наоѓа во општествена сопственост. Според големините на површините по катастарски култури, глобалниот просторен распоред на обработливите површини претежно е лоциран во пониските територии од просторот на општината (каде се лоцирани поголем број од населбите), потоа следува појасот со површини претежно под шуми и во највисоките делови на планинските масиви Влаина и Малешевските Планини се најраспространети пасиштата кои главно се протегаат над 1600 м. Во контекст на ваквиот распоред треба да се гледаат компаративните елементи во врска со искористувањето на природните капацитети во сверата на земјоделството, сточарството, шумарството, водостопанството, рударството и разни пропратни дејности. Инфраструктурна опременост Инфраструктурната опременост и и функционалност на територијата на општината Пехчево со останатите населени места е разгледана од аспект на присуството и развиеноста на линиската и институционалната инфраструктура. Линиска инфраструктура Линиската инфраструктура која ја тангира општината Пехчево со населените места ја опфаќа патната, електроенергетската, комуналната и телекомуникациската инфраструктура. Патната инфраструктура е претставена со регионалниот пат Р523 на релација ДелчевоБерово-Струмица, кој непосредно поминува низ територијата на општина Пехчево, регионалниот пат спрема Виница и Кочани, локалните асфалтни патишта до населените места и поголем број останати пристапни патишта. Констатирано е дека сите населени места во општината се поврзани со локални асфалтирани патишта, главно со широчина околу 3 м., така што е овозможена одредена автомобилска комуникација со останатите центри во регионот како што се Пехчево, Берово, Делчево и пошироко во државата. Меѓутоа, голем дел од овие патишта имаат потреба од проширување и санација на истите за да се задржи и зголеми нивната функционалност. Во овој сегнет е важно да се искористат домашните и меѓународните фондовите и истите правилно да се насочат за да се зајакнат капацитетите и развојот на населените места поодделно и поединечно. Електроенергетската инфраструктура во општината Пехчево е развина од 60-тите години на 20-ти век. Тогаш е извршена целосна електрификација на населените места. Со тоа се овозможени и олеснети разни активности и потреби на населението во процесот на неговото секојдневно живеење и работење. Комуналната инфраструктура во контекст на населените места во општината Пехчево пред се се однесува на водоводната и канализационата мрежа. Скоро сите населени места со вода се обезбедуваат од сопствени водоводи. Меѓутоа со исклучок на населението во Пехчево и некои ретки исклучоци каде водоснабдувањето стигнува до домовите, сеуште, поголем дел од домаќинствата во селата со вода се снабдуваат од селски чешми и бунари. Ваквата состојба е еден од проблемите кои најитно треба да се решаваат. Во контекст на канализационата инфраструктура ситуацијата е значително позагрижувачка, бидејќи, со исклучок на Пехчево сите други населени места немаат канализациона мрежа и регулација на отпадни води. Тоа е проблем кој имајќи го предвид денешното културно ниво и сознанија на населението несмее да продолжи понатаму. Но, самото население нее економски моќно да го реши овој проблем, така што е неминовен организиран пристап (држава, општина, население), со цел и оваа компонента да биде прилагодена и погодна за живот на населението во селата,

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наспроти желбата да се замине во градот, а на тој начин пропаѓаат населените места од една страна и се задушуваат самите градови од друга страна. Институционална инфраструктура Институционалната инфраструктура ја претпоставува опременоста на населените места со управно-административни, економски, социјални, образовни, здравствени, културни, спортско-рекреативни, урбани, зелени и други објекти. Институционалните инфраструктурни објекти за задоволување на разни функции се многубројни. Но, во случајот на населените места во општина Пехчево се констатира дека основните управно-административни, образовни, културни, здравствени, урбани и други објекти се присутни само во Пехчево како општински центар, додека во селските средини, освен религиозен објект, основно училиште (најчесто четиригодишно) и евентуално месна заедница или пошта не постојат други објекти. Тоа значи хендикеп за месното население. Особен проблем е отсуството на здравствени институции, пошта, земјоделска задруга, откупен пункт, некој стопански објект, продавница и слично.

ЧИФЛИК

ЦРНИК

РОБОВО

+ + + + + + -

УМЛЕНА

+ + + + + -

ПЕХЧЕВО

АСФАЛТЕН ПАТ ВОДОВОД КАНАЛИЗАЦИЈА ЕЛЕКТРИФИКАЦИЈА ЗЕМЈОДЕЛСКА ЗАДРУГА УЧИЛИШТЕ АМБУЛАНТА ПРОДАВНИЦА РЕЛИГИОЗЕН ОБЈЕКТ ПОШТА ОТКУПЕН ПУНКТ ФОЛКЛОРНО ДРУШТВО СПОРТСКО ДРУШТВО МЕСНА ЗАЕДНИЦА

ПАНЧАРЕВО

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

ИНСТИТУЦИИ

НЕГРЕВО

РЕДЕН БРОЈ

Табела . Преглед на инфраструктурната опременост на населените места во општина Пехчево НАСЕЛЕНИ МЕСТА

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Извор: Сопствени анкетни истражувања

Од податоците во табелата се констатира дека дел од линиската и институционалната инфраструктура во населените места е воспоставена поврзаноста со асфалтен пат, има водовод и електрификација и присутни се продавници, училишта и религиозни објекти. Меѓутоа, евидентно е отсуството на инфрастртуктурни објекти кои би имале значење во развојот на населениете места, како што се на пример отсуството на канализациска мрежа, земјоделски задруги, откупни пунктови, здравствени установи, организирана месна заедница и сл. Овде е важно да се напомене и фактот дека постоечката инфраструктура е дотраена и нецелосна. Токму затоа е неминовно преземање мерки за ревитализација на селско-стопанскиот систем на развој.

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ПЕРСПЕКТИВА ЗА ОДРЖЛИВОСТ И РАЗВОЈ НА НАСЕЛЕНИТЕ МЕСТА ВО ОПШТИНА ПЕХЧЕВО Основен предуслов за егзистенција е обезбеденоста со вода и храна. Токму затоа, при првобитната локација на населените места се водело сметка истите да се равиваат на места каде што има вода, во присуство на територии погодни за земјоделска, сточарска и шумарска дејност. Но, техничко-технолошкиот напредок и цивилизациските достигнувања исто така станаа многу важна потреба на населението воопшто, а според тоа и за руралното население. Токму затоа, би било просперитетно (наместо населението да трча по овие придобивки во градовите) што поголем дел од тие придобивки да му се донесат во местото на живеење. Техничко-технолошки развиените држави ваквите потези ги направија уште пред половина век и перманентно работат на тоа. Токму затоа кај нив не се чувствува или е малку изразен проблемот на депопулација и деаграризација, а за сметка на тоа производството на разни производи (особено од примарниот сектор) е во постојан пораст. Во контекст на наведеното, слободни сме да препорачаме модел за надминување на проблемите во селската средина и така ќе се овозможи порамномерна разместеност на населението во просторот, порационална и помасовна искористеност на природните предиспозиции и ресурси, зголемен капацитет на производи, побогати селски домаќинства, задоволство од живеењето во селска средина, поквалитетна заштита на природата и ресурсите од разни загрозувања и слично. Мерки за организација и ревитализација на селската средина (на примерот на општина Пехчево) Функционирањето на процесите на животот во селската средина во контекст на новите техничко-технолошки и цивилизациски достигнувања претпоставуваат инфраструктурна организација и опременост на населените место во смисла на: целосно оформување и квалитетно подобрување на патната инфраструктура до населените места, селишта и важни вкрстувања, локалитети и објекти на територијата на општината. организација, изградба и санација на објектите за снабдување со вода на секое населено место во смисла на довод на вода до секое домаќинство и изградба на модерни хигиенски и санитарни елементи. организација и изградба на канализациона мрежа во населените места заради подобрување на општите хигиенски услови во населените места. модернизација на селските населби со асфалтирање или поплочување на уличната мрежа, подобрување на селските огради и јавни објекти. подобрување на електроенергетската мрежа и во линиска и во квалитативна смисла. воспоставување соодветни телекомуникациски врски. изградба на објекти од општ заеднички интерес во функција на развој и унапредување на примарните дејности (земјоделство, сточарство). возобновување или изградба на т.н. културни домови во селската средина како центри и седишта на: месна заедница, амбуланта, земјоделска задруга, пошта, продавница, откупни пунктови, фолклорни друштва, спортски клубови и слично. задржување и зајакнување на улогата на училиштата во населените места со перманентно присуство на наставник/ци. возобновување и воспоставување нови манифестации во селската средина со активности и од материјалната и од духовната култура на локалното население. Спроведување на политик за мерки на комасација и арондација на земјиштето, заради поефикасно искористување на истото,

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Изградба на акумулации со топографски-хидролошки поволни профили се: 1. Брана „Разловци“ со висина од 63 м, зафатнина од 48,5*106 м3 на профил Разловци на р. Брегалница, 2 км над селото Разловци, 2. Брана „Абланица“ со висина од 62 м, зафатнина од 15*106 м3 , на профил Абланица на река Брегалница, 3. Брана „Чукар“ со висина од 50 м, зафатнина од 20*106 м3 на р. Желевица, на околу 3 км над селото Тработивиште, 4. Брана „Каменица“со висина од 39 м, зафатнина од 15*106 м3 на р. Каменица на 2,8 км над вливот во Брегалница, и мали акумулации и мелиоративни системи 5. Брана на Негревска Река со висина од 28 м, зафатнина од 1,5*106 м3 на 1 км над село Чифлик, 6. Брана на Пехчевска Река со висина од 45 м, зафатнина од 1,2*106 м3 , 7. Брана „Ратевска Река“ на Ратевска Река, низводно од изградената брана, 8. Брана на Владимирска Река,; Мобилност на работната сила од местото на живеење до местото на работа; Пренасочување на фондовите за развој во руралната средина. Вака презентираните елементи во контекст на санација и ревитализација на руралните населби треба да се патоказ за конкретни мерки и активности на единиците на локалната самоуправа (општините) во планирањето, но уште повеќе во конкретната реализација на планираното во просторот. Општествени ефекти Општествените и техничко-технолошките услови во сверата на организацијата на производството и начинот на живеење во последните 20-тина години во Република македонија се значително изменети. Во одреден временски период (50-ти, 60-ти и 70-ти години од 20-ти век) населението се повикуваше од селската средина да работи во градовите, односно, од примарниот сектор да преминува во секундарниот и останатите сектори на дејности. Таквите потези (поради замислата дека само преку развој на секундарните дејности може да дојде до вистински раст и развој на општеството) за тоа време навидум можеби биле оправдани, но долгорочно очигледно е дека биле погрешни. Поради тоа, настана драстична нерамномерност во разместеноста на населението во просторот, промена во работните навики на луѓето, напуштање на природните потенцијали во непосредниот простор и така слично. Соодветно на претходно наведените мерки за организација и ревитализација на селската средина воопшто и конкретно на територијата на општина Пехчево мора да се ориентира така што територијалниот развој ќе има предност, наспроти ориентацијата да се развива и уредува само општинскиот центар или поконкретно градските населби. Наведениот пристап, треба да овозможи дисперзија на населението од градовите кон руралната средина. Така дел од работната сила (и од градовите и од локалната рурална средина) може да биде ангажирана во разни градежни зафати за поурбано уредување на селските населби, санација и изградба на разни инфраструктурни објекти како основа за поинтензивен развој на примарните дејности во населените места, зголемено производство и поголеми економски ефекти воопшто. При создадени услови за соодветен живот (соодветни линиски и институционални објекти) во селската средина сигурно дека дел од населението ќе се одлучи да го продолжи животот во руралната средина каде голем дел од животните потреби може да ги обезбеди во натура и во помирна средина наспроти градските секојдневни животни стресови. Во контекст на наведеното, логично е дека тоа неможе да се постигне во сите населени места. Затоа дел од селата кои поради разни општествени и економски причини во даден временски период егзистирале денес мора да се реорганизираат или

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целосно ќе бидат напуштени, но, дел од населбите кои демографски и економски се повитални мора да им се овозможи нивен опстанок и развој. Рефлексиите во демографска и економска ревитализација ќе бидат повеќекратни и во контекст на локалната средина и во контекст на државата. Во случајот на општината Пехчево, преземањето на вакви мерки би било многу практично и скоро целосно изводливо, бидејќи поголемиот дел од населбите имаат одредени инфраструктурни објекти, близу се до градскиот центар, така што е можна непречена мобилност на работната сила од градот кон руралните населби, а на пооддалечениет места мора да им се овозможи поголем дел од понапред наведените мерки како на пример изградбата на линиска и институционална инфраструктура во која првенствено треба да работи автохтоно население, да се изградат предвидените акумулации (Радевски А. 1980): 1. Брана „Разловци“ со висина од 63 м, зафатнина од 48,5*106 м3 на профил Разловци на р. Брегалница, 2 км над селото Разловци, 2. Брана „Абланица“ со висина од 62 м, зафатнина од 15*106 м3 , на профил Абланица на река Брегалница, 3. Брана „Чукар“ со висина од 50 м, зафатнина од 20*106 м3 на р. Желевица, на околу 3 км над селото Тработивиште, 4. Брана „Каменица“со висина од 39 м, зафатнина од 15*106 м3 на р. Каменица на 2,8 км над вливот во Брегалница, и мали акумулации и мелиоративни системи 5. Брана на Негревска Река со висина од 28 м, зафатнина од 1,5*106 м3 на 1 км над село Чифлик, 6. Брана на Пехчевска Река со висина од 45 м, зафатнина од 1,2*106 м3 , 7. Брана „Ратевска Река“ на Ратевска Река, низводно од изградената брана, 8. Брана на Владимирска Река,; Така ќе се создадат условите за посоодветно земјоделско, сточарско и шумарско производство. Во продолжение, организацијата на откуп и пласман на производството треба да биде елемент за заокружување на работните услови и условите за живеење во руралната средина. ЗАКЛУЧОК Просторот на општината Пехчево се наоѓа во источните делови од Република Македонија. Зафаќа околу 205,9 км2 каде се наоѓаат 7 населени места со вкупно 5517 жители според пописот од 2002 година.. Врз основа на статистичките прегледи главно базирани по населени места се констатирани следните состојби. Во сверата на социогеографските одлики на просторот се констатира дека: -бројната состојба на населението која изнесува 5517 жители е релативно мала (со просечна густина на населеност од околу 27 ж/км2 . -според половата структура кај населението преовладува машкото население; -националната структура на населението во населените места во општината Пехчево е мошне хомогена каде Македонците се застапени со околу 98%; -старосната структура на населението е таква што преовладува зрелото и старото население; -домаќинствата во населените места на просторот на општината Пехчево поради расцепканост е нешто поголем одколку што би требало, така што, бројот на членови по домаќинство е прилично мал и се движи под три членови Тоа укажува на фактот дека домаќинствата не се доволно силни како стопански единици.

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-според одликите на бројот на население во населбите, нивната старосна структура и бројот на домаќинствата реално е да се очекува дека некои од населените места во блиска иднина ќе се раселат (на пример селото Негрево) доколку не се преземат мерки за нивна брза ревитализација. Економско географските аспекти на просторот на општината Пехчево се анализирани преку прегледот на структурата на земјоделските површини по катастарски култури, по општини и по населени места на просторот на планинските масиви Влаина, Малешевските Планини и планината Огражден. Од податоците се констатира дека: -големината на атарите на населените места во просек изнесува околу 29,4 км2 ; -обработливите површини главно се застапени со околу 25% од вкупната површина; -кај обработливите површини најзастапени се ниви (околу 75%), ливади и овоштарници; -поголемиот дел од обработлибите површини е во приватна сопственост; -необработливото (пасишта, шуми и неплодно) земјиште зафаќа околу 75 % од вкупната површина; -кај необработливото земјиште преовладуваат пасиштата со 7595.5 ха, потоа 6775.0 ха се под шуми и 762,8 ха се неплодно земјиште. -необработливото земјиште со околу 80% е во општествен сектор, -според капацитетите на земјоделските површини постојат големи ресурси за развој на примарните дејности, поточно развојот на сточарството (овчарство, говедарство, живинарство и пчеларство) шумарството, поледелството со застапеност на житни култури (пченица, јачмен, рж, овес) и градинарски култури (компир), потоа овоштарството (сливи и јаболка), водостопанството (експлоатација на питка вода и рибогојство), и други пропратни дејности. Инфраструктурата на просторот на општината Пехчево се карактеризира со релативно изградени патишта и водоводи (но со минимални технички капацитети), потоа присутни се вообичаените институции во селската средина но евидентно се отсутни поразвојно ориентираните и економски покорисни институции и објекти како што се земјоделски задруги, откупни станици, функционални месни заедници, мали акумулации и т.н. Таквите институции и објекти би биле во функција на подобра организација и искористување на природните ресурси. Ваквата организација сигурно дека ќе предизвика поголема динамика, развој и ревитализација на селската средина, а соодветно на тоа ќе се овозможи посоодветна одржливост и контрола на просторот од аспект на загрозување, загадување, уништување и заштита од разни природни и антропогени случувања. ЛИТЕРАТУРА ВГИ. (1970-1972): Топографски карти со размер 1:25000 (Гаус-Кригерова проекција) за територијата на Република Македонија (216 секции), Белград. ВГИ. (1976): Топографски карти со размер 1:200000 (Гаус-Кригерова проекција) за територијата на Република Македонија, листови 4221-Скопје, 4222-Куманово, 4223-Ќустендил, 4121-Битола, 4122Прилеп, 4123-Солун. Белград. ДЗС (2004) Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002, Вкупно население, домаќинства и станови, вкупно население според изјаснувањето за националнат припадност, мајчиниот јазик и вероисповедта (податоци по населени места) книга 10, Скопје. ДЗС (2004) Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002, Вкупно население по пол И возраст (податоци по населени места) книга11, Скопје. ДЗС (2004) Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002, Вкупно население во земјата, вкупно население според активноста и полот (податоци по населени места) книга12, Скопје. Колчаковски Д. (2004): Физичка географија на Република Македонија. стр. 1-273, Скопје.

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МАНУ (1980): Малеш и Пијанец 2, Природни и социо-географски карактеристики на Малеш и Пијанец, Скопје. Маркоски Б. (1992): Картографско картометриски проучувања на хипсометриската структура на просторот и разместеноста на населението во Република Македонија. Докторска дисертација, Институтот за географија, Природно математичкиот факултет,, стр. 1-625, Скопје. (ракопис). Маркоски Б. (1995): Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија - картографски метод. Македонска ризница. стр. 1-316, Скопје. Маркоски Б. (2004): Картографско дефинирање и диференцирање на планинските просторни целини во Република Македонија, Билтен за физичка географија, ПМФ-Институт за географија, стр. 25-34, Скопје. Републичка геодетска управа. (1982): СР Македонија низ катастарска евиденција. Скопје.

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845

THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAINʹS AREAS Dejan ILIEV Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: d.iliev@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT In this paper our attention is focused on alternative forms of tourism and the importance of their economic and non-economic functions in the development of the hilly-mountainous areas. When it comes to economic functions and their role in the development of these areas, the impact of tourism on the local economy is expressed in the growth of consumption of goods produced for domestic and foreign tourists; and the impact of tourism on employment is indicated. The impact of tourism to the revitalization of underdeveloped areas and various aspects relevant for development are also included in this research. In recent years a need to further research of all non-economic features of tourism and its impact on the development of tourist destinations increased, too. Therefore, in this case we will also analyze and summarize educational, health, intercultural and political development aspects of tourism and their possible positive or negative impact on socio-cultural development of small rural settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas. Key words: local economy, employment, health function, cultural function, political function.

INTRODUCTION In the early 21st century, a new revolution occurred in tourist movements and in tourist habits, which raised the need of creating a new tourism product, designed in accordance to the needs and demands of the “new tourist”. All this created a demand for new research in order to develop brand new strategies for new forms of tourism which will provide us to foresee the impact of tourism on such potentially new tourist destinations development in the future. Studies show that the tourism services suitable for those new or alternative forms of tourism are distinguished by some specific characteristics: based on authenticity and uniqueness, and also on their impact on the local environment. Moreover, alternative forms of tourism always have significant effects on the economic and social life in those newly discovered tourism destinations and on new initiatives. Therefore, tourism should be treated as a complex phenomenon (with all economic and social aspects), which means that despite tangible benefits derived by tourism spending on local economy, we should also study all sociological phenomena that can appear during the processes of the tourism development. This paper is composed of two main parts. In the First part, ”Differences and classification of alternative forms of tourism important for the development of hilly-mountainous areas” we selected and classified new forms of tourism that may be involved in the development of hilly-mountainous areas. In the Second part, “Developmental functions of alternative forms of tourism”, a special emphasis is placed on the importance of the economic aspects of alternative tourism forms, their impact on the tourism industry and investments, their impact on employment and self-employment of the population and the standards of living; and the total impact of tourism development in so called "underdeveloped hilly-mountainous" areas is also considered. The Second part of this paper explains the importance of non-economic functions of alternative forms of tourism on the socio-cultural development of hillymountainous areas, with special attention to their healthy habits, cultural exchange, use of modern technology and changes that tourism can bring in overall political decision making

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processes on the local level in every tourism developing rural area, and finally in the region as a whole. DIFFERENCES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM IMPORTANT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Different potentials of tourist sites, areas, regions and destinations may affect (to encourage, or to limit) the development of certain alternative forms of tourism. In this context, hillymountainous areas are a special separate entity, offering unlimited opportunities for development of certain categories of alternative tourism. It seems virtually impossible, but numerous alternative forms of tourism can be inter-twinned and included in the development of hilly-mountainous areas, only if these areas have resources and infrastructure needed for that specific kind of development. So, for example, urban tourism, nautical tourism and some other forms of tourism can not be developed in these areas. Therefore, it is necessary to make a distinction and classification of those new forms of tourism that can be developed in hillymountainous areas, especially of those types important for their development.

Figure 1. Differences and classification of alternative forms of tourism typical for hilly-mountainous areas

In the First categorization called "Nature and environment" new forms of tourism are selected. Based on the richness and diversity of nature and the environment are called: ecotourism, climate-health tourism, hiking tourism, hunting tourism and others. (Figure 1.). These forms are the ones on which the development of contemporary tourism and travel trends are based on. The growing need of interaction between nature and tourism, between human and nature, and man and tourism, raises the issue of finding new sites, and in all of this, the most important places are all those fresh and brand new recently re-discovered hillymountainous areas. The Second categorization called "Culture and tradition" makes the distinction between several specific forms of tourism that are developed in accordance to the values of which the cultural heritage and tradition of the places is crucial, so we can indicate: cultural tourism, 434


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religious tourism, gastronomic tourism and other. (Figure 1.). These alternative forms of tourism are developed as a result of the elements of the existing material and spiritual culture on the spot, through which tourists are given the chance to see, sense and experience the culture and traditions of different ethnic groups. It is, therefore, necessary for tourism and for the culture to be integrated in one network that will establish standards and systems to increase their efficiency, and as a result, that way tourism can contribute back to the preservation of the existing cultural heritage in those areas. In hilly-mountainous areas in many countries around the World, as in the Republic of Macedonia also, we can find inexhaustible potential for development of these new forms of tourism related to culture and tradition. The Third categorization "Special events and happenings" some other alternative forms of tourism are included: sporting events, ethno-social events, festivals, etc. (Figure 1.) All of them are developed on the basis of various events, specific rituals, celebrations, performances and presentations of tradition and culture diversity that mark specific events connected to tradition and culture. Today, events are increasingly important in creating specific tourist products and strategies of development. Tourism can initiate inter-cultural contacts and meetings between people from distant countries and areas, people who speak different languages, between all races and religions. Therefore this means that traditions, customs, folklore and other cultural elements are the part of the promotion, marketeering campaigns and advertising of tourism, and only that way attractive events, celebrations and festivals can become popular. As unique and special places relevant for the development of event tourism hilly-mountainous areas remain very attractive for foreigners. For example, in Republic of Macedonia, many regions are characterized with their own old and rich traditions, customs, folklore, arts and crafts and this might have a powerful influence on the development of these new forms of tourism in many hilly-mountain areas. If we take into account the current trends of the tourism market, we may agree that they are strongly suggesting to us some new directions in planning and development of tourism in tourist destinations. Substitution of the well known and famous with small and potentially more and more famous tourist destinations, can be done only if there is a need for new tourism services and products, and if we act in tourism development in accordance to particular requirements immanent for specific tourist products, services, and offers. Countries that have hilly-mountainous areas, that have re-discovered and promoted their potentials rapidly on the tourist market, they all did that by developing adequate alternative forms of tourism. However, it is necessary to establish, to promote and to use all available marketing and advertising tools to make your local quality tourism product and offer well known and famous because its position in the global market is essential for the success. DEVELOPMENTAL FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF TOURISM Alternative forms of tourism have many characteristics that are interconnected in a way that makes one place and community to be a unit with significant impact not only in economic development, but also to the overall social development of the area. Developmental functions of alternative forms of tourism can be divided in two groups: group of economic functions (primary functions) group of non-economic functions (secondary functions) The influence of these two major developmental functions to the new forms of tourism shows that they are interdependent and complementary, and if we say that they are complex, that is also manifested and visible in all economic and social spheres of life.

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Economic functions of alternative forms of tourism The economic functions of alternative forms of tourism are primary and also obvious effects of the development. The basis of the economic importance of different forms of tourism results from the raise of tourist consumption in all places of visit and stay, so that main economic impact (which can be direct or indirect in benefits!) that can be brought by tourism, is always reflected on the local economy of the area and subsequently on the economy of the country. Direct effects of the development of alternative tourism on the average and sustainable development on the hill-mountain areas are reflected through: impact on the activities that contribute to the growth of tourism industry and investment impact on employment and self-employment and on the levels of the standards of living impact to the development of the underdeveloped hilly-mountainous areas Impact on the activities that contribute to the growth of tourism industry and investment Numerous economic and non-economic activities are essential to meet the needs of tourists in general, but the focus of this analysis is on the direct impact of alternative forms of tourism, tourism industry, accommodation and food services, transport, trade, handicrafts etc. "Accommodation and food" is on the top. They are of primary importance and a leading factor on tourism market, because staying in hotels or small resorts, as always and everywhere, depends on accommodation and food. Tourists staying in a resort have to spend on services, on food and accommodation. Therefore, it is said that most of the tourist consumption flows in Hospitality industry, because this activity is considered to be the most important component of the tourism services sales. (Iliev, 2010). The traffic is a prerequisite for the realization of tourist consumption, so that makes traffic a significant service branch and part of tourism consumption. Traffic, as well as Hospitality, is one of the main factors in tourism spending and should be considered as one of the most important in tourism development. (Iliev, 2010). Tourists during their stays can buy and use services and foods, they can buy goods and crafts, or can be attracted to various souvenirs, postcards or branded home products, authentic for the place they are visiting. Income derived from investments in these services (foods and accommodation, transportation, trade of crafts and souvenirs) have a huge economic impact. Usually, all those services and goods sold through tourist trade can create well developed businesses and economy in a tourist area, especially visible in case of hilly-mountainous areas, so they have to be treated as serious and valuable tourist offer on the tourism market in any country. Generally, the placement of alternative forms of tourism for the development of hillymountainous areas will generate the development of Hospitality industry and small local business in this sector that will determine the quantity and quality of tourist facilities and tourist trade. This can accelerate the development of transport infrastructure and to intensify the traffic and increase the overall trading of goods and services, because tourism isn't always about food or handicraft products only, but is connected with many other services and goods. Despite the impact of economic and non-economic activities, the development of these new forms of tourism in hilly-mountainous areas is initiated in investment. Thus increasing of infrastructure investments in the road network and modernization of various traffic types, are important for the development of tourism. They are not less important than investments in Hospitality Industry: in hotels, restaurants, spa-resorts and recreational paths and other small buildings for accommodation, because the activation of all possibilities for tourism in the hillmountain areas can take a shape of quality only with all those various smaller investments in any small tourist area. Therefore, the need for construction of such facilities by itself increases the total investments and directly affects the increase of economic activities and the development of place.

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Impact on employment and on the levels of the standards of living Tourism belongs to the group of Tertiary sector of economy in which human hand and labor still have a dominant role. The development of the tourism sector results with rapid development of Tertiary sector and its services and activities because tourists are spending mostly for food and accommodation, transport, trade and others. Many times local businessmen are forced to hire additional workers. This sector is characterized by lower technical progress than in the secondary sector in which technology has penetrated in all spheres. The Tertiary sector consists mostly of personal service, so introduction of new technologies is limited here. Taking into account these characteristics of the tertiary sector, tourism is of great importance in solving the problem of unemployment. That is why the creation of employment opportunities in tourism is especially important for undeveloped areas and regions. (Iliev, 2010). Tourism is a service branch that enables full use of the working population, especially in areas such as hilly-mountainous areas. If we take, for example, the Republic of Macedonia, the population in the hilly-mountainous regions is mainly engaged in agriculture. But if the income from agricultural activities is insufficient, it is necessary to introduce new activities or new occupation in order to raise the standards of living. In this context, tourism can be a factor for rapid economic development and activation of the working population that was not fully engaged in agricultural activities, or if its employment potential has not been sufficiently exploited during several months in the year. For the most part in those underdeveloped rural areas the processes of depopulation happened in the past, and already had a major impact. Therefore, when planning the tourism and economic development of hilly-mountainous areas it is particularly important to take into account the number and demographic structure of the population according to various characteristics, primarily by sex and age, and the local area economic structure (based on economic and occupation activity). With no less importance are the components of natural and forced movement of citizens, or natural growth and migration processes of the population, because it is well known that the increased birth rate increases human capital and jobs, and that migration processes to rural areas can reduce unemployment and pressure on employment in other economic sectors in urban environment. Development of tourism as an additional activity in hilly-mountainous areas provides additional employment of certain groups of people, such as: young people, long-term unemployed people, females and others. They can be engaged in private households or in other resorts that provide accommodation services and food to tourists. This sector also has the potential to employ a large number of female workers, particularly in preparing the meals, cleaning and other services, or in some special technological processes needed for specific products traditionally made by female workers. Not only direct, but indirect effects of tourism on employment too, are also of great significance. The development of tourism in the hilly-mountainous areas will indirectly create jobs in sectors that do not participate directly in the tourism industry, such as: agriculture, industry, construction and others. The tourism sector is not only a direct consumer of agricultural products, but also encourages the development of agro-industry, which requires the construction of facilities for the processing of agricultural products, so, all of this encourages the development of construction.(Iliev, 2010). With the further development of these activities it will be necessary to engage the new workforce, and that is also initiated indirectly by tourism development. Influences to the development of underdeveloped hilly-mountainous areas It is common that underdeveloped areas can be found in distant regions and in places far from major urban centers. The population of these areas is mostly engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. For example, in the Republic of Macedonia in the group of underdeveloped areas

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there are: rural and suburb areas (with less than 500 inhabitants), hilly-mountainous areas (with less than 100 inhabitants) and areas that are next to the border. (Iliev, 2010). Most of the underdeveloped areas are belonging to the group of hilly-mountainous areas. They are characterized by natural beauty, clean and unpolluted air and water, they present the healthy environment with conditions that meet the requirements for peace, rest and recreation for the citizens of urban areas and for tourists, tired of fast pace of modern life. In the past there was a practice of attracting rural population to the cities affected by the urbanization and industrialization, but today things have changed and the new direction of movement of the urban population to the countryside and hilly-mountainous areas in a man's quest for nature, health, rest and recreation is established. With this, one part of the national income (GDP) from more developed industrial and commercial areas goes to less developed areas. (Iliev, 2010). If we take into account the fact that these areas have not developed economy yet, tourism there can become a primary or secondary (additional) activity, so tourism can be main or additional source of income for the population. But it is necessary to manage that socioeconomic transformation of agricultural settlements in hilly-mountainous areas, and to encourage the process of replacing the occupation of the agricultural population, to mixed part-time jobs at first and to non-agricultural related tourism jobs. Therefore, it is said that tourism as a branch of economic development has a significant role in the socio-economic processes and impacts of development not only in economy but in society, too. Non-economic functions of alternative forms of tourism When it comes to non-economic features of tourism, we must take into account all different impacts that tourism has in the social sphere. Compared to economic categories, with almost equal importance in development there are numerous non-economic characteristics of alternative tourism, but the most important are: health function cultural function political function Today, in the studies of alternative tourism special attention is given to their non-economic impacts on health, cultural, political and other functions, specific for this new social phenomenon. The development of these functions is affected by economy, and they should not be ignored in all (primarily towards economy oriented) new researches, because all of them are interrelated and complementary. Health function Health function is presented in almost all types of tourist movements, but here it is especially expressed in alternative forms of tourism that are developed in hilly-mountainous areas that have thermal-mineral water, air baths and mountain resorts, suitable for hiking and similar sports. During the visit of tourists to these areas, they encounter a new environment and a new climate, clean water and clear air, which in medical terms, can bring very positive effects on physical and mental stamina and overall health. The possibility of organized sports activities, entertainment, recreation and healthy organic food consumption, all that contents are characteristics of new forms of tourism (sports tourism, eco-tourism, summer-stationary tourism) where health function comes on the top. High urban population density in industrialized areas is the main reason for reduced physical and mental conditions needed for healthy body. Therefore, from time to time, for all citizens of the urban areas it is necessary to stay in areas that provide useful solutions for the regeneration of the body. Injured and tired body of Man with urban pace of life and everyday stress needs a quiet peaceful and clean place with healthy food, fresh water and clean air. So,

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here the medical function of tourism is characterized by a strong social character of the initiatives that have transformed areas but with no spectacular economic results. They aimed to increase overall health and the working capacity of people, and if this resulted in increase of employee productivity. (Andrich, 1980). The economic effects of the health tourism are reflected back to economy. The growing need for regeneration of the human body, and increased number of users of the services in travel destinations that offer content which is recommended in the health office created health tourism. Thus, by increasing the scope of tourism offer and consumption, economic growth in adequate areas can be obtained as a result of the health tourism. The economic effects in the development of hilly-mountainous areas particularly influenced climate and thermal spring tourism, or so called "secondary health care tourism" as a special form of tourism. These areas are suitable for opening the climate-medical rehabilitation centers for healing ailments of heart, lungs, nerves or bones, all conditions which do not require everyday or frequent medical assistance and treatment. Such people can stay in accommodation facilities and they can use the services of the tourism industry, or behave like real tourists whose spending has significant economic effects. Especially important area in some hilly-mountainous regions is altitude (mountain ridge) band from 600 to 1200 meters. This belt is suitable for the climate-health tourism, as an "air bath" with all potentials for recovery and rehabilitation of persons with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. (Iliev, Mijalov, 2010). Besides economic effects, health tourism also had social impact on local population in highland and distant mountain's areas. This is reflected in raising the level of health habits and culture of the rural population, and it would not be so if there wasn't the development of the health tourism. Cultural function Cultural function is part of the non-economic features of tourism and occurs in a dual role: direct and indirect. Direct impact refers to gaining beauty by sightseeing of nature and experiencing culture and values of other nations or ethnic groups, different from the visitor's background or everyday life. Indirect impact refers to previous cultural education of tourists that will allow them an easier access to understanding of cultural diversity that they witnessed during their journey. (Andrich, 1980). While leisure travelling towards hilly-mountain's areas, tourists can come into contact with a new environment, new buildings and architecture of authentic places, with new people with different levels of education, different cultural heritage (cultural-historical monuments, traditions, customs, folklore) and to see and experience other cultural characteristics that are the basis for the development of cultural, religious, gastronomic and other types of tourism. These new forms of tourism are particularly important because they are followed by a continuation or repetition of visits (many times limited only by quantity of free accommodation places throughout the year!). Areas that developed these forms of tourism have a longer tourist season compared to other places and this gives them the huge economic importance. Cultural tourism does not affect only the tourists, but also the local population in hillymountainous areas. Such effects may appear when meeting with people of different cultural levels, with different behavior and habits, different living standards and lifestyles. These differences play a major role in the interaction which is usually positive, but it may also be negative in some situations. The positive impacts may include the impact of tourists on the general culture of the local population, to the behavior and habits of the people, to increase the hygiene of residence, they have impact on facilities and household appliances in local households with modern technology (LCD/3D TV, computer, network and internet.) needed

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for tourism. There is an increased level of aesthetic component, for example, in decorating the house's windows and balconies with flowers, increasing green spaces in yards may also appear, all together with the increase of utility standards (quality electrification, construction of water supply network and sanitation facilities) or other features that occur in those places as a result of habits, behaviors and standards of tourists from urban environment. Often, the resources and appliances in households situated in hilly-mountain's areas before the arrival of tourists were poor and insufficient in almost all of those underdeveloped areas that had to become developed tourist destinations yet. The impact of cultural and educational features on the local population of hilly-mountain's areas is also manifested through the process of teaching and learning about the natural, cultural and historical values through various advertising booklets, bulletins, tourist guides, and info-brochures used for presentation of their place on the tourism market. These are positive impacts on life and habits that tourists can bring to the local population, but sometimes situation can take an unusual and negative direction. For example, for a local citizen tourism may bring disappointment with his own rural lifestyle and the desire for a better lifestyle which exceeds possibilities. In this case we talk about the lost values of tradition, about changes in behavior and about losing of the authenticity of the place, for example, even through new ways of arranging and decorating the houses etc. Therefore, in the development of the tourist areas it is necessary to neutralize all these negative social aspects. Political function Tourism through its political function allows close contacts of the local population with tourists from other countries and provides opportunities for mutual personal interactions and for sharing the knowledge about the past and present times in the social-economic development of the country. In within the country, when someone is visiting local population in tourist areas (for example, hilly-mountainous areas), among individuals there are strong feelings of connection and belief in belonging to the same roots with people in those areas. In such situations, a man can be proud of the result: the feeling of patriotism has been developed and this raised the sense of mutual understanding and willingness to provide help for unsolved problems. (Andrich, 1980). The political function of tourism positively affects the rising political prestige of the country on the international scale, tourism is useful in improving relations between nations using a chance to meet people from different ethnic communities, to better understand them and to establish friendly relations; all of this is a factor to the maintenance of peace in the world. But there are some possible negative political influences that may face the locals in tourist areas as various political provocation, crime or hostile behavior of tourists. In order to avoid these negative elements there must be established adequate education of local residents in these areas. CONCLUSIONS New strategies for the development of tourism in tourist countries, regions and places, should aim toward the development of new forms of tourism with high standards and high quality services. Considering the intense competition in the Global tourism market compared with common "classical" forms of tourism, new tourism, in order to succeed must be even better than what is already common and well known in tourism and Hospitality industry. Therefore, the tourist offer should be oriented to new markets and to create specific tourist products based on pure nature, culture and tradition, in all those authentic and unique places. Such new offer can be a new exciting experience for tourists who will wish to stay longer and will always remain with a desire to come back on the same place. In this context, hilly-

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mountainous areas have a great significance based on their natural beauty and cultural heritage as a potential for the development of new selective forms of tourism: eco-tourism, spa-tourism, health-tourism, cultural tourism, religious tourism, gastronomic tourism, recreational, sports and hiking tourism etc. The development of these forms of tourism can reveal hidden beauty and other values of those special and unique places, which contributes to the evaluation of their natural and anthropogenic characteristics. The development of alternative forms of tourism in the hilly-mountainous and highland rural areas can also encourage the investments into the development of tourism related businesses and enterprises. Capital is needed to be invested in regional and local community businesses to support the tourism, to apply specific local knowledge, skills and resources of local people through the recruitment process, in order to provide new employments in the tourism. We have to invest in new programs for development of local communities and areas, and to ensure that underdeveloped rural areas and local communities are involved in all development and business activities needed for successful tourism. Beside the importance of direct and indirect economic impacts of alternative tourism in economic development of the hillymountainous areas, almost same importance has to be granted to it's non-economic functions, such as health, cultural and political; all of them as aspects which can provide improvements of overall social, cultural, educational and political progress of those areas. At the end of the day developed tourism in those areas can mean improvements in all aspects of life and can greatly improve the living conditions for the citizens of these areas. At least, to the degree that they will be no longer called undeveloped rural areas. With new tourism strategies and programs for adequate financial support for tourism oriented small businesses, they can not only provide a good life for themselves, but, in the very near future, they can also become an important factor in economic growth of the tourism and prosperity of the country as a whole. REFERENCES Andrich, N. (1980): Tourism and regional development, Library of Economics XIII, Informator Zagreb; (in Croatian) Budinoski M. (2009): Development and planning of tourism, Faculty of Tourism, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Vukonich B., Kecha K. (2001): Tourism and development-term, principles and procedures, Mikrorad, Faculty of Economics, Zagreb; (in Croatian) Eftimoski D. (2003): Economics of the development, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Economics, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Iliev D. (2010): Tourism in function of the integral development of the Republic of Macedonia, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of geography, Skopje; (in Macedonian) Iliev D., Mijalov R. (2010): The importance of morphometric elements of the relief in the planning and evaluation of the area for tourism development, Macedonian geographical society, Proceedings of the IV Congress of geographers of the Republic of Macedonia, Dojran; (in Macedonian) Shtetich S. (2007): Special forms of tourism, Forma B, Belgrade; (in Serbian)

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845(497.11:23)

DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN HIGH-MOUNTIN AREAS OF SERBIA AS ALTERNATIVE TO DEPOPULATION TREND Aleksandra TERZIĆ1, Željko BJELJAC1, Ana JOVIČIĆ1, Radmila JOVANOVIĆ2 Geographic Institute “Jovan Cvijic”, Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Đure Jakšića 9/3, tel. +381 11 2636 594 , Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: a.terzic@gi.sanu.ac.rs 2 Geographic Faculty, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 3/3, Belgrade, Serbia

1

ABSTRACT The paper analyzes the demographic trends in rural communities in high-mountain regions of Serbia, which for the past 50 years, from 1961-2012, show the tendency of continuous depopulation, resulting in a complete discharge of a large number of small villages in these areas. As the high mountainous areas of Serbia are taken to consideration, study area covered mountains higher than 1500m and its surroundings (1000 - 1500m high), to be exact the mountain areas of Kopaonik, Stara Planina, Vlasina - Krajiste and Golija. A special focus is placed on identifying the potential for rural tourism development in these areas, as an alternative economic activity of rural population, which has a growing trend in the last few years. In Serbia became obvious the trend of increasing involvement of rural households in tourism activities, primarily in the offer of complementary accommodation facilities, by offering accommodation and food in households but also in the creation of additional activities during the stay of tourists. From viewpoint of the potential for the development of rural tourism in Serbia, the most important are the rural communities located in high mountain areas, especially those located near the renowned tourist ski centers. Key words: villages, high-mountainous areas, tourism, Serbia

INTRODUCTION Serbia is one of the least urbanized countries in Europe with around 85% of rural areas within the national territory. From 4718 settlements in Serbia (Kosovo and Metohija excluded), only 181 settlements have the status of urban areas, and 4537 settlements are in rural areas, with 4161600 people, according to 2002 census, that is about 3. 7% less then the data from 1991. The number of population in rural settlements of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia decreased for 7. 7% in same period. In Serbia, there are obvious problems of uneven regional development, especially between towns and their surroundings, or to be exact, between urban centers and rural areas. The term village usually represents a specific form of territorial, social and economical organization of population mostly engaged in agricultural activities. Definition of OECID differs two hierarchical levels of territorial units: local and regional. On local level (NUTS 5) OECD defines as rural settlements according to population numbers under 150 p/km2. However, statistical definition of rural settlements in Serbia is practically non-existing, as it uses the classification on urban and other settlements, based on decisions within municipalities by which certain settlements can gain the title of towns. All the other settlements are automatically declared rural (villages) (Mihajlović et al. , 2013). This way, most municipalities are excluded from rural areas, which are inconsistent with OECD methodology (Bogdanov, 2007). Traditionally in Serbia, the term village or rural area is associated with image of poor people, hard life, bad infrastructure, isolation, and radically different ways of life, mentality, culture and connections. Rural areas in Serbia, in general, have the problem of increasing depopulation. Rural areas significantly differ by natural, infrastructural and other factors that enable the development of agriculture and other activities, that impact the level and dynamics of development, demographic structure, cultural identity, production, standard of living, etc. The focus of the study is set on certain high-mountain areas, based on the high criteria

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(above 1500m, and their surrounding areas 1000-1500 m above see level). From the standpoint of determining the area of high-altitude areas in Serbia examined are several high mountains with heights above 1500 m (Stara Planina with Vidlič, Krajište with Vlasina Čemernik, Gramada, Vardenik, Besna Kobila, Dukat, Suva Planina, Kopaonik with Željin, Stolovi and Goč, Golija with Radočelo and Čemerno, Mokra Gora with Pešter). However, on this occasion, because of the actual political situation high-mountain areas that are located in area of Autonomous Pokraine Kosovo and Metohija, will be excluded from the study. The main reason for this is the fact that in this area, political situation led to massive voluntary and obligatory evictions of the Serbian population, there are also occasional terrorist atacts in this area, so the development of any form of tourism in this area is currently disabled. Highmountain areas, mostly located in southern and eastern parts of Republic of Serbia, are characterized by long-lasting trends of depopulation and abandonment. The production based on agriculture can't solve the problems present in those regions, because of small-sized households and production methods. Traditionally dominant economic activity of rural areas is losing its share on demanding global market. The experiences of other countries with similar problems show that obstacles in mountainous areas in well-organized economic system can be competitive in agriculture and complementary activities (tourism, services, hand-crafting, healthy food, etc). In that sense, the overcoming of the problems that came from unfavorable conditions demands for specific incentive measures to even the possibilities for development of rural areas. The significance of integral rural development for consistent regional development is obvious. As a factor of straightening of competitiveness, employment, more even regional development, insufficiently valorized potentials of rural areas are more and more in focus of creators of national policies (Radovanović, 2010). Rural tourism (ethnology, farm and ago-tourism) includes visits to farms and farm and includes room, board, participating in various activities and rural affairs, and buying local products. This type of tourism involves traveling to a rural destinations in order to acquaint local population, their ethnic characteristics, traditions and customs. Rural tourism in Serbia has been expanding recently, so authentic rural households started to be revived in various regions of Serbia, receiving tourist function. In addition to accommodation services, rural areas offer local ethnographic and gastronomic specificity, as well as possibilities to take part in various activities such as recreation, handcrafting, cultural events. DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN HIGH-MOUNTAIN AREAS IN SERBIA The Republic of Serbia has a quality and a variety of resources for sustainable mountain development, of which only a small part is activated. The potential of high mountain areas with their direct surroundings, which predetermines the internal and external factors, are of importance for regional development of these areas of Serbia. Due to its natural properties and anthropogenic or landscape characteristics, rich biodiversity, water quality and forest complexes, as well as a wealth of cultural and historical heritage, high mountainous areas of Serbia can be a very important tourism resource. Unfavorable demographic trends affecting Serbia in last decades encompass spatial component as well. Natural population dynamics and migrations have lead to territorial re-distribution of population. Thus, mountainous and border regions have been differentiated as typical depopulation regions of Serbia. The basic demographic characteristics of these areas are low population density (below 20 people per km2), negative rate of natural increase (below -3‰), low index of population change (below 70. 0), high index of population aging (0. 8) (Malobabić, Bakić, 2003). Long-term exposure of these areas to such demographic processes has lead to spontaneous abandonment of certain settlements. One alarming fact that indicates the massive increase in number of small settlements and the trend of depopulation of rural mountain areas in Serbia is

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reflected in the changes of size of settlements in the settlement system of the past forty years (1961-2002) with the obvious negative development trends. In addition to increasing the number of small towns and villages and the reduction of the number of medium-sized and larger settlements, obvious is the appearance of a permanent reduction in the average size of settlements in certain categories.

Population

SERBIA

Table 1. Relation of urban and rural population in Republic of Serbia Total urban rural 2002

2010

2002

7498001

7291436 3336341

%

2010

%

2002

%

2010

%

44. 5 4283985 58. 7 4161660 55. 5 3007451 41.2 Source: Statistical bureau of Republic of Serbia, 2011.

This indicates that the population of small villages moves to larger ones. These structural changes in the settlement system of state that the mountainous areas of Serbia are becoming empty and villages are losing the basic conditions for a stable and prosperous development, all of which complicates the reconstruction and revitalization of rural mountain areas (Malobabić, Maričić, 2004). The population of high-mountain regions of Serbia's predominantly of rural character, which from year to year decreases, with the deterioration of their social-demographic structure. Population growth declines in proportion to the increase in the participation of older age groups, which is mainly caused by the massive emigration of young people from the rural mountain areas to nearby towns. Unfavorable age structure directly causes adverse labor-active structure which leads to a reduction in economic activity, cultural events, as well as abandonment of households and villages. Regional distortions and long lasting back-outing of villages and agrarian are followed by stagnation of society development in general (Radovanović, 2007). High mountain regions in Serbia characterize underdeveloped transportation, energetic, telecommunication and communal infrastructure, lower level of availability to public services, high amortization and inadequate building structures, numerous environmental problems (erosion, pollution of waters, pollution of soil, etc), that are especially obvious in mountain areas of Eastern, Western and Southern Serbia. This factors altogether bring to the disturbed social-economic and demographic structure. These problems are particularly obvious in 17 municipalities of Serbia: Bosilegrad, Brus, Vranje, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot, Ivanjica, Nova Varoš, Novi Pazar, Priboj, Prijepolje, Raška, Sjenica, Surdulica, Trgovište, Tutin, Crna Trava and Čajetina (21% of all settlements in Serbia) (Mihajlović et al. , 2013). The central group of high-mountain areas in Serbia, Kopaonik-Željin mountains and Golija mountain are homogeneous in regard to its ethnic composition and less pronounced trends in social and demographic changes, the least pronounced in Golija. The southern part of Kopaonik is under pressure from settlements of Albanian population and emigration Serbian population, but with the dynamic trend of demographic development. Border group of high mountain areas in Eastern and Southern Serbia have pronounced demographic and ethnic differences, and hence, the demographic trends are different. Knjaževac region is populated with Serbian-Bulgarian population that has been shown to be the most underdeveloped part of Serbia, which is characterized by drastic demographic and social regression with emigration at all levels and the highest number of completely abandoned villages in relation to the whole territory of Serbia. Regarding the spatial distribution of spontaneously abandoned settlements, three spatial units can be differentiated in Serbia: the areas along the administrative border between Central Serbia and the Autonomous province Kosovo and Metohija (Mt. Kopaonik area), area of Mt. Stara Planina and Mt. Burel, the areas of Vlasina and Krajište (Milošević et al. , 2010). Since agriculture in relation to the available resources in all high mountain regions of 445


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Serbia isn't developed, and it is focused mostly on animal husbandry, fodder production and collection of medicinal and aromatic plants. Since neither forestry nor mining so far haven't represented, in greater extent, a significant factor of the development, potential for tourism development and service sector should be considered in order to promote and bring the higher valuation of high-mountain regions of Serbia. POTENTIALS OF HIGH MOUNTAIN AREAS IN SERBIA FOR RURAL TOURISM Rural settlements have the special place in tourism as the areas of exceptional landscape values, ecological oasis, the forts of traditional culture and variety of ethnic-cultural heritage (Todorović, Bjeljac, 2007). Tourism is regarded as the activity that can have a significant influence on the economic, social, functional and physio-gnomic structure of rural areas. Tourism function has an important place in the transformation of the physio-gnomic structure and function of rural settlements. This phenomenon is a consequence of the growing need of urban population for the recreational stay in different, rural ambiance (Stanković, 2003; Todorović, Bjeljac, 2007). In many European countries rural tourism is considered as a part of national strategies for the development of rural space since 1970es, and it is considered to give the good chances and contributes to the keeping of the population in the villages, enhances employment, and contributes to the social-economic prosperity of the residual areas (Tomka, 2003). Rural tourism is associated with different types of tourist activities that take place out of urban spaces and mass tourism, and are motivated with the attractions of rural space: farms, hunting, fishing, recreation, health, ecological, cultural and gastronomic features. The proponents of rural tourism are rural households. Rural tourism can promote the development of rural areas and more balanced regional development. It provides additional income to agricultural production and brings back dignity and self-confidence to rural communities that were lost in the fast urbanization and industrialization process. In more balanced regional development, a special role has tourism, due to direct and indirect, multiple-effects it creates. As quite complex and various needs of tourist have to be met, different production and service activities have to be developed (accommodation and restaurants, shops, crafts, medical services, banks, post offices, cultural institutions, etc). Since in Central Serbia, only a part of the tourist attractive mountainous areas was activated, different studies as the main problem in this area determine a very pronounced polarization between developed urban areas and concentration of population and economic activity in valley areas, and the underdeveloped rural mountainous and peripheral rural areas. This condition, expressed in developmental imbalance, contributes to intensifying of the problems of sustainable development of settlements in Serbia. Despite the natural and cultural attractions in rural areas of Serbia, rural tourism, especially in family farms, is developing slowly in relation to demand and offer in the surrounding countries. The cause of the nonexistence of tourism tradition in Serbian villages, even though organized tourism in rural areas of Serbia began in 70's, can be found in rather small households that does not allow profitable agriculture or tourism services as an complementary activity, as well as underdeveloped infrastructure, unfavorable demographic structure of population, low standards of living, domination on non-educated population, etc. One of the main cause of current state in Serbian mountain villages are the lack of governmental interest and funding. The number of tourists and duration of stay in this area are having rather small share compared to more developed settlements and regions. In average, within rural tourism in Serbia, about 408580 overnight stays, or about 6. 2% of total overnights in Serbia is realized. Domestic tourists make about 99% of visitors in rural tourism of Serbia, with about 591579 EUR of total income of rural tourism (Tourism

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Development Strategy of Republic of Serbia, 2006). In Serbia today more than 50 villages in 30 municipalities are visited by tourists. Among them are some very attractive villages in the mountain areas - Sirogojno (Zlatibor), Mećavnik (Tara), Brzeće (Kopaonik), Rudno (Golija), Mionica (Divčibare), Kalna (Stara Planina), etc (Stanojlović, 2008).

Figure 1. Rural tourism in Serbia Source: SeCons-group for development initiative, 2011.

Low degree of development and organization of high-mountain area in Serbia, with a large number of villages that are dying, as well as extensive and irrational usage of natural resources, characterize the basic conditions for the development of this area. Development problems in mountainous areas of Serbia can be seen in economic, political and spatial marginality, external directing development without the participation of local communities, bad educational and demographic structure, expressed in massive emigration processes, then, conflicts in the use and management of protected areas and the development of mountainous areas, threats to economic, social and cultural integrity and the bare existence of mountain communities, traffic isolation, poorly equipped infrastructure, underdeveloped network of public services and the emergence of uncontrolled development of tourism and other activities in certain attractive areas (Krunić et al. , 2010). Tourism in rural parts of high-mountain areas of Serbia should focus on both, winter and summer season. It should be based on the natural predisposition of existing resources, determined by detailed studies and strategic plans that will enable sustainable development. Kopaonik is high mountain area in southern part of Serbia, in border with AP Kosovo and Metohija. Significant part of this mountain is declared for National Park in 1981. The most dominant part of Kopaonik is Suvo Rudište with Pančić peak (2017 m). This area is a part of large morphological complex called Ravni Kopaonik, characterized with extensive dissections of terrain. Ravni Kopaonik is also the most significant tourist zone with developed skiing and tourism infrastructure. The area is hydrological rich, and there are also several spas in surrounding area – Prolom spa, Jošanička, Lukovo and Kuršumlija spa. Kopaonik is the most tourist affirmed and mass visited mountain in Serbia, predominantly based on winter-sports

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tourism (Romelić, Ćurčić, 2001). Lately summer season is starting to develop in this area, and is connected to the development of rural and eco-tourism. Rural tourism development has a great potential based on the fact that there are 268 villages in this area. However, the greatest capacity for rural tourism development have Brzeće and Jošanica villages, there are several weekend-settlements in the area and recently started the development of ethno-village St. Simeon at Jaram location (2010-2012). Potential for tourism development have also villages – Smeteš, Blaževo, Belo brdo, Leposavić, etc. Mount Željin (1785m) is a part of Kopaonik mountain group and it is directly connected to Kopaonik separated by Jošanica river. In state of insufficient tourist infrastructure and scarce tourist offer, Željin has rather small contractive zone. Morphological components of Željin allow the development of recreation activities in natural and rural spaces. The development of rural tourism has Ploča, Rogavčina, Jelakci, Bzenica and Rogci villages. Golija is high mountain region in southwestern part of Serbia, and with Radočelo represent the highest morphological complex in Stari Vlah region, with highest peak Jankov kamen (1833m) and by its characteristics is similar to Kopaonik. Morphological characteristics of relief have some values in regard to the development of winter sports tourism, but still it is in the shadow of more affirmed tourist centers Kopaonik and Tara. The rich and well-preserved nature is one strength of Golija, as well as the rich cultural heritage that can be found in surrounding area. Tourist infrastructural elements, accommodation and services are lacking in this area. Tourist potentials of Golija can enable the development of various forms of tourism – ski centers, sports and recreation, spa tourism,rural tourism and excursion tourism. According to demographic characteristics Golija is the space with demographic stagnation, that is significantly different compared to other mountainous regions of Serbia. Rural tourism is starting to develop in Deviling, Pridvorica, Ostatija and Bratiljevo villages, as well as Deževa, Šaronje and Vranovina villages (Romelić, Ćurčić, 2001). Even though according to Regional Spatial Plan of Republic of Serbia region of Golija is marked as a high-priority development region (CEP, 2005: 10), disregarding its natural predisposition and comparative strengthening, this area until now did not activate its tourism function to a greater extent. Stara planina is the most compact mountain massive in Serbia, located along the SerbiaBulgaria border in Eastern part of the country with regional center of Knjaževac municipality. The base connection to dispersive centers is magistral route E75 Belgrade-Niš. Massive is dominated by the highest peak Midžor (2168m) and several other peaks above 1900m high. These relief characteristics give the possibility of development of winter tourism. The main mountain range is dissected by valleys of Trgoviški Timok, Dojkinačka, Toplodolska and Visočica rivers, and very attractive Zavojsko lake. For winter-sports infrastructure building most attractive are northwestern slopes of the mountain branch, which extends from Midžor through Babin Zub (1758m) to Jabučko Ravnište. On the slopes exposed to Pirot there are several attractive tourist resorts with natural conditions for the holiday, recreation and sports activities based on eco-tourism. However, the focus should be put on development of different forms of tourism with recreation, ecological, hunting and fishing function, with great potential of development of rural tourism. Rural tourism is starting to develop in some villages in this area: Ošljane, Novo Korito, Radičevac, Gostuša, Aldinac, Repušnica, Tatrasnica, Aldina Reka, Janja, Ravno Bučje, etc. In the upper part of the Toplodolska valley, south of Midžor peak, abandoned village of Topli Dol is located, whose ambient values could be used for future tourism development. Modernization of the network of local and regional roads and other infrastructure will enable easier access to points of tourist activities and connecting the submountainous villages in that region. Regional spatial plans of Republic of Serbia and plans for special purposes have foreseen a series of activities on the revival and development of tourism on Stara Planina. Construction of buildings, communal utilities and transport infrastructure, as well as accommodation, hotel and resort facilities and sports terrains should lead to a drastic

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increase in the number of tourists and their overnight stays. Intensification of tourist activities involves certain environmental risks which require the establishment of a balanced and sustainable development. Exploitation includes not only the development of winter sports and recreational tourism, but also the rational use of tourism values within the defined zones under protection (Dragović at al. , 2011).

Picture 1. Ethnic-rural ambiance of Vlasina-Krajište area Source: www. surdulica. org

Krajište and Vlasina region is spacious mountainous area, particularly morphologically different from other mountainous areas in Serbia. This are represents spacious mountainous highland above 1000 m of height, above which arise high-mountain belts higher then 1500 m. In area of Krajište dominate relatively narrow high-mountain range on Vardenik, Besna Kobila and Dukat mounts. Krajište and Vlasina are defined as a touristic areas based on rich natural values and capacities - mounts Ostrozub, Čemernik, Vardenik, Dukat, Kozjak, Jerma river canyon, Vlasina lake, Prohor Pčinjski and Poganovo monasteries and Zvonačka spa. On north-east part smaller high-mountain ranges are places in complex of Gramada and Valjevo mountains along the Serbian-Bulgarian border. From the aspect of potential tourism development, the affirmation shouldn't be set on winter-sports tourism. The area of KrajišteVlasina region, is placed in Jablanica and Pčinj region with highest demographic and obvious depopulation problems. The tourist potentials of the region are determined by the position between Macedonia, Bulgaria and AP Kosovo, with strong gravitation centers Niš, Sofija, Skopllje, Solun and southern part of transit corridor X, that represents the factor of development of tourism. The main problems of the region are significant decrease in population, with the strongest emigration trends in the country. Rural settlements are marked with unfavorable demographics, settlements with less than 200 people, poor transport connections to local centers, as well as unprotected and low quality natural resources for the development of agriculture and tourism. However, the development potentials are insufficiently used in terms of affirmation of the development of different forms of tourism: mountain tourism, spa, urban, rural, recreational, cultural, etc. According to the resources and development plans in this area, tourism will be focused on mountain sports and recreation in high-mountain sectors Čemernik – Ostrozub-Gramada, Besna Kobila – Vardenik – Milevska planina i Dukat – Patarica – Crnook (with amenities for alpine and Nordic skiing), as well as recreational activities in summer season (mountaineering, horse-riding, cycling) with potential of selective forms of tourism such as ethno-rural, hunting, fishing, ecological and event 449


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tourism (Službeni glasnik RS, 47/03). Mounts Kukavica, Poljana and Radan have rich tourist offer primarily in summer season. Rural tourism is available during whole year, based on ethnographic and ambiental attractiveness, eco-food production, specific gastronomy, crafting, etc. The potential for tourism development have Crna Trava, Vlasina Rid, Vlasina Okruglica, Klisura, Lisina, Vrla and Božica. Mokra Gora mountain is located on South-western part of Serbia, and expands on territory of municipalities of Tutin, Kosovska Mitorovica and Istok. The highest peaks are Žljeb (2. 532 m) and Pogled (2155 m), surrounded by flows of Ibar and Beli Drim rivers. Here almost intact natural ambience can be found, with wide hinderland areas with small lakes and swamps, and large forests, that are nowdays endangered by illegal forest felling. Rich biodiversity with rare species of this mauntain gives it a great potential for eco-tourism development. However, this area is one of least inhabitated areas of country, and the only available accomodation for tourists is one mountain home near village Draga with 20 beds. Near lake Gazivode developed weekend-settlements and it is popular fishing resort. It is planed that Mokra gora becomes a tourist centre with hotels and complete tourist infrastructure in a future. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN SERBIA Today the most attractive tourist destinations are those which have preserved physicalgeographic environment, protected nature and anthropogenic tourist motifs that attract tourists. Those destinations that do not have opportunities to offer such a tourist product are faced with a decreasing number of tourists, and thus with other negative effects reflecting in smaller foreign currency inflow, employment decrease. Sustainable development implies three main principles, which are: ecological, social-cultural and economic. Ecological principle implies such tourist development that does not oppose ecological processes and biological development of an area. Social-cultural principle points out increasing participation of local community and local population in decision-making and development planning. This principle is compatible with making efforts to sustain and develop the region. Economic principle represents investing into proper region development with the aim to manage and create bases for the survival of future generations (Štetić, Šimčević, 2008). Different regions possess potentials for the development of different aspects of tourism: eco-tourism, rural, urban, ethnic, nostalgic, religious, adventurous, transit, congress (Todorović, Bjeljac, 2006). The differentiation of tourist demand and rapid expansion of tourism of special interests in the world, with tourist seeking different activities such as trekking, mountaineering, rafting, sailing, hunting and fishing are quite popular these days. These segments of tourists do not insist on luxury and high quality services but they need a specific services, authentic, goodquality and quite various services. Rural tourism does not require great capital investments in its development, but it must be planned and programmed very carefully. Resources and facilities for tourism, recreation and sport are perceived as the most complex and the most important factors of development of high-mountain regions of Serbia. These qualities have been caused by natural conditions and favorable elements such as terrain, climate, water resources, rich biodiversity, clean energy resources, wildlife, rich cultural and historical heritage and distinctive ethnic-cultural values particularly vivid in rural areas. Due to the lack of development of the economy and poor social-economic, cultural and educational status of the population in rural areas of high-mountain areas of Serbia, these micro-communities have not yet been able to launch proper tourism development plans of the area. The concept of sustainable protection in Serbia, in addition to the protection of natural resources and protection should involve the existential interests of the local population and the benefit of local communities, and creating the conditions for education, recreation and

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rehabilitation of the rural population in mountainous areas (Dabić, et al, 2009). Integrated rural development that is equally related to economic development, as well as demographic, environmental, institutional, social and cultural renewal of rural areas, is considered to be proper way for revival of this endangered areas. Integrated rural development covers both rural multifunctional economy, infrastructure, culture, heritage and tourism, while based on the principles of sustainable development, appropriate regional characteristics and available resources of the area. Small businesses in the villages in the high mountain regions of Serbia as a whole is still undeveloped, except for some indication of the development of rural tourism in the northern parts of Golija and Kopaonik (Brzeće, Lisina and Jošanička spa). For the future development of tourism in high-mountain villages as the main development agents, small household business, beside agriculture as a main activity, which is reflected in the production of healthy food is seen as the most important opportunity for development. It can be expected that through the development of rural tourism the various forms of complementary activities will be developed. Providing that rural tourism becomes a part of life and development policy of some destination, region or country as a whole, following must be taken into consideration: the significance of preserved nature, significance of area authenticity, for rural tourism development, importance of local population for organization, presentation and development, and participation of local community in tourist destination development policy (Štetić, Šimčević, 2008). The concept of sustainable development of rural areas in Serbia should include: • setting of more even development in relation between towns and villages, • restructuring and modernization of agricultural production, • restoration, building and improving of transportation, social, communal and information infrastructure, • diversification of production activities and straightening of small businesses (promotion and investment in realization of multifunctional agriculture concept), • sustainable development of forestry and water supply, • promotion, conservation and revitalization of natural and cultural heritage, with goal in increasing the attractiveness and competitiveness of the area, • revitalization, reconstruction and equipment of rural settlements, and protection of traditional architectural heritage, • development and revitalization of existing and forming of new community centers of villages in hilly-mountain and peripheral areas, • defining of typology of rural areas, and creation of factors for territorial approach to structural characteristics of the area. Intensification of tourist activities implies to certain risks and requires the establishing of a balanced and sustainable development. Conceptually and actually, sustainable tourism contributes to the maintenance of the natural balance and to the preservation of its geodiversity and biodiversity, as well as the long term preservation of local traditions and well-being of local communities. It is necessary to establish the limits of tourism usability and the capacities of renewal ability of the natural environment, in order to avoid the danger of the space saturation and degradation of the natural environment. Solutions for negative effects of tourism may be found in cooperation of national, regional and local communities, science, tour-operators and tourists, through a partnership which builds up a collective responsibility towards sustainability of natural richness and social heritage of the tourist destination. For rural tourism development in Serbia, it is necessary to make significant changes in tourist offer, in order to change general negative image connected to the attraction of vacations in natural and village surroundings. The positive influences of tourism for villages

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can be seen in its economical, social, cultural and ecological gain. However, uncontrolled development can also bring numerous negative effects, especially for the environment, authenticity of traditional settings and globalization of local cultures. CONCLUSIONS Rural settlements represent the major part of Serbia, and the problems of their slow development and back-warding compared to urban centers are especially obvious. The most difficult situation is observed in hilly-mountainous areas with unfavorable demographics, domination of elder groups and severe retardation in economic, social, cultural and educational sense. Current situation in Serbia shows the necessity for combining of traditional agricultural production with service sector. Lagging behind of village and agriculture hinders overall development for quite a long time which caused the need for more complex model of development policy towards the village and rural society, based multidisciplinary model of integrated rural development. Investment in these areas is crucial for their appealing, promotion of their sustainable growth and creation of new employment opportunities, especially for young educated people. Remains of traditional rural development represents a base for dynamic development of rural tourism, as most high-mountain areas kept its traditional forms in architectural styles, crafts and gastronomy. Positive effects that tourism brings is seen as a great potential for the integral development in rural spaces of Serbia. However, tourism itself, could hardly be the only factor for economic development of a village, so it should be a complementary activity. For the sustainable development of rural places of Serbia it is necessary to conduct proper strategic planning on local, regional and national levels, as well as creating a specific national policy. Acknowledgment: The research represented in the manuscript was undertaken under the project "Geography of Serbia", N: III 47007, financed by Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Serbia. REFERENCES Bjeljac, Ž. (2004) Potencijali i strategija razvoja turizma u Suvoborskom kraju, Zbornik radova sa naučnog skupa „Planiranje i uređenje sela i ruralnih područja“, Udruženje urbanista Srbije, Beograd. Bogdanov, N. (2007) Mala ruralna domaćinstva u Srbiji i ruralna nepoljoprivredna ekonomija. UNDP i Ministarstvo poljoprivrede, šumarstva i vodoprivrede, Beograd. Dabić, D. , Milijić, S. , Mitrović, S. (2009) Organizacija i uređenje turističkih područja Srbije, Strategija prostornog razvoja Republike Srbije, I faza, sveska 18. IAUS, Beograd. Dragović, R. , Todorović, M. , Stanković, S. (2011) Mogućnosti za razvoj održivog turizma na Staroj planini. Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog društva, sv. 91, br. 1, str. 87-116. Krunić, N. , Milijić, S. , Đurđević, J. (2010) Razvoj planinskog turizma u Srbiji i zemljama u okruženju. Arhitektura i Urbanizam, br. 29, Institut za arhitekturu i urbanizam Srbije, Beograd. Malobabić, R. , Maričić, T. (2004) Strukturne promene veličine naselja na planinskim područjima Srbije. Arhitektura i urbanizam, br 14, str. 65-71. Milošević, M. , Milivojević, M. , Ćallić, J. (2010) Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia, Part 1. , Zbornik radova Geografskog instituta "Jovan Cvijić", SANU, vol. 60, iss. 2, pp. 39-57. Radovanović, V. (2010) Integralni ruralni razvoj: Ka skladnijem regionalnom razvoju. Zbornik Matice srpske za društvene nauke, sv. 132, str. 41-51. Romelić, J. , Ćurčić, N. (2001) Turistička geografija Jugoslavije. Institut za Geografiju, Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu. Stanojlović, A. (2008) Oživljvavanje i razvoj seoskih naselja kroz turizam. Zbornik radova „ Selo u tranziciji“ , Naucni skup „Vlasinski susreti“, Srpsko udruženje za sociologiju sela i poljoprivrede. Štetić, S. , Šimičević, D. (2008) How to develop sustainable tourism in rural destinations in Serbia. Bulletin of Serbian Geographical Society, tome 88, issue 4, pp. 30-28. Todorović, M. , Bjeljac, Ž. (2007) Osnove razvoja ruralnog turizma u Srbiji. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, sveska 87, br. 1, str. 135-148.

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УДК: 338.48-53:745/749(497.2)

TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND TOURISM IN BULGARIA – PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES Ilinka TERZIYSKA Tourism Department at SWU “Neofit Rilski” – Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

ABSTRACT The paper is focused on the opportunities that traditional crafts provide for tourism development in rural areas. Following a discussion of the possible forms of using crafts in tourism, an overview of the current situation in Bulgaria has been made, outlining the major problems and looking for their solution. Key words: traditional crafts, creative tourism, rural areas

TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND TOURISM The last decades we have witnessed a gradual and steady change towards more sustainable practices in tourism development and the recognition that alternative forms of tourism can contribute to local development. Cultural tourism (and rural tourism in particular) is one of the opportunities for rural communities to generate incomes and improve their well-being. This is supported by the trend in tourism demand towards local, unique, authentic products. Another well-expressed trend of the last decade is the shift from tangible to intangible elements of culture, which can be seen in both demand and supply of cultural tourism products. People are increasingly interested in the spirit of a destination, in the lifestyle of local population, in their specific culture, manifested through traditions, customs, music and dance, narratives, crafts and everyday life. Organizations and governments are also getting aware of the value of intangible heritage and have made steps to safeguard it. At the international level, UNESCO has launched several initiatives in this regard, including the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003), which has already been ratified by 155 countries, among which is Bulgaria. The convention is rooted in the understanding of the importance of intangible cultural heritage for maintaining cultural diversity and ensuring sustainable development, while recognizing its interdependence with tangible cultural and natural heritage, and emphasizing the role of local communities. The basic objectives of the Convention are directed towards the safeguarding of intangible heritage, raising awareness of its value and ensuring respect among the parties concerned 25. The five domains of intangible heritage as identified by UNESCO are: oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage; performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; traditional craftsmanship 26. Traditional crafts have long been part of the tourist offer. They are the element of intangible heritage, which initially formed the basis of the so called creative tourism. Creative tourism is one of the relatively new forms of tourism, which is considered very beneficial to both the host community and tourist, as it is believed to offer a transforming experience to the latter, at 25

Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003), http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00022, retrieved on 7.09.2013 26 Ibid.

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the same time preserving the self-respect and the authentic character of local population. Greg Richards and Crispin Raymond, who coined the term, defined it as: “Tourism which offers visitors the opportunity to develop their creative potential through active participation in courses and learning experiences that are characteristic of the holiday destination where they are undertaken.” 27 In its earliest form, creative tourism was associated with crafts workshops. Later it developed to include design, cookery, gastronomy and wine-making, health and healing, language, spirituality, nature and landscape, sports and pastimes. Referring to Pine and Gilmore’s idea of Experience Economy, traditional crafts may be used in various ways in the tourism industry and have the potential to create different types of experiences. First of all, if we look at the famous evolution of economy from extracting commodities through making goods, delivering services, and staging experiences to guiding transformations and the customization of this model to the creative tourism phenomena 28 (fig. 1), we can find at least three possible stages (at times co-existent states) of using crafts for tourism purposes.

commodities

goods

services • mass tourism

experience

transformation

• cultural tourism

• creative tourism

Figure 1. The evolution of tourism through the prism of the experience economy Source: Richards, G. (2010) Creative tourism: Development, trends and opportunities, Barcelona

First of all, products of craftsmanship are sometimes used as souvenirs. In its most common form, this corresponds to the “making goods” stage, due to the fact that most souvenirs are standardized, because they need to possess certain characteristics – small size, simplified design, representativeness of a place or phenomenon etc. Of course, there are ways to turn the purchase of a souvenir into an experience or transformation, but such practices are still not widespread. There are also some authors who place a clear demarcation between crafts and souvenirs, arguing that “an item was generally considered to be a craft rather than a souvenir if it was authentic, where authentic was defined in terms of the item’s uniqueness, workmanship, historical/cultural integrity, and tradition”. Surely, there is a great danger of depriving craft of its authenticity by commoditizing it to serve the souvenir industry, which could be avoided by carefully choosing what products are suitable for souvenirs and educating tourists to understand and appreciate them. Another way of using the tourism potential of traditional crafts is museums, ethnographic museums in particular. In this case, crafts products are not goods; they are turned into service by offering and selling information and knowledge to tourists. Modern museums can also offer experiences by customized and engaging ways of presenting their exhibitions to visitors. Some museum go even further by offering visitors the chance to become part in the in the making of a product familiarize them with the process of manufacturing. The most creative and visitor-engaging form of presenting traditional crafts in tourism are operating artisan workshops. They bring together all three dimensions – the selling of goods, the informative dimension of museums and the hands-on experience and all these resulting in an authentic product, consumed in special ambience. In addition, it is very favourable to the preservation of the tradition and skills necessary for ensuring the existence of crafts. 27 28

Richards, G. and Raymond, C. (2000) Creative Tourism. ATLAS News, 23, 16 – 20. Richards, G. (2010) Creative tourism: Development, trends and opportunities, Barcelona

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Events can also be used for presenting crafts to visitors. The most popular ones are crafts fairs and festivals. They can be staged in a way so as to involve both spectators and participants by including not only presentation of products, but also demonstration and workshops. Besides, the variety offered is difficult to achieve through any other form. Events are also a strong tool for destination image-making. TRADITIONAL CRAFTS IN BULGARIA There are proofs for crafts on the Balkan Peninsula dating back to millennia (in September 2013, a pottery workshop was excavated near Varna, Bulgaria, dating back to as early as 6500 years ago). The Bulgarian crafts, however, in the form we know them today, saw their upheaval in the period of the National Revival (18-19 century), which was the time when trade increased. Up to then, during the Ottoman rule, crafts were limited within the family; all the necessary things for the household were made by the family members and sometimes used for generations on end 29. There was a strict distinction between “women’s” and “men’s” activities, and there were also rigid rules in terms of the technology and the employed materials. At this stage of their development, it is more precise to refer to them as household activities. Then gradually, with the increased trade certain people specialized in a given sphere – thus the first masters appeared. Soon, craftsmanship received its legal form of organization – the artisan guilds. Although evidences show the guilds existed since 17th and 18th centuries, they were officially recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1773 by decree of Sultan Mustafa III, which ensured internal autonomy and state patronage for the guilds and regulated their structure. The objectives of the guilds were mainly economic nature, to protect the interests of the craftsmen. The first crafts centre appeared in the 18th century, mainly in mountainous areas – Bansko, Samokov, Tryavna, Koprivshtitsa, Plovdiv and many others. The most widespread crafts at that time were goldsmithery, woodcarving, copper, masonry, pottery, traditional construction, leatherworking, saddlery, weaving, and knitting. The upheaval lasted until the first decade of the 20th century, when industrialization had its impact and manufacturing started to steadily decline. In the last few decades, some efforts have been put to revive traditional crafts in Bulgaria. There are several schools which provide training – mainly in woodcarving and pottery. Attempts have also been made to preserve the institution which was of greatest importance for the operation of craftsmanship – the guild. In 1967, the National Association "Fellowship of Masters of Folk & Art Crafts" (called zadruga in Bulgarian) was established. Currently, it is the oldest acting crafts union in Republic of Bulgaria. The other similar association at a national level is the The National Chamber of Skilled Crafts (NCSC), established in 2002 under the Crafts Act. It is authorized to issue master's certificates (through the Regional Chambers of Skilled Crafts), which are legitimate documents acknowledged with no exception by all EU countries and worldwide. At present, there are 26 regional Chambers of Crafts and 9 National Trade Associations of Crafts 30. Crafts and Tourism in Bulgaria There are two basic ways in which crafts and tourism can co-exist – events (fairs and festivals) and on-site facilities (workshops, shops). This paragraph is focused these two major dimensions of the link between crafts and tourism, trying to shed light on the current situation in Bulgaria and outline major trends and problems. 29

Сантова, M., M. Иванова, В. Матеева (n.d.) Традиционни занаяти, домашни дейности и поминъци, retrieved from http://www.treasuresbulgaria.com/main.php?act=html&file=analiz.html on 04.09.2013

30

Crafts in Bulgaria, retrieved from http://www.regiocrafts.eu/index.php/crafts-industry/craft-in-bulgaria on 17.09.2013

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Festivals and Fairs Currently, there are seven annual craft festivals/fairs in Bulgaria, two of which are international 31. Of course, crafts are often included in folklore festivals and events dedicated to local cuisine, but since in these cases they are supplementary to the programme and are usually limited to exhibiting the produce of local craftsmen only, they will be excluded from the present study. The description which follows refers to events with a specific focus on crafts and its aim is to show their scope and the type of activities/products on offer. The organizers of the International Fair of Crafts and Arts “Bulgarika” claim it is the biggest event of this kind in Bulgaria. It takes place in August in Varna and lasts for almost three weeks. Apart from the exhibitions of handicrafts, which are also sold, it offers demonstrations. There are, however, no workshops or ateliers. The other international fair is the one in the Ethnographic complex of Etar (the first ethnographic complex in Bulgaria). The event includes a wide array of different crafts, traditional cuisine (degustation also offered) and is attended by a great number of international participants. Demonstrations are part of the programme. One of the newest events focused on traditional crafts if the festival in Malko Tarnovo, whose first edition was in the end of July 2013. Apart from stalls where the artisans’ work is exhibited and offered for sale, its programme also includes demonstrations and workshops. There are special workshops for children. 2013 saw the appearance of a new arts and crafts festival – the one in Kiten. It is held in the last week of July and lasts for a week. The range of presented traditional and modern crafts includes production of crystal glass jewelry, accessories and jewelry made of leather and semi-precious stones, jewelry from natural materials, handmade fabrics, old weapons, metalwork, yarn dolls, designer jewelry, painted silk, art knitting, pottery, plasti (a special kind of textile), national dolls, stained glass. Visitors are given the possibility to learn and engage themselves in the process of production. The festival was initiated by Milen Minkov – jewelry artisan, and supported by the Regional Craft Guild in Plovdiv. The Autumn Fair of Crafts takes place in Plovdiv in the end of September. The city has a long-lasting tradition in craftsmanship and one of the most active craft guilds in Bulgaria. Apart from the fair is there’s another event, which has been so far unique to Bulgaria – the Master’s Day, celebrated on 12 December each year, which is the day of St. Spiridon, the patron day of artisans and craftsmen. On that day the ritual of introducing an apprentice into the master guild is re-enacted. The two events are organized by the Regional Craft Guild in Plovdiv. The ethnographic museum in Plovdiv organizes a Week of the crafts in the last week of June, where visitors can see demonstrations of iconography, engraving and fine carving on knives and rifle butts, copper, making musical instruments, woodwork, pottery and basketry. The Fair of Yoghurt and Festival of Folk Traditions and Artisan Crafts is held annually in Razgrad. Although the focus is on traditional cuisine an exhibition of traditional crafts is also included. On the 29 June, this is the Day of St. Peter (Petrovden in Bulgarian), there are a lot of smallscale fairs and feasts, dedicated to traditional crafts (e.g. in Sandanski, Smolyan, Vratsa etc.). It is evident that (with few exceptions) crafts festivals in Bulgaria still need to catch up with the world trends, which are directed towards more engaging experiences for the visitor. A good practice in this respect is the “newcomer” – the festival in Malko Tarnovo. Not only are workshops where visitors can learn how to make their own piece of handicraft a significant part of its offering, but it also caters for children. Another drawback is the number of

31

Source: author’s online search

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international events – only two. It is widely accepted that festivals have a huge contribution to increasing the popularity of a destination and achieving a favourable image. As far as the place where these events take place is concerned, we can see that larger cities predominate. Smaller towns and villages should take advantage of the opportunities these events offer for raising awareness, cultural exchange and generation of revenues. Moreover, crafts festivals and fairs would be more attractive if held in an authentic environment – the craft centres of the Revival Period were mainly mountainous settlements. Ethnographic complexes, crafts streets, workshops Apart from presenting centuries-long skills of artisan at festivals and fairs, every destination can enrich its tourist offer by opening craft workshops. In Bulgaria, instances of including crafts in the tourist offer exists in four main forms – created ethnographic complexes (openair museums), preserved crafts streets (charshia), producers of traditional products, and workshops within hotel complexes. The first ethnographic museum in Bulgaria – Etara, was established in 1964 and features 15 workshops in operations, two static ones (tannery and walnut-oil workshop) and an impressive collection of operating water-powered machinery. In addition there are two museums – the House of Peter Saka and the Church with a school, and a hotel which provides the opportunity for overnight accommodation. Seven hobby courses are offered, lasting from 3 to 10 days. The cultural calendar is rich ranging from visiting exhibitions to re-enactment of rituals, bazaars, contests and scientific conferences 32. The other ethnographic complex of this scope is the Ethnographic Areal Complex “Zlatograd”. It is the first and still the only private one and was opened with the cooperation of the Municipality of Zlatograd on May 24, 2001. The nine operating handicraft workshops and the waterworks coupled with the unique ambience created by the vernacular architecture (most buildings in the complex are monuments of culture and are inhabited throughout the year make it a tourist destination of growing attractiveness. Its success is also owed to the innovative and engaging way of presenting the crafts – visitors are given the opportunity not only to buy souvenirs but to take short lessons and watch demonstrations. Accommodation is provided in several hotels and guesthouses of excellent quality. The third complex which is worth mentioning is Fanagoria, though its focus is more on history than crafts. The complex is a copy of Proto-Bulgarian war camp from 6-8 century and includes wood firewalls with towers, furnished yurts, acting crafts workshops, restored antique costumes, weapons, household items and furniture. There are a couple of hotel complexes who have included crafts in their offering – the Barite complex, the Genger complex. They do not, however, offer demonstrations or lessons. A good practice of a producer who uses tourism as a supplementary source of revenues is Damascena, whose main field of activity is rose oil production. They created the ethnographic complex of Damascena, featuring an old distillery called "gyulapana" which was used for extracting rose oil in the Rose Valley more than 340 years ago. The complex visitors can watch a demonstration of the rose oil distillation throughout the season and feel the spirit of the old tradition. The distillery is very popular with tour operators and is included in most cultural tours for foreigners. The two relatively well-preserved craft streets in Bulgaria are the one in Tryavna and the Samovodska charshia in Veliko Tarnovo. They both feature some active workshops. The major problem in both places is the presence of too many industrially produced souvenirs, which are sold at lowest prices, lower quality and damage the authentic feeling, at the same time hindering the offering of handicraft products. 32

http://www.etar.org/kalendar/kalendaren.htm

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To sum up, the existing ethnographic complexes/open air museums in Bulgaria can be considered good practices. There is still unutilized potential in this respect, which should be exploited by traditional handicraft centres, especially the ones with preserved vernacular architecture. Special attention should be paid to the craft streets to preserve their authenticity and prevent commoditization. Local authorities have a crucial role in solving this problem, but should be assisted by craft associations and scientific organizations. CONCLUSION Although Bulgaria has a long-lasting tradition in handicrafts, they are gradually diminishing and special efforts should be put in their preservation. Tourism offers great opportunities for reviving them – mainly through events and on-site workshops. More attention should be paid to creating an engaging experience for the visitor by offering demonstrations, crash lessons and courses. One of the greatest problems is the total lack of marketing policy for craft tourism in Bulgaria. There is almost no information on the opportunities the country offers, which could be easily surpassed by creating a database of all existing workshops, artisans and events. Traditional crafts are part of the intangible heritage of the world – governmental and local policies should be aimed at preserving and stimulating them through the national, European and international programmes. REFERENCES: Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003), http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00022, retrieved on 7.09.2013 Crafts in Bulgaria, retrieved from http://www.regiocrafts.eu/index.php/crafts-industry/craft-in-bulgaria on 17.09.2013 Richards, G. (2010) Creative tourism: Development, trends and opportunities, Barcelona Richards, G. and Raymond, C. (2000) Creative Tourism. ATLAS News, 23, 16 – 20. Сантова, M., M. Иванова, В. Матеева (n.d.) Традиционни занаяти, домашни дейности и поминъци, retrieved from http://www.treasuresbulgaria.com/main.php?act=html&file=analiz.html on 04.09.2013 http://www.etar.org/kalendar/kalendaren.htm

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УДК: 314.116:303.62(497.47)

WESTERN SLAVONIA: IDENTITY ASPECTS IN THE BORDER PART OF THE TRADITIONAL REGION Ivan SARJANOVIĆ sarjanovi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Identities are one of the key conditions for the development of the regions, especially their border parts. The aim of this work is to explore the differences of the regional identity in Slavonia, the largest traditional region in the continental part of Croatia. Special stress will be put on the western part which differs from the majority of the region, as it is a hilly part on the border of the lowland region. The inner and outer identity images of the region will also be discussed. Due to its border position, the explored area was characterised by unstability and often migrations which led to depopulation (caused also by being distant from larger centres and deagrarization). Regional identity will be presented through the level of regional consciousness. The research of the identity image of the region will try to find out which elements are the most significant in defining a region by the local population and the population outside the region. It will also include the comparation of inner and outer perceptive borders of the region. Both aspects of the identity will be examined in a questionnaire and its quantitative and qualitative analysys. The main hypotheses are that the level of regional consciousness (regional identity) is weaker in the western part of the region; that most of the region-defining elements exclude the characteristics of the hilly western part from the region and that the significant share of the examinees do not perceive the western part of Slavonia as a part of the region. The results of the survey could contribute to the reconsideration of the commonly accepted territorial range of traditional Slavonia. Key words: western Slavonia, traditional region, border part of the region, regional identity, identity of the region

INTRODUCTION Identity is an area of interest in many social sciences, especially sociology and psychology. For geographers, spatial aspect is the most interesting part of identity research. Space is one of the most importants factors in building identities, because it has the strongest impact on the cohesion of the social groups and shapes identities that are based on the common origin, believs and roles or way of life (Claval, 1998.). The research of identities has come to the focus of the science in the last 30 years, when new identity-defining topics (such as multiculturalism or new symbolic economy characterized by the production of images) has occured. Concomitantly, life in the western world has become more individualized, so people shape their lives and environment through personal identites rather than categorization such as nation, class, occupation or home region. The links between identity problematics and the region have emerged in the last few decades, when geographers have increasingly started to understand region not only as a permanent, naturally given element which result is fixed identity, but as a product of social actions and historicall contingence. (Paasi, 2001.). Most important topics of this work are regional identity and identity of the region. Theoretical concept of regional identity connects the material (nature, economics) and subjective (individual / collective representations) dimensions of the region. One of the most important components of regional identity is regional identity of inhabitants or regional consciousness. It can be divided to „identification with the regional group or community“, and the „role of a region in the hierarchy of regional consciousness“, i. e. the identification with a specific region. (Paasi, 2001.). It is important to stress that regional consciousness, as personal feeling refers mainly to the traditional regions, such as Slavonia. (Rykiel, 1985.). For the purpose of this work, most important element is identification with the region, in this case

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Slavonia. Identity of the region refers to those natural, demographical and economical characteristics of the region that can be used in science, economy or politics as a mean of distinguishing the regions. It can be divided into „subjective“ images and „objective“ classifications based on physical environment, culture, landscape etc. The „subjective“ identity of a region refers to images held by the inhabitants („inner image“) as well as people living outside the region („outer image“). Those features have different role in social practice. The „inner“ image presents the demarcation of the inhabitants and other features of the region from „other“. The „outer“ image of the region presents it in the social consciousness of „others“ and can be manipulated by institutional sphere (for exampe in tourism, where positive faetures are stressed. The key question in the researches of identity topics connected with region is – how can the research contribute to the development of the region? In his analysis of regional identity Keating (1998.) has highlighted three elements of regional identity and their connections with political activity. The cognitive element means that people must simply be aware of a region and its limits in order to distinguish it from other regions. The second element is affective, which shows how people feel about the region and the degree to which it provides a framework for common identity in comparation with social and national identity. The third, instrumental element means that the region is used as a basis for collective action in achieving economical or political goals (Paasi, 2001.). This model is connected with Paasi's four stages of regional institutionalisation. The first stage is the development of territorial shape and awareness. In the second stage territorial symbols, which distinguish territory from „others“ and embody the history and tradition are established. Most important stage for reproduction of the region and regional consciousness, according to Paasi, is emergence of political, legal, educational and cultural institutions. Final stage comprehends establishment of the regional administrative unit (Paasi, 1986.). AREA OF RESEARCH Slavonia is the largest traditional region in the eastern part of Croatia. In present commonly accepted division it is bounded by rivers Drava on the north, Sava on the south, Ilova on the west and state border on the east and north-east. That shape is founded by the administrative division from the period of Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. Western border, which is naturally weakest divided, is percieved as the line that connects largest cities nearby river Ilova and their surroundings: Virovitica-Daruvar-Pakrac-Novska. The region in that outline consists of seven Croatian counties – whole area of Požega-Slavonia and Brod-Posavina county, majority part of Osijek-Baranja, Vukovar-Srijem, Virovitica – Podravina county and smaller part of Bjelovar – Bilogora and Sisak – Moslavina county, with total area of 11 000 km². As it is already mentioned, the most problematic part in the regional division of Slavonia is western border, because river Ilova is not a significant natural border, such as rivers Sava, Drava or Danube. Western Slavonia had various territorial range in different works (Škiljan, 2009., Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.). In this work it comprises territory of 28 municipalities in four counties: Virovitica-Podravina county (Virovitica, Gradina, Lukač, Suhopolje, Špišić Bukovica), Bjelovar-Bilogora County (Grubišno Polje, Veliki Grđevac, Daruvar, Dežanovac, Đulovac, Končanica, Sirač), Požega-Slavonia county (Pakrac, Lipik; Nova Gradiška, Cernik, Davor, Dragalić, Gornji Bogićevci, Nova Kapela, Okučani, Rešetari, Stara Gradiška, Staro Petrovo Selo, Vrbje) and Sisak-Moslavina County (Novska, Jasenovac and Lipovljani).

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Municipalities in Western Slavonia Municipalities in Croatia

Figure 1.: Municipalities in Western Slavonia

Western Slavonia, as it is a partly hilly and mountainous area, differs from the majority of the region, which is the biggest lowland in Croatia. Due to border position through history this part of the region was characterised by unstability and often migrations which led to depopulation. All those negative socio-demographic factors were emphasised during the second part of the 20th century when deagrarization and distance from the largest centres took part in development of this part of the region. It is obvious that negative socio-economic factors mentioned above made this area one of the most problematic parts of Croatia. This work will try to find out whether the regional identity could be considered as a sign for development of western Slavonia (through territorial limitation and defining inner and outer idenitity image of the region).

AIMS, HYPOTHESIS AND METHODS The basic aim of this work is to explore possible differences of regional identity in Slavonia, as well as to find out which are the most significant images of the identity of the region. Regional identity in this work is presented through regional consciousness. It includes comparation of different levels of spatial identification and defining borders of the region by local population and the population outside the region. The research of the identity image of the region will try to find out which elements are the most significant in defining a region by the local population and the population outside the region. Both aspects of the identity were examined in a questionnaire and its quantitative and qualitative analysis. The main hypotheses are that the level of regional consciousness (regional identity) is weaker in the western part of the region; that most of the region-defining elements exclude the characteristics of the hilly western part from the region and that the significant share of the examinees do not perceive the western Slavonia as a part of the region.

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Elevation (m)

Settlements in Western Slavonia Municipalities in Western Slavonia

Figure 2.: Settlements in Western Slavonia by elevation areas

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HISTORICAL-DEMOGRAPHICAL DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN SLAVONIA This part of the work will shortly discuss the most important periods of shaping todays' socioeconomical situation in western Slavonia, with special accents on the problematics that is connected with identity topics examined in the survey – economical processes, natural features and national structure. During the medieval age, this part of the region belonged to framework of croatian županijas (counties). It was governated by Croatian nobility and inhabitated mostly by the roman-catholic population. In the time of Otoman occupation this area was devastated and autohtonic population extremely reduced. After the withdrawal of the Otomans area partly comes under goverment of restructured županijas and partly under the new establihed Vojna krajina (Military county). Both goverments re-settled this demographically almost empty area (secondary colonization). New inhabitants were mostly catholic population (lately Croats) from other parts of Croatia, but also other ethnic and national groups, mostly from Balkan penninsula (ortodox population – later Serbs and Vlacchs) and middle Europe ( Czechs, Hungarians and German). This secondary colonization formed ethnicly most heterogenous area in Croatia, which was one of the focuses in creating identity „image“ of Slavonia in that period. Ethnic groups from middle Europe had special role, since they have been holders of economical development of the region. For example in the year 1900. in Daruvar area almost one quarter of inhabitants (24,51 %, more than twice then Croats) were Czechs, more than 15 percent were Hungarians, and the share of Germans was more than 10 %. However, intraregional differences in ethnic structure were presentfrom the beginig of the 20th century. Nova Gradiška area is the example of the ethnicly relatively homogeneous area. In the year 1900.only significant ethnic majority were Serbs, with about ¼ share in the total population (Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.). 1,6% 11,1% 11,8%

Croats Serbs Hungarians

24,5% 35,2%

Czechs Germans Others

15,8%

Figure 3.: Ethnic structure in the Daruvar area, 1900., Source: Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.

1,4%

2,2% 1,7%

1,3% Croats Serbs

24,9%

Hungarians Czechs 68,5%

Germans Others

Figure 4.: Ethnic structure in the Nova Gradiška area, 1900., Source: Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.

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In the period after the 2nd World War (especially after 1961.) area is passing through depopulation caused mainly by deagrarization (all of the parts of the region except Grubišno Polje and the surrounding settlements in the period between 1961. – 1991. had positive naturale growth.) Depopulation was strongest in the former municipalities of Grubišno Polje and Daruvar. It is important to notice that central settlements in all municipalities increased population. Considering ethnic structure, most important trend was decreasing of the share of the German population (in all municipalities more than 10 times smaller) which was consequence of forced migration after the World War (Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.). 250000 200000 150000 Number of inhabitants

100000 50000 0

1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Figure 5.: Population growth in Western Slavonia 1857. – 2011. , Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857. – 2011., Croatian bureau of statistics, 2013. 1,2%

1,3% Croats

23,4%

32,6%

Serbs Hungarians Czechs

6,7%

Germans 34,8%

Others

Figure 6.: Ethnic structure in the Daruvar area, 1948., Source: Crkvenčić and Pepeonik, 1993.

Negative socio-economic processes were especially emphasised after the war in Croatia. During the war, majority of the region was occupied and organized as part of the UNPA zone „West“, which was completely reintegrated in Croatian territory in 1995. After the war, due to traffic isolation and distance from larger centres, westen Slavonia continued with economical decline. Two most important consequences of occupation and economical regress regarding identity problematics were drastic depopulation and national homogenization. In the period 1991. – 2011. number of inhabitants in western Slavonia decreased from 203993 to 146943 (around 28 %.). Strongest depopulation is marked in Daruvar and Pakrac area (Pakrac and the and the surrouding settlements decreased population for almost 50 % from 1991. – 2011). It is important to stress that even central settlements of the municipalities are passing through depopulation. Approproate regionalization, which includes territorial limitation, reconsideration of identity image of the region and establishment of the insitutional sphere is certainly one of the key measures for development of this part of Croatia.

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0,2%

3,1% Croats Serbs

23,6%

Hungarians 1,4%

59,9%

11,8%

Czechs Germans Others

Figure 7.: Ethnic structure in the Daruvar area, 2011.., Source: URL 1 0,1% 4,8%

0,0%

0,0%

1,4% Croats Serbs Hungarians Czechs Germans

93,7%

Others

Figure 8.: Ethnic structure in the Nova Gradiška area, 2011.., Source: URL 1

RESULTS OF THE SURVEY Problematics mentioned in third chapter was examined in a questionairre. It was conducted in 6 croatian areas (Osijek, Virovitica, Nova Gradiška, Pakrac and Zagreb with surrounding setttlements and rural settlements in the hilly part – Branešci and Kraguj in municipality of Pakrac, Podvrško in the municipality of Cernik), on a total sample of 169 examinees examinees (73 in Zagreb area, 25 in Virovitica area, 24 in Pakrac area, 21 in Nova Gradiška area, 18 in Osijek area 8 in the rural area). Table 1.: Number and charachteristics of the examinees by areas, Source: Survey, 2013. Area of survey Level of education Sex Elementary High school school College Male Female Rural hilly area 8 3 5 0 2 6 Osijek area 18 0 3 15 9 9 Nova Gradiška area 21 4 4 13 7 14 Pakrac area 24 0 10 14 11 13 Virovitica area 25 1 11 13 11 14 Zagreb area 73 1 29 43 33 40 TOTAL 169 9 62 98 73 96

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Figure 9.: Areas of research and offered settlements

In a questionnaire examinees were asked to express their feeling of belonging to various spatial units – World, Europe, homeland, region and settlement, i.e. to value the intensity of their identity on the Likert scale, where value 5 means very strong feeling of belonging to the area, 4 strong feeling of belonging to the area, 3 neutrally, 2 weak feeling of belonging to the area, 1 without feeling of belonging to the area. In second question of the survey examinees had to define by their opinion does specific place belong to the region or not. Offered places were: Suhopolje, Virovitica, Daruvar, Pakrac, Jasenovac, Novska and Nova Gradiška. This part of the survey can be perceived as an initial phase in territorial limitation of Slavonia. Third question was to value to „attractiveness“ of various Croatian regions on the Likert scale (1 – completely unatractive, 5 – completely attractive). Offered regions were: Istria, Dalmatia, Lika, Hrvatsko zagorje, Međimurje, Slavonia and Gorski kotar. The fourth question examined how powerful the examinees connected specific elements to the area of Slavonia. Offered elements are divided in three categories: natural (lowlands, nature park Papuk nature park Kopački rit), cultural (štokavian accent, folklore, belonging to the Middle-european cultural area, traditional cuisine, belonging to the Republic of Croatia) and economical (agriculture, industrial products). It is expected that most of the examinees express stronger connection with elements that are built in todays' prevailing image of Slavonia as a lowland region with strong rural component which is manifested through traditional way of life (folklore, agriculture, strong national feeling) (Šundalić, 2003., Šakić et al, 2003.). Therefore, elements that are supposed to score weaker range are: štokavian accent, industrial products and belonging to the Middle-european cultural area (although štokavian accent is significant difference towards surrounding croatian regions on the western border; some Slavonian cities were centers of industrialization in Croatia; nations from Middle Europe had very important role in the economical development of Slavonia during 19th and 1st part of the 20th century). Results of the survey of regional consciousness show that there are no significant spatial differences in the level of regional consciousness in various part of Slavonia. In all tested settlements examinees expressed strong feeling of belonging to the region, which is similar to the feelings for homeland and settlement and stronger than feeling for Europe and World. Almost all of the examinees (more than 90 %) in all tested slavonian settlements marked

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Slavonia as a region they identify with and recognised their settlement as a part of Slavonia, which implies that possible regional development of Slavonia should include all places that contributed in the survey. Relatively high level of regional consciousness was expressed through comparation of attractivenness of Slavonia in with other Croatian regions. In most of tested areas Slavonia achieved second highest rank (except in Osijek area where it achieved third rank), behind Dalmatia. Intraregional differences are present in recognisation of other offered settlements as part of Slavonia. Most important feature of this part of the survey is visible correlation of recognition as „Slavonian“ with mutual distance, which is emphasised with weak transversal traffic connection of western Slavonia. For example, Virovitica and especially Suhopolje achieved weakest level of recognition in Nova Gradiška, while in Pakrac area results of all mentioned settlements were similar. Settlement with highest share of recognition in „outer“ areas is Nova Gradiška, which can be explained by combination of its size and important traffic location (nearby highway A3). Area with weakest share of perception in all tested areas (except Nova Gradiška) was Jasenovac-Novska. Table 2 : Share of recognition of offered settlements as part of Slavonia in various areas of research, Source: Survey, 2013.

Settlement Suhopolje Virovitica Daruvar Pakrac Nova Gradiška Jasenovac Novska

Zagreb area 54,8 61,6 69,4 76,7 91,7 30,1 57,5

Share of recognition (%) Virovitica Pakrac area area 100 50 96 50 60 54,2 44 91,2 68 75 28 50 24 54,2

Rural hilly area 14,3 28,6 85,7 100 62,5 42,9 62,5

Nova Gradiška area 20 56 100 100 100 84 96

Osijek area 66,7 66,7 77,8 61,1 88,9 33,3 33,3

The survey of elements connected with region showed specific common results. Element with weakest average rank in every area was belonging to the Middle European cultural area. Main reason for such a weak rank of that element could be national homogenization caused by war. Other elements with commonly percieved weak rank were industry and štokavian accent. This results could be percieved as sign for stronger emphasis of those elements which symbolise the period when Slavonia was most developed and which could help Slavonia in positioning in the community of European regions. On contrary, elements that are most recognised as „slavonian“ in all areas are – folklore, agriculture and traditional cuisine which means that population of the region as well as out of the region primarily connnects Slavonia with traditional way of life. This is certainly limitative factor in achieving balanced regional image based on historical-geographical development . Elements with significant spatial differences are lowlands, which is acceptably stronger recognised in Osijek area, Natural Park Papuk, which achieved higher rank in Pakrac and Virovitica area, due to nearness to those areas. Table 3.: Ranks of elements by areas of research, Source: Survey, 2013. Zagreb Virovitica Pakrac Rural Nova area area area hilly area Gradiška area Lowlands 5 8 7 8 5 Natural Park Papuk 9 5 5 6 7 Natural Park Kopački rit 6 2 7 2 3 Štokavian accent 8 6 8 9 5 Folklore 2 2 4 1 1 Traditonal cuisine 4 1 3 4 3 Middle European cultural area 10 10 10 10 10 Republic of Croatia 1 7 1 5 8

Osijek area 2 9 7 4 1 5 10 7

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Industry Agriculture

7 3

9 2

9 2

7 2

9 2

6 3

CONCLUSION Although this survey was not contucted on the huge number of examinees, uniformity of answers in some key aspects can contribute to problematics of regionalisation of Slavonia. Firstly, there is a great possibility that the population of all the bigger settlements comprised by the survey percieve themselves as part of Slavonia. It is confirmed through high level of regional consciousness (expressed through high rank of region in comparation with other spatial units and other croatian regions in all tested settlements, as well as with high share of perception of local settlement as “Slavonian“). This can be perceived as inital phase of territorial shaping of Slavonia. As it is mentioned in this work, it should be the first step of its possible regional institutionalisation, which would certainly improve the development of the eastern part of Croatia. Intraregional differences, which are visible in perception of other settlements in the western part of Slavonia are a sign for stronger investment in transversal traffic corridors and possible division of the region on smaller units. Considering problematics of identitiy of the region, the survey has confirmed the hypothesis that todays' prevailing image of Slavonia is connected with traditional way of life (folklore, agriculture, cuisine, national feeling). It is obvious that some features that strongly influenced on development of Slavonia (such as impact of ethnic groups from Middle Europe or industrialisation) are being neglected. If those features became strongly emphasised, it would certainly help Slavonia to find its place in the community of European regions. REFERENCES Claval, P. (1998.): An introduction to Regional Geography, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford Crkvenčić, I., Pepeonik, Z. (1993.): Zapadna Slavonija – razvoj narodnosnog sastava, Društvena istraživanja, 45, god.2, br. 2-3, str. 335-364 Keating, M. (1998.): The New Regionalism in Westwern Europe: Terrirorial Restructuring and Political Change, Northampton: Edgar Elgar Publishing Paasi, A. (1986): The institutionalization of regions: a theoretical framework for the understanding of the emergence of regions and the constitution of regional identity, Fennia 164, pp. 105-146 Paasi, A. (2001.): Bounded spaces in the mobile world: deconstructing ‘regional identitiy’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie – 2002., Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 137-148 Rykiel, Z. (1985.): Regional consciousness in the Katowice region, Poland; Area, Vol 17, No 4, pp 285-293 Šakić et al. (2003.): Neki aspekti socijalnog identiteta Slavonaca i Baranjaca, in: Razvojne perspektive ruralnog svijeta Slavonije i Baranje: zbornik radova sa skupa, 95-116 Škiljan, F. (2009.): Graditeljska baština zapadne Slavonije nestala u 19. i 20. stoljeću, Scrinia Slavonica 9 (2009.), 183-220 Šundalić, A. (2003.): Retradicionalizacija ili revitalizacija ruralnog prostora Slavonije i Baranje, in: Razvojne perspektive ruralnog svijeta Slavonije i Baranje: zbornik radova sa skupa, 77-94 URL 1: Population by ethnicity by towns / municipalities, 2011 census; http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm

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УДК: 332.14:551.4.035(497.2)

PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN AREAS IN BULGARIA Maria SHISHMANOVA SOUT-WEST UNIVERSITY “NEOFIT RILSKI” valkova_chich@abv.bg

ABSTRACT Mountain areas are in the most critical socio-economic condition of other areas, despite the continuing economic and regional policy for years. Therefore, the aim of the study is tracking the national documents for their development and their synchronization with the same European areas. The methods used are full analysis of mountain areas, chronologically comparative analysis of the time and applicable documentation. Results systematize positive and negative features of social, economic and environmental situation of mountain areas and the effect of applied documents. Ongoing future policy for the development of mountain areas should reflect more accurately their specificity and enjoy more rational experiences and good practices from the European Union Keywords: socio-economic status, documents, best practices, development

INTRODUCTION Currently, there are three different delimitations of mountain municipalities: NORDREGIO, on the Ordinance to define the criteria for disadvantaged areas and their territorial scope (promulgated SG. 20/2008 years) and according to the adopted in the National Regional Development Strategy 2012-2022.

Figure 1 Hilly-mountain аreas in Bulgaria

In timetable announcement of mountain areas is through: Ordinance № 14 of 1 April 2003. determinant settlements in rural and mountainous regions issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works, which sets criteria for the territorial scope of rural and mountain regions and the included settlements.

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Rural regions are the municipalities on whose territory is a city with a population of over 30,000 people and the population density is below 150 inhabitants per square kilometer. Mountain regions cover territory with altitudes above 600 m or below 600 m, but the depth of the indentation of the relief of 200 meters difference between the lowest and highest point of 1 sq. km, with a density of segmentation of relief over 2 km / square km and a slope of 12 degrees. Mountain municipalities are those in which more than half of the lands of settlements included in them are mountainous regions. Regional Development Act of 2004, stating that "areas with specific problems" is an area of focused action covering the territory of the municipality or group of municipalities, which are set for regional influence or support in order to address urgent regional issues and/or reduce degradation developments in the economic and social sphere (area of industrial decline, backward rural, mountainous regions. According to Ordinance for determining the performance differentiation of the types of target regions and their territorial scope adopted by Council of Ministers Decree № 108 of 14.07.2004 "Underdeveloped rural areas represent municipalities or groups of municipalities with predominantly rural lifestyle and specialization in the development of agriculture and forestry, which are characterized by low level of development of transport, technical and social infrastructure, low qualification of the working age population, limited employment opportunities, high unemployment, low income and depopulation." The territorial scope of backward rural regions is determined by the following parameters: 1. employee share of the population in farms above 120 percent of the national average according to the census data for 2003.; 2. net sales revenue per capita of less than 50 percent of the national average for the last 3 years; 3. average unemployment rate of over 125 per cent of the national average for the last 3 years; 4. proportion of those with a low school education more than 120 percent of the national average; 5. age dependency ratio over 125 percent of the national average for the last 3 years; 6. population density of less than 70 people per 1 sq. km; 7. more than 70 percent of the population falls within the area of highway and/or road of class I (20 km from the highway and 10 km away from class I); 8. more than 10 percent of the population uses drinking water quality deviation from accepted as a standard for the country for the last 3 years; 9. more than 10 percent of the population uses water regime in the water supply for the last 3 years. (1) The mountainous region is an area with an average altitude of over 600 m or below 600 m, but average for the area of the indentation depth of the relief of 200 meters difference between the lowest and the highest point of one square kilometer, with an average of territory density segmentation of relief over 2 kilometers per square kilometer and an average slope of the terrain over 10 degrees, characterized by low level of construction of transport, technical and social infrastructure, limited employment opportunities, increased unemployment, low income and depopulation. (2) The territorial scope of the area is determined by the parameters as follows: 1. more than 50 percent of the relief of the territory of the region is mountainous with: a) an average altitude of 600 m or; b) altitude below 600 m, but average for the area of the indentation depth of the relief of 200 meters difference between the lowest and the highest point of one square kilometers at an average density of complex segmentation of relief over 2 km per square kilometer and an average slope greater than 10 degrees;

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And including the criteria in paragraphs 2,3,5,6,7,8,9 in less developed rural areas described above. De facto deprived rural areas and those called backward mountain and differ only in terms of topography, i.e. poor rural regions in Bulgaria are much more (rural + mountain). The mountain region is a type of rural regions. Interesting here is that they are specified only settlements falling in mountainous regions without pointing their borders. Among the important issues related to mountain regions is the relationship between them and disadvantaged areas, areas with environmental restrictions, underdeveloped rural regions. Although the legislation is not yet clear about the connections and relationships that exist between the following areas it is clear that such a connection exists. For example, rural areas are defined at the municipality level, and of mountain regions are defined only settlements. Consequently, there is not even a pronounced feature of subordination between the two categories. It can be considered as a broad term that it is rural, and its territory have areas designated as mountainous regions (areas) (Patarchanova, Em. 2008). Remain unclear relations between those categories areas. Whether they are equal or there is some subordination and what exactly is it? Clarification of these issues and pointing out their place in the national space will eliminate contradictions and help in effective policy development. This will facilitate the identification of specific measures required for their development and proper allocation of financial resources. (Patarchanova, Em. 2008). Regulation laying down the criteria for less favored regions and area boundaries approved by Decree № 30 of 15.02.2008, prom., SG. 20 dated 26.02.2008, effective from 26.02.2008, which govern the indicators and criteria for identifying disadvantaged areas and their territorial scope. Art. 2. Disadvantaged regions are: 1. mountain regions; 2. regions with handicaps other than mountain. Art. 3. (1) The mountain regions are lands of settlements, which meet at least one of the following criteria and indicators: average altitude of at least 700 m; average slope minimum 20%; average altitude minimum of 500 m in combination with an average slope at least 15%. (2) Homogenize group of lands and lands adjacent to the mountain ones that have at least 90% common border with the mountainous lands. (3) In the territorial scope of the mountain areas are included the lands of the settlements listed in Annex № 1 of the Regulation. In The National Spatial Development Concept of Bulgaria 2014-2025 is adopted last typology, which has defined number 109 municipalities with 1714 settlements. As a module for determining the mountain regions is used the land, which corresponds to one of the 3 criteria (altitude 700 m, an average slope of 20% or above an altitude of over 500 m and a slope of more than 15%). A small number of mountain municipalities fall into the category central, most of them in the category of peripherals. As can be seen there is a long time mismatch within the mountain regions. DATA AND METHODS For carrying out the present study a plurality of documents and materials described in the literature are used. The methods used are: full analysis of mountain regions, chronologically comparative analysis of the existing documents in time. The results for the social, economic and environmental situation of mountain regions are classified and they describe the effect of the applied papers in the country.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Short profile of rural areas and state model In the mountain municipalities live a little over 3 million people who are 41.1 % of the population. Territory of mountain municipalities is 44,878.9 square kilometers or 40.4% of the total area of the country. In these areas there is 40% of the total number of settlements – 2172l of 136 municipalities (in the last quoted documents 1714 settlements of 109 municipalities). At the end of 2012 settlements without population are 172. The largest number of settlements without population is in municipalities Gabrovo, Veliko Tarnovo and Kardzhali, e.g. in mountain regions. The population density in these areas on average is 49 people/sq. m. These areas have significant resources of national importance: 39 percent of the country's arable land and 82 percent of the forests of Bulgaria. Here are located the most of the primary processing of ore and gangue minerals as well as their stocks. The major part of the resort and tourist resources, mineral water and natural attractions are located in the mountains. These municipalities are very unevenly distributed in areas of second NUTS 2 level. Twothirds of the population living in mountain municipalities and nearly half of their territory are within the South West Region. Next is the South Central Region by 17% of the population and 28% of the mountain municipalities. In other areas of the second level is living between 1-5% of the population of mountain municipalities and there are between 3-9% of the mountain municipalities. Table 1. Share of mountain municipalities in population and territory level 2 regions, 2010 Region Population% Territory% North West 12,0 21,3 North Central 15,8 19,5 North East 2,4 8,9 South East 15,3 19,3 South Central 34,9 55,7 South West 100,0 100,0 Source: National Statistical Institute

Analysis of the results shows that the summary assessment for social and positive economic development of mountain municipalities is 46.2%, higher than the national average score (45.0%). This is due to the influence of the Metropolitan Municipality, which is one of the leaders in economic and social terms units. Exclusion of Sofia results in a significant reduction (40.3%) of the summary assessment in total of the remaining 108 municipalities. Similar is the impact of changes in capital on all assessments for specific aspects of the socioeconomic situation of mountain municipalities. The result of social and positive economic development is reported in aggregate assessment involving demography, economic conditions, condition of the physical infrastructure, access to public infrastructure, the state of public services and the assessment of property and income status of the population. Group of high-and medium-developed municipalities formed as such mainly due to the characteristics of the center of the municipalities. The rest of the territory of municipalities has very similar characteristics. Differentiation between the mountain municipalities of the three groups according to the degree of their reached level of socio-economic development is not large. Summarizing their assessment of achieved level of socio-economic development compared to the national average aggregate assessment, the municipalities of mountainous areas in the case differentiate into three groups:

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• Group One – with scores above the average for the mountainous territory (except Sofia). • Group Two – with average scores between the average for mountainous areas and critical threshold for this group of municipalities. • Group Three – with scores below critical threshold. Table 2. Grouping of mountain municipalities on level of social and positive economic development or aggregate assessment in 2010 Region 1 group highly 2 group moderately 3 group less everything developed developed developed North West 1 6 2 9 North Central 4 1 1 6 North East 0 1 2 3 South East 2 5 0 7 South Central 6 24 2 32 South West 30 17 5 52 Total 43 54 12 109 Source: National Statistical Institute and institutional databases

Thus, in fact these groups represent varying degrees of development of the individual mountain municipalities but differentiation between these groups is minimal. Significant polarization in the overall socio-economic situation of mountain municipalities is available: at the two poles (above the average for the relevant group and below the critical threshold) are more than half of the municipalities, as though the group of municipalities under the "critical threshold" is the scanty. Maturity of more than 40% of the total aggregate municipalities is above average for the mountain area as a whole. About half of the mountain municipalities are within the range "below average mountain regions development level", but above the "critical threshold". In the first group there are municipalities whose economic structure is diversified (especially Sofia), dominated by tourism (Bansko, Koprivshtitsa, Razlog) or by mining (Chelopech, Pirdop) and/or they revolve around a major center of development (e.g. around Sofia – Bozhurishte, Pravets, Elin Pelin). Differentiation in their assessments of development is high (the scope, i.e. – the difference between the minimum and the maximum score is 26 percentage points). The second group consists of various in composition municipalities, each with its own strengths, which brings the total score either above the average for the aggregate, or (more or less) – above the critical threshold. Differentiation in this group is relatively the least – the scope of estimates in the second group is 7.6 percentage points. In other words, regardless of the diversity of the composition, the overall socio-economic profile of the mountain municipalities of the relevant groups is similar. The last group includes many underdeveloped mountain municipalities that are strongly and adversely affected by all the factors and processes – demographic, economic and social. Half of these municipalities are located in western border areas (Treklyano, Zemen, Tran, Nevestino, Rila G. Damyanovo). (Operational Programme Regional Development 20072013). Problems The main problems in mountain regions can be summarized as follows: - Twice as high mechanical outflow of population; - Highly distorted age structure in most of the villages; - Away from urban cores and are usually sparsely populated; - Relatively unskilled labor, mainly engaged in agriculture and low income per capita;

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- The population decreased due to emigration (unfavorable living conditions and lack of alternatives for professional development) and/or because of low fertility contributing to accelerated depopulation of the majority of this area; - All the difficulties and problems generally lead to poverty, migration and permanent depopulation; - The predominant composition of the population and profile of municipalities (small, geographically remote, economically isolated) are less competitive; - Observed especially lagging indicators in gross value added and income tax on capital gains – an indicator of economic activity; - The continuing depopulation and aging, with bad assets and income status, leading to deteriorating living conditions and business in the majority of mountain municipalities; - They make fewer public works spending and have fewer hospital beds per capita than the national average; - Lack of choices for quality education, health care, pharmacy services, transport and other communications; - Offering in these services is of poor quality; - They possess a dense municipal road network (the lowest category) but in most of them it is the only one; - Underdeveloped technical infrastructure is in poor condition; - Group indicator of access to public infrastructure is up to 11%, which is nearly 60% below the national average; - Own limited opportunities to attract investment for the development and utilization of locally available resources. In order to realize the necessity of overcoming these negative processes serious efforts and effective measures are required and we need a coherent national policy for their effective development, planning and conservation. This policy should be directed to gradually master the process of depopulation, declining economic functions and traditional activities, abandonment of arable land, unwise use of mountain natural resources, excessive cutting of forests, violations of landscape and biological balance, water depletion, unjustified and uncontrolled construction in resorts in the mountain areas, which have been conducted for years. While measures of regional policy in these areas should be directed at building the technical infrastructure, creating conditions for production work where necessary, development of sustainable business and economic growth, improved access to infrastructure, education and health, professional workforce skills and provide services for economic development, stabilization of small towns in the countryside. Key documents relating specifically to mountain areas Mountain regions as part of the national territory have been targeted by the policy of Bulgaria since 1982. (Council of Ministers Decree № 22 of 1982 for accelerated socio-economic development of local systems of IV and V functional type in border areas and StrandjaSakar region until 1990). The results are zero. Attracting young people back at that time did not get because of uncreated good social conditions and the uniform approach to each municipality. It did not take into account the specificity of each one municipality. In recent decades, many regulations are adopted – laws, strategies, operational programs, regulations, etc. which try to improve working conditions and living of a part of their population. Granted by state subsidies and other measures are mainly focused on wage payments, providing transportation to the place of residence, administrative privileges for certain professionals and others. For many reasons most of the expected results have not been achieved.

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By Decision № 7 in February 1992 of the XXXVI National Assembly was established AdHoc Committee for the development of mountain regions. In 1995 the XXXVII National Assembly under Article 20 and Article 79 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria created a permanent Commission on mountainous, hilly and border areas. With these decisions the legislature said active position on the problems of mountain regions. It found a concrete expression in a number of recent decisions whose implementation depended on effective executive, and they are: 1. Decision of the XXXVI National Assembly pursuant to Art. 86, subpar. 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria and Art. 17, subpar. 1 of the Rules of Organization and Procedure of the National Assembly in conjunction with Art. 20 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria for the development of the Draft Law on the mountain; 2. Legislative regulation of criteria, indicators and scope of settlements falling in mountain areas in Bulgaria – adoption of System of criteria and indicators for the concept of "mountain regions" and List of settlements covered the boundaries of upland areas; 3. Every year guarantee by the State Budget Act and subsequent decrees of the Council of Ministers for grants to support mountain regions as follows: • To cover the losses from intra-urban passenger transport by coach and trolleybus transport and long-distance passenger services in sparsely populated mountain and border regions; • To cover the cost of transport to individuals and legal entities to make direct deliveries of bread in the mountain and small villages. 4. Funds generated through legal and national programs also allocate resources to mountain regions, including: • Set up a special fund "Environmental projects in mountain regions" that was subsequently merged into the National Fund for Environmental Protection. With the resources of the fund to finance measures to protect the environment and the development of ecoindustries; • Fund "Republican road network" through which target is steered funds for construction, maintenance and winter maintenance of roads in mountain regions. Since the beginning of 2000 by the Roads Act this fund was closed and finances transferred to the budget of the Executive Agency "Roads". • Fund "Agriculture" by which to finance projects related to subsidies and preferential loans to producers, conservation and improvement of soil farming, the development of production infrastructure in agriculture, creating farms and purchase of breeding animals, the development of eco-industries and others. • Other funds to support projects related to employment, development of industry and services, improve quality of life – Fund "Regional Initiatives". Social Investment Fund to finance measures to promote employment continued operation of Regional Initiatives Fund. Many of them are closed or replaced. It was prepared Draft Law of mountain regions in 1994, so that it was not passed and these areas began to be identified fully to rural regions. It was adopted the first Regional Development Act 1999. The main objectives of the Act include the creation of conditions for sustainable and balanced development of the country and reduce disparities in income and employment. The law defines the target regions (areas of growth, areas of development, areas for cross-border cooperation and areas with specific problems and priorities). An ordinance of the Council of Ministers defined the territorial scope of these regions. The regions with "specific problems and priorities" is an area of focused action covering the municipality or group of municipalities, which are set for regional influence or support in order to address urgent regional issues and/or reduce degradation of the economic and social

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fields (regions of industrial decline, rural decline regions, mountain regions). The area with specific problems and priorities can cover the area or group of adjacent areas. The Law repeats the mistakes of the past (Decree № 22 of 1982) that equalize rural areas and do not take much of their specificity. National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development 2000 - 2006 provides as eligible measures: ♣ Influx of investment in agricultural holdings; ♣ Improving the processing and marketing of agricultural and fishery products; ♣ Creation of wholesale markets; ♣ Development of agricultural activities aimed at protecting the environment; ♣ Afforestation of agricultural land and investment in forestry; ♣ Processing and marketing of berries; ♣ Creating organizations for producers; ♣ Management of water resources; ♣ Development and diversification of economic activities, providing for multiple activities and alternative income; ♣ Renovation and development of villages, protection and conservation of rural heritage and cultural traditions; ♣ Development and upgrading of rural infrastructure; ♣ Improve vocational training ♣ Creation of technical assistance in these regions" National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007 - 2013. Program for Rural Development plans to use two measures to help farmers in disadvantaged areas – one of them is "Natural handicap payments to farmers in mountain areas", i.e. to farmers in mountain regions. During the meeting of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry in January 2010, when new law on livestock was discussed, the Association for development of mountain communities with the Association "Mountain Milk" and the National Association of Animal filed a special clause to treat livestock in mountain regions as favored. It was decided that through development of an ordinance the mountain farming to have other conditions and people in rural regions to receive a subsidy for one or two cows, not for market economy, as it is treated in law. The reason is that breeders are placed here under more severe conditions and practice has proved that large farms cannot grow. The management plan for mountain regions - Opportunities for transfer of good practices in mountain areas by 2012 provides traditional production of local goods, valuable cultural heritage and nature and quality of the environment to be considered as common strengths of the mountain regions. But this potential is threatened by shortcomings caused by deficiency of infrastructure and poor economic status, which leads to low competitiveness and dependence on financial support. Low income, lack of motivation, emigration, low-skilled labor of the rest and progressively aging population are the basis for the strong retardation of mountain communities. (Management Plan of mountainous areas the potential for good practices in the mountainous areas, 2012) According to the National Strategy for Regional Development of the Republic of Bulgaria 2012-2022, unlike other informal regions, mountain regions are not subject to programs targeted specifically to them. Providing financial scheme for development of infrastructure, SMEs, agriculture, processing of production to the final product, using the ecological potential of the mountains through tax breaks, preferences and incentives will stimulate their development (National Strategy for Regional Development of the Republic of Bulgaria 20122022).

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The new economic paradigm of the European Union after Lisbon and Copenhagen is based on a model of Green growth, which opens a new opportunity for mountain regions and their many assets to be valued properly in this new economic paradigm. Livestock in these areas is the defining element of traditional culture and social structures. This means that the animal itself is not just economic activity and livelihood for the population and it is material culture deeply connected to the customs and traditions of the local population. It is closely linked to social, cultural and environmental aspects in these regions. Errors on the level of laws, regulations and management: 1. Uncritically copying legislation and regulations in other countries without regard to tradition, identity and specificity of each territory; 2. Need to improve the tools of management and proper use and future use of structural funds. 3. Still poorly equipped municipal administration on issues of regional development; 4. Eradicate corruption in applying for projects under the various operational programs and measures under the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007 to 2013; 5. It should be noted, however, that still targeted policy development, protection and structure of mountain regions (in the context of the European concept) is completely missing. CONCLUSION Mountain regions are relatively homogenous area in terms of socioeconomic status and degree of development of its constituent municipalities. The only exception is the Metropolitan Municipality that only by physical-geographical indication can be defined as "mountain". In terms of regional policy aimed at reducing intra-regional disparities there is a clear need to increase support for lagging mountain communities. These communities can be reduced to a common denominator in identifying specific measures to support their development. Priorities for them continue to remain on the periphery of the process of integrating the "center-periphery" where they have a clear edge in the country. The lack of far-sighted policy unfairly is condemning the residents of these areas to deprivation and lack of alternatives for equality in terms of the creation of decent work and life. It takes vision and overall strategy for the deployment of the untapped potential of the mountain regions of Bulgaria in the new Euro-market conditions. The experience of many European countries and the lessons learned from studies conducted in the country show that in the new socio-economic conditions the solution of most problems of these areas calls for a special regional policy. Rural areas should be considered as "areas of knowledge" systematically supported to increase the human capital of knowledge and experience. Future rural Europe must be a Europe of cooperation network, strong ties between rural areas inside and outside the EU, creative links between urban and surrounding rural regions. Development of rural areas largely depends on a combination of specific regional and local factors, structures and trends such as entrepreneurial traditions, public and private networks, work ethic, regional identity, participation and attractiveness of the cultural and natural environment (Patarchanova, Em. 2012). As a variety of rural areas this is true for mountain regions. In terms of population sustainability means healthy environment and formation of environmental awareness among the population (environmental aspect), fighting poverty, isolation, crop tolerance to differences, development of human capabilities, keeping peace (social aspect), imposing constraints on economic growth and reduce the consumption of nonrenewable natural resources (economically) (Patarchanova, Em., 2009).

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Spatial development of mountain areas – such as coordinating activities – should pay attention to the specific conditions in mountain areas and to the various sectoral policies, such as: - Economic policies must contribute to the diversification and increasing the number of activities, crafts and small and medium enterprises, and cooperation; - Agriculture and forestry where marketing activities should be strengthened, and development policy should be based on quality products; management initiatives in agriculture and forestry, which contribute to the conservation and management of the environment should be encouraged but also to promote sustainable conservation, development and utilization of forests; - Initiatives that can contribute to the development of quality tourism, respectful of the natural, economic, social, cultural, architectural and historic mountain environment should also be encouraged and supported; - The quality of public services in mountain areas must not be lower than in the rest of the territory; - Development of railway transport for the needs of international and interregional traffic; - Protection and sustainable management of soil, water and air, of landscapes and damaged areas; protection of fauna and flora and their habitats and, where appropriate, their rehabilitation; - Protection and promotion of the identity of mountain populations and the diversity and richness of their cultural heritage. REFERENCES Patarchanova, Em. (2008) Opportunities for sustainable development of mountain areas in Blagoevgrad., Problems of Geography, vol. 1-2, Sofia, 90-101. Patarchanova, Em. (2009) Population of Rural Areas in the Context of their Sustainability., INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM "GEOGRAPHY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT", 25.10.2009 22., Macedonian geographical Society, Ohrid, 2009, 25-33. Patarchanova, Em. (2012) Socio - Economic Patterns and Trends in Rural Development in EU, Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, p. 151-155. Animal Husbandry Act in force since 09.09.2000, the Prom. SG. 65 of 8 August 2000 ............... amend. and supplemented. SG. 59 of 3 August 2012 Regional Development Act Prom. SG. 26 of 23.03.1999, effective from 23.03.1999 Regional Development Act promulgated. SG. issue 14 of 20 February 2004., amend. SG. No. 32 of 12 April 2005. National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development 2000 - 2006. National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007 to 2013 Ordinance № 14 from 1 April 2003 establishing settlements in rural and mountainous areas issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works Prom. SG. 35 of 16 April 2003. Regulation laying down the criteria for less favored areas and area boundaries approved by Decree № 30 of 15.02.2008, promulgated., SG. 20 dated 26.02.2008, effective from 26.02.2008 Ordinance to determine the performance differentiation of the types of target regions and their territorial scope adopted by Council of Ministers Decree № 108 ot14.07.2004g. Decree № 22 of 1982. for accelerated socio-economic development of local systems IV and V functional type of border areas and Strandja-Sakar region until 1990. Operational Programme "Regional Development" 2007-2013 Management plan for the mountainous areas - the potential for good practices in mountainous areas, 2012 Bill - on mountains 1994 National Strategy for Regional Development of the Republic of Bulgaria 2012-2022. Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the continent of Europe, adopted at the 12th Session of the CEMAT, Hanover, 7 to 8 September 2000.

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УДК: 338.486.5.025:551.4.035(497.7)

EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF TOURISM PLANNING IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS Biljana PETREVSKA Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics, “Goce Delcev” University - Stip, Macedonia biljana.petrevska@ugd.edu.mk

ABSTRACT The paper notifies the importance of planning process in tourism development in order to ensure maximizing the benefits for all policy stakeholders, while minimizing negative effects. Due to inevitable relationship between tourism planning and forecasting, the latter must be implemented in the line of formulating adequate tourism development plan and policy. The paper aims to quantify potential tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas by providing medium-run estimations in terms of tourist arrivals. For the purpose of the research, the case of Macedonia is investigated. Furthermore, the paper is rich on stylized facts referring tourist participation within hilly-mountain areas. The outcomes point to conclusion of having strong potentials for enhancing the up-to-date modest tourism results in mountain resorts. Although, the applied methods are not capable of explaining the driving factors behind the research estimations, the values can serve as a base for creating comprehensive economic and tourism development policy. Finally, this empirical evidence contributes to enriching the poorly developed academic work within this scientific area in Macedonia. Keywords: Tourism planning; Economic development; Forecasting; Hilly-mountain areas; Macedonia.

INTRODUCTION Recently, tourism has emerged as one of the major industries in the world economy, by benefiting various and numerous sectors. So, each country is interested in developing tourism since it generates various, in the first line, positive impacts. It affects aggregated demand, domestic output, employment, influences the balance of payments and so forth. Simultaneously, tourism has major social impacts at regional and local levels, particularly in the areas where tourism activities take place. Hence, some regions were highly positively influenced by tourism impacts, like mainly coastal (Emilia-Romagna, Italy), mountainous (Valais, Switzerland), urban and historic (Ile-de-France, France) or regions with exceptional natural resources (Quebec, Canada and Arizona, USA). Additionally, regions with different profiles can also benefit from the growth of tourism. In this line, they can be rural, promoting green tourism, leisure and nature activities (Queensland, Australia), very remote, (Greenland, Denmark) or regions undergoing industrial restructuring (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France). Hence, everyone identifies tourism as a source of economic growth and development, promoting global community and international understanding and peace, providing tourism and recreational facilities to local people, improving living standards, stimulating local commerce and industry, reinforcing the preservation of heritage and tradition (Goeldner et al, 2000). Consequently, the contribution of tourism industry to the global economic development is significantly important, as well as in state, regional and community planning. In the same line, it is necessary to implement a document for strategic tourism development, since it represents a strong mechanism for creating general policy of the overall economic development (Frechtling, 2001; Williams and Shaw, 1991). Additionally, defining the development priorities as a basic element of the development strategy is the biggest obstacle of each country (Gunn, 1993; Hall, 2005). In such cases, the governments should pay much attention particularly to the growth of number of tourists into a country. So, planning and estimating tourism demand becomes highly important. By applying a model that could validly predict the tourism demand, the government would be able to plan properly and effectively tourism 479


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development in order to choose an appropriate strategy for its economic welfare. A reliable estimation is needed and as such, plays a major role in formulating and implementing appropriate medium to long term tourism strategy. Therefore, forecasting tourism demand is essential for efficient tourism planning. The objective of this paper is to refer to the necessity of relating tourism planning to forecasting by exploring the hilly-mountain areas of Macedonia. In order to achieve that goal, the paper is structured in several sections. After the introductory part, Section one provides a snapshot on necessity of introducing tourism planning and forecasting. Section two presents a critical overview of the theoretical and empirical literature. The research design encompassing the methodology and research frame are posed in Section three. Section four presents the main research findings and discussion, while the main conclusion and future challenges are noted at the end. Generally, this study makes an attempt to quantify the potentials of tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas by providing a medium-run estimation. Despite the strong potentials, the research conclusion points to extremely modest up-to-date results in Macedonian mountain resorts, thus urging a need for boosting tourism development in hillymountain areas. Finally, this empirical evidence contributes to enriching the poorly developed academic work within this scientific area in Macedonia. NECESSITY OF TOURISM PLANNING AND FORECASTING As one of the most dynamic world industries, tourism is facing numerous challenges which affect its development. In order to cope with them, the planers and policy-makers apply the process of forecasting as the only way to furnish information, which permits them to reach decisions before the occurrence of certain events. In order to create a comprehensive tourism development plan as a base for formulating tourism policy, reliable estimates of future demand must be undertaken. However, that is not a trouble-free process due to numerous dissimilarities, which prevail to tourism industry. Therefore, the main aim in introducing forecasting process in tourism is to envisage success of the destination by ensuring that visitors are hosted in a way that maximizes the benefits to stakeholders with minimum negative effects, costs, and impacts. There is an obvious relationship between the concept of tourism planning and estimating tourism trends. Namely, estimation permits planners and policy-makers to reach decisions before the occurrence of the events. Without reliable estimates of future demand, it is difficult, if not impossible, to formulate adequate tourism development plan and policy (Vanhove, 1978). It should be noted that the main principles must always prevail, in order the tourism policy to ensure that visitors are hosted in a way that maximizes the benefits to stakeholders, while minimizing the negative effects, costs, and impacts associated with ensuring the success of the destination (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2006). However, all efforts in order to considerate and understand the interrelated nature of tourism industry require monitoring and evaluation when tourism policy issues are involved (Edgell et al, 2008). In this respect, tourism policy may be viewed as simple by those whose job it is to create and implement it (Wilkinson, 1997), but at the same time many case studies on planning provide indications that the policy-making issue is not a trouble-free process (Mason, 2003). Additionally, the factors, which can influence tourism demand, are normally to be found within the tourist-generating countries (Lickorish and Jenkins, 1997), but also may initiate from all sectors of the economy - individuals and households, private businesses and the public sector (Sinclair and Stabler, 1997). Forecasting tourism demand has attracted a lot of attention by both, the academic literature and tourism practitioners (Song and Turner, 2006). It is more than obvious that the success of many businesses depends largely or totally on the state of tourism demand. More precisely,

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the demand is a key determinant of business profitability and its estimations constitute a very important element in the whole planning process. Forecasting tourism demand can be helpful to economic planners in reducing the risk of decisions regarding the future (Frechtling, 2001). In the same line, it is important to the tourism manager and to those who depend on that manager, since more accurate estimations reduce the risks of decisions more than do less accurate ones. Hence, the accuracy is one of the most important forecast evaluation criterions (Witt and Witt, 1992). It is obvious that a wide range of techniques and procedures available for tourism policy analysis must be introduced in order fulfill tourism planning in adequate manner (Chowdhury and Kirkpatrick, 1994). Besides, forecasting can serve as a mean to deal with the alternative future although it may evolve in strikingly different ways (Coates and Jarratt, 1989). Anyway, anticipating tourism flows considers the historical facts as well as the scientific knowledge in order to create images of what may happen in future (Cornish, 1977) because only then, the forecasting process may allow the prediction of future. LITERATURE REVIEW The issue referring tourism economic effects on country’s development is highly explored. Namely, numerous researchers have been involved and a wide variety of techniques have been applied in quantifying tourism economic effects. Studies vary extensively in quality and accuracy, but mostly address the economic impact analysis (Babu et al, 2008; Crompton, 1993; Huybers, 2007; Lundberg et al, 1995; Ramos and Jimѐnez, 2008; Stabler et al, 2010). In this respect, the economic impact analysis traces the flows of spending associated with tourism activity in a region in order to identify changes in sales, tax revenues, income, and jobs due to tourism activity. The principal methods being applied are visitor spending surveys, analysis of secondary data, economic base models, input-output models and multipliers. Regarding application of methods for forecasting tourism demand, there is a large body of literature. Namely, numerous researchers have been involved and a wide variety of techniques has been used. In principle, all methods are generally categorized in two-categories: qualitative and quantitative (Song and Li, 2008). The qualitative methods use pooled opinions of experts to organize the past information of the variable and often are recommended as methods which seldom generate better predictions (Hall, 2005). The quantitative methods organize past information about a phenomenon by mathematical rules and assume that at least some elements of past patterns will continue into the future (Makridakis et al, 1998). Regardless the method, it is expected that the final model chosen for estimations will produce projections which are as precise as possible. However, it is not always the case due to lack of sufficient time series data, measurement errors, or even, unclear picture for the system of tourism demand (Song and Witt, 2000). So, certain evaluation criteria are used in order to select potential starting methods, as well as to identify an adequate model. However, no individual model consistently performs well in all situations (Witt and Song, 2002) meaning that no single forecasting model is the best for all situations under all circumstances (Makridakis et al, 1982). Therefore, solution is seen in proposing combination models since one cannot identify the true process exactly, but combining often results in a prediction accuracy which is higher than the one of the individual models (Lawerence et al, 1986; Makridakis, 1989; Makridakis and Winkler, 1983). Furthermore, the performance of the forecasting models varies according to the length of the forecasting horizons (Li et al, 2005). Forecasting domestic tourist flows is considerably easier than forecasting international tourist flows’ over a one-year horizon (Witt et al, 1992). Tourism demand can be expressed in a variety of way. Some explained it by consumer expenditure or receipts (Grouch, 1992; Li et al, 2004) as the only one applicable variable

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which can be directly translated into economic impact (Sheldon, 1993). Others employed tourist expenditure on particular tourism product categories, such as meal expenditure (Au and Law, 2002), sightseeing expenditure and expenditure (Au and Law, 2000). On the other hand, others made their focus on tourist typologies, motivation, determinants of choice of activities and demand (Johnson and Thomas, 1992). Even more, tourism demand can be measured by visitors’ use of a good or service (Frechtling, 2001), tourism revenues (Akal, 2004), tourism employment (Witt et al, 2004) and tourism import and export (Smeral, 2004). However, the tourist arrivals variable is the most popular measurement of tourism demand (Crouch, 1994). This variable further may be decomposed into holiday tourist arrivals, business tourist arrivals, tourist arrivals for visiting friends and relatives purposes (Turner and Witt, 2001a, 2001b; Kulendran and Wong, 2005), and tourist arrivals by air (Coshall, 2005; Rosselló, 2001). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In principle, tourism demand forecasting can be done in two ways: the first is to process quantitative data by strict mathematical rules, while the second is based on the pooled opinions of experts regarding the past and future of the events. This paper fully addresses only the quantitative methods that organize past information about a phenomenon by mathematical rules and assume that at least some elements of past patterns will continue into the future (Makridakis et al., 1998). These rules take advantage of underlying patterns and relationships in the data of interest to the forecaster. The paper is reach on secondary and primary sources based on desk-research, whereas different types of analyses are performed. Furthermore, the study is rich on stylized facts referring tourist participation within hilly-mountain areas. For the purpose of the research, a medium-run estimation in terms of tourist arrivals is provided. More precisely, we forecast tourism demand for the period 2013-2015 by introducing the Double Exponential Smoothing model (DES) which is actually an exponential smoothing of second order. This model is optimal for smoothing processes dealing with short time series with linear trend and no seasonality. It uses the same constant for smoothing the level and the trend of the series, which is actually its basic characteristics, but also its weakest point. Simultaneously, the model smoothes the oscillations in the series, enabling it to react on structural changes in the shortest possible time. The equations for the DES model are: Level: Lt = αAt+ (1 – α)(Lt-1 + bt-1) Trend: bt= α (Lt– Lt-1) + (1 –α)bt-1 Forecast: Ft+h= Lt+ hbt

(1) (2) (3)

It is commonly used that the constant has value of 0.2 or less. Despite the fact that the choice of the value of the constant is limited, it can be used in obtaining more accurate forecasting results. Given the fact that the quantitative analyses do not always disentangle key facts necessary for pointing out concluding remarks regarding particular issues, analysis based on qualitative approach are additionally introduced. ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Tourism statistics referring hilly-mountain areas

During the research, we were faced with obstacles regarding the official statistical data representing tourism demand in the hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia. Namely, according to

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official statistics the tourists are categorized by following types of tourist resorts: Skopje, spa resorts, mountain resorts, other tourist resorts and other resorts. So, this research encompasses only data referring mountain resorts thus covering the issue of hilly-mountain area. The study emphasizes some facts at glance concerning tourism statistics in the hillymountain areas. Table 1 presents tourism demand in terms of tourist arrivals, for the period 2003-2012. One may note continuous up-ward trend which is interrupted in 2006-2007. Yet, in the last two years of the sample period (2011 and 2012), a slight decline is detected. Table 1. Tourist arrivals in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia, 2003-2012 Tourist arrivals in Year Total tourist arrivals mountain resorts 2003 483151 41592 2004 465015 42282 2005 509706 43371 2006 499473 40089 2007 536212 33215 2008 605320 43165 2009 587770 52484 2010 586241 71457 2011 647568 71309 2012 663633 68809 Ave.(2003-2012) 558409 50777 Std. 69589 14412 Source: State Statistical Office, various years, various publications

The symbolic participation of data referring tourist arrivals in mountain resorts is visually presented in Chart 1. It is noticeable, that during the sample period, that share is spreading in the diapason between 6% (the lowest, noted in 2007) and 12% (the highest, noted in 2010), marking an average participation of only 9%. 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total tourists

Tourists in mountain resorts

Chart 1. Share of tourists in mountain resorts in total tourists arrivals

In order to gain additional info in more in-depth manner, we proceed with stylized facts concerning type of tourists that visited mountain resorts in the sample period. In this respect, Chart 2 illustrates strong domination of domestic tourists over foreign ones. Namely, it is noticeable that during 2003-2012, the domestic tourists comprised between 76% (the lowest, noted in 2009) and 92% (the highest, noted in 2003), displaying an average participation of 82% of total tourist arrivals in mountain resorts. With regards to foreign tourists, the analysis indicate their participation of 8-24% in the period 2003-2012, by recording an average of only 18%. Despite the humble results concerning foreigners, one may note positive impulse in terms of their constant increase during the past decade. 483


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2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 0

10000

20000

30000

Domestic tourists

40000

50000

60000

70000

Foreign tourists

Chart 2. Domestic vs. Foreign tourists in mountain resorts

Forecasting tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas

Due to fact that the primary purpose of building a forecasting model is to clearly discern the future of a phenomenon, the most important criterion is how accurately a model does this, i.e. how closely the estimations provided by the model conform to the actual events being forecasted. This study disregards the evaluation of the proposed model, thus leaving it as additional topic for further research. Yet, the author indicates that the evaluation may be made by means of various standard indicators, as: Root Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Mean Absolute Percentage Error, Theil Inequality Coefficient and similar. As noted in the research methodological framework, this study introduces the DES method. This model may be used for forecasting tourism demand mainly because of its simplicity in the implementation. Chart 3 visually presents the advantage of the DES model, which lies in the ability to follow the original time series.

82000 72000 62000 52000 42000 32000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Tourist arrivals in mountain resorts

DES

Chart 3. Forecasting tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia, 2013-2015

According to the DES model, the number of tourists in Macedonia in hilly-mountain areas for the period 2013–2015 is projected to be within the interval of 77000-90000 tourists. Based on this model, the number of tourist arrivals in the following three years will be more than twice bigger compared to 2003 i.e. by 2015 Macedonia will note additional 47 000 tourists. Table 2. Forecasting Tourism Demand in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia, 2013-2015 Year 2013 2014 2015 DES 76928 83171 89415

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Still, the biggest disadvantage of this model is the inappropriateness in forecasting time series with seasonality components, as tourism is. In such cases, other models of exponential smoothing are used: simple exponential smoothing, Holt-Winters multiple smoothing (with three parameters) etc. Since each country is interested in increasing the number of tourists, particularly the foreigners, the study introduces another interesting finding. Speaking about the international tourist arrivals in the mountain resorts, the upward trend is expected to continue. Namely, by applying the linear trend, we can expect increasing of international tourist arrivals for almost five times compared to 2003, and for almost 28% bigger in comparison to 2012. When introducing the equation (4) for the projected linear trend, the number of foreign tourists in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia by 2015 is expected to be 17513. Chart 4 gives an overview of the forecasted values. y = 1136,6x + 2895 (4) 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Foreign tourists

Linear (Foreign tourists)

Chart 4. Forecasting international tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia, 2013-2015

One should point out that the anticipated values for tourism statistics in terms of tourist arrivals in Macedonia for 2013-2015 must be taken in consideration with a large doze of precaution, since they do not indicate the reasons that affect the forecasted results. Yet, this research underlines the urgent need for implementing measures and activities in the line of enhancing tourism development in Macedonia, particularly in hilly-mountain areas. CONCLUSION Due to inevitable relationship between tourism planning and forecasting, the latter must be implemented in the line of formulating adequate tourism development plan. More important, forecasting tourism demand is a base for creating achievable tourism policy, creating adequate regional development policy, formulating and implementing tourism strategy and so forth. Besides the stylized facts referring tourist participation within hilly-mountain areas, this research provides a medium-run estimation of tourism demand for hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia for the period 2013-2015. From the variety of quantitative methods, the paper addresses the possibility, but at the same time, the precondition of practical appliance of double exponential smoothing method. The outcomes point to conclusion of having strong potentials for enhancing the up-to-date modest tourism results in mountain resorts. Namely, according to the DES model, the number of tourist arrivals in the following three years is expected to be more than twice bigger compared to 2003. Consequently, one may expect to attract additional 47000 tourists in hilly-mountain areas by 2015 Macedonia. Concerning the foreign tourists, the study investigated that their participation will note constant increase. So, 485


ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

one may expect an increase of international tourist arrivals for almost five times compared to 2003, and for almost 28% bigger in comparison to 2012 by reaching 17513 foreign tourists in 2015. With this research, the author made an attempt to quantify potential tourism demand in hilly-mountain areas in Macedonia. Moreover, the main intention was to underline the importance that the development of tourism in these areas can trigger general economic growth by creating a new dynamic. It can also contribute to better land use planning by countering rapid urbanization in developed countries and by attracting populations to new regions where tourism is developing. However, some guidelines for development must be laid down in order to preserve resources and many activities need to be introduced in the line of contributing to prosperity of hilly-mountain areas. In this respect, one of the major challenges consists of setting up mechanisms to improve competitiveness and quality of tourism development in hilly-mountain areas in terms of ensuring sustainable and balanced tourism development. Additionally, the paper explains that the recommended model does not indicate the reasons that may affect the projected results, which on the other hand, have high influence on identifying measures and activities necessary for creating tourism policy. REFERENCES Akal, M. (2004). Forecasting Turkey’s Tourism Revenues by ARMAX model. Tourism Management, 25, 565580. Au, N. and Law, R. (2000). The Application of Rough Sets to Sightseeing Expenditures. Journal of Travel Research, 39, 70-77. Au, N., and Law, R., (2002). Categorical classification of tourism dining. Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 819833. Babu, S. S., Mishra, S. & Parida, B. B. (2008): Tourism development revisited: concepts, issues and paradigms. Saga Pubns. Coshall, J. T. (2005). A selection Strategy for Modelling UK Tourism Flows by Air to European Destinations. Tourism Economics, 11, 141–158. Coates, J. F.,Jarratt, J. (1989). What Futurists Believe.Lomond. Cornish, E. (1977). The Study of the Future.World Future Society. Crompton, J. L. (1993). Economic impact analysis: Myths and misapplication. Trends, 30(4), 9-14. Chowdhury, A., Kirkpatrick, C. (1994). Development Policy and Planning: An Introduction to Models and Techniques, Routledge. Edgell, D. L., DelMastro Allen, M., Smith, G., Swanson, J. R. (2008). Tourism Policy and Planning: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Elsevier Inc. Frechtling, D. C. (2001). Forecasting Tourism Demand: Methods and Strategies, Butterworth-Heinemann, London. Goeldner, C. R., Ritchie, J. R. B. (2006). Tourism: Principles, Practicies, Philosophies, John Wiley&Sons Inc., New Jersey. Goeldner, C. R., Ritchie, J. R. B. and McIntosh, R. W. (2000). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. John Wiley & Sons. Gunn, C. A. (1993). Tourism Planning - Basics, Concepts, Cases, Taylor&Francis. Grouch, G. I. (1992). Effect of Income and Price on International Tourism to Australia. Tourism Management, June, 196-208. Hall, M. C. (2005). The Future of Tourism Research. Tourism Research Methods: Integrating Theory with Practice, CABI Publishing, 221-230. Huybers, T. (2007). Tourism and developing countries. Edward Elgar Publishing. Johnson, P., Thomas, B. (1992). Choice and Demand in Tourism, London: Mansell. Kulendran, N. and Wong, K. K. F. (2005). Modeling Seasonality in Tourism Forecasting. Journal of Travel Research, 44, 163-170. Lawerence, M. J., Edmundson, R. H. and O’Connor, M. J. (1986). The Accuracy of Combining Judgmental and Statically Forecasts. Management Science, 32, 1521-1532. Li, G., Song, H. and Witt, S. F. (2004). Modeling Tourism Demand: A Dynamic Linear AIDS Approach. Journal of Travel Research, 43, 141-150.

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Li, G., Song, H. and Witt, S. F. (2005). Recent Developments in Econometric Modeling and Forecasting. Journal of Travel Research, 44, 82-99. Lickorish, L. J., Jenkins, C. L. (1997). An Introduction to Tourism, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Lundberg, D., Donald, E., Krishnamoorthy, M. and Stavenga, H. (1995). Tourism Economics, John-Wiley. Makridakis, S., Wheelwright, S. C., Hyndman, R. J. (1998). Forecasting: Methods and Applications. 3rd Edition. Wiley. Makridakis, S., Andersen, A., Carbone, R., Fildes, R., Hibon, M. and Lewandowski, R. (1982). The Accuracy of Extrapolation (time series) Methods: Results of a Forecasting Competition. Journal of Forecasting, 1, 111-153. Makridakis, S. (1989). Why combining works?. International Journal of Forecasting, 5, 601-603. Makridakis, S. and Winkler, R. L. (1983). Averages of Forecast. Management Science, 29, 987-996. Mason, P. (2003). Tourism: Impacts, Planning and Management, Butterworth - Heinemann. Ramos, A. D. & Jimѐnez, P. S. (2008). Tourism development: economics, management and strategy. Nova Science Pub. Rosselló, J. (2001). Forecasting Turning Points in International Visitor Arrivals in the Balearic Islands. Tourism Economics, 7, 365-380. Smeral, E. (2004). Long-term Forecasts for International Tourism. Tourism Economics, 10, 145-166. Sinclair, T. M.,Stabler, M. (1997). The Economics of Tourism, Routledge. Song, H. and Li, G. (2008). Tourism Demand Modelling and Forecasting - A review of Recent Research. Tourism Management, 29(2), 203-220. Song H., Turner, L. (2006). Tourism Demand Forecasting. International Handbook on the Economics of Tourism, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 89-114. Song, H., Witt, S. F. (2000). Tourism Demand Modeling and Forecasting: Modern Econometric Approaches, Elsevier Science Ltd. Sheldon, P. (1993). Forecasting tourism: expenditures versus arrivals. Journal of Travel Research, 22 (1), Summer, 13-20. State Statistical Office. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, Skopje, various years. Stabler, M., Papatheodorou, A. & Sinclair, T. M. (2010). The economics of tourism. Taylor & Francis. Turner, L. W. and Witt, S. F. (2001a). Factors Influencing Demand for International Tourism: Tourism Demand Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling. Tourism Economics, 7, 21-38. Turner, L. W. and Witt, S. F. (2001b). Forecasting Tourism Using Univariate and Multivariate Structural Time Series Models. Tourism Economics, 7, 135-147. Wilkinson, P. (1997). Tourism Planning on Islands. New York, Cognizant Communications. Williams, A. and Shaw, G. (1991). Tourism and Economic Development, Belhaven Press. Witt, S. F. and Song, H. (2002). Forecasting Tourism Flows. In Lockwood, A. and Medlik, S. (Eds.). Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century, 106-118. Witt, S. F., Song, H. and Wanhill, S. P. (2004). Forecasting Tourism-generated Employment: The case of Denmark. Tourism Economics, 10, 167-176. Witt, S. F., Newbould, G. D., Watkins, A. J. (1992). Forecasting domestic tourism demand: application to Las Vegas arrivals data. Journal of Travel Research, 31 (1), Summer, 36-41. Witt, S. F., Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and Forecasting Demand in Tourism. Academic Press.

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УДК: 656.1:502.5(497.761)

ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА ОДРЖЛИВИТЕ ВИДОВИ НА ПРЕВОЗ ВО НП МАВРОВО Васка АТАНАСОВА, Иле ЦВЕТАНОВСКИ, Никола КРСТАНОСКИ, Душица ТРПЧЕВСКА АНГЕЛКОВИЌ vaska.atanasova@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, ile.cvetanovski@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, nikola.krstanoski@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, d.trpcevska@app.gov.mk АПСТРАКТ Националните паркови се простори од посебно значење со својата научно –истражувачка, туристичко рекреативна и воспитно образовна намена, и се подрачја од посебен интерес за Републиката. Во таа насока во овој труд ќе биде прикажано истражување поврзано со НП Маврово, приказ на проблемите поврзани со постојната сообраќајна инфраструктура и транспортната побарувачка за превоз, како и перспективите за одржливите видови на превоз. Клучни зборови: НП Маврово, одржливи транспортни системи, перспективи

PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT MODES IN THE NATIONAL PARK OF MAVROVO Vaska ATANASOVA, Ile CVETANOVSKI, Nikola KRSTANOSKI, Dushica TRPCHEVSKA ANGELKOVIK vaska.atanasova@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, ile.cvetanovski@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, nikola.krstanoski@tfb.uklo.edu.mk, d.trpcevska@app.gov.mk

ABSTRACT National parks are spaces with special interest in its scientific – research, touristic recreational and educational purpose and places of special interest for the Republic. Research will be shown in this article regarding the National Park of Mavrovo, view of problems related to existing traffic infrastructure and transport demand as well as perspective for sustainable transport modes. Keywords: Mavrovo National Park, sustainable transport systems, perspectives

ВОВЕД Планирањето на намената на земјиштето и обезбедување на непречен развој и повисок квалитет на живеење на било кој простор директно е врзано со планирањето на сообраќајната инфраструктура кој треба да биде во функција на тој развој. Квалитетната сообраќајна мрежа не само што го овозможува непреченото функционирање на дадениот простор, туку и создава услови за унапредување на истиот. Така главен фактор за развој на секоја територија е постоењето и поврзаноста на квалитетна сообраќајна инфраструктура со околните области. Националните паркови се заштитени подрачја кои се вистински презентер на природните богатства и атракции. Националниот Парк Маврово (НПМ) е лоциран во северо‐западниот дел на Република Македонија, на тромеѓето помеѓу Република Албанија, Република Косово и Република Македонија.

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ПРИРОДНИ РЕСУРСИ И КОРИСТЕЊЕ НА ЗЕМЈИШТЕТО ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА NATURAL RESOURCES AND LAND USE IN HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS

ПОСТОЈНА СОСТОЈБА НА СООБРАЌАЈНАТА ИНФРАСТРУКТУРА ВО НП МАВРОВО Патната инфрастуктура во Националниот парк е релативно добро развиена, меѓутоа изостанува квалитетот на инфраструктурата, која е стара и дотраена. Регионалната мрежа на општината ја сочинуваат магистралниот пат А2 (Скопје-Охрид) и регионалните патишта Р1202 (Маврово-Дебар), Р2235 (пат кој го обиколува Мавровското езеро), Р2238 (Маврово-Галичник) и Р2246 (од Бошков мост до раскрсницата кај што се врти за Лазарополе). Магистралниот пат А2 во еден дел во близина на Маврово се двои од каде што почнува регионалниот пат Р1202 кој води се до Дебар. Сите населени места во Паркот се поврзани со локални патишта, со исклучок на селото Жужње.

Фотографија 1 и 2. Стари, дотраени делници (фотографија 1), тесно грло на регионалниот пат Р2235 (фотографија 2) пат кој го обиколува Мавровското езеро (фотографирани на 20.07.2013год.)

На територијата на Паркот има доста развиена патна мрежа од планински и земјени патишта. Иако населените места околу Ростуше се поврзани со алсфалтни патишта ширината на патот е околу 3м и е недоволна за да се разминат две коли. Причина за лошата инфраструктура на локалните патишта е слабата населеност на селата. Само третина од вкупно локалните патишта се асфалтирани што преставува пречка за непречено одвивање на сообраќајот. Регионалниот пат Маврово – Дебар е главна сообраќајна линија во долината на реката Радика. Од автобуската станица од Скопје, постојат неколку редовни автобуски линии за Националниот парк и населените места во истиот. Тоа се линии кои транзитираат низ паркот и продолжуваат кон Дебар и кон Гостивар. Причина за лошата инфраструктура на локалните патишта е слабата населеност на селата. Само третина од вкупно локалните патишта се асфалтирани што преставува пречка за непречено одвивање на сообраќајот. Регионалниот пат Маврово – Дебар е главна сообраќајна линија во долината на реката Радика. Причина за лошата инфраструктура на локалните патишта е слабата населеност на селата. Само третина од вкупно локалните патишта се асфалтирани што преставува

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пречка за непречено одвивање на сообраќајот. Регионалниот пат Маврово – Дебар е главна сообраќајна линија во долината на реката Радика.

Фотографија 3 и 4. Пример на тесни, стрмни, и оштетени делници со кривини во карпа на локалните патишта кон селата Врбјани (фотографија 3) и Видуше (фотографија 4), фотографирани на 20.07.2013год.

Од автобуската станица од Скопје, постојат неколку редовни автобуски линии за Националниот парк и населените места во истиот. Тоа се линии кои транзитираат низ паркот и продолжуваат кон Дебар и кон Гостивар. Железничка линија не е достапна до НП Маврово, туку само до Гостивар. Затоа, автобускиот превоз е единствен вид на јавен превоз кој може да се користи за да се стигне до Националниот парк Маврово. Особено е проблематичен посебно во зимски услови превозот од Маврови Анови до с. Маврово, односно до Ски центарот Заре Лазаревски (фотографија 2). Во Националниот Парк Маврово од хоризонтална сигнализација можат да се забележат само надолжните ознаки, и тоа само на главните патни правци (магистралниот и регионалните патишта). Вертикалната сигнализација е сиромашна, и ја има само на поглавните крстосници. На територијата на Паркот постои огромен потенцијал на патеки кои можат да бидат ставени во функција на туристичка експлоатација. Најголемиот дел тоа се патеки кои како траси се уште постојат на терен, во минатото биле интензивно користени како комуникации помеѓу населените места и местата каде што се одвивале стопанските или друг тип на активности. Тоа се стари шумски патишта, патеки користени од локалното население, итн. Во рамките на активностите на ЈУ Национален Парк Маврово, се работи на уредување и дополнување на два вида туристички патеки: пешачки и велосипедски. Туристичките патеки се распространети во регионите: Галичник, Горна Река, Маврово, Леуново, Скудриње и Ростуше. Моментално, патеките кои се во употреба се со должина од 500 км.

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Фотографија 5 и 6. Оштетена вертикална сообраќајна сигнализација на регионалниот пат Р2235 (фотографија 5) и неасфалтирана делница во С. Јанче кон Галичник (фотографија 6), фотографирани на 20.07.2013год.

SWOT (Strengts – сили, Weaknesses – слабости, Opportunities – можности, Threats – закани) АНАЛИЗА НА НП МАВРОВО ОД СООБРАЌАЕН АСПЕКТ Секое подрачје си има свои силни и слаби страни. Тоа се факти кои се за моменталната состојба. Меѓутоа, истите тие подрачја имаат неискористени потенцијали кои создаваат простор за дополнителни интервенции со цел подобрување на постојната состојба. Секако, постојат и ризици (закани) од спроведувањето на тие интервенции. Во продолжение е направена SWOT анализа на националниот парк Маврово од сообраќаен аспект, односно каква е состојбата, што може да се преземе за подобрување на сообраќајната инфраструктура, и кои се заканите од реализација на предлог решенијата. Сили (Strenghts) Добра распространетост на сообраќајната мрежа Пристап до секое населено место

Слабости (Weaknesses) Недоволен квалитет на сооб. инфраструктура

Атрактивен транзитен итинерер

Отежнато одвивање на сообраќајот во зимски услови

Воведување на транзитна и туристичка такса

Отежнато движење на товарни возила поради големи надолжни наклони Непостоење на паркинг простор за Ски центарот Недоволна хоризонтална и

Уредување на паркинг простори

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Неасфалтирани локални патишта

Можности (Opportunities) Доволен простор за проширување на сообраќајната мрежа Простор за отворање на трета лента

Создавање дополнителни извори на приходи од инфраструктурни објекти

Закани (Threats) Нерешени имотно правни односи Непочитување на урбанистичко планирање Можно демотивирање на туристите од туристичка такса Деградирање на животната средина


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

вертикална сигнализација Слаба соработка меѓу централната и локалната власт

ЦЕЛИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ НА ПРОСТОРЕН РАЗВОЈ Денес, во оваа доба, се се врти околу економските придобивки од реализацијата на некој проект. За секое планирано решение, се прави т.н. Cost – Benefit анализа (анализа на трошоци и добивки) за да се утврди колку треба да се вложи, а колку ќе се добие од тоа вложување. Секое планирање, проектирање и реализација на проекти се базира на придобивките кои ќе произлезат од истите. Една од основните цели и перспективи на просторниот развој на НП Маврово е тоа дека НП Маврово мора да стане центар со добра сообраќајна поврзаност. Сообраќајните цели пак претставуваат насочувачи на тоа кон што се тежи во развојот на сообраќајниот систем и кои проблеми треба да се решат. Тие може да бидат краткорочни и долгорочни. Тие се насочени кон: • обновување и доизградба на делниците кои се од стратешко значење (конкретно регионалните патишта, посебно делот кон Ски центарот односно обиколницата на Мавровското езеро, недовршена делницата од С.Јанче до Галичник, недоизградена 15- тина километарска делница од С.Гари до Кичево, со што би се растоварил и товарниот сообраќај) • надминување на лошата состојба на патната инфраструктура (вклучувајќи ја и локалната сообраќајна мрежа почнувајќи од Реканскиот регион) • постигнување поголема ефикасност во сообраќајниот систем, • обезбедување подобра пристапност во просторот, • подобрување на безбедноста, • заштита на околината, • намалување на бучавата во НП Маврово • толерантност и одржливост на сообраќајните решенија ПРЕДЛОГ РЕШЕНИЈА ЗА РАЗВОЈ Како концепти за развој се предложени неколку предлог решенија. • Воведување на транзитна и туристичка такса на влезно – излезните правци на Националниот Парк која има свои предности: вработување, создавање на дополнителни извори на приходи кои ќе се користат за плаќање на работниците и за инфраструктурни проекти, ограничување на движењето во зимскиот период кога има зголемена побарувачка за движење и секако демотивирање на туристите да користат индивидуален превоз и да се свртат кон јавниот, што е економска придобивка за самите туристи, за предлог – решението за воведување на јавен превоз, како и за животната средина (намалена емисија на издувни гасови); • Канцеларии за нудење информации и туристичка помош (IAT) е предлог решение кое ќе придонесе во зголемување на атракцијата на туристи во паркот преку разни маркетиншки кампањи, излегување во пресрет на туристите, помош при резервирање во хотели и преноќишта, продажба на сувенири, организирање на прошетки, промоција на туристичките патеки, мапи, итн. и ова предлог

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решение ќе генерира вработување на лица кои ќе работат во туристичкиот информативен центар и туристички водичи. Реконструкцијата на сообраќајната инфраструктура ќе придонесе за зголемена употреба на магистралните и регионални сообраќајници кои минуваат низ паркот, што ќе генерира дополнителни приходи од евентуалното воведување на наплатни рампи, зголемен профит на хотелите, рестораните и бензинските пумпи. Воведувањето на трета сообраќајна лента значително ќе го олесни одвивањето на сообраќајот. Исто така, поради проширување на коловозот ќе се олесни чистењето на снегот од коловозот во зимскиот период кога сообраќајната побарувачка е и најголема. Реконструкцијата и доградбата на локалната сообраќајна мрежа ќе придонесе за полесен пристап кон населените и раселените места. Добрата сообраќајна инфраструктура може да привлече и индивидуални инвестиции од раселените жители од овој дел на Македонија. Воведувањето на редовен линиски превоз од и до с. Маврово од главниот град е проект од кој корист ќе имаат превозниците, локалното население и туристите. Употребата на индивидуален превоз до и од Националниот парк значително би се намалила, бидејќи јавниот превоз е и економски поисплатлив. Уредување на паркинг простор за ски центарот Заре Лазаревски е еден круцијален проблем кој треба да се реши во што пократок рок. Напливот на туристи во екот на зимската ски сезона и немањето на доволен паркинг простор резултира со стеснување на просторот за динамичко одвивање на сообраќајот како и создавање на метежи во утринските и попладневните часови. И од овој предлог – проект ски центарот би имал корист, бидејќи би наплаќал одредена количина на парични средства за употреба на паркинг просторот. Исто така, уредениот паркинг простор би вработил барем 2 лица. Големиот неискористен потенцијал на НП Маврово секогаш нуди простор за дополнување на туристичката понуда. Како предлог решенијата, се нови патеки за пешачење и велосипедизам, кои минуваат во простори кои досега не биле експлоатирани. Овие предлог решенија се во областите Бродец, Нистрово, Жировница, Св. Јован Бигорски, Бошков мост и Селце. Зголемената туристичка понуда ќе придонесе за привлекување на поголем број туристи и организирање на планински маратони и екстремен планински велосипедизам. Потенцијалот на Мавровското езеро досега се користи само за енергетски цели. Како предлог решение е понудено воведување на воден туризам –туристички брод кој ќе се користи како јавен превоз и како туристичка атракција. Овој вид на туризам би можел да функционира само во летниот период бидејќи во зима езерото е замрзнато. Имплементирањето на ова предлог решение ќе резултира во заживување на туризмот во летниот период и вработување на неколку лица (капетан, туристички водач, итн.). Воведувањето на индивидуален езерски сообраќај за туристички цели како педалинки, скутери и кајаци дополнително ќе придонесат за збогатување на туристичката понуда и за развој на летната сезона.


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Слика 1. Идејни решенија за езерски линиски превоз

Туристичките тури околу Мавровско езеро се поефтина и поисплатлива алтернатива на водниот туризам. Имено, се предложува воведување на туристички тури околу Езерото со минибус (можеби и двокатен автобус) или електричен туристички воз. И ова предлог решение ќе вработи неколку лица, но за негова реализација се потребни помалку инвестиции. Туристичкиот воз / автобус може да го користи и локалното население како јавен превоз.

Слика 2. Маршута на линија на туристички возила

ЗАКЛУЧОК Во согласност со препораките од Белата Книга (White Paper on European Transport Policy: “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide”, COM(2001) 37) и според Commission’s Communication “Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment” [COM(2004) 60 final], за визијата за одржлив транспорт за остварување на целите и

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перспективите, односно за надминувуње на проблемите потребно е да се реализираат следните предлози: • модернизација, обновување и проширување на сообраќајната инфраструктура • доизградба на сообраќајни делници • воведувањето на трета сообраќајна лента • реконструкција и доградба на локалната сообраќајна мрежа • воведувањето на редовен линиски превоз (од и до с. Маврово од главниот град, со конкурентни цени) • зголемување на бројот на паркинг места (паркинг простор за Ски центарот Заре Лазаревски) • воведувањето на индивидуален езерски сообраќај за туристички цели (како педалинки, скутери и кајаци) • воведување на туристички тури околу Мавровско езеро со минибус (можеби и двокатен автобус) или електричен туристички воз. • ограничен пристап на индивидуалните возила односно промовирање на порационална употреба на приватните автомобили, фаворизирање на почисти, потивки и енергетско-ефикасни возила со погон на алтернативни горива или обновливи горива • почитување на препораките од ЕУ за Еуростандардите на товарните возила • воведување на нови патеки за пешачење и велосипедизам и зајакнување на улогата на не-моторизираниот транспорт (пешачење и велосипедизам) и кај локалното население • постигнување на најефикасна употреба на земјиштето • менаџирање на транспортната побарувачка преку употребата на економски инструменти и планови за промена во однесувањето и менаџмент на мобилноста • негово активно менаџирање на интегриран начин со учество на сите инволвирани страни • дефинирање на мерливи краткорочни, среднорочни и долгорочни цели со ефективен систем за мониторинг. КОРИСТЕНА ЛИТЕРАТУРА Илиевска, Н., ИНДУСТРУЈА, РУДАРСТВО, ИНФРАСТРУКТУРА И ЗАШТИТА НА ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ВО ОПШТИНА МАВРОВО И РОСТУШЕ, Скопје, 2009 Ристески, Љ., ПРОЦЕНКА НА КУЛТУРНИТЕ ВРЕДНОСТИ ВО РАМКИТЕ НА НАЦИОНАЛНИОТ ПАРК „МАВРОВО“, Скопје, 2010 Циривири, К., УРЕДУВАЊЕ НА ПАТЕКИ ЗА ПЛАНИНСКИ РЕКРЕАТИВЕН ТУРИЗАМ ВО НАЦИОНАЛНИОТ ПАРК МАВРОВО, Скопје, 2011 ЈУ НП Маврово, ОПШТ ПЛАН ЗА ОДРЖЛИВО УПРАВУВАЊЕ СО ШУМИТЕ ВО НАЦИОНАЛНИОТ ПАРК „МАВРОВО,“ВАЖНОСТ 2012-2021, Маврови Анови, 2011 Несторовски, Љ., УЛОГАТА НА ШУМАРСТВОТО, ЗЕМЈОДЕЛСТВОТО И ПАСИШТАТА ВО СОЦИОЕКОНОМСКИОТ РАЗВОЈ ВО НП „МАВРОВО“, Скопје 2009 Атанасова, В., Детелбах, С., Марковиќ, Л., ПРИРАЧНИК PTV Vision VISUM, ТФБ 2012 PTV AMERICA, VISUM User Manual, April 2001 www.npmavrovo.com.mk Закон за заштита на културното наследство, 2004 www.wikipedia.org www.commons.wikimedia.org Сопствени истражувања

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845(497.7:23)

РЕГИОНАЛНА РАСПРОСТРАНЕТОСТ НА РУРАЛНИОТ ТУРИЗАМ ВО РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ ПОДРАЧЈА НА РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА Никола В. ДИМИТРОВ, Нако ТАШКОВ, Дејан МЕТОДИЈЕСКИ

Факултет за туризам и бизнис логистика – Гевгелија, Унвиерзитет „Гоце Делчев“ - Штип АПСТРАКТ Во трудот ќе стане збор за руралниот туризам, односно неговата регионална разместеност гледано од аспект на планските статистички региони. Ќе бидат опфатени поважните рурални населби во ридскопланинските подрачја кои го практикуваат руралниот туризам, со своите специфичности – разлики и сличности. Учеството на локалното население, поврзаноста со општините и регионот, формите на здружување, давање на услуги, промоција и др. се составен дел од трудот, во кој ќе биде даден табеларен и картографски приказ од истражувањето. Клучни зборови: рурален туризам, статистички региони, специфичности, население, Република Македонија ABSTRACT This paper will focus on the rural tourism, and his regional distribution in statistical regions in our country. Important rural settlements in hilly and mountain areas that practice rural tourism will be covered, with its specifics - differences and similarities. The participation of local people, the relationship with the municipalities and the region, forms of association, service delivery, promotion and ect. are an integral part of the paper, which will be presented tabular and cartographic. Key words: rural tourism, statistical regions, Republic of Macedonia

ВОВЕД Во релјефот на Република Македонија преовладува ридско-планинскиот со вкупна површина од 19.853 км² и учество од 79,7%. (Маркоски, 1998) 33. Според тоа, нашата држава се вбројува во повисоките ридско – планински земји во Европа, со средна надморска височина од 832 метри. Овие природни услови се доволен повод за практикување на рурален туризам во ридско-планинските предели во Р.Македонија. Во прилог на ова, говорат и десетината рурални населби во неколку региони, кои неколку години практикуваат определени форми на рурален туризам, со учество на локалното население, делумна поврзаност со општините и скромната промоција. ПРОСТОРНА РАЗМЕСТЕНОСТ НА РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИОТ РЕЛЈЕФ Територијата на Република Македонија е поделена на осум плански региони. Просторната разместеност на ридско-планинскиот релјеф гледано според овие региони е прикажана во Табела 1. Од табелата, може да се забележи, дека најголема површина ридско-планинскиот релјеф има во Пелагонскиот регион 4703,9 км2 со 18,9% учество во вкупниот ваков релјеф, а со најмало учество е Скопскиот регион со 1814,5 км2 со 7,3% учество во вкупниот ридскопланински релјеф. Додака пак, на ниво на региони, Југозападниот плански регион, од вкупната негова површина, 3050,3 км2 му припаѓа на ридско – планинскиот рејлеф, одсносно 91,0%, а со најмало учество е Југоисточниот регион со површина од 1638,9 км2 со учество од 59,7% итн. Од табелата 1. може да констатираме дека во сите осум региони има доволно ридско –

Благоја Маркоски (1998) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, Скопје 33

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планински релјеф на кои можат да се развиваат специфични форми на рурален туризам, кој покрај природната специфика би имал и соодветни културно – традиционални специфики. Табела 1. Релјефна структура на просторот во Република Македонија во км2 и процентуално учество, гледано по плански региони (пресметано од авторите) Статистички Вкупна РидскоРамниплански површина % % планински % % чарски % % регион во км² простор простор Скопски 1814,545 100 7,3 1470,561 81,0 7,4 343,984 19,0 6,8 Полошки 2416,829 100 9,7 2010,677 83,2 10,1 406,152 16,8 8,0 Југозападен 3352,714 100 13,4 3050,318 91,0 15,4 302,396 9,0 6,0 Пелагониски 4703,943 100 18,9 3121,694 66,4 15,7 1582,249 33,6 31,2 Вардарски 4053,455 100 16,3 3531,880 87,1 17,8 521,575 12,9 10,3 Североисточен 2293,682 100 9,2 1897,917 82,7 9,6 395,765 17,3 7,8 Источен 3539,111 100 14,2 3131,021 88,5 15,8 408,090 11,6 8,1 Југоисточен 2743,392 100 11,0 1638,937 59,7 8,2 1104,455 40,3 21,8 ВКУПНО РМ 24917,671* 100 100 19853,005 79,7 100 5064,666 20,3 100

*Без водени провршини. Извор: Благоја Маркоски (1995) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, Скопје, стр.74-78 и 93-96 (стр.316)

ПРОСТОРНА РАЗМЕСТЕНОСТ НА РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИТЕ НАСЕЛБИ

Во кратки црти ќе направиме и опис на Табела 2. во која се дадени податоци за бројот на населби во ридско – планинскиот простор. Од табелата се забележува, дека вкупниот број на ридско – планински населби изнесува 1055 (со учество во вкупниот број населби од 59,4%), од кои најмногу 196 населби (со 18,6%) ги има во Југозападниот регион, а најмалку 72 (со 6,8%) во Скопскиот регион. Исто така, од табелата забележуваме, дека најмногу општини (13) со ридско – планински населби има во Југозападниот регион, а најмалку општини (6) со ридско – планински населбни има во Североисточниот регион. Табела 2. Вкупно општини и населби во ридско – планинскиот простор гледано по плански региони (составиле и пресметале авторите) Статистички плански регион Скопски Источен Пелагониски Полошки Југоисточен Југозападен Вардарски Североисточен ВКУПНО РМ*

Број на општини со ридскопланински релјеф 10 11 9 9 9 13 9 6 76 (90,5%) 84 (100%)

Вкупен број на населби во ридскопланинските предели

Од тоа вкупен број на ридско планински населби

127 218 342 184 185 286 216 192

72 (56,7%) 136 (62,4%) 173 (50,6%) 122 (66,3%) 91 (49,2%) 196 (68,5%) 119 (55,1%) 146 (76,0%) 1055 (59,4%) 60,3% ( од 1750 нас.)

1750 (98,5%) (1777 нас.) 1750 = 100%

Број на останати населби во ридско – планинскиот простор 55 82 169 62 94 90 97 46 695 (39,1%) (од 1777 нас.) 39,7% (од 1750 нас.)

Избор: ДЗС (2008) Номенклатура на територијалните единици за статистика на Република Македонија – НТЕЦ (1.8.8.01 Класификација, методологија, номенклатури и стандарди), Скопје, стр. 53; Владо Поповски, Арслан Селмани, Никола Панов, (2006) Општините во Република Македонија, ИДБЦ, Скопје *Вкупно Општини 84 (100%), од кои 76 (90,5%) се општини кои имаат ридско-планински релјеф. Вкупниот број на населби во РМ во 2002 год. изнесувал 1777 (100%) (заедно со градските населби и десетте населби на град Скопје) од кои 1750 (98,5%) припаѓаат во ридско планинскиот релјеф (заедно со градовите: Крушево, Пехчево, Берово, Дебар, Велес, Штип и Крива Паланка), а останатите 695 (40,5%) се рамничарски населби во ридско – планинскито

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простор (заедно со градските). Остатокот на 27 населби (1,5%) се населби кои се наоѓаат во рамничарски општини и град Скопје.

ПРОСТОРНА РАЗМЕСТЕНОСТ НА РУРАЛНИОТ ТУРИЗАМ Според Н.Димитров и Б.Петревска (2012) 34 просторно гледано руралниот туризам во Република Македонија го лоцираат во 30 рурални туристички зони. Ние на ова, би додале, дека бројот на рурални зони може да биде поголем, доколку развојот на овој вид туризам би се интензивирал. Во тој случај, во Република Македонија, хиерархиски гледано, би се формирале по неколку рурални туристички региони, подрачја и зони, и тоа во повардарието, западниот и источниот дел на државата. Така на пример во Малешевски туристички регион би се издвоитле беровско и пехчевско туристичко подрачје со повеќе туристички зони (Русиново и сл.), потоа во Мариовски туристички регион, со битолско, прилепско и кавадаречко туристичко подрачје и со повеќе туристички зони (Витолиште, Градшница, Манастри и сл.), во Реканско – Мавровски туристички регион со реканско и мавровско туристичко подрачје и повеќе туристички зони (Маврово, Ростуше, Жировница, Јанче, Галичник, Лазарополе и сл.). Ваква и слична елаборација ќе следи во блиска иднина кога ќе се видат и првите резултати од Националната стратегија за рурален туризам во Република Македонија.35 Сепак, во дадениот момент, рурални населби кои успешно практикуваат рурален туризам се: Брајчино, Вевчани, Јанче, Галичник и уште неколку други села, сместување и престој во руралната средина. Во кои активно се вклучени поединци и дел од локалното население, поврзаноста со општините и регионот, но сèе уште не е на завидно ниво. Формите на здружување, давањето на услуги, промоцијата и друго се парцијални, недоволно изменаџирани и слично. Ваквата состохба доведува до заклучок, дека, руралниот туризам во Република Македонија се наоѓа во почетна фаза, со евидентни заложбите за забрзан развој.36 Во прилог на руралниот туризам во ридско – планинските простори се Табела 3. и Карта 1., од која можат да се согледа географската разместеност на руралните општини со ридско – планински релејф, и ридско – планиски населби, руралните развојни туристички зони и рурални населби кои практикуваат и кои имаат можности за рурален туризам. Нашиот генерален став во врска со руралните развојни туристички зони е нивната сеопфатна просторна разместеност на целата територија на Република Македонија, и тоа во ридските, планинските и рамничарските простори, како и одредено преклопување на една или повеќе зони во една или повеќе просторно плански региони. Пример: Пелагониски со Југозападен регион, или Североисточен со Источен регион и слично. Во прегледот дадени се поголем број рурални населби кои повеќе или помалку го практикуваат руралниот туризам, како и населби кои имаат можности и потенција за развој на руралниот туризам. Табела 3. Ридско – планински простор по статистички плански региони, број на населби и општини и предвидени туристички рурални зони во Република Македонија Истражиле, пресметале, дополниле и составиле авторите Плански регион Ридско-планинска површина со

Број и назив на ридско –

Рурални (селски) населби Име на рурална

Име на населби:

34

Dimitrov, Nikola and Petrevska, Biljana (2012) Rural tourism development zones: the case of Macedonia. Researches review of the Department of geography, tourism and hotel management (41). pp. 152-162. ISSN 1452-0133; 35 Национална стратегија за рурален туризмот 2009-2013, Влада на Република Македонија, Министерство за економија, Сектор за туризам, Скопје, јуни 2009; Национална стратегија за рурален туризмот 20132017, Влада на Република Македонија, Министерство за економија, Сектор за туризам, Скопје, 2013 г. 36 Дејан Методијески (2012) Туризмот во руралните средини, Скопје

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учетво во РМ; Број на ридскопланински општини; Број на ридско – палнински населби

Скопски 1470,5 км2 (7,4%) 10 р-п општини 72 р-п населби

Источен 3131 км2 (15,8%) 11 р-п општини 136 р-п населби

планински општини

16 Арачиново, Бутел, Гази Баба, Ѓорче Петров, Зелениково, Петровец, Сарај, Сопиште, Студеничани, Чучер Сандево 11 Берово, Виница, Делечво, Зрновци, Карбинци, Кочани, Македонска Каменица, Пехчево, Пробиштип, ЧешиновоОблешево, Штип

Пелагониски 3121,7 км2 (15,7%) 9 р-п општини 173 р-п населби

9 Битола, Демир Хисар, Кривогаштани, Крушево, Могила, Новаци, Прилеп, Ресен,

Полошки 2010,7 км2 (10,1%) 9 р-п општини 122 р-п населби

9 Боговиње, Брвеница, Врапчиште, Гостивар, Желино, Јегуновце, МавровоРостуше, Теарце, Тетово

Југоисточен 1638,9 км2 (8,2%) 9 р-п општини 91 р-п населби

Југозападен 3050,3 км2 (15,4%) 13 р-п општини 196 р-п населби

500

9 Босилово, Валандово, Василево, Гевгелија, Дојран, Конче, Ново Село, Радовиш, Струмица 13 Вевчани, Вранештица, Дебар, Дебарца, Другово, Зајас,

(селска) туристичка зона

кои практикуваат рурален (селски) туризам

со потенцијали за рурален (селски) туризам

КаршијакТорбешијаБлатија

Количани, Патишка Река,

Сопиште, Катланово, Љуботен, Нова Брезница, Кучевиште, Зелениково,...

Малешевија, Пијанец, ЗрновциПлачковица, Осоговија, Овче ПолеМанговица

Карбинци, Зрновци,

Лесново, Злетово, Радања, Блатец, Мородвис, Радање, Градец, Саса, Владимирово, Русиново, Разловци, Будинарци,...

Брајчино, Пуста Река, Љубојно, Магарево, Трново,…

Маловишта, Цапари, Ротино, Дуње, Гопеш, Старавина, Градешница, Велушина, Беловодица, Тополчани, Смилево, Слепче, Манастир, Зрзе, Мајдан, Витолиште, Отешево, Претор, Крани, Сливница, Грнчари, Курбиново, Стење, Штрбово, Долно Дупени, Дихово, Буково, Нижеполе, Журче, Жван, Железнец, Бабино,...

Галичник, Лазарополе, Маврово, Гари, Јанче, Лешок, Извор, Вруток,

Леуново, Никифорово, Ростуше, Жировница, Требиште, Битуше, Велебрдо, Теарце, Бродец, Вратница, Јегуновце, Челопек, Форино, Боговиње, Брвеница,...

Банско, Смоларе, Колешино,

Дојран, Николич, Коњско, Хума, Серменик, Негорци, Миравци, Водоча, Вељуса, Конче, Подареш, Ораовица, Марвинци, Смоквица, Мокрино, Габрово, Ињево, Дедино,..

Велестово, Вевчани, Зајас, Извор, Самоков,

Скебатно, Куратица, Белчишта, Велмеј, Ботун, Мешеишта, Локов, Требениште, Вранештица, Близанско, Здуње, Девич, Белица, Радожда, Калишта, Елшани, Коњско, Трпејца, Вишни, Попоец,

Пелистер, Долна Преспа, Мариово, РаецТројанци, Пелагонија, Демир ХисарКрушево

МавровоРостуше, Полог,

Бојмија, Кожуф, Беласица, МантовоСерта, Јуруклук Дебарца, Малесија, Јабланица, Кичевија, Порече,


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Вардарски 3531,9 км2 (17,8%) 9 р-п општини 119 р-п населби

Североисточен 1897,9 км2 (9,6%) 6 р-п општини 146 р-п населби Република Македонија 19853 км2 р-п површина* 76 р-п општини 1750 р-п населби

Кичево, Македонски Брод, Осломеј, Охрид, Пласница, Струга, Центар Жупа 9 Велес, Градско, Демир Капија, Кавадарци, Лозово, Неготино, Росоман, Свети Николе, Чашка 6 Кратово, Крива Палнака, Куманово, Липково, Ранковце, Старо Нагоричане

Љубаништа, Горна Белица, Белица, Кнежино, Манастирец , Цер, Новак, Брежани, Пласница, Могорче, Центар Жупа, Коџаџик, Луково, Јабланица, Бороец, Збажди,...

Азот, Тиквешија, ВитачевоБошава,

76 општини со ридско – планински простор

30 туристички зони

ЛипковоКуманово Козјачија

Богомила, Нежилово, Папрадиште, Горно Врановци

Ореше, Согле, Теово, Мелница, Горно Јаболчиште, Конопиште, Ваташа,...

Старо Нагоричане,

Матејче, Липково, Кокино, Герман, Луке, Драгоманце, Ранковце, Конопница, Псача, Клечевце,...

30

130 >

*Без рамничарски и водени површини, Извор: Благоја Маркоски (1995) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, Скопје, стр.74-78 и 93-96 (стр.316); Dimitrov, Nikola and Petrevska, Biljana (2012) Rural tourism development zones: the case of Macedonia. Researches review of the Department of geography, tourism and hotel management (41). pp. 152-162. ISSN 1452-0133; Дејан Методијески (2012) Туризмот во руралните средини, Скопје

ЗАКЛУЧНИ ПРЕПОРАКИ Очигледно е дека руралниот туризам во ридско – панинските поедели во Република Македонија има објективни перспективи, а за тоа говорат податоците за доволен ридско – планински простор во осумте плански региони, довлен број населби кои можат да реализираат разни активности од сферата на руралниот туризам. Генерална препорака би била: Имплементација на разни мерки, субвенции, регреси, донации, концесии и други економски форми како мотив повеќе локалното, но и останатото население да се вклучи во развој на руралниот туризам не само во ридско – планинските подрачје, туку и во рамничарскиот простор. Токму, сите заложби на нашата заедница и сите активни субјекти во туризмот работаат во таа насока, а се надеваме дека и нашиот труд претставува уште еден прилог повеќе. ЛИТЕРАТУРА Благоја Маркоски (1995) Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија, картографски метод, Скопје, стр.74-78 и 93-96 (стр.316); ДЗС (2008) Номенклатура на територијалните единици за статистика на Република Македонија – НТЕЦ (1.8.8.01 Класификација, методологија, номенклатури и стандарди), Скопје, стр. 53; Владо Поповски, Арслан Селмани, Никола Панов, (2006) Општините во Република Македонија, ИДБЦ, Скопје Dimitrov, Nikola and Petrevska, Biljana (2012) Rural tourism development zones: the case of Macedonia. Researches review of the Department of geography, tourism and hotel management (41). pp. 152-162. ISSN 1452-0133;

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Дејан Методијески (2012) Туризмот во руралните средини, Скопје Национална стратегија за развој на туризмот 2009-2013, Влада на Република Македонија, Министерство за економија, Сектор за туризам, Скопје, јуни 2009 Национална стратегија за развој на туризмот 2013-2017, Влада на Република Македонија, Министерство за економија, Сектор за туризам, Скопје, 2013

Карта 1. Рурално – развојни туристички зони во статистички плански региони во Република Македонија

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УДК: 338.483.12:72]:502.5(497.2:23)

ARCHITECTURE OF THE NATURE PARK STARA PLANINA MT. AS A TOURISM POTENTIAL Miomir VASOV 37, Milica IGIC 38, Dusan RANDJELOVIC 39, Hristina KRSTIC 40, Nikola CEKIC 41 University of Niš - The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture SERBIA -18000 NIŠ, Aleksandra Medvedeva st., 14/111

ABSTRACT Architecture of the past of the Balkan area (Stara planina Mt.) that is conceptual articulated in a minimalistic manner, enthralls with its naturalness and unique historical authenticity. Regarded as autochthonous, architecture of old houses of this area crates a specific collection of spatial forms of the same geometry, which reduces the architectonic diversity in formation to uniformity. Yet, such architecture possesses an almost inexplicable ability to provide at least a temporary protection from the “urban pollution” with its archaic appearance, to those who experience it as their shelter, and the last “oasis”. The structural concept of Stara Planina Mt. houses, limited by the availability of locally available materials, from the standpoint of bioclimatic and environmental designing represents a kind of a reminiscence of the past construction habits. The paper will analyze the potential of architectonic reconstruction and revitalization of specific urbarchitectonic localities of western slopes of Stara planina Mt., which, with their authentic appearance dating back several centuries, defy the “new age”, for the purpose of finding and defining the potential methods of “struggle” against their architectonic, geographic and demographic extinction. Key words: nature park, old houses, bioclimatic architecture, revitalization, tourism

INTRODUCTION Stara Planina Mt. is the common name for the north-western part of the Balkan Mountains. It is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Republic of Serbia, at the Serbian-Bulgarian border and it belongs to the Carpathian-Balkan mountain system. Stara Planina Mt. belongst to the type of the young pleated mountains, with many beauties, which are unfortunately insufficiently well known to people. It is also called the Balkans, making the entire peninsula on which the mountain is given the name of the Balkan Peninsula. [6][8] The natural park Stara planina is much more than a potential ski center. The mountain is a veritable treasure island: there are over 1742 species and subspecies of plants (160 of them being endemic), 213 species of birds, 136 species of daylight butterflies, 60 species of mammals and many, many other. Due to the rich biodiversity, it is on the list of Important International Plant Areas (IPA), important International Bird Areas (IBA) and Primary Butterfly Areas of Europe (PBA), on the preliminary list of bordering areas of Biosphere (Man and Biosphere, UNESCO), on the list of habitats having the priority of protection under the Ramsar Convention (wetlands), on the Emeral list (areas important for preservation of 37

Assist. Prof. PhD Miomir VASOV, Eng. Arch, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112. Е-mail: vasov@medianis.net 38 Eng. Arch. Milica IGIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112. Е-mail: mind1989@yahoo.com 39 Eng. Arch. Dusan RANDJELOVIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/112. Е-mail: randjelovic.dusan.88@gmail.com 40 Eng. Arch. Hristina KRSTIC, student of doctoral studies, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/111. Е-mail: hristinaa@hotmail.com 41 Academic, prof. PhD Nikola CEKIC, Eng. Arch. The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. SERBIA – 18000 NIS, Aleksandra Medvedeva st. 14/111. Е-mail: ncekic@yahoo.com

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European environmental network), on the list of bordering regions under protection with the GREEN BELT (IUCN) program, and on the Progeo list of important places of geological treasure in the framework of the European association for conservation of geological heritage. [7]

Fig. 1. Map of Nature Park “Stara Planina Mt.” [4]

Of course, apart from the invaluable natural and eco-potential, that much as it may sound subjective and personal, this area is characterized by its autochthonous, scenic archaic traditional architecture. Therefore, Stara planina mountain is an area with unchanged, it can be said for centuries, architecture which is personified in a home – which is its basic motif. The first characteristic of old houses of Stara planina mountain are their structural systemconstruction. Old hauses conceptually articulated through a multitude of original architectonic details, such as the stone foundation – pedestal, post and pan, and stone tiles for roof cover are the unchallenged. The second characteristic of this autochthonous architecture of houses is their color. The colors of original houses of Stara planina mountain have an aboriginal charm, autochthonous naturalness and power resulting from the minimalistic coloration. The implemented skill of

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using colors on the Stara planina mountain houses is simply fascinating in its simplicity and uniformity. TYPICAL URBARCHITECTONIC LOCALITIES – VILLAGES Balkan mountain (Stara planina) is in spatial and coloration terms a very wide area Fig.1. Considering this fact, the first step of this discursive analysis would be personalization of the locations, formalized through the choice of presented examples of urbarchitectonic settlements, typical mountainous villages. By consulting the available literature – documents, the IACP Project Study “Development of Agro-tourism in the Area of Stara Planina Mt.” created by the experts of the World bank, i.e. pilot project of the Rural infrastructure feasibility and costing study for the Stara Planina Mt. Nature Park, which is a part of the wider Serbia in Situ Agro - biodiversity Conservation Project, done in 2007 by the Institute of Architecture and Town Planning of Serbia, three typical mountainous villages – settlements were chosen: Senokos, Dijkinci and Gostuša, which describe the mentioned document of the IAUS in the following way: The Senokos settlement in the Dimitrovgrad municipality and settlements Dojkinci and Gostuša in the Pirot municipality, included in the Nature Park and tourist region of Stara Planina Mt., based on the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia, Act on protection of the Nature park, Strategy of development of tourism in Serbia, and the Proposition of the Spatial Plan of the Area (IAUS, 2007.). The settlements are located in narrow river valleys and surrounded by the mentioned cadastre municipalities of an extremely mountainous type, with the main resources in mountain pastures (used since times immemorial for pasturage rotation) and in very suitable terrains for Alpine and Nordic skiing and summer recreation (as the most important contemporary development potentials for tourism) with the significant natural value of the Nature Park, which is mostly in the 2nd degree of protection. It is populated of aged Torlak population, which, with the traditional hospitality, held the archaic characteristics of their spiritual and material ethno-culture.[3] Apart from the described principle of choice of locality of village settlements, the second, not less important principle, is based on the deep personal stimulation. Therefore, the coloration authenticity of the old houses on Stara planina Mt. prevalently of family and auxiliary buildings, was explored on the examples of typical Stara Planina Mt. villages: • Senokos 42, Serbia, Municipality Dimitrovgrad, Fig.2 • Dojkinci 43, Serbia, Municipality Pirot, Fig.3 and 4 • Gostusha 44, Serbia, Municipality Pirot, Fig.5 and 6 In area of Nature park Stara planina Mt. there are one types of villages: compact villages. Although it has parts that are called mahalas by families that inhabit them, they occupy less space and form one whole, so they belong to another type. Mahala type of village originates from the need of defense against the Turks. Mahala usually belonged to one family. They were formed on the hills in such a way that they could communicate visually among themselves and thus be informed about the coming danger. Typically compact village are Senokos, Dojkinci and Gostusha. ARCHITECTURE OF TYPICAL LOCALITES – VILLAGES Traditional architecture of Stara Planina Mt. area is very simple and adjusted to the basic needs of its inhabitants. Unfortunately many houses of that Traditional architecture is scarce 42

http://tourismrural.com/serbia/topicdetals-7.33.html http://www.dojkinci.com/ 44 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gostu%C5%A1a 43

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in this region and there are less and less well-preserved buildings, particularly economic, which were first abandoned with a change in the rural economy. The houses are made of materials from the surrounding nature - earth, straw, wood and stone. The most common type of house is bondruk consisting of a wooden skeleton filled with a mixture of straw and mud on a stone basement, covered with stone slabs or tiles. Often, the traditional house is decorated with arches and multi-part windows, and very rarely there are embossed decorations or year of construction on the walls. The most common house is with hip roof, except for the stone house covered almost always with gable roof. On the roof there is usually an attractive chimney covered with stone slabs. Houses usually have one or two bedrooms and a room with a fireplace called "iža". Moravia type of house, one of the most beautiful, is also very common. There is a wooden porch and a chimney called "komin". The fences around households are also very interesting. The massive gates, made of huge laminated stone or compressed in up to one meter wide walls, are very common in Visok. Gates were built with particular attention. They are usually solid wooden with stone pillars and covered, the same as roofs, with stone slabs or tiles. Building of houses is "cheap" and simple and the construction technique is simple. [5]

Fig. 2. Old houses of Senokos (Dimitrovgrad, Stara Planina Mt.)

It can be undoubtedly contended that in architectonic terms the façade and its color are the first things to disclose the character of a house that is the character of its builders-creators (their users – household members). For those reasons, it is no wonder the builders of the time, “self-made architects” decided in a simple and pragmatic way how to “clad” their houses. It originated from the simplicity of living in a symbiosis of locality and nature, and the building logic of builders-creators boiled to fulfilling two conditions: users needs and local climate demands.[1]

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Fig. 3. Old hous of Dojkinci (Pirot, Stara Planina Mt.)

Fig. 4. Old houses of Gostusha (Pirot, Stara Planina Mt.)

The result of such building logic has determined the house and equated it with the family, giving it an attribute of a member of the household and a family protector of kind. The role of a “family sanctuary” assigned to a house (home) as a cult place has not changed up to date, and in the author’s opinion, much as it sounds courageous or paradoxical, will never change. Along the lines of the same logic, applied in an awkward, but very natural and healthy way, the builders chose the colors for their houses-sanctuaries-family members. Some of them, snatched away from oblivion, are presented in Fig. 2, 3 and 4. THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNE AND CONSTRUCTING By analyzing the architecture and coloration of old houses of Stara planina Mt. a conclusion can be drawn that the basic principle of color giving is based on the “nature knows better” principle. By using the coloration range and shades already present in their natural environment, the builders-creators confirm the previous assumption. Natural macrogeographic and micro-location characteristics of analyzed are leave a strong coloration mark to the latter house architecture.

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We must observe geography and our position on this planet as an inevitability and start the construction with this in mind. By this, we sustain continuity. Preservation of continuity is not an ‘ism’, nor anyone’s patriotism but a logical, necessary and conditioned behavior if we care about reason, and not about fancy and cheap exhibitionism. The marriage of contemporary and inherited and their fusion is the most difficult but the most valuable thing in the culture of a people.[2]

Fig. 5. The mimicry principle

Hypothetically, coloration and choice of colors, of old houses of the presented locales analyzed in this paper are probably based on two principles: The first principle– the mimicry principle, Fig.5: It is reflected in the very successful “imitation” that is, in adapting of houses to their surroundings, creating in this way an effect of “mimicry” blending with the environment Fig. 5. This principle allows for the primeval requirement that a house is a sanctuary and shelter from natural and other influences. The roofs of the houses on Stara Planina Mt. covered by stone plates and the walls plastered with mud almost “perfectly conceal” a house, allowing it in this way to be a safe refuge for its dwellers. This natural phenomenon related to flora and fauna in this way obtained an analogy in building activities. Such permanent or temporary similarity in form, color and other external features with the surrounding clearly determines architecture of the outer skin of the houses on Stara Planina mountain, and it can be: earth color, wood color and stone color. The second principle – material availability principle, Fig.6: This principle is a logical consequence of the previous one. Namely, imitation of color is directly related to “imitation” of the material in the immediate environment. Therefore, morphological-geological heritage and natural materials which were on hand determine coloration of the houses on Stara Planina Mt. Fig.6. Materials which can be characterized as archetype or original model dominate architecture of these houses. The space characterized by four primordial elements, stone, wood, earth and water more than axiomatically determine the coloration of the existing houses and of other architectonic structures. As an exception that proves the rule, occurrence of white facades is a result of evolution and usage of limestone for architectonic-construction purposes. The first use of lime was probably whitewashing of houses, which was used to send a clear message of bonhomie, sincerity, pureness and proverbial hospitality of their dwellers. White houses sent a color-coded message of good intentions and of a wish to live in harmony with the nature. ARCHITECTURE AS A TOURISM POTENTIAL Architecture has always played a special role in tourism. Traditional architecture of the Nature Park Stara Planina Mt., in this regard, has untapped potential. The most comprehensive study, on this topics, has been conducted by Dabic D., Maric I. and Pucar M. 508


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during the April and May, 2007 in Institute of architecture and urban and spatial planning of Serbia. Pilot project relise in the scope of two segments: “Rural infrastructure feasibility and costing study for the Stara Planina Mt. Nature Park”, which has been issued for development with the Ministry of agriculture, forestry and waterpower engineering of the Government of the Republic of Serbia as a customer, as a part of a wider Serbia in Situ Agro - biodiversity Conservation Project, as well as relies primarily on implementation of previously verified document IACP Project Study “Development of Agro-tourism in the Area of Stara Planina Mt.”, which had been developed by the experts of the World bank.

Fig. 6. Material availability principle

Researches based on the predicting designe of rational reconstruction of the existing family houses, chosen from three typical mountainous villages Senokos in Dimitrovgrad municipality, and villages Dojkinci and Gostusha in Pirot municipality. The researches results and preliminary designed building, for each mountainous villages, Dabic D., Maric I. and Pucar M. , are presented in paper “ The reconstruction of residential houses for the purpose of rural tourism on the Stara Planina Mt.” – Pilot project and “Residential development and housing houses for family and tourist purpose in rural areas on the Mt. Stara Planina” – Pilot project. Figure 7 shows one of these reconstructed houses in the mountain village Gostucha Model Tip 7-R, Gostucha. [3]

Fig. 7. Reconstructed houses in the mountain village Gostucha [3]

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CONCLUSION Traditional architecture of old villages of Stara planina Mt. with their natural warmth, but also with architecture and spatial forms and coloration, conceptually belong to a kind of a museum of architecture of the past in the open air. By analyzing one segment of architecture of these old houses and settlements of the latter locale, one is compelled to conclude that their spatial-temporal coordinates and urbarchitectonic determinants were, have been and will be constant. This paper is a small contribution attempting to “revitalize” the architecture of these settlements, and return from the state of “hibernation”. The present day hypertrophy of everything and the number of possible to urban pollution, makes the natural coloration of the Stara Planina Mt. houses have a curative and healing effect. The pureness of colors of the old houses of Stara Planina Mt. exhibits naturalness and returns us to the beginning in our quest for our own human identity. Experience like “Bilbao effects”, and -synergy of Architecture & Tourism, is indeed a exciting synthesis of opportunities for future tourism development. This paper is a part of the scientific-research project: "Construction of Student hostels in Serbia at the beginning of 21st century", approved by the Ministry of Science and technological development of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, in Belgrade, January 2011. Project manager, prof. Ph D Nikola Cekić, Grad. Eng. of Arch. The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Nis. Project number: TR 36037. REFERENCES Petrović Božidar; Kuće brdovitog Balkana, http://www.vibilia.rs/srpski/izvestaj/0409/kucebalkana_polmag404_130705.pdf Tošev Snežana; Božidar Petrović, kuća kao otisak trajanja, ISBN-10: 8674320163, ISBN-13: 978867432016, Izdavač: Grafoprint, Gornji Milanovac, 2003. Dragiša Dabić, Igor Marić, Mila Pucar; “ The reconstruction of residential houses for the purpose of rural tourism on the Stara Planina Mt.” – Pilot project, IAUS, Beograd, 2007. Igor Marić, Dragiša Dabić, Mila Pucar; “Residential development and housing houses for family and tourist purpose in rural areas on the Mt. Stara Planina” – Pilot project, IAUS, Beograd, 2007. Tourist guide to Dimitrovgrad and Trn, “The Heart of the Balkan – Time Gate”, Dimitrovgrad, 2010. http://tourismrural.com/serbia/topicdetals-7.31.html http://www.b92.net/zivot/opstanak.php?yyyy=2007&mm=12&dd=27&nav_id=278341 http://www.stara-planina.org/informacije

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УДК: 332.146.2:551.4.035(497.11)

POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS – EXPERIENCES OF SERBIA AND COUNTRIES IN THE REGION 1

Saša MILIJIĆ1, Nikola KRUNIĆ1, Jasmina ĐURĐEVIĆ1 Institute of architecture and urban&spatial planning of Serbia, Bul. kralja Aleksandra 73/2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, fax: +381-11-3370-203, nkrunic@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Mountainous areas in Serbia possess significant, but insufficiently activated development potentials. The paper examines potentials, limitations, achieved development effects and priorities of development of mountainous areas in Serbia, including the comparison with surrounding countries. The causes of problems occurring in the implementation of development projects in mountainous areas of Serbia are pointed out, which are reflected in the form of insufficient coordination of public sector and insufficient institutional, organisational and informatics support, etc. Immediate experiences in the application of modern approach to development are considered on the examples of countries which have achieved higher level of development of mountainous areas (Switzerland, France, Austria, etc.). The paper presents common determinants of strategy of sustainable development of mountainous areas related to the need of harmonization of nature protection and tourism development, as well as to the specificities of national development policies and their implementation. Critical analysis of the applied models and concepts of mountain tourism development which are frequently different both in terms of the size and function of mountainous centres and the statuses/regimes of protection of mountainous areas are given. In addition, the paper presents the perspectives of mountainous areas development, depending on the direct impact of climate changes. On the basis of the Alps development experiences, the paper illustrates the importance of trans-border cooperation concerning the projects of development and protection of priority mountainous areas in this part of Southeast Europe. Key words: mountainous areas, development potentials and limitations, tourism, criteria, priorities, sustainable development, mountain centres.

INTRODUCTION Mountain regions cover approximately 34% of Serbian territory (about 29855 km2), however only a small part of their various resources has been activated. Therefore, there is a number of development limitations related to the mentioned areas in Serbia. In the countries with high level of development, mountain areas are regions which do not lag behind other areas and there exist special national funds intended for development programmes, improvement of working and living conditions of mountainous community, as well as the use and protection of resources. Serbian mountains are qualified as disadvantaged areas which are faced with greater problems than other regions 45. Nowadays, Serbia is significantly falling behind the majority of European countries concerning the sustainable development of mountainous areas. There exists neither clearly defined strategy for development of the Republic’s mountain regions nor the system for the management of mountainous areas development. The existing elements of management system are the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS), Tourism Development Strategy and a set of spatial plans for the special purpose mountainous areas and tourism development master plans. The mentioned development documents cannot be adequately applied without economic, social or other 45

Development limitations in Serbian mountainous areas encompass economic, political and spatial marginality, external direction of development, unfavourable demographic and educational structure and emigration of population, conflicts regarding the use of space and management of protection and development, imperilment of economic, social and cultural integrity and survival of population in mountainous areas, lack of infrastructural facilities, insufficiently controlled tourism development, etc.

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policies and measures for directing the process of development, systemic conditions as well as the correlation with them. Potentials and limitations of mountain regions development must be taken into account when defining general and sector strategy of development, drawing up and implementation of spatial plans, as well as when proposing measures and policies, laws and institutional arrangements at international, national and local level. Planned direction of development particularly concerns the sectors such as water resources management, forestry, nature protection, tourism, development of infrastructure, etc. Improvement of development positions of mountainous areas requires treating them as partners with equal rights. Strategy for attaining this goal includes (Walther et al. 2002:4-19): decentralization and possibility of establishment of local institutions for the representation of interests in national political and economic centres, with the state maintaining the right of control and regional coordination; respect of property rights of local communities with regard to sustainable use of resources and the right to compensation, i.e. part of the benefits from the use of natural resources; creation of institutional bases which will respect the interests and provide ”right of voting” for mountain population; and realistic view of specific potentials and needs related to development. MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN SERBIA Differentiation of mountain regions has different approaches depending on geographic, development (socio-economic) and other criteria, therefore it cannot have a universal character. There exist no unique criteria and it is necessary for every concrete approach to differentiation of mountain regions to contain regional and development specificities. In European countries, division of mountain regions is done according to the geographic criteria of elevation and terrain slope, development criteria related to agriculture and tourism (limitations and potentials of development, duration of season, population density, life quality, etc), administrative division or combination of criteria. Based on geographic criterion of elevation, mountain regions are those with altitude over 500 m, and can be divided into low mountains having the height between 500-1000 m, medium-height mountains between 1000-2000 m high, and high mountains with height over 2000 m. 46 According to the development criterion for the needs of agrarian policy, differentiation of mountainous areas is based on the altitude of 800 m, i.e. 600 m in combination with slopes above 18º, based on which special budget funds are allocated for decreasing disparities concerning living and working conditions compared to other areas (Nikolić, 2002:70, Radmanović, 2002:59-60). According to the criterion of mountain regions division based on elevation and development (agriculture and tourism), this value changes, that is to say increases from the north to the south of Europe 47. Mountain regions are of extreme significance for the European Union (EU), since approximately 20% of arable land and 27% of total agricultural land is in mountain areas. 46

This division is conditional and represents average values of potential elevation-based differentiation of mountains, depending on numerous natural factors. In the European temperate zone, a line of demarcation between medium-height and high mountains on average ranges from 1800-2000 m, with the mountain ranking in terms of its height being in proportion to the size of its surface and volume in this zone (which means that mountains with height under 2000 m can be categorized as the high ones, while those with height over 2000 m can be placed in the category of medium-height mountains). This flexibility concerning height-based division of mountains is especially supported by regional geographers and spatial planners (Dabić, 1995; Milijić, 2005). 47 Therefore, the minimal elevation in Great Britain is 240 m, in France 600 m, in Italy 700 m, while in some other countries it is even 800 m (Walther et al.2002:28-29). The fact that over 50% of income from continental tourism comes from mountain areas where there is a high number of mountain tourist centres with developed allyear-round tourist offer (Switzerland, Austria and Italy are countries with mountain areas making up about 50% of the total territory) is particularly important.

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Division of Serbian mountain regions has been done according to the information about differentiation of these areas from other ones in terms of elevation, existence of specific potentials for development and administrative division, that is to say combination of criteria. By analysing the information and applying differentiation criteria, it can be concluded that in the development treatment of Serbian mountain regions, the usual elevation-based division into low mountain (500-1000 m), medium-height mountains (1000-2000 m) and high mountains (over 2000 m) cannot be applied as the dominant areas of mountain elevation zones and their development potentials point to the need of different elevation zoning. The majority of big mountain areas and small separate mountains are in the elevation zone ranging from 800-1300 m. On the other hand, elevation zoning of development activities indicates that the most important elevation thresholds are at the isohypses of 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1500 m. According to the stated criteria, characteristic isohypse for the Serbian territory is 600 m, which separates mountain areas, i.e. the isohypse of 1500 m which, according to the potentials and motives of development, separates the zones of low or medium-height mountains from medium-height or high mountains, but only on condition that elevation zones over 1500 m have enough space and development conditions.48 (Dabić, Milijić 1997) Mountain region of Serbia is defined by the elevation of 600 m and covers 34% of the Republic’s territory in total, with approximately 22500 km2 being in Central Serbia. Regarding their development potentials, high-mountainous areas (over 1500 m) can be singled out, with the medium-height mountainous surroundings (1000-1500 m) having a mixture of internal and external factors of importance for regional development of high-mountainous regions. They cover approximately 11% of the Republic’s territory, i.e. 9680 km2. Owing to their natural and ecological characteristics, landscape qualities, geo- and biodiversity, as well as development potentials, first of all concerning agriculture and tourism with complementary activities, high-mountainous areas represent valuable resources of Serbia 49. PROBLEMS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SERBIAN MOUNTAIN REGIONS Dominant limitations in the sustainable development of Serbian mountain regions can be classified in 5 categories/factors (Maksin et al., 2011): demographic, socio-political, economic, spatial-environmental and sustainable development management. The mentioned limitations manifest themselves differently in every mountainous area, which requires detailed investigations and adaptations of the approach towards analysing and solving problems. Demographic limitations are reflected in depopulation, aging and impoverishment of rural population. Strategic alternative of Serbian mountain regions demographic development is the creation of economic, social and communal conditions for living, survival and work, i.e. stimulation of preservation, settling and return (seasonal or permanent) of population in mountainous areas in Serbia. Socio-political and economic limitations represent the major obstacle for sustainable development of mountain regions. Depopulation of these areas was accompanied by deagrarization, morphological scarcity of mountain settlements, and urban 48

In this context, other mountain areas under 1500 m are either regarded together with those over 1500 m (in case of big mountain massifs) making one spatial totality in the 800-1500 m zone, or they are regarded as separate lower mountains with dominant zones between 600-1300 m (Dabić, Milijić 1997). 49 Some of the high-mountainous areas of national importance are in: East Serbia - Stara Planina (with Vidlič); Kučajske Planine with Beljanica; South Serbia - Krajište with Vlasina (Čemernik, Gramada, Vardenik, Besna Kobila, Dukat, etc); Suva Planina, Kukavica and Radan; Central Serbia - Kopaonik (with Željina, Stolovi and Goč), Golija (with Radočelo and Čemernik) and Mokra Gora with part of Pešter; West Serbia - Pešter, Zlatar and Jadovnik, Zlatibor, Tara and Valjevske Planine; and Kosovo and Metohija - Šar-planina (with Jezerska Planina, Žar-planina, Paštrik, Koritnik), Prokletije (with Junička Planina, Bogićevica, Koprivnik, Hajla, Žljeb, Mokra Gora) and Kopaonik (south part), etc.

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polarisation and concentration, with higher level of concentration of peri-urban and valley villages characterized by randomness and lack of plan (Tošić et al., 2009). The consequences of these limitations are: neglect of mountain regions due to giving advantage to industrialization and urbanisation; lack of long-term strategies and operational programmes of mountain regions development; traffic and communication isolation; lack of awareness about the possibilities of development and economic migrations to the cities because of employment prospects and better living conditions. Spatial-environmental limitations of sustainable development of Serbian mountain regions are related to anthropogenic factors (peripheral geographical and traffic position, low quality and insufficiently built infrastructure; lack of communal infrastructure in settlements as well as public services and urban contents, in addition to inadequate protection of natural values). However, the essential limitations are: • The construction and organisation of mountain regions are characterized by disbalance between tourist capacities and infrastructural and communal facilities in activated areas, on the one hand, and complete absence or unplanned development in unactivated areas, on the other hand. • Agriculture in mountain regions is disappearing with depopulation of mountain villages, therefore there can be no serious conflicts between its interests and the interests of the nature and resources protection. In contrast to demographically vital period when the degradation of ecosystems and land was caused by too excessive rotational grazing and the manner of land cultivation, nowadays degradation of cultural landscape is prominent. This degradation occurs as the consequence of exclusion of big land areas from agricultural production, due to the neglect of grassland with the decline of cattle breeding and abandoning of arable land with the aging of agricultural households. • Exploitation of forests is significantly more intensive than their cultivation. Considering the necessary period of time for natural forest renewal, there is a serious disbalance in their quality and there occurs degradation of forest land. This problem has an indirect influence on other purposes and activities, as floods, avalanches, erosion, frost, winds and storms intensify in deforested areas. • Ecosystems and biodiversity of mountain regions are jeopardized by negative impacts of global climate changes and emission of pollutants in the developed valley surroundings (acid rain, ash and similar). As the new development activity, tourism has not limited the existing activities and interests of local population in mountain regions, on the contrary, it has to a certain degree improved them, especially regarding employment and opening of the market for local products. There are several reasons for the appearance of environmental conflicts in tourism development. They are mainly results of unplanned construction, problems relating to traffic accessibility, traffic modalities, communal equipment and organisation of space. Part of the problem is the consequence of one-sided interpretation of sustainable development of mountain regions, which gives absolute priority to the conservation of nature in spacious protected areas (in national parks, nature parks and reserves). This is opposed to the tendencies in developed countries where efforts are being made to establish the balance between the protection of the most important natural resources and the development of mountain regions, first of all the development of local communities and tourism. The challenge of sustainable development of Serbian mountain regions is particularly prominent in finding the balance between the protection and use of natural resources (Krunić et al., 2010). All important mountains have some kind of status of protected natural resources (or it is in the process of preparation) 50. There is a need for clarification of the concept of 50

National Parks - Kopaonik, Šar-planina and Tara; Nature Parks - Stara Planina and Golija (part of the Golija Park represents biosphere reserve MAB); Special nature reserves - Goč-Gvozdac, Peštersko Polje; localities on Mokra Gora-Tutin (Pogled, Kaljavica and Beleg) and on Prokletije-Dečani (Prilep Mountains, Kožnjar, Maja

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sustainable protection in Serbia, which should, apart from the protection of natural heritage and resources and adjustment of tourist potentials with the regimes of nature protection, include the protection of existential interests of local population and benefits for local communities, as well as the creation of conditions for education, recreation and rehabilitation of urban population in mountainous areas. Considering the demographic problems that Serbian mountain regions are faced with, it can be concluded that the protection, i.e. preservation and settling of population, and conservation of mountain ecosystems and biodiversity have equal importance for their sustainable development. Limitations in the management of mountain regions sustainable development are the result of unadjusted legal and planning framework, inadequate institutional organisation, administrative and economic division of mountainous areas, etc. The consequence of this is uncoordinated and insufficiently controlled development. A special problem represents partial approaching and deciding about the development, starting from municipalities which are interested in the development of their part of mountainous region, to various economic activities the individual interests of which are most frequently unadapted to the interests of the development of other activities and nature protection. The issues of unsuccessfulness of institutional and organisational arrangements in Serbia manifest themselves in the management of sustainable development of mountainous areas. Almost all the previous activities of public and private sector have been inefficient, both in terms of fulfilment of specific needs of the mountain regions population and development, organisation, planning and protection of these regions. No systemic or continuous scientific investigations have been performed in Serbia, nor have the transformation, organisation and planning of mountain regions and settlements been followed. These investigations should be the basis for establishment of norms and standards for the planning of sustainable development of tourism in protected areas and sensitive ecosystems. EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Tendency of mountainous areas development is for the all-year-round tourism to be the mainstay of „mountainous economy”, which stimulates development of complementary activities, above all traditional agriculture and cattle breeding. Sustainable development of mountainous areas in the European Union relies on the multifunctionality of traditional mountain activities and gradual involvement of local population in tourism development. The role of agriculture as the local source of food, employment and income is significant, but it is insufficient for the development of the region and preservation of population. On the other hand, exclusive focus on tourism development increases the dependence on unforeseeable external markets and climate conditions. If development is based on tourism, agriculture and other complementary activities, the risk is diversified and the local economy stronger. Diversified economy based on sustainable use of natural resources represents means of preservation of population and their return to mountainous areas and enables more balanced regional development of the territory (Walther et al. 2002). European countries strive for the activation of all available potentials for the development of mountainous areas and their integration in the regional surroundings. Sustainable development of mountain regions is supported by financial aid of EU structural funds, in accordance with the level of development and integration of these areas. It is considered that Rops); Areas undergoing the process of protection - national parks – Prokletije, Mokra Gora-Tutin; protected landscapes– Vlasina, Mokra Gora and special nature reserves – Suva Planina and Radan-Sokolovica; Areas planned for protection (protected landscapes, nature parks and similar) - Valjevske Planine, Kučajske Planine, Zlatibor, Jadovnik, etc.

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the essential strategic aims of integrated development, protection, organisation and planning of mountainous tourist regions are as follows: stopping the process of depopulation and emigration of local inhabitants; development of dispersedly concentrated settlement network; restructuring and diversification of economic activities, primarily tourism and complementary activities for the purposes of increasing employment and providing additional income for the population; increase of competitiveness of mountain tourism through development of all-yearround offer; improvement and specialisation of agriculture adjusted to the requirements of tourism development; nature conservation and rehabilitation of degraded spaces; use of renewable sources of energy, etc. Tourism represents primary development potential in the majority of Alpine regions, but it is thought that it cannot be the only mainstay of development. Therefore, a great deal of attention is paid to the balanced development and relativization of conflicting interests of tourism, agriculture and preservation of nature and the environment. Development of Alpine tourist region, which encompasses parts of the territories of eight countries, is initiated by the construction of complex and attractive tourist centres, in compliance with strict requirements of environmental protection and the highest standard of infrastructural facilities. Tourism development, construction of infrastructural facilities and building of connections between mountainous settlements and tourist centres have caused the change in the structure of economic activities, preservation and rise of population and narrowing of the gap between the living conditions of mountainous local communities and quality of urban life (Milijić, Dabić, 2004). In some mountainous regions the increase of population is above the country’s average. For only 35 % of households agriculture is the basic economic activity, while for the majority of households it has become additional activity (Zanetti, Arbterjem, 2000). The challenge for sustainable development of mountainous areas, including sustainable tourism, is the contribution to the protection and sustainable use of heritage and environment. The problem occurs due to the potential or manifested conflict between tourism development and protection of natural heritage, resources and environment, or other high priority purposes and functions of general interest. Prevention and relativization of this conflict is achieved by spatial differentiation of protection zones from those planned for the development of different activities and particularly by adjusting the activation of tourist potential to the regimes of natural heritage and resources protection (it is recommended that there should be a complete separation of the zones of intensive tourism development and ski centres from the borders of protected areas, as done in case of the Alps). Sustainable development of mountainous areas is adapted to mountainous systems and regional specificities of countries. It is based on environmental suitability, economic profitability and social acceptability. Strategic planning is the key instrument for the efficient directing and management of mountainous areas sustainable development. Strategic framework for the planning of mountainous areas sustainable development is spatial planning basis. In accordance with strategic framework, first of all regional spatial plan and/or spatial plan for special purpose area, it is possible to establish and realize the strategy of sustainable development and protection of mountainous areas and appropriate sector planning basis. Strategy of sustainable development and protection of mountainous areas includes the following components (CEMAT, 2003; Pogačnik, 2002): sustainable development of traditional (agriculture, based on the production of organic food, forestry and cattle breeding which contribute to the protection of cultural areas and development of villages) and environmentally acceptable activities (primarily all-year-round tourism; protection of natural and cultural heritage). The crucial activities in this process are: establishment of zones with differentiated regimes of protection and sustainable use; adjusting the development of tourist and recreational activities to the natural potentials and limitations, spatial capacity, protection regimes and location criteria; improvement of traffic accessibility and connectivity of

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mountainous areas with their surroundings; development and networking of appropriate infrastructural systems and public services; construction of tourism infrastructure and objects in compliance with the requirements of environmental protection; use of renewable sources of energy; conservation and protection of water resources; multifunctional use of the land which produces multiple effects and benefits (pastures – ski pistes; mini accumulations – water supply, energy, recreation, fire protection, artificial snow; etc.); inter-sector coordination in the implementation of strategy and international agreements and conventions (with the participation of competent institutions and local communities in the management of development and protection of mountainous areas); establishment of funds for the development of high priority mountainous areas and similar. It is thought that for the realization of strategy of sustainable development and protection of mountainous areas the initiatives for their promotion at different levels of management are important. The goal of International Initiative for Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions is the achievement of better cooperation between all actors in the implementation of strategies and plans pertaining to sustainable development of mountainous regions, above all state institutions and organisations, private sector, mountain local communities and nongovernmental sector. Activities related to the promotions and implementation of sustainable development of mountainous areas involve (Mc Guire, Iatsenia, 2002): promotion of programmes and policies for integral view of environmental protection, economic and social components of sustainability; directing the implementation process to the solving of global and key regional and local problems; implementation of the programme of education of actors about conservation and development of mountainous areas; change of legislative framework which regulates the implementation of the programme of public and private investment for the purposes of overcoming limitations of the development of mountainous areas which affect their rural population and urban population in the mountain surroundings; implementation of the programme for the promotion and development of tourism, mountain economy and production of organic food; participation of local population in the process of making decisions which have an impact on the development and conservation of local communities; start of national and international support for investigation, defining and application of criteria related to the land-use, etc. Activation of development in mountain regions has resulted in the construction of complex and, in terms of their offer, highly attractive tourist centres (within traditional settlements or in connection with them in high mountainous areas) with top quality infrastructural facilities, with taking care to avoid making irreparable ecological damage by their construction and especially exploitation. The process of development of mountain regions implies that potential degradation of parts of mountain regions is inevitable, in connection with the construction of infrastructure and stationary capacities, but it can be directed by plans. So far over 600 mountain centres, 70 % of which are in the Alpine countries territories, with the annual number of visitors as high as 80 million, have been built in European mountain regions. The development of mountain tourist destinations must be based on integral planning, with taking into consideration especially economic limitation with respect to financial support and natural limitations, particularly those connected with climate changes. In the next decades global warming could result in the decrease of number of mountain centres in Europe, especially the ones at lower altitudes. According to the estimates, the increase of temperature by just 1°C degree would cause the drop by 40 %, while the temperature rise by 4°C, which is expected at the end of the century, would decrease the number of mountain centres to about 200 of them, that is to say increase the number of mountain centres with summer offer in space. These changes will have an effect on the replanning of the existing and development of new generation of mountain centres.

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POSSIBILITIES OF EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES APPLICATION In the last few decades the list of the countries based on the achieved development level of mountainous areas in Europe has changed. The development problems have been relativized in certain countries owing to solved economic-systemic issues. In other countries, among which is Serbia as well, the development processes have been decelerated by unsolved economic-systemic mechanisms, along with social and political issues. It has become evident that political, declarative support to the market economy does not produce necessary economic and social stability and favourable business climate, and that it slows down development. Contrary to European experiences, apart from the realization of economic and social justification and environmental suitability, the key question in Serbia is how to enable the survival of mountainous local communities in order to avoid complete depopulation of these regions by means of tourism development and other economic activities. This calls for the obligation to analyze previous mistakes and reconsider the approach to tourism development and complementary activities in Serbian mountainous areas for the purpose of real application, not just the declarative one, of European and other foreign experiences in the manner adjusted to specific conditions. 51 In addition, it is necessary to bear in mind the fact that only those plans and projects which are based on European criteria will be the basis of application for the financial support of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), and then the support of EU structural funds. In the process of planning and development of mountainous tourism areas in Serbia, good practise and case studies from European experience have been used, especially those related to the areas with continuous development and efficient tourism development and protection of heritage and sensitive mountain ecosystems. This, first of all, refers to good case studies connected with the development of the Alpine tourist region, where the best results in the mountainous areas sustainable development and sustainable tourism have been achieved. 52 CONCLUSION REMARKS Development limitations of Serbian mountainous areas include spatial, economic and political marginality, external direction of development, unfavourable demographic structure and emigration of population, imperilment of economic, social and cultural integrity and survival of population in mountainous areas, lack of infrastructural facilities, occurrences of uncontrolled urbanisation in tourism development, etc. Lack of integrated approach in the implementation of planning solutions has represented a special limitation, with the prevalence of individual interests in the use of mountainous areas potentials which, as a rule, led to the conflicts regarding the use of space and management of protection and development. 51

Modern approach to sustainable development of tourism and mountainous areas in Serbia should be based on the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas, Strategy for Sustainable Tourism in Europe’s Nature and National Parks, European spatial planning perspectives, guidelines of International Union for Conservation of Nature and World Tourism Organisation, as well as on national experiences in the protection and development of mountainous areas and the experiences of countries with higher level of mountain regions protection and development. The goals of mountainous areas development of different sector policies of the EU, the Alpine Convention, REGIONALALP project and similar need to be taken into account as well. Guidelines from the mentioned EU documents are fully adjusted neither to the region they apply to nor the potentials of mountainous areas development, however their adjustment and harmonization can be realized during their application. 52 The key of success of this mountain region lies, above all, in the achieved continuity of development and cultural tradition which enables creative approach towards the protection and development of mountains and spatial organisation, high level of integration between valley and hilly-mountain economy and balancing of life quality in these areas.

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Serbia has attractive mountainous areas in terms of their development and possibilities for the development of high quality sustainable tourism, taking into consideration ecological requirements and limitations, spatial possibilities and limitations, international standards and criteria in respect to development and protection, i.e. the need for efficient management of these resources. Tourism development in mountain regions is not the antithesis of their protection; on the contrary, these two are complementary activities. Sustainable development of Serbian mountainous areas represents both the relativization of the economic and ecological interests, that is to say the achievement of economic and social justification and the prevention and protection of natural resources and values, and top priority alternative concerning the survival of local population, instead of depopulation of these regions. The aim is for high priority mountainous areas to become organized and equipped in terms of infrastructure and communal equipment in the locations and zones planned for construction, as well as to provide all-year-round tourist and recreational offer, including active engagement of local population. The support to the development and conservation of mountainous areas is motivated by general national interests with the following priorities: stopping migration, keeping population in mountainous areas, enhancement of life quality and employment of local inhabitants, protection and sustainable use of natural and man-made resources, providing conditions for relaxation and recreation of urban population and similar. Activation of development in the mountainous areas of countries with higher level of development of these regions (France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland) has resulted in the construction of several hundreds of tourist centres, with approximately 13000 cable cars and 20000 km of ski trails, in the process of which full care was taken to avoid serious ecological damage as a consequence of their construction and particularly exploitation. In the last few decades the list of the countries in Serbia’s regional surroundings based on the achieved development level of mountainous areas has changed. The process of development of mountain tourist destinations is successfully underway in Bulgaria, Slovakia, Romania, FYR Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, partly in Greece, etc. The experiences of mountainous areas development in the regional surroundings lead to the conclusion that there exists no sole model of development and organisation of mountainous areas, but that it is necessary to be aware of specificities of every single mountainous area and to adapt development concept to the integrated planning concept of wider region and the country. Taking into consideration their potentials, Serbian mountainous areas (especially Kopaonik and Stara Planina) and mountainous areas in the region cannot achieve the attractiveness and development level of Alpine countries mountainous areas, but they can certainly come close in terms of the preservation of natural heritage and quality of service and offer in several high-mountainous tourist destinations. The relevance of mountains with respect to development potentials will increase if they represent cross-border destinations, highmountainous zones (above 1500 m, due to climate changes), priority when it comes to planning treatment and construction of infrastructural facilities. The most important condition for the sustainable development of Serbian mountainous areas will be fulfilled in the future by means of spatial differentiation, i.e. separation of intensive tourism zones and ski centres from the borders of protected mountainous areas, as was timely done in case of the Alps.

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AKNOWLEDGEMENTS The paper represents the result of researches carried out on projects III 47014 „The role and implementation of the National spatial plan and regional development in renewal of strategic research, thinking and governance in Serbia“,“Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change – Mutual Impacts” TR36035 and TR36036 “Sustainable development of Danube area in Serbia” financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES: CEMAT, European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning, Council of Europe, 2003, Document by the Secretariat General prepared by the Spatial Planning and Landscape Division, 13 CEMAT, 2 rev. bil., Ljubljana, 9-15, 119-120. Dabić D. (1995): Prirodni i antropogeni kompleks visokoplaninskih turističkih regija, Prostorno planiranje, regionalni razvoj i zaštita životne sredine 1, IAUS, Beograd, str. 31-44. Dabić D., Milijić S. (1997): Koncept regionalne valorizacije visokoplaninskih turističkih područja za Prostorni plan Srbije, Prostorno planiranje, regionalni razvoj i zaštita životne sredine 2, IAUS, Beograd, str. 13-22. Krunić N., Milijić S., Đurđević J., (2010): Zimski turizam u Srbiji i zemljama u okruženju, Arhitektura i urbanizam, No. 28, IAUS. Mc Guire D., Iatsenia A., (2002): International Initiative for Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions, Partners, Governments of Austria, Switzerland, USA, Intergovernmental organization UNDDP, FAO, Major Groups WMPA and others. Maksin M., Pucar M., Milijić S., Korać M. (2011) Sustainable Tourism Development in the EU and Serbia, No. 67, IAUS, Belgrade. Milijić S., Dabić D., (2004): Prostorni razvoj planinskih područja Srbije, Strateški okvir za održivi razvoj Srbije, IAUS, Beograd, 191-206. Milijić S., Maksin M., Krunić N. (2013): Priorities for Research, Planning and Management of Sustainable Spatial Development and Protection in Serbia. In: 5th Symposium for Research in Protected Areas, Conference Proceedings, 515-520. Milijić, S. (2005): Planinska područja Srbija u kontekstu savremenog pristupa razvoju, Srbija i savremeni procesi u Evropi i svetu, Ed: Stamenković S., Grčić M., Beograd-Tara: Geografski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, Departman za geografiju Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, Odsek za geografiju PMF Univerziteta u Prištini, Odsek za geografiju PMF Univerziteta u Nišu, pp. 1005-1018, ISBN 86-82657-54-6. Nikolić M. (2002): Mesto i uloga poljoprivrede u održivom razvoju planinskih područja Srbije, Planina 2002 raubovanje resursa, odsustvo razvoja, odlazak stanovništva, Konferencija o razvoju planinskih područja, Savez inženjera i tehničara Srbije i Institut za arhitekturu i urbanizam Srbije Kopaonik, str. 69-73. Pogačnik A., (2002): Instruments of regional planning for mountain and coastal zones, Spatial Planning for the Sustainable Development of Particular Types of European Areas: Mountains, Coastal Zones, Rural Zones, Floo-plains and Alluvial Valleys, Council of Europe Publishing, European Regional Planning, Sofia, No. 68, 3739. Radmanović D. (2002): Osobenosti ruralnog razvoja u planinskim područjima Srbije, Prilozi strategiji i politici integralnog ruralnog razvoja Republike Srbije, Institut za ekonomiku poljoprivrede, Beograd, str. 57-65. Tošić D., Krunić N., Milijić S., (2009): Istraživanje prostorne organizacije mreže naselja u funkciji izrade prostornog plana Južnog pomoravlja, Demografija, Geografski fakultet, Beograd, knjiga VI, 175-196. Walther P., Kohler T., Imbach K., Lutz U., Frey L., (2002): Mountains of the world-Sustainable Development in mountain Areas, Mountain Agenda 2002 (concept group), Centre for Delopment and Environment (CDE), Institute of Geography, University of Berne, Switzerland, pp. 4-19. Zanetti G., Arbterjem R., (2000): Regional development and Spatial planning in the Alpe, Project REGIONALALP, Austrian Institute for Regional Studies and Spatial Planning, Bundesamt fur Bauwesen und Raumordnung Deutchland, Ministru of Public Works Italy, Bundesamt fur Raumplanung Switzerland, Stabsstelle fur Landesplanung Liechtenstein, Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning Slovenia.

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УДК: 338.488.2:[621.396.4:004.77УДК:

IDENTIFICATION OF OBJECTS IN MOUNTAIN RESORTS USING RFID TECHNOLOGY Ile CVETANOVSKI, Verica DANCHEVSKA, Vaska ATANASOVA Faculty of Technical Sciences – Bitola, traffic department ile.cvetanovski@tfb.uklo.edu.mk ile_cvetanovski@yahoo.com verica.dancevska@tfb.uklo.edu.mk vaska.atanasova@tfb.uklo.edu.mk

ABSTRACT RFID technology has many implementations not only in industrial systems, and systems for asset tracking but in building automation, too. Application of this technology in building automation relates mostly on building user identification. In paper is given an representation of LonWorks protocol used in many building automation application, as well as description of system in which the RFID technology is being used for user identification. Key words: Automation, identification, user АПСТРАКТ RFID технологијата освен во индустријата, следењето на стоката во транспортот и друго, се повеќе наоѓа примена во областа на автоматизацијата на објектите со идентификација на корисникот, особено во планинските туристички центри. Примената на ова технологија во ова област на автоматизација се однесува пред се на идентификацијата на корисникот на објектот во туристичкиот центар. Во овој труд е прикажан систем кои се користи при автоматизацијата на објектите, како и користењето на RFID технологијата за идентификација на корисникот на објектот. RFID технологијата овозможува ефикасно управување со информациите за движењето на корисникот во рамките на туристичкиот центар. Овој систем овозможува поголем степен на безбедност и истовремено управување со пристапот до туристичките објекти. Клучни зборови: автоматизација, идентификација, корисник

INTRODUCTION In a traditional electrical installation each sensor is connected directly to one or more actuators. A sensor is a command initiator such as a switch, a safety sensor, a thermometer etc. An actuator is a command receiver such as luminary, a window blind, a heating system etc [1]. An installation of this type has the following disadvantages: • no intelligence can be applied; • command receivers cannot be accessed by other command initiators; • connecting of devices is very expensive and permanent. Previously mentioned sensors, are those mostly used in company environments, nevertheless these are not the only sensors sending information. There are: humidity sensors (in rooms), meteorological sensors (rain, wind, temperature change, etc.), safety sensors (fire detection, leaking fluids (water, gas), burglary detection, etc.) etc. In a field bus system to all actuators and sensors are given intelligence in the form of a micro-processor and all are connected to the mains power supply. Where the field bus is not implemented on the power line, the devices are also connected to the field medium. In building automation there is no discrete wiring between command sensors and actuators. This connection is implemented in software when the system is installed. For example a light switch is instructed to communicate with a luminary or a set of luminaries. A brightness sensor is instructed to communicate with a window blind etc.

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COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS IMPLEMENTING IN BUILDING AUTOMATION Many of the different standards and specifications are developed, together with the development of the “home” technologies, PCs and communication networks. Most important and most popular standards and protocols used for this purposes are [2]: • X-10 X-10 Inc., • Bluetooth, • EIB (European Installation Bus), • HomeRF (Home Radio Frequency Working Group), • LonMark Interoperability Association, • UPnP (Universal Plug and Play), • Lonworks Echelon Corp, • HomePNA (The Home Phone Network Alliance), • HAVi - The Home Audio/Video interoperability. LonWorks LonWorks is a commercial networking technology developed by the Echelon corporation, as a universal platform for almost any control system. The technology, mainly the protocol and programming environment were designed from ground up to deal with demands of control networks. The LonTalk protocol is a complete implementation of all 7 layers of the OSI reference model and has not only be embraced by EIA (EIA-709) but also many other standards bodies (American National Standards Institute, ANSI 709.1 - Control networking (US)); EN (EN 14908 - Building controls (EU)); GB/Z 20177.1-2006 - Control networking and building controls (China); Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE 1473-L - Train controls (US); SEMI E54 - Semiconductor manufacturing equipment sensors & actuators (US), IFSF - International forecourt standard for EU petrol stations). LonWorks offers for building automation - a complete platform that includes not just a protocol or a transceiver, but the interoperability standards and a universal software API (Application Programming Interface). The LonTalk protocol supports networks using different media, including twisted pair, power line, radio frequency, infrared, coaxial cable and fibre optic media. To date the most exploited media are the Power Line and Twisted Pair. The bus line interconnects all sensors and actuators of an installation together (Figure 1). Each device on the bus is called a node. A bus line is called a channel and channels can be interconnected using “bridges” and “routers”. The complete network is described as a “domain” and within each domain approx. 32000 nodes are permitted. In LonWorks terminology a control network consists of two or more nodes communicating over one or more media using a common protocol. LonWorks nodes communicate with each other via the LonTalk protocol that is implemented in firmware on the Neuron Chip.

Figure 1. Different devices interconnected in network supported by LonTalk protocol.

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Building network systems today rely on open, industry-specific protocols such as LonTalk, but they increasingly leverage Ethernet and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) for office and home runs back to the control systems (Figure 2). Some systems, such as building security, can support IP from end to end, and Web services may allow greater integration between building automation systems — and with business applications (Figure 3.).

Figure 2. Conventional vs. LonWorks system structure.

Figure 3. Building automation and business application integration.

RFID TECHNOLOGY Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automated data collection system that enables businesses to wirelessly capture and move data using radio waves. RFID tags are useful for a huge variety of applications. An RFID system is an integrated collection of components that implement an RFID solution. Basic components are [4]: • Tag. This is a mandatory component of any RFID system. • Reader. This is a mandatory component, too.

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• Reader antenna. Mandatory component. Some readers available today have built-in antennas. • Controller. Mandatory component. However, most of the new-generation readers have this component built in to them. • Sensor and actuator. These optional components are needed for external input and output of the system. • Host and software system. Theoretically, an RFID system can function independently without this component. Practically, an RFID system is close to worthless without this component. • Communication infrastructure. This mandatory component is a collection of both wired and wireless network and serial connection infrastructure needed to connect the previously listed components together to effectively communicate with each other.

Figure 4. Basic components of RFID system

Implementation of RFID technology in building access control • Company facilities are more concerned these days about having the ability to accurately track their users. RFID technology is a way to manage the information much more efficiently in case of tracking or identifying the individual approaching company building for access permission. • The system can be designed to increase safety and ensure security and access control by placing small radio frequency identification devices, and “RFID tags” on people and objects. • Implementation of this kind of system demands next basic components: RFID reader connected to serial EXT port of PLC with serial cable (Figure 5.). • RFID tag has unique identification number (ID) assigned by manufacturer. This number can not be changed later. Tag is read-write type. It has 64 memory blocks consisting of four bytes, two of witches are reserved for ID number, and the rest of 62 can be written. One block defines the user of RFID tag. One block defines company facility access. PLC FC 440

RFID reader RFID tag

RS 232 Figure 5. Basic components of building access control system

For building entry value 1 is written in this block, and for exiting this location value 0 is written in this block. Date of entry/exit is written in four memory blocks, while the time of entry/exit is written in tree memory blocks. This data refers to the date and time of entry/exit company facility access door.

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Working principle of designed access control system is next: user, after approaching a door of a facility and unlocking it, puts an RFID tag near the RFID reader (at distance of maximum 7 cm.). RFID reader reads a block in witch the user is defined, block in witch is defined whether the user is in or out of the facility and date and time of last entry/exit of the facility. If the user data is valid and user is out of the facility (value in block, V=0), date and time of entry is written in a block, as well as data of user entering the facility (value in block V=1). Relay i.e. electromagnetic lock enabling entering facility is been activating. In the similar way is enabling user exiting facility. CONCLUSION RFID technology has many implementations not only in industrial systems, and systems for asset tracking but in building automation, too. Application of this technology in building automation relates mostly on building user identification. In existing building automation system, which in most cases has LonWorks protocol implementation, user identification system can be simply achieved by adding a RFID reader and a relay for electronic lock activation on available LonWorks network infrastructure. REFERENCE Konjević P, Ostojić G, Stankovski S, "Bus Systems in Residental Environments", 13 th Scientific Conference on Industrial Systems, Proceedings, 2005., pp. 221- 230. Cook, Diane; Das, Smart Environments: Technology, Protocols and Applications, Wiley-Interscience, 2004 Hura S, Kima D, Park G, "Building automation system via LonWorks and Linux based personal computer",Automation in Construction 15, 2006., pp. 522 – 530. Lahri S, RFID Sourcebook, IBM Press, 2006

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УДК: 332.12.055.2:338.49(497.11)

THE ROLE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE REVITALIZATION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN VILLAGES 1

J. BASARIĆ1, J. STEVANOVIĆ STOJANOVIĆ2 and J. PETRIĆ1 Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Sebia, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73/II, 11000 Beograd, Serbia 2 Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade e-mail: jelenabaske@gmail.com, jelenab@iaus.ac.rs, phone +381 3370 109, fax: +3813370203

ABSTRACT Intensive processes of industrialization, urbanization and de-agrarization have contributed to reducing rural population and significantly changed the demographic structure of the village. Huge demographic and socioeconomic imbalances with agrarian reform transform the economic picture of Serbia. Urban population growth causes inanition of hilly mountainous areas with dominant older population. There are developed areas with large scale of production and increased level of migration, on one hand, and underdeveloped rural hillymountainous areas, on the other. For the purposes of economic and social recovery, there is a tendency of resolving issues related to rural development. Besides rural renewal and promotion of agricultural production, there is an important role of modernization of the entire infrastructure associated with service activities. Viewed from the wider aspects, hilly-mountainous areas do not have a favorable geographic, traffic and functional status. Therefore, these categories are not valuated in the best way. Often, there is a need for better functional connections with surrounding neighborhoods and town centers. Hilly-mountain areas are connected by a local network of roads with inadequate surface. Wearing layers of roads are in bad condition and should be frequently upgraded and reconstructed. Quality infrastructure and supporting facilities are of public interest and the population is an essential element in the development of each area. It is important to mention that the network of settlements of hilly-mountain areas is a complex and dynamic system. Therefore, it is characterized by great diversity and differentiation in terms of development and demographic structure, morphology, function and infrastructure in general. Keywords: population, rural, hilly-mountain areas, infrastructure, revitalization.

INTRODUCTION Intensive processes of industrialization, urbanization and de-agrarization are the most important factors which have contributed to changes in demographic structure of Serbia over the last 50 years. The greatest changes in space relate to the planned development of industrialization, initiated de-agrarization and unplanned urbanization. Consequences of such transformation have been most pronounced in depressed hilly-mountain areas, where people have abandoned their former way of life driven by the motives of a higher standard (urban) living. Rural areas in Serbia have also experienced a stagnation of their development in many ways. After a considerable progress in the 1980s, the decline of social standard that followed has additionally intensified rural-to-urban migrations and unfavorable demographic structure. Furthermore, the lack of infrastructure has substantially influenced sustainability of hillymountain areas. The population of hilly-mountain areas has been considerably reduced, while some of the villages have been completely abandoned. One of the key issues and objectives which should be considered as a priority includes the effects of infrastructure on the overall development, especially in depressed and border areas. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate what activities are needed for achieving greater positive effects of improved infrastructure on the development of agriculture, tourism, network of public service buildings, overall economy and social integration of hilly-mountain areas, as well as on the development of the entire territory of Serbia.

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In methodological approach, the infrastructure planning process should reflect main postulates according to which demand and supply of quality infrastructure are interrelated, mutually conditioned and inseparable from economic, social and spatial development of an area. The development of overall infrastructure also necessitates a number of activities which are to be implemented through planning the direct activities aimed at mitigating the problems in the functioning of certain infrastructure systems or improving the accessibility of the same. KEY ISSUES OF RURAL AREAS IN SERBIA Depending on criteria used for defining rural areas, 70-85% of the total area of Serbia and 43-55% of its total population fall into rural category. It is possible to use two criteria for defining rural areas. The first criterion refers to the land use, meaning that rural areas are defined as those whose major physical and geographical characteristics are that the land is predominantly used for agricultural production and forestry. According to this definition, approximately 70% of the country’s territory can be classified into the category of rural areas, in which approximately 43% of the total population lives. The other criterion for defining the rural areas refers to population density. This criterion has been based on experiences of EU countries and defined by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), whereby the OECD categorizes an area as being rural if the population density is below 150 persons/km². According to the OECD criterion, the results show that rural areas account for approximately 85% of the country's territory and their population make up 55% of the total population, with average population density of 63 persons/km². Differences between rural areas in Serbia are conditioned by: geomorphological features, based on which they are defined as lowland, hilly and mountain areas; position relative to the territory of Serbia, according to which they can be defined as central, periphery and border areas; socio-economic characteristics; infrastructure; conditions for agricultural production and development of other economic activities; market connectivity and product placement conditions; environmental conditions; etc. The territorial distribution of the abovementioned parameters and their values, according to which the level of the development of rural areas is identified, indicates unbalanced development from economic, social and demographic aspects. Although the problems of development are particularly pronounced in hilly-mountain parts of south-east, south, and partly, south-west rural areas of Central Serbia, rural communities in the country are facing more or less the same problems: • Negative demographic trends – the problem which exists at the level of the entire country, and is especially pronounced in rural areas; • Migrations – process of rural-to-urban migration exists in most municipalities in Serbia and is accompanied by abandonment of activities in rural areas. The fact is that every fourth village in Serbia is faced by the process of extinction, which is particularly pronounced in hilly-mountainous areas of south-east and south of Central Serbia; • Underdeveloped infrastructure (roads, water supply and sewage system, energy system, public utility infrastructure) and public service network (pre-school institutions, primary and secondary schools, health centers, infirmaries, centers for social care, cultural centers, etc.); • Extensive and mixed farming – most rural areas are characterized by low productivity with low market surpluses and low household income coming from agriculture; • High unemployment rates among the people involved in agricultural production, which are amongst the highest in Europe and small agricultural households; • Underutilization of processing capacities; • Low levels of diversification, conditioned by unfavorable position and treatment of agrarian sector and rural areas in development policies; low ability of rural households to accumulate

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assets; limited market for placement of products and services; insufficient education of population; low level of private entrepreneurship, etc.; • Socio-cultural problems – extremely unfavorable educational structure of rural population, extinction of tradition and customs, including traditional crafts, and degraded architectural identity of villages, etc.; • Poverty – especially pronounced among unemployed older people, farmers in areas that are remote from markets. The poverty rate is the highest in southern parts of Central Serbia; • Environmental issues – The environment is not substantially endangered in rural areas, but landslides which occur due to soil erosion represent a special problem. Environmental impacts of agriculture are not great, but changes in its intensity and in agricultural production structure may damage the environment. Rural area revitalization One of the main problems of development at the national level in Serbia is the issue of village and rural area revitalization. Although rural development strategy has not been adopted at the level of the Republic of Serbia, this issue is dealt with by many regulatory and strategic documents of national importance, such as: Law on Agriculture and Rural Development (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 41/09 and 10/13), Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, No. 88/10), National Rural Development Program („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, No. 15/11), Law on Regional Development („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, No. 51/09), Law on Tourism („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia“, No. 36/09 and 88/10), Agricultural Development Strategy of Serbia („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No. 78/05), Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No. 91/06), Forestry Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia („Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, No. 59/06), etc. Generally speaking, the possibilities of rural area revitalization differ and they depend on: • Geographic position and accessibility – the areas closer to urban settlements, major roads, production capacities, as well as close to the market, have development advantages; • Natural conditions and potentials – elevation, climate, land, forest cover, biodiversity, water resources, mineral resources; • Human and material resources – population size and morphology of settlements, workforce availability and qualifications, economic capacities, infrastructure, development of public services; and • Social capital and interactions – cultural specificities, attitude towards tradition, modernization, horizontal and vertical cooperation, etc. [1]. The revitalization of rural settlements requires an integrated approach to problem solving, which implies preservation, revitalization and sustainable development. This is possible only through implementation of concrete measures and activities related to: improving the Quality of Living (QoL) in rural areas and by encouraging the diversity in rural economies, thereby improving socio-economic structure particularly in remote rural communities; and consecutively raising the competitiveness of agricultural and forestry sector, with parallel protection of the environmental quality. When considering the economic component in the processes of revitalization of rural settlements, it should be mentioned that it is a precondition for overall rural development and an essential element of the development of socio-demographically vulnerable areas and those stagnating or lagging behind.

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DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN RURAL AREAS Rural communities and areas strive for fulfilling important functions in their everyday life both in developed and developing countries. There are many approaches and dilemmas associated with the issue of rural development, and they are becoming ever more topical. The key components of the development of these areas can be singled out as: physical resources, cultural values, area identity, human potential, local and administrative setting, etc. [2]. Sustainability of hilly-mountain rural areas requires the implementation of specific measures and objectives that will affect their overall development. Here, the sustainability implies strategic commitments and different approaches which would enable the creation of socio-economic conditions for an accelerated economic and social development of rural areas and conditions for confronting the depopulation and worsening of demographic and social structure of hilly-mountain rural areas. Furthermore, the realization of local potentials and motivation of rural population for the development and planning of rural areas, improvement of social standards and QoL of rural communities, also play the important role. One of the objectives is to provide economic and social prospects for rural households, as well as to preserve and improve ecological values, cultural and historical heritage, tourism values and other values of hilly-mountain rural areas. Demographic settings and territorial implications in the hilly-mountain areas Depopulation is one of the key factors which interfere with stability of a certain territory. Likewise other countries in its immediate or wider surroundings, Serbia has been exposed to numerous challenges for territorial and other development in the areas that lose population, namely the hilly-mountain, remote and border areas. Hilly-mountain areas are generally qualified as the least developed (according to economic and social standard parameters) and the poorest areas of a country. Of course, latter does not correspond to the natural resources’ base, which is typically abundant here. Still, the population challenge is always an issue for the hilly-mountain rural areas since their human potential is decreasing and such situation is difficult if not impossible to mend. These conditions are relevant worldwide; however, the amelioration of depopulation trends in hilly and mountain areas has a longer tradition in more developed countries, e.g. Austria, Switzerland, Italy and France, where particularly after the 1990s, there is a shift from the main course of agriculture related production and income gain to the policy of an integral rural development [3:45]. The positive side-effect of such shift is also the demonstration that environmental protection does not represent an economic impediment per se, but in contrast, it is the main resource for the rural areas, implying those of the hilly-mountain milieu [4]. In quantitative terms, urban-rural redistribution of population in European and in other developed countries of the world results in approximately 5-20% of their respective population living in rural areas. However, in terms of QoL standards, their rural areas do not differ much from the urban ones. Also, there are special incentives for the mountain and underdeveloped rural regions, which altogether produce positive population feedbacks in the mountain areas, e.g. in the Alps, where the recently exhibited population growth may be even higher than the respective country’s average population growth [5]. This can be illustrated on the example of Austria, whose total population had grown for almost 8% in the period since 1971, and the population of Alpine regions of Austria had grown over 9% in the same period of time (ibid.:4). Certainly, the statistics may be deceptive to a certain extent; therefore when the focus is on population density as a quantitative indicator, Austria as a country had the average density of 96 people/km2 back in the 1990s and, in parallel, its Alpine regions had the average density of 50-80 people/km2. In any case, population density of 40 people/km2 is indicated as a threshold for ‘achieving and sustaining the balance between people and

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resources’ [6:44]. With that in view, hilly-mountain areas with population densities of 40 people/km2 and above have a progressive type of development, whereas the territories with densities below this threshold have great impediments for development, especially in terms of justifiable infrastructure and social standards’ provision. In comparison to the present European average level of urbanization (73%), the share of urban population in Serbia is still relatively modest (59% in 2011). Although urban population in Serbia has been continuously growing, first reflecting the dynamics of primary urbanization process (in the 1950s and 1960s), simultaneously with the processes of politically initiated de-agrarization and emphasized industrialization, and then also with the demographic transition, when rural areas ceased to provide the main source of newcomers to urban areas, a qualitative urbanization (infrastructure equipment), especially in non-urban settlements has been substandard [7, 8, 9]. This largely corresponds to negative demographic picture which is put to an extreme in the hilly-mountain areas of Serbia both in quantitative (number of people and population density) and in qualitative terms (ageing, lack of young population and women in reproductive age, decreased work force potential, etc.). The equation of a downward spiral for population development in hilly-mountain areas of Serbia is simple: with skewed age structure of people living in the hilly-mountain areas, there is a limited interest of investors to create a business there (because of lack in qualified work-force and lack in infrastructure) hence depopulation trends get more profound. Long-term demographic trends and revitalization prospects in the hilly-mountain areas of central serbia According to some previous research [10], the hilly-mountain area of Serbia encompasses territories with altitudes of 600 m and over, mainly covering the border area of Central Serbia in a continuous belt from the south-east, south, and south-west of the country, and in respect to the territory of Central Serbia, it represents a share of 58% of its proper administrative municipalities. Numerically, in Central Serbia there are 67 municipalities (local selfgovernance units) whose territories are partly or in whole encompassed by the hilly-mountain area, and 1,665 settlements in total, which are almost all rural apart from merely 16 settlements of urban character [5]. Municipalities with entirely hilly-mountain terrain – 12 in total (the area of approximately 7,909 km2) represent 20% of all hilly-mountain municipalities in Central Serbia. For the purpose of population analyses, the attention here is drawn to these municipalities, which are located in the south-western part of Central Serbia (municipalities of: Čajetina, Priboj, Nova Varoš, Ivanjica, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, and Tutin), as well as in the south-eastern parts of the country (municipalities of: Dimitrovgrad, Crna Trava, Trgovište, and Bosilegrad). According to quantitative indicators, e.g. change in population numbers, the majority of 12 case-study municipalities has had a negative population growth throughout the period 19612011. However, until 1981 there were 4 municipalities (Priboj, Prijepolje, Novi Pazar, and Tutin) which marked a population growth, whereas after 1991 only the municipalities of Novi Pazar and Tutin have had the increase of respective population, which could be solely ascribed to their younger population and ethnicity-related natural increase of population. Another quantitative indicator of population development is population density, which in 7 out of 12 case-study municipalities has been under 40 people/km2 throughout the whole period of the last 50 years. This is an indicator of their regressive demographic development. Among these 7 municipalities (Dimitrovgrad, Crna Trava, Trgovište, Bosilegrad, Čajetina, Ivanjica, and Sjenica), according to the latest (2011) Census, the lowest population densities have been recorded in Crna Trava (only 5 people/km2), as well as in municipalities of Bosilegrad and Trgovište (14 people/km2, respectively).

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Qualitative changes of population in the hilly-mountain area are featured by natural population growth as a difference between numbers of new-borns and deceased. When analyzing 12 case-study municipalities of Central Serbia which are entirely hilly-mountain, in terms of natural population growth, it can be deduced that the majority (excluding Sjenica, Novi Pazar and Tutin), had recorded continuous negative natural growth of the respective population as early as from the 1980s (e.g. Čajetina, Dimitrovgrad, Crna Trava, and Bosilegrad); or starting from the 1990s (e.g. Nova Varoš, Ivanjica, and Trgovište); or in the new millennium (e.g. Priboj and Prijepolje). This trend indicates that exhaustion of the natural reservoir of population in the hilly-mountain areas started earlier in the south-eastern part of the country, however because of the negative biological component as well as because of economic and political circumstances that affected the country as a whole, depopulation on the account of negative natural growth has spread shortly afterwards to almost all other hillymountain areas apart from those with majority of Muslim population. In the latest intercensus period (2002-2010) according to the vital statistics, it can be noticed a positive trend in municipality of Novi Pazar on the one side, which had a natural population growth of 8,833 people (or 9.5% of its current population), and extremely negative trend on the other, for municipality of Crna Trava, where natural decrease of population in the period 2002-2010 was 520 people (or 31.3% of its current population)! Lower natural reproduction, likewise the increased mortality caused by growing share of old age groups, have been linked to the age structure of population in the hilly-mountain area. Back in the 1960s all case-study municipalities which have been entirely hilly-mountain had a progressive type of population age structure [5]. Some 50 years later, situation has changed in that respect. In most of the analyzed municipalities the share of young population (age 0-19) is now between 18% and 23%. The exemptions are municipalities with larger share of Muslim population (e.g. Sjenica, Novi Pazar and Tutin) which have a share of 28% to 34% of young population. On the other side of extreme, municipality of Crna Trava has only 10% of young population. Conversely, municipalities exposed to the highest ‘senilization’ are: Crna Trava (44% of senior citizens, above the age of 60), Dimitrovgrad (32% of senior citizens), and Bosilegrad (30% of senior citizens). As opposed to that, among the observed municipalities, Tutin recorded the lowest share of senior citizens in 2011 (12%), and this is the only municipality of the analyzed ones which has not yet been encompassed by the ageing process since its ageing index is below 0.4 (0,35%). Since it has been an unwritten rule that a household left without women is prone for extinguishment, another qualitative indicator of the hilly-mountain population’s vitality is the share of women of reproductive age in the total population. According to the latest census (2011), in most hilly-mountain case-study municipalities, in average there are 20% of women of reproductive age in the total population. The exemption on the positive side is municipality of Novi Pazar with share of 25% of women in reproductive age, whereas on the other side, the municipality of Crna Trava has merely 12.6% of women in reproductive age. All demographic analyses that have been conducted on 12 case-study municipalities of Central Serbia which are completely hilly-mountain in their character, demonstrate growing depopulation of areas that do not have strong traditional roots of having more childbirths per family. This factor is largely correlated with a share of younger population, especially women in reproductive age hence their decreasing numbers had become critical in southeastern and southern hilly-mountain parts of Central Serbia. In addition to that, when observing the ageing index that is well above 0.4 in the majority of analyzed hilly-mountain areas, better chances for demographic revitalization in this context could not be foreseeable in the recent future. Unfavorable population trends may be additionally stipulated by the lack of infrastructure as well as of other social facilities. In terms of economic prosperity, generally exhibited negative population trends imply the unfavorable education structure of population

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in the hilly-mountain area of Central Serbia, which does not meet requirements of a market demand for qualified work-force. Chances for socio-economic revitalization through investments are then scarce, due to combined conditions of lack in quality work-force and lack in infrastructure facilities. Infrastructure conditions in the hilly-mountain areas The current state of infrastructure, as well as modernization and organization of infrastructure systems represent the most important element in development of an area (region, municipality or settlement). Therefore, the development of certain spatial entities depends on disposition, quality and density of overall (transport, water supply, energy, communication) infrastructure [11]. The network of state access roads and local roads which provide communication between settlements in the hilly-mountain areas of Serbia is mainly of a poor quality and incomplete. Topographic and techno-economic limitations associated to road network development are the most frequent constraints due to considerable financial costs of road construction, as well as of their modernization and maintenance. Road infrastructure includes the existing and new roads planned for the natural resources and cultural heritage protection; for integral development and planning of rural areas, etc. Electric energy transmission and telecommunications networks and facilities are not of adequate quality and quantity performances. Electrical transmission systems are characterized by lower safety and reliability of electricity supply to consumers due to old equipment and its poor maintenance and long stagnation in the development, which cause high losses regarding the total energy supplied to consumers. Current state of measurement infrastructure is also poor, thus contributing to losses in distribution networks. They are unevenly developed especially in mountain rural areas, thus presenting the constraints in the planned development of rural settlements. Certain parts of energy network have one-way power supply and do not satisfy safety criteria in power supply. Water supply infrastructure lags behind fast-increasing demands. It becomes more difficult to satisfy demand for water from the local sources of supply, thus it is necessary to develop regional water supply systems for rural settlements. Current situation in rehabilitation of rural settlements and protection of water quality is unsatisfactory. The sewage infrastructure development does not keep up with ever-increasing amount of wastewater. As a consequence, local sources of freshwater are jeopardized, particularly freshwater alluvial aquifers, thereby causing health problems of the local population. Current state of public utility infrastructure can be considered partly satisfactory. Public utility enterprises are in charge only within urban/municipal centers, while rural areas are largely left out of the organized waste collection, which results in the existence of local dumps, i.e. unplanned landfills in many rural settlements. The existing dumps are located at unsuitable sites causing water and soil pollution, as well as a small-scale air pollution. As for rehabilitation, the situation in rural settlements located in mountain areas is somewhat better due to smaller population size and lower consumption of water, so that effluent pressure in surroundings is small and does not exceed the self-purification potentials of watercourses. Measurements (of amounts and quality) are not performed, neither is wastewater from economic/productions plants treated before being released into sewage systems of settlements.

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A WAY FORWARD IN INFRASTRUCTURE REVITALIZATION OF HILLYMOUNTAIN AREAS The State should have a stimulating, but also a selective role in rural development, and especially in changing the qualitative perception of rural areas for the purpose of eliminating its hitherto social degradation. Special attention should be dedicated to the development of roads and other infrastructure in order to fulfill basic production needs and satisfy the basic necessities of life, raising the level of efficiency of public services and their accessibility for population living in rural areas. Generally speaking, mountain areas make the movements of people and goods more difficult. Such areas are the most underdeveloped ones and have lowest-quality road networks. Furthermore, they are also characterized by preserved nature and high environmental quality, which certainly influence the development of all types of tourism. The future road network development should be based on road quality improvement, as well as on increasing the role of transport facilities [12]. The realization of local potentials for the development of hilly-mountain rural areas implies the improvements of physical connectivity between these areas and larger settlements or towns. Better road connectivity between rural and urban areas, particularly between villages and towns, is a precondition for achieving this objective. In addition to the development of local road network, as well as the achieving of efficient public transport system between settlements, broad range of telecommunication networks and services, it is also necessary to stop sluggish behavior of stakeholders in public services and economy towards rural areas and its population. Operation of these services needs to be adapted to the requirements of rural population, both in terms of organization of specific type of activities and services which are adequate to support demands of people in the hilly-mountain rural areas, and by taking into account their socio-demographic and other characteristics, as well as working conditions. The integrative role of infrastructure is one of the development tasks. It encompasses overcoming of natural constraints which are especially pronounced in hilly-mountain rural areas. The integrative role is particularly important for balanced development and for connecting the large spatial systems in which transport, energy systems, water supply and communications are the requirement for institutional, regional, agro-industrial, and other systems [11]. Some of the above mentioned infrastructure systems are most frequently inoperative or are lacking in hilly-mountain rural areas, thus being a limiting factor in terms of spatial planning and development. Technical infrastructure of rural settlements is planned according to regionally established standards and programs. Financing of local infrastructure relies on the combination of local resources and financial support at regional and national levels. In financing the road and other support infrastructure that enables communication between settlements, it is necessary to get a greater material support in the initial stage from the budget or special-purpose funds of the Republic of Serbia. However, the process of revitalization of hilly-mountain rural areas, as well as infrastructure development, is influenced by numerous other factors (e.g. prolonged transition, economic crisis, political circumstances for more than 30 years now) which have much wider coverage and which are of great impact. All the above mentioned conditions have led to the deterioration and stagnation of villages in hilly-mountain rural areas. ‘The development of infrastructure systems in a specific area is, as a rule, carried out in different stages, while lack of knowledge about their capacity and spatial thresholds frequently leads to super-positioning and multiplication of problems associated with the uses of space, i.e. absence of planned and organized selection and its overcoming by actions of spatial, economic, technical or other type’ [11:81]. Therefore, it can be concluded that in

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Serbia there is currently a slow and insufficient pace of work on adoption of adequate planning documents and strategies, as well as that there is a lack of government support with flexible operating plans related to hilly-mountain rural areas. The hilly-mountain villages have characteristics of dispersed settlements, thus from the aspect of lack in organization of joint functions, these villages are undesirable places to live in. Over the past few decades, hilly-mountain villages have experienced great changes associated with decline, reduced population density and efforts to continue to live by developing the public utility and other infrastructures (health, schools), building new roads, etc. [13]. In such rural areas with lower population density, which are as a rule isolated and at greater distances from community or municipal centers, it is necessary to develop specific programs adapted to characteristics of the given area. This primarily refers to the improvement of transport accessibility in terms of appropriate road network, organized system of public city transportation and transportation between settlements, the use of specialized buses such as school buses, subsidized public transportation for specific social groups, etc. The engagement of territorially mobile public service (mobile infirmaries and preventive health services including regular check-up controls, dental services, etc.), as well as better accessibility of information and telecommunications systems, is of particular importance for the development and revitalization of these areas. As Malobabić and Bakić [13] pointed out, rules aiming at renewal and revitalization of rural communities, which they outlined in their paper, indicate the following: rules of future urban planning should take into account all advantages and disadvantages of the existing urban morphological structure of rural settlements and should contain all positive values, while eliminating or mitigating negative features. We will single out several of these rules: • Urban structure protection – dispersed structure is retained, while the densification should not be more than one and half of the present density, with density of 25 persons/ha; • Transport network should provide smooth traffic; main roads should have a tarmac surface, while other (macadamized) roads should be also drivable throughout the year; • Urban community centers need to be developed with all necessary social facilities – schools, health care, economy, culture, etc.; • Public utility services provision – electricity, water supply and telephone networks, etc. CONCLUSIONS Hilly-mountain rural areas, which often represent a border and remote territories of the country, are mainly characterized by a high degree of isolation in comparison to other areas. This additionally complicates their socio-economic viability, i.e. low levels of economic development and development of social standards, draining of population and the generally poor conditions of the entire infrastructure. Therefore, development, modernization and rehabilitation of the infrastructure system network (transportation facilities, electric energy supply, water supply and drainage, telecommunication services, and other public utility infrastructure) are the crucial element for revitalization and development of the hillymountain areas. Having that the costs for proper infrastructure provision are high and cannot be covered from the insufficient annual budgets of the local communities as directly affected parties, solving of these pressing issues for sustainability of hilly-mountain rural areas need to be the domain of the state, usually with the creation of long-term incentive policy through the planning and design of the area. Also, the above mentioned problems and their shortcomings have to be addressed by individual approaches with appropriate, contextually adapted methodologies. Overall, the infrastructure planning process should reflect the interrelation between the demand and supply of quality infrastructure, which are inseparable from the

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economic, social and environmental requirements of the community, where adequate infrastructure supply should serve as the main factor of revitalization. Acknowledgements: This paper is a result of research on the scientific project “The role and implementation of the National Spatial Plan and regional development documents in renewal of strategic research, thinking and governance in Serbia”, No. 47014, and on the scientific project “Spatial, environmental, energy and social aspects of developing settlements and climate change – mutual impacts”, No. 36035, which are financed by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development in the period 2011-2014.

REFERENCES Popović, V., Katić B., Savić M. (2011), Ruralni razvoj u Srbiji i lokalne zajednice, Ekonomika poljoprivrede, vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 33-44. Vasilevska, Lj. (2009) Strateški pristupi ruralnom razvoju, Proceedings of the symposium Planska i normativna zaštita prostora i životne, pp. 25-34, Serbian Spatial Planners Association, Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Belgrade. Максин-Мићић, М. (2003) Могућности одржања села на планинском подручју Србије, In: Nikolić, M., Malobabić, R. (eds.) Одрживи развој планинских подручја Србије, Посебна издања 42, Београд: Институт за архитектуру и урбанизам Србије, pp. 45-72. Вујатовић-Закић, З., Стојановић, Ж. (2002) Концепт интегралног руралног развоја Европске уније и могућности коришћења њиховог искуства у Србији, In: Закић, З., Рикаловић, Г., Стојановић, Ж. (eds.) Институционалне реформе и транзиција пољопривреде у Републици Србији, Београд: Економски факултет, pp. 207-225. Малобабић, Р., Бакић, О. (2003) Просторно-демографске промене на планинским подручјима Републике Србије, In: Nikolić, M., Malobabić, R. (eds.) Одрживи развој планинских подручја Србије, Посебна издања 42, Београд: Институт за архитектуру и урбанизам Србије, pp. 3-28. Mendras, H. (1986) Seljačka društva. Elementi za jednu teoriju seljaštva, Zagreb: Globus. Petrić, J., Maričić, T., Basarić, J. (2012) The population conundrums and some implications for urban development in Serbia, SPATIUM, No. 28, December 2012, Belgrade: Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, pp. 7-14. Petrić, J., Basarić, J., Bajić, T. (2013) Urban society and resilience of Belgrade and Novi Sad in the network of settlements in Serbia – recent changes and perspectives, In: Gospodini, A. (ed.) „Changing Cities“: Spatial, morphological, formal & socio-economic dimensions. Proceedings of the International Conference [on CD], Skiathos Island: Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly, Greece, pp. 1720-1729. Cvejić, S., Babović, M, Petrović, M. Bogdanov, N., Vuković, O. (2010) Socijalna isključenost u ruralnim oblastima Srbije, Beograd: UNDP Srbija, Sektor za inkluzivni razvoj. Николић, М., Малобабић, Р. (eds.) (2003) Одрживи развој планинских подручја Србије, Посебна издања 42, Београд: Институт за архитектуру и урбанизам Србије. Lukić B. (2002) Uloga infrastrukture u razvoju pograničnih krajeva Srbije, Proceedings of scientific symposium Problems of revitalization of border areas between Yugoslavia and the Republic of Srpska, pp. 7988, Belgrade: Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade. Malobabić R., Krunić N. (2004) Pravila uređenja javnih puteva u planinskim područjima, Proceedings of the symposium Sustainable spatial, urban and rural development in Serbia, pp. 69-77, Belgrade: Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia. Malobabić R., Bakić O. (2004) Prostorno-urbanistička pravila za uređenje seoskih naselja Srbije, Proceedings of the symposium Sustainable spatial, urban and rural development of Serbia, pp. 45-53, Belgrade: Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia.

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УДК: 314.116-022.252:656.11(497.7)

IMPACT OF ROAD NETWORK ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RURAL COMMUNITY AND PROCESS OF DEPOPULATION IN R.MACEDONIA Riste TEMJANOVSKI, Trajko MICESKI, Goce Delcev" University – Faculty of Economics – Stip, R.of Macedonia e-mail: riste.temjanovski@ugd.edu.mk, trajko.miceski@ugd.edu.mk ABSTRACT Over the past few decades, more people have moved from rural settlements in urban areas in Republic of Macedonia, as a result from restricted access to vital facilities - the problem of travel poverty. Meanwhile, there are many people in rural areas suffering from limited travel options to access to a range of facilities - a doctor, chemist, bank, shops, post offices, job center. Those households without a car or bus lines have been faced with increased need to travel, because few or limited services are available in the village, and with increasingly included limited bus services. Much of rural settlements (total 1728) are completely depopulated (141 settlements or 8.15% of total number) or have extremely small number of people and soon, because of their unfavorable age structure (old people), it is likely to remain without a single inhabitant. This process is especially stressed in hilly-mountain areas. It is necessary to give local authority the powers and responsibility to implement a strategy for thus areas to improvement road infrastructure and better public transport for better lifestyles. This paper examines the present situation and policy opportunities to help overcoming this negative process and attain better socialization of rural populations. Key words: depopulation, road infrastructure, transport services, hilly-mountain areas

ВЛИЈАНИЕТО НА ПАТНА МРЕЖА ВО ПРОСТОРНА РАЗМЕСТЕНОСТ НА РУРАЛНИТЕ ЗАЕДНИЦИ И ПРОЦЕСОТ НА ДЕПОПУЛАЦИЈА ВО Р.МАКЕДОНИЈА Ристе ТЕМЈАНОВСКИ, Трајко МИЦЕСКИ АПСТРАКТ Во текот на изминатите неколку децении, многу луѓе се преселија од руралните населби во урбаните средини во Република Македонија, како резултат на ограничениот пристап до виталните погодности поради рестриктивните можности за патување. Во меѓувреме, многу луѓе во руралните области страдаат и од ограничен пристап за патување до голем број на објекти - лекар, аптекар, банка, продавници, пошти, работни места. Домаќинствата без автомобил или автобуски линии се соочуваат со зголемена потреба да патуваат, бидејќи многу мали или ограничени услуги се достапни во руралната средина, вклучувајќи ги и ограничените автобуски линии. Голем дел од селските населени места (вкупно 1 728) се целосно се депопулирани (141 населено место или 8,15% од вкупниот број на населени места) или имаат изразито мал број на жители и набргу, поради нивната неповолна старосна структура (старо население), голема е веројатноста да останат без ниту еден жител. Овој процес особено е нагласен во ридско-планинските подрачја. Неопходно е да се дадат повеќе овластувањата и одговорности на локалната власт за спроведување на стратегијата за подобрување на патната инфраструктура и подобар јавен превоз за подобар начин на живот во тие области. Овој труд ги разработува моменталната ситуација и неопходните политики да се помогне во надминување на овој негативен процес и постигнување на подобра социјализација на руралното население. Клучни зборови: депопулација, патната инфраструктура, транспортни услуги, ридско-планинските подрачја

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ВОВЕД Во изминатите 30-тина години Европската економска заедница, а подоцна Европска Унија во својата развојна политика сè повеќе го актуелизира прашањето за руралниот развој. Причината е едноставна, европскиот континент не располага со изобилство на земјоделско земјиште како на пример Австралија, Канада, САД, а не е густо населен како Јапонија, Кина, Индија. Поради тоа се наметнува потребата за правилна грижа и планско користење на својата територија. На втората конференција за руралниот развој, одржана во Салцбург во 2003 година, било заклучено да се реализира проектот на нова рурална развојна политика, зголемување на средствата за поддршка на тој развој од Европскиот аграрен фонд за рурален развој. Целта е подместување на фокусот на активностите за поддршка на пазарот, финансиската подршка, руралниот и одржлив развој. Несомнено треба да се има предвид дека покрај понудата со земјоделскопрехрамбени производи, селските средини претставуваат и места за одмор и рекреација. Овие функции сè повеќе добиваат големо значење, особено со зајакнувањето на културните и образовни вредности, како и современите определби за „бекство“ од урбаниот метеж создаден од пренагласената урбанизација. Ваквата идна определна на рурална Европа може да биде патоказ и за планско уредување на ридскопланинските простори во Р.Македонија, ако сакаме да го следиме чекорот на развиениот свет, особено политиката на рурален развој во ЕУ. Основна карактеристика на европската рурална политика е економската диверзификација и ширењето на секундарните и терцијарните дејности во руралните простори. А за ваквата трансформација неопходна е квалитетна и плански димензионирана сообраќајна инфраструктура. Патниот сообраќај во голема мера влијае на поголем развој и атрактивност на географскиот простор. Сообраќајната поврзаност во едно подрачје треба да овозможи популациско и стопанско поврзување и намалување на големите разлики меѓу високо индустријализираните агломерации и подрачја кои се карактеризираат со стопанска заостанатост. Во овој труд централно место зазема проблематиката на поврзаноста на собраќајот, сообраќајната мрежа и населените места, особено негативните состојби од недоволно внимание на организација и поставеноста на сообраќајниот систем во нашата земја во руралните средини ГРАДСКИТЕ ЈАДРА КАКО АПСОРБЕРИ НА СЕЛСКОТО НАСЕЛЕНИЕ Во последните неколку децении во Република Македонија, а посебно во некои одделни делови се одвивале значителни промени во населеноста, посебно во подрачја со првенствено земјоделско население. Земјаќи го во предвид вкупните знаења за влијанието на поширокото географско подрачје врз развојот на поголемите градски агломерации, може сосема сигурно да се каже дека досегашната развојна политика кај нас, во однос на изградбата на патната мрежа на село, не била во доволна мера во согласност со вистинските потреби и можности, т.е. не се темелела врз пошироки и подолгорочни согледувања и процеси. Според динамиката на движењето на структурата на неземјоделското население кое се очекува и во иднина да продолжи, се повеќе се наметнува прашањето за изградба, проширување и модернизирање на патната мрежа во селата. Динамичниот развој на индустријата и сообраќајната технологијата, као главни чинители на прогресивната урбанизација го чинат јадрото на фундаменалната пертурбација на структурата на просторната средина наметнувајќи нови модели и

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елементи на индустриската цивилизација па, како што вели К.Дејвис 53 враќањето на селскиот живот е готово невозможно. Но се додека “огништето”, во побожна смисла, постои како суштинска особина на едно семејство, последната алка со селото не е прекината54. На тој начин се јави потребата за дискусијата за оваа материја со цел за развивање на поголемо разбирање на ова важно подрачје во транспортната политика. Во секојдневието, ние честопати имаме потреба на широк ранг на удобности - одење во банка, покупки, пошта, лекар, аптека, библиотека, ресторан, работа. Во урбаните подрачја сообраќајните можности се многу поповолни поради многубројни фактори како што се: - веќе изградена сообраќајна инфраструктура; - повисок животен стандард; - поголем удел на населението кои поседуваат сообраќајни превозни средства; и - градот како извор и цел на патување на голем број на корисници на сообраќајните потреби (работа, школување, становање, рекреација), Додека сообраќајните потреби во руралните подрачја се повеќе дисперзирани и на тој начин голем дел од населението што живее во руралните подрачја во голема мера е зависно од патувањето. Овој проблем во руралните подрачја може да се третира од три неповолни аспекта: - отсуство на асфалтирана патна мрежа; - мал број на корисници со сопствени возила; и - намалени услуги на јавниот транспорт во руралните подрачја. Една од причините за ваквата неповолна состојба е отсуството на изградена патна инфраструктура, најчесто некои селски населби се без локални патишта што би им овозможило пристап до соседните поголеми селски населби и до градските центри. Другиот аспект всушност е социо-демографската структура на населението во руралните подрачја. Најчесто тоа е население со помали финансиски примање, при што од сообраќајните возила најчесто поседуваат земјоделска механизација. Од друга страна во голема мерка овде се јавува и демографскиот фактор, посебно старосната структура (населението е претежно повозрасно и без возачка документација, или преовладува повеќе женското население, кое исто така во поголем процент е без возачка дозвола). Во последните неколку години еден друг тренд е посебно присутен во селските подрачја, а тоа е опаѓањето на дневните автобуски услуги. Овие селски домаќинства се со помал број или се без свои сопствени возила и транспортните услуги во селата се со ограничен карактер. Како резултат на рестриктивниот пристап до виталните удобности, се јавува проблемот со осиромашено движење на руралното население. Ова посебно се однесува на бројот и намалената зачестеноста и непостојаност на линиите во внатрешниот сообраќај, посебно оние што се однесуваат помеѓу градот и руралните населби. Состојбата во голема мерка зависи од бројот на население во руралните наслеби, возраста на населението кои ги користат овие услуги и оддалеченоста на руралните населби во однос на поголемите населени места и градските центри. Особено во најнеповолна состојба се населените места кај кои отсуствува асфалтирана патна мрежа, имаат мал број на население, или преовладува претежно старото население. Друга неповолност е тоа што бројот на сообраќајни линии помеѓу градот и населените места, за време на викендите и државните празници се укинати, или во 53 54

The Origin and the Growth of Urbanization in the World, American Journal of Sociology, 5/1955, s.437 Ацески Илија: Социологија на градот, Скошпје: Институт за социологија, 1995. стр. 11.

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голем дел рестриктивни. Така да во најголем дел селското население е оневозможено да го користи јавниот сообраќај во тој временски период, што секако делува дестимулативно, поради фактот за можноста за посета на културни манифестации, кино, театар, здравствени услуги и сл. КОРЕЛАЦИЈА НА ПРОСТОРНАТА РАЗМЕСТЕНОСТ НА МРЕЖАТА НА НАСЕЛЕНИ МЕСТА И ГУСТИНАТА НА ПАТНАТА МРЕЖА Просторната разместеноста и густина на мрежата на населбите во Република Македонија е тесно поврзана со природните, односно орографските прилики на просторот. Во зависност од местоположбата што ја заземаат населените места, различна е и нивната распространетост и густина. Додека во одделни подрачја мрежата на населби има донекаде правилна просторна композиција, во други подрачја таа е доста хетерогена. Во овој дел ќе ја разгледаме мрежата на населби по одделни просторни целини, разместеност на селата во однос на централните места и во однос на сообраќајната мрежа. Во зависност од местоположбата што ја заземаат во однос на релјефните целини, селата се класифицирани на рамничарски, ридски и планински (Панов М 55., Стојмилов А 56.). Така според микроположбата што ја заземаат, најголема концентрација на населението е во рамничарската морфолошка целина, а најретко населена е планинската зона. Во рамничарската зона се сконцентраирани 49.6% од сите села во државата (Стојмилов А. 57). Од вкупниот број на рамничарски села, кој изнесува 801, од нив 369, или 46% се наоѓаат во Скопската Котлина, Пелагонија, Полог и Струмичкорадовишката Котлина. Просторната разместеност на ридските села е во сите подрачја во Република Македонија. Сепак, најголем дел од нив се наоѓаат во Западна Македонија и тоа 49% (260 села) од сите ридски села. Во Повардарјето се наоѓаат 143 села или 27%, а најмалку во Источна Македонија и тоа 128 села или 24%. Планинските села се застапени со 17.4% и нивниот број постојано се намалува. Така во однос на 1961 година нивниот број се намалил за 31 село. Најголем број од нив се сконцентрирани во Западна Македонија или 51% од сите планински села, потоа во Источна Македонија со застапеност од 37% од оваа категорија и најмалку во Повардарјето само 18% или 51 село. Освен просторната разместеност на мрежата на населби доста значајна категорија претставува и густината на населеност. Што се однесува до густината на населеност гледано по поголеми просторни целини во Република Македонија најгусто е населено Повардарјето, каде на еден км2 живеат 90 лица, потоа следи Западна Македонија со 56 лица и Источна Македонија со 47 лица на км2 (Панов М. 58). Односно според изнесените податоци се заклучува дека на една осмина од територијата на Република Македонија живее речиси една третина од вкупното население. Гледано по пооделни области (според податоци за населението од Пописот на население во 1981 година, Маркоски Просторни и популациски карактеристики на мрежата на населбите во СР Македонија. Географски разгледи. Скопје: Географско друштво на СР Македонија. кн. 11(1973). стр. 33. 56 Стојмилов Александар (1996): Географија на Република Македонија: за IV година. Скопје: Просветно дело. 1996. стр. 108. 57 Ибид, стр. 108. 58 Панов Митко: Социјална географија и просторното планирање на примерот на СР Македонија. Скопје: ПМФ: Географски институт, 1976. стр. 46 55

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Б. 59) , најгусто е населена Скопската Котлина. Во неа на 1 км2 живеат 268.4 жители или 27.05% од целокупното население. На второ место доаѓа Полошката Котлина со 164.3 жители на км2 или 12.69%, а на трето место Кумановската Котлина со 94.7 ж/км2. Потоа следи Битолско поле со 93.2 ж/км2 и Охридско-струшката Котлина, во која живеат по 91.5 жители на 1 км2. Како најретко населени во Македонија се смета Поречката област во која на 1 км2 живеат само по 11.8 жители и Мариовската Котлина со 4.9 ж/км2. Разместеност на селата во однос на централните места. - Посебен проблем претставува оддалеченоста на некои селски населби од седиштето на општинскиот центар. Состојбите во Република Македонија укажуваат дека мошне е мал бројот на селата кои лежат до 5 км оддалеченост од 29 градските места. Исто така мала е концентрацијата на селската популација и домаќинства. Во некои пак зони на централни места не само што е мал бројот на селата туку не лежи ниту една населба. Вкупно во зоните од 29 градски места, односно до 5 км лежат 163 селски населби, или 9.8% од сите селски насеби во Македонија. Така, на пример, повеќе од 10 села лежат само во пет зони на централни места и тоа во Куманово (13 села), Охрид (10), Дебар (10), Гостивар (12) и Тетово (14). Од 5-10 села лежат во зонте на 11 централни места и тоа: Пробиштип (7 села), Свети Николе (6), Кочани (8), Делчево (5), Струмица (9), Гевгелија (5), Прилеп (6), Битола (9), Ресен (7), Струга (8) и Кичево (6 села). До 5 села лежат во зоните на 9 централни места и тоа во: Кратово (3) села, Штип (4), Радовиш (3), Валандово (3), Неготино (3), Кавадарци (3), Велес (3), Брод (3) и Скопје (3). овие показатели покажуваат дека во најтесните гравитациони подрачја на централни места постојат диспропорции во сообраќајните врски, а за некои зони како Крива Паланка, Берово и Крушево воопшто нема села до 5 км оддалеченост. Највисоко учество на села оддалечени од најблискиот град од 25 км постоеше во општина Брод, Гевгелија, Гостивар и Велес (преку 35-45%). Најголемо учество на села поврзани со асфалтиран пат со својот општински центар, од 34-68% имаа општините Берово, Ресен Валандово, Гевгелија, Охрид, Струмица и Тетово, а најслабо до 10%, во општините Брод, Крива Паланка, Кичево, Крушево и Велес. Со новата територијална поделба една од главните мерки е надминување на оваа состојба со што се формирани 123 општински центри, во чија надлежносст припаѓа и грижата за локалните патишта. Разместеност на селата во однос на сообраќајната мрежа. - Според карактеристиките на патната инфраструктура во најдобра позиција се наоѓаат селата коишто лежат директно на самите сообраќајници. Тие имаат посебни погодности, како за побрз развој, така и за процесот на социо-економскиот развој на руралните подрачја. Додека селата кои се на поголема оддалеченост од главните сообраќајници бележат значителни непогодности поради отежнатите врски помеѓу производствените реони и пазарот, па кај овие подрачја е карактеристичен и изразито натуралниот начин на замјоделско производство. Во најдобра позиција се наоѓаат селата коишто лежат директно на самите сообраќајници и тие имаат посебни погодности за побрз развој. Нивниот број изнесува 114 населби 60 или 6.8% во однос на сите села во Македонија. Нивната разместеност вдолж магистралните патни правци е доста невоедначена. Најголем број села лежат на патниот правец М-1, односно релацијата Скопје - Гевгелија и тоа 13 села, или на должина од 164 км лежат 13 села или просечно на 12.6 км доаѓа по една населба. Најмал број на села лежат на магистралниот пат М-5, односно на релацијата Велес Прилеп, преку Бабуна, каде лежат само две села. Маркоски Б. Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија: картографски метод. Куманово: Македонска ризница, 1995. стр. 48. 60 Панов Митко: Социјална географија и просторното планирање на примерот на СР Македонија. Скопје: ПМФ: Географски институт, 1976. стр. 97. 59

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Интересна е анализата на селата коишто лежат до 3 км оддалеченост од главните сообраќајници, направена од страна на Проф. Д-р Митко Панов. Вкупно во доменот до 3 км оддалеченост од главните патишта лежат 379 населби, или 22.7% во однос на сите села во Република Македонија. Меѓутоа и нивната раширеност е доста невоедначена. Така, на пример, над 30 села лежат само на 4 релации и тоа на: Скопје - Гевгелија (37), Скопје - Гостивар - Дебар - Охрид (76), Градско - Прилеп - Битола - Охрид (48) и на релацијата Велес - Штип - Радовиш - Струмица (42) села. Сообраќајот во голема мерка ја одржува и врската помеѓу производствените реони и пазарот. Поледелството и сточарството претставуваат солидна суровинска база за повеќе преработувачки гранки на прехрамбената индустрија, за алкохолни и безалкохолни пијалоци, за преработка и конзервирање на овошје и зеленчук, за шеќер, и кондиторски производи, за тестенини, масло за готвење, цигари и др. Лошо организираниот сообраќај во одредени производствени реони го дестимулира аграрното производство во нив, доведува дури и до напуштање на одредени култури, до промена на структурата на производството и до негова деградација. Земјоделството во сообраќајно затворени реони, по правило, е со изразити натурални белези (Мариово, Порече и др.). Во последните неколку децении во Република Македонија, а посебно во некои одделни региони се одвивале значителни промени во населеноста. Тие промени се во тесна врска со забрзаните процеси на индустријализацијата, односно со различниот стопански, културно-просветен и друг развиток на општинините и нивните сообраќајна поврзаност со централни места. Секако индустријализацијата, како економска категорија не можела сама да ја изврши оваа трансформација без развојот на сообраќајот и патната мрежа која ги поврзувала овие населени места со големите урбани центри. На овој начин дошло до економското јакнење на пооделни региони и раздвиженост на популацијата во Република Македонија. Токму поради тоа индустријата силно влијаела на формирање на урбани центри со различно гравитациско влијание, а тоа имало далекусежни реперкусии за последиците на населеноста. ВЛИЈАНИЕТО НА ПАТНАТА МРЕЖА ВРЗ ЕФЕКТУИРАЊЕТО НА ЗЕМЈОДЕЛКОТО ПРОИЗВОДСТВО Секое селско населено место во однос на сообраќајот се карактеризира од една страна со движење на луѓе, стока и производи на земјоделските површини во атарот на локалните атарски патишта, а од друга страна со сообраќајници од повисок ред со соседните населби. Во едниот и во другиот случај се пресметуваат обемот на сообраќајните потреби. Според овие движења во селата може да се одвива следниот вид на сообраќај: - внатрешен сообраќај или транспорт, и - надворешен сообраќај, односно транспорт Во првиот случај се работи за обемот на т.н.”атарски сообраќај” и тој произлегува од: - површината на атарот; - видот и застапеност на поедини култури во него; - големина на парцелата; и - обликот на населбата во склоп со обработливата површина. Внатрешниот сообраќај е значаен затоа што со него се овозможува врска помеѓу: - производствениот центар во селото и производните површини;

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внатрешната територија на производните површини во една организациона единица или самостојно земјоделско стопанство; - производствениот центар во селото и местото за пасење на добитокот; и - поедини објекти во самиот производствен центар. Според овие потреби се проектираат и се градат посебни сообраќајници за потребата на земјоделското производство, а должината на т.н. “капиларна мрежа на атарски сообраќајници” зависи од обликот и големината на парцелата, потоа од конфигурацијата на теренот, постоечките патишта и сл. Според Проф. Кодиќ, а според податоците на A. Wiiala, се наведува дека опаѓањето на бруто и нето приходите во зависност од оддалеченоста на земјоделското домаќинство со имотот изгледа вака: -

Табела 1. Индексирање на приходот во зависност од оддалеченоста на земјоделската површина од земјоделските домаќинства Оддалеченост на земј. дом. и Индекс на бруто Индекс на земјод. површина во км приход нето приход 0-0.1 км 100 100 0-0.5 км 92 78 0-1.0 км 84 56 0-1.5 км 77 34 0-2.0 км 69 13 Извор: Simonovic Đorđe: Uredzenje seoskih teritorija i naselja. Beograd: Građevinska knjiga, 1980. str. 20

Од горната табела се гледа дека трошоците се најмали и најголем приход се оставрува на оддалеченост до 100 метри на земјоделските домаќинства од земјоделските обработливи површини, додека при поголема оддалеченост се јавуваат поголеми загуби кои се одразуваат на висината на трошоците на земјоделските производи. Утврдено е со истражувања дека времето поминато на патот до парцелата или т.н. непродуктивно време на обработка е доста значајно и зависи од површината на атарот и застапените култури на него, големината на парцелата, групирање на поседите и сл. Надворешниот сообраќај во селото се одвива делумно на самата територија на селото, а делумно надвор од неговата територија. Со него се обезбедува врска помеѓу: - производствениот центар во селото и продажното место или индустрија за производство на земјоделските производи; и - помеѓу производствениот центар во селото и станицата каде се врши утовар на земјоделските производи (железничка станица, дистрибутивни центри, заради забрзување на протокот на стоките до трговските центри). Големината на јавниот сообраќај во селото произлегува од потребата на населението за посета во соседството, од ист ред на населби, како и во населбите од повисок ред. Врските на соседните и останати населби од ист ред на големина се доста мали и скоро незначителни во однос на населбите од повисок ред на гоемина. Со оглед на фактот што во селата живее се повеќе т.н. мешовито и неземјоделско активно население кое секојдневно оди на работа во соседните градови, индустриски и други погони,обемот на овој сообраќај секојдневно се зголемува. ПРОЦЕСОТ НА ДЕЦЕНТРАЛИЗАЦИЈАТА И ПРОМЕНИТЕ НА ИНВЕСТИЦИОНАТА ПОЛИТИКА ВО ДОМЕНОТ НА ТРАНСПОРТНАТА ИНФРАСТРУКТУРА Земјите во развој, како и земјите во транзиција ги карактеризира речиси потполна доминација на државата во сопственоста, управувањето, финансирањето и понудата на

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транспортните услуги. Проблемите во економската и транзициона еволуција кај овие земји ги ограничува и процесите на преструктуирање на инфраструктурата. Традиционалниот начин на понуда на инфраструктурните услуги ѝ дава на државата главна улога во транспортниот сектор, која го спроведува преку јавни претпријатија. Меѓутоа, новите промени кои настанаа после деведесеттите години, а кои секако не ја заобиколија и нашата држава наметнуваат нов предизвик во понудата на квантитативни и квалитативни подобрувања во услугите. Високите инвестициони трошоци кои го пратат инфраструктурниот сектор, сè повеќе ја поттикнуваат локалната власт за помасовно учество, како во инвестирањето така и менаџирањето во користењето на услугите. Во прилог на децентрализацијата одат следните фактори: 61 - технолошкиот напредок го олеснува снабдувањето на малите пазари; - локалните и регионалните власти, полесно ги одредуваат приоритетите, изборот на технологија, количината и квалитетот на инфраструктурните услуги; - со децентрализацијата расте и одговорноста на донесителите на услугите; Од овие причини се смета дека како неминовност се јавува потребата локалната власт да се вклучи во финансирањето и изградбата на локалната и регионалната инфраструктура, бидејќи корист од делувањето на локалните и регионалните инфраструктурни проекти има локалното население. Бројни истражувањата во ефектите од децентрализацијата даваат позитивни резултати. Истражувањата направени во 42 земји во развој, покажуваат дека состојбата и одржувањето на патиштата со децентрализацијата биле на многу повисоко ниво од претходното. Во земјите со централизиран систем на одржување на инфраструктурата, околу 33% од неасфалтираните патишта и околу 22% од асфалтираните се наоѓале во лоша состојба. Наспроти тоа во земјите со децентрализирано одржување само 15% од неасфалтираните и околу 12% од асфалтираните патишта биле во лоша состојба. Земјаќи ги предвид вкупните знаења за влијанието на на поголемите градски агломерации врз развојот на поширокиот географски простор, може сосема сигурно да се каже дека досегашната развојна политика кај нас, во однос на изградбата на патната мрежа на село, не била во доволна мера во согласност со вистинските потреби и можности. Таа не се темелела врз пошироки и подолгорочни согледувања и процеси. Лошо организираниот сообраќај во одредени производствени реони го дестимулира аграрното производство во нив, доведува дури и до напуштање на одредени култури, до промена на структурата на производството и до негова деградација. Земјоделството во сообраќајно затворени реони, по правило, е со изразити натурални белези (Мариово, Порече и др.). Затоа се потребни дополнителни мерки при креирањето на државната политика за изградба на определен број рурални центри во кои ќе се лоцираат стопански и нестопански објекти за вработување и опслужување како за населението од овие, така и за населението од неколку околни села. Мерките на државните институции кои се занимаваат со планирање на просторот во помалку развиените земји, како што е и нашата, не се во можност да преземат конкретни активности во секое рурално подрачје и да овозможат брзо решавање на бројните проблеми кои се јавуваат во тие средини. Мерките мораат да бидат селективни со јасно утврдени приоритети, дополнувани, комбинирани и

Пашалиќ, Ж.: Основе хрватске господарске инфраструктуре. Сплит: Економски факултет, 1999. стр.123. Цит. The OECD Jobs Study: Investment, Productivity and Employment. Paris: OECD, 1995. p. 75.

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синхронизирани са мерките и активностите на локалната самоуправа, базирани на нивните природни, економски и човечки ресурси. На тој начин како крајно решение за подобрување на оваа неповолна слика се наметнуваат следните потреби: 62 • изградба на локална патна мрежа, кај оние населени места каде таа отсуствува; • поврзување на локалната патна мрежа со регионалните и магистралните патишта; • обезбедување повеќе локални олеснувања, без разлика дали населението во руралните подрачја поседува сопствено возило или не; • подобрување на автобуските услуги во руралните простори на тој начин што ќе се овозможи полесен пристап до јавниот транспорт; • обезбедување финансиска поддршка за помалку доходовните домаќинства во руралните подрачја; • поголема активност на локалната власт за имплементирање на стратегијата за зголемен транспорт во руралните подрачја и сл. Новите модели на комерцијално управување, воведувањето на конкурентноста и учеството на приватниот сектор, ја наметнуваат потребата за промена на начинот на менаџирање во доменот на транспортните услуги. Децентрализацијата како докажана демократска институција, ќе може успешно да придонесе во подобрувањето и развојот на инфраструктурниот сектор. Иако децентрализацијата претставува политичка категорија, успехот од нејзината примена, во голема мерка е условен од економските состојби во државата, економската и инфраструктурната политика. ЗАКЛУЧНИ СОГЛЕДУВАЊА Земјаќи го во предвид вкупните знаења за влијанието на поширокото географско подрачје врз развојот на поголемите градски агломерации, може сосема сигурно да се каже дека досегашната развојна политика кај нас, во однос на изградбата на патната мрежа на село, не била во доволна мера во согласност со вистинските потреби и можности, т.е. не се темелела врз пошироки и подолгорочни согледувања и процеси. Според динамиката на движењето на структурата на неземјоделското население кое се очекува и во иднина да продолжи, се повеќе се наметнува прашањето за изградба, проширување и модернизирање на патната мрежа во селата. Лошо организираниот сообраќај во одредени производствени реони го дестимулира аграрното производство во нив, доведува дури и до напуштање на одредени култури, до промена на структурата на производството и до негова деградација. Земјоделството во сообраќајно затворени реони, по правило, е со изразити натурални белези (Мариово, Порече и др.). Според динамиката на движењето на структурата на неземјоделското население кое се очекува и во иднина да продолжи, се повеќе се наметнува прашањето за изградба, проширување и модернизирање на патната мрежа во селата. Во голема мера свој придонес од овој аспект се очекува од одредени законски мерки на државата, кои ќе делуваат стимулативно, а посебно со локалната власт во новонастанатите општини.

Темјановски Ристе: Руралната патна мрежа како фактор за економско-функционален развој на селата во Република Македонија. Зборник на трудови од Конгресот одржан во Охрид од 3-5 ноември 2000. Скопје: Македонско географско друштво, 293. 62

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Досегашното искуство на развиените земји во светот покажува дека, треба напоредно да се одвива, процесот на преселување на еден дел од селското население во градовите и процесот на ширење на индустријата на село, односно на развојот на терцијарните дејности во селските населби. Една ваква избалансирана политика може да претставува не само растоварање на градските населби од големи издатоци, туку и поефикасно користење на руралните подрачја, на земјиштето и на другите природни богатства. Навистина сериозен проблем е што стихијниот развој на деаграризација, урбанизацијата и миграцијата на селското население речиси ги испразни селата, но сепак, пак еден дел од селското население останува да живее во руралните средини. На забрзување на процесот на миграцијата на селата во градовите и понатаму ќе влијае променетиот карактер и динамиката на деаграризацијата. Намалувањето на земјоделското население, како објективен процес ќе продолжи и понатаму, но сега се очекува овој процес да биде следен со деаграризација без изразита миграција. Таквиот тип на дневна миграција уште оддамна се остваруваше на просторите на Словенија (категоријата на работници-селани). На овој начин во Република Македонија во ридско-планинските простори ќе успее да го задржи, па и зголеми бројот на селското население, со што ќе ја следи просторната политика на Европската унија во поглед на прашањето на рурален развој на Европа. ЛИТЕРАТУРА Ацески И.: Социологија на градот, Скошпје: Институт за социологија, 1995. стр. 11. Герасимовски Д. (1997): Демографски карактеристики на Република Македонија според новата тероторијална поделба. Скопје: Завод за статистика, 1997. Завод за статистика на Република Македонија, (1999): Сообраќај и врски во Република Македонија 19961998 година. Скопје: ЗСРМ, 1999. Маркоски Б. Хипсометрија на просторот и населеноста во Република Македонија: картографски метод. Куманово: Македонска ризница, 1995. стр. 48. Панов М. (1976): Социјална географија и просторно планирање на примерот на СР Македонија. Скопје: ПМФ: Географски институт. 1976. Панов М., Стојмилов А.: Просторни и популациски карактеристики на мрежата на населбите во СР Македонија. Географски разгледи. Скопје: Географско друштво на СР М кн. 11(1973). стр. 33. Стојмилов А. (1996): Географија на Република Македонија: за IV година. Скопје: Просветно дело. 1996. стр. 108. Пашалиќ, Ж.: Основе хрватске господарске инфраструктуре. Сплит: Економски факултет, 1999. стр.123. Rural transport policy and equity (1998): A discusion paper prepared by Dr. Brenda Boardman of the Environmenatl Change Unit, Oxford University on behalf of CPRE, the Countryside Commission and the Rural Developmente Commision. [London]: Signal Press, 1998. Simonovic Đ. (1980): Uređenje seoskih teritorija i naselja. Beograd: Građevinska knjiga, 1980. p. 20-29 Темјановски Р.: (2001): "Руралната патна мрежа како фактор за економско-функционален развој на селата во Република Македонија". Зборник на трудови од Конгресот одржан во Охрид од 3-5 ноември 2000. Скопје: Македонско географско друштво, 290. [Конгрес од меѓународен карактер] Temjanovski R.(2005): Транспортниот систем во Република Македонија и европските стопански текови. Skopje: Ekonomski fakultet (Doktorska disertacija), 2005. The OECD Jobs Study: Investment, Productivity and Employment. Paris: OECD, 1995. p. 75. The Origin and the Growth of Urbanization in the World, American Journal of Sociology, 5/1955, s.437.

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УДК: 338.48-6:379.845(497.7)

THE IMPORTANCE OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA PhD. Nikola PANOV*, PhD. Milena TALESKA**, MsC. Hristina DIMESKA*** Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje * e-mail: npanov@pmf.ukim.mk; **e-mail: mtaleska@gmail.com; ***e-mail: hristinadimeska@gmail.com

Abstract Mountains are one of the world’s most important tourism destinations and it is believed that they take the second place in global popularity after coastal regions. This increasing demand for mountain tourism – which is expected to grow even further, is a great opportunity for the Republic of Macedonia. Its mountainous and rural areas may tend to occupy a marginal position on present day, but they possess a wealth of natural beauty and this untapped potential can be used for tourism development. The aim of this paper is to identify the tourism resources that Republic of Macedonia possesses in the mountain regions and also to present the opportunities for tourism development in these areas. Key words: mountain, mountainous regions, mountain tourism, R. Macedonia

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE Mountains today represent important assets for the global tourism industry. With their clean air, unique landscapes and wildlife, scenic beauty, rich cultural heritage, and recreational opportunities that they offer, today, mountains are attractive as places of escape from our stressful, urban world and they are magnet for many tourists. On the other hand, many mountain regions in the world have seen a strong rise in living standards after tourism was introduced. In the Alps, for instance, tourism development since the 18th Century has completely transformed poor alpine agricultural settlements into prosperous mountain resorts and villages. This is the reason why mountain destinations cannot be considered only as spaces for rest and recreation, but also as "economic enterprises" (Marić, 2002) that can bring multiple benefits to the local communities and national economies. Mountain tourism 63 today is one of the fastest growing market segments of tourism and it is believed to be second in global popularity as tourist destinations after coastal regions. (Mieczkowski 1995). It is estimated that more than 50 million people visit mountains each year (FAO, 2005) and according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Mountain tourism accounts for 15 - 20% of worldwide tourism, or US$ 70 - 90 billion per year. This increasing demand for mountain tourism – which is expected to grow even further, is a great opportunity for the Republic of Macedonia. As a predominantly mountainous country Macedonia should take advantage of these trends on the current global tourism market and diversify its tourism offer with the development of specialized tourism and a variety of offers and activities. Macedonia’s mountains are exceptionally diverse in relief and offer abundant options for relaxation, along with sports and entertainment for tourists, since conditions are exceptionally conducive for tourism in both winter and summer. This means that resources basis for tourism development exists, which is a huge potential, however if Macedonia wants to be competitive with other tourism developed countries it should set a long-term grounds for tourism development in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. 63

Mountain tourism is a phenomenon characterized by a great variety of activities that often depend on the season or trends

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That is why, the main purpose of this paper will be to focus on the current situation of mountain tourism and to provide theoretically based case study analysis of the opportunities and perspectives for development of this type of tourism product in the Republic of Macedonia. METHODOLOGY This paper is a exploratory research, based on a secondary and primary sources, that aims to provide theoretically based case studies analysis of the essential characteristics and key resources of the mountain regions in the Republic of Macedonia as а potential tourist destinations. The methodology that was applied is widely used in geographical and tourism studies, such as research methods of analysis and synthesis which allow us a scientific approach in identifying factors that can encourage or limit the tourism development in the mountains. RESULTS Macedonia has a very favourable geographical position for tourism development. It is situated in South-East Europe in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, at latitude between 40°50' and 42°20' north and longitude of 20°27' and 23°05' east. The country borders with Serbia and Kosovo in the north, Bulgaria in the east, Greece in the south and Albania in the west. Macedonia covers an area of 25.713 km2 and even though small in size, it is very diverse by relief and climate. It has a huge concentration of various natural and anthropogenic tourist values of global significance which with its attractiveness and complexity offer a high degree of charm and great opportunities for the development of many types of tourism (Taleska, 2013), especially the development of mountain tourism because of Macedonia’s rugged mountainous terrain and great natural diversity. Macedonia is predominantly a mountainous country. As a result of powerful local and regional geotectonic movements in the past, the landscape in the Republic of Macedonia has characteristic chess-like relief with frequent changes of mountains and depressions. (Milevski, 2011) Hilly-mountain areas cover approximately 80% of the total area of Macedonia, out of which mountains accounts for 47.7% of the country. From about 40 mountains, 14 are grouped as high, extending above 2,000 m a.s.l., with a subgroup of 5 very high ranges (2,500 –2,753 m); 14 are medium-high mountain ranges (1,000 – 2,000 m); and the others are low mountain ranges (below 1,000 m). However, they are unequally outspreaded and most of them are located in the west and central part of the country. The average altitude of the terrain is 850 meters. Mountainous relief is among the most impressive elements of the natural environment of the Republic of Macedonia. The possibility that the mountains offer for tourism development due to the fact that they have high natural tourism potential that can now be used to activate many suitable areas and natural elements as the mountain landscape, snow, glaciers, gorges, canyons and mountain peaks, is enormous. Because of its diversity and scenic beauty there is a chance for the tourist here to experience many activities such as skiing, sport climbing, alpinism, paragliding, cannoning, fishing, hunting etc. But, today mountain tourism in the Republic of Macedonia is still in infancy. The development of mountain tourism in the Republic of Macedonia is faced with several problems: - Insufficient population density - In the last few decades, Republic of Macedonia is facing numerous and serious challenges related with demographic development, especially in the mountain areas where rapid decline of the population has been reported in the past 50 years. As

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a result of these negative effects, in 2002, 47 village settlements in the mountains had been displaced, and the population density was barely 10 people per km2. (Madzevic, Toshevska, 2011). Today, young population due to the lack of jobs and often unprofitable subsistence farming leave their homeland; Extinguishing rural communities in the mountain areas due to which irreversibly are dying culinary traditions, special customs, traditional crafts, songs and dances that are the basis for the design and development of the tourist industry. Worn out infrastructure and low level of material and receptive base - the access road to the mountain areas its poor making these regions difficult and time consuming to access. Even though, in the last ten years, some developments have been seen, including improved road access and an increased number of tourism facilities ranging from hiking trails to restaurants to sleeping places, both hotels and local family facilities, but still the built infrastructure is not adequate for delivering a high quality product or commercializing it intensively on the market; The problem of quality development planning of winter and recreation centers due to lack of qualified labor; Political instability – Today, the geopolitical situation in the Republic of Macedonia can be assessed to have improved, but it still remains fragile, etc.

In order to avoid this problems that the development of mountain tourism is faceing today, Macedonia needs to introduce specific policies, strategies and frameworks for sustainable tourism development in these regions. Tourism, if implemented in a sustainable manner keeping in mind the welfare of the local community, can play an important role in lifting communities out of poverty. Today, more and more local stakeholders recognise the potential of tourism, but this interest and commitment by the local communities requires outside support to channel the developments that will hopefully take place in the right, sustainable, direction. Despite the mentioned challenges the mountain locations in Macedonia are facing, they are visited by international and domestic tourists, and the number of tourists and stays is constantly increasing, which can be seen from the following table. Table 1. Tourist arrivals & Tourist nights spent in the Republic of Macedonia (2008-2012) Year TOTAL Skopje Spa resorts Mountain resorts Other tourist res. Other resorts DOMESTIC Skopje Spa resorts Mountain resorts Other tourist res. Other resorts FOREIGN Skopje Spa resorts Mountain resorts Other tourist res. Other resorts

2008 605 320 134 051 22 965 43 165 305 793 99 346 350 363 20 088 17 776 35 665 220 598 56 236 254 957 113 963 5 189 7 500 85 195 43 110

2009

2010

2011

Tourist arrivals 587 770 586 241 647568 127 266 126 327 141386 21 369 28 574 27441 52 484 71 457 71309 283 430 263 278 279695 103 221 96 605 127737 328 566 324 545 320097 19 304 15 962 15979 17 062 24 688 23401 40 130 58 170 58100 193 768 181 143 175612 58 302 44 582 47005 259 204 261 696 327471 107 962 110 365 125407 4 307 3 886 4040 12 354 13 287 13209 89 662 82 135 104083 44 919 52 023 80732

2012 663 633 152 412 27 430 68 809 280 375 134 607 312 274 18 195 23 826 55 076 167 047 48 130 351 359 134 217 3 604 13 733 113 328 86 477

2008 2 235 520 251 950 137 166 110 012 1 562 487 173 905 1 648 073 29 828 108 634 94 063 1 324 241 91 307 587 447 222 122 28 532 15 949 238 246 82 598

2009

2010

2011

Tourist nights spent 2 101 606 2 020 217 2173034 240 695 229 521 254 553 134 840 216 526 220 640 120 891 160 336 161 382 1 418 318 1 250 866 1309184 186 862 162 968 227 275 1 517 810 1 461 185 1417868 30 660 24 592 24 434 106 980 189 324 193 274 97 275 131 786 129 937 1 182 108 1 045 624 994 400 100 787 69 859 75 823 583 796 559 032 755 166 210 035 204 929 230 119 27 860 27 202 27 366 23 616 28 550 31 445 236 210 205 242 314 784 86 075 93 109 151 452

2012 2 151 692 269 813 216 516 144 293 1 287 377 233 693 1 339 946 29 221 190 749 110 865 936 386 72 725 811 746 240 592 25 767 33 428 350 991 160 968

Source: State statistical office, 2013

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When analyzing the number of tourists visiting a certain place, it is evident that mountain locations are on the list of least visited locations in the country with a 10.37 % of tourists (more than the percentage in 2008, when it was 7.3 % of the total number of tourists that year). Only spa centres are less visited than these locations. In the analyzed period from 2008 to 2012, it is interesting to note that even though the number of domestic tourists decreased at a country level, there was an increase in the mountain locations. The total percentage of international tourists who visited the mountain locations in Macedonia in 2012 is only 2.07 %, whereas if we follow the period between 2008 and 2012, we can notice that the number of international tourists in the mountain locations increased by 83.11 %. The total number of overnight stays by Macedonian tourists in the mountain locations is 110,865, which is 8.27 % of the total number of overnight stays in 2012, whereas the total number of overnight stays in the mountain areas by international tourists is 33,428, i.e. 4.11 % of the stays by international tourists in 2012. This means that the number of overnight stays by domestic tourists is about three times bigger than the number of international tourists. In order to enhance this image, mountain tourism offer should be distinctive and diverse, demonstrated through the wide range of products and experiences. Therefore for the purpose of this study an in-depth analysis was conducted towards identifying and differentiating tourist mountain regions in the Republic of Macedonia and the potentials for tourism development within the regions. According to their geographical features and unique content, these regions offer opportunities for diversity and uniqueness in the tourism offer of Macedonia. Identification of tourism potentials is in close relation with the need of achieving destination competitiveness on the tourist market. The importance of mountain tourism as a part of the overall tourism market depends on each country’s recreation/tourism resources, infrastructure image, market access and the presence of other types of tourism products. That is why, based on the completed inventory of the tourism potentials, a valorisation was conducted that determined how we can differentiate these regions based on their specialization for certain forms and shapes of mountain tourism. What is evident here is that all of the mentioned mountains have the preconditions for development of the sport – recreational and picnic tourism, available respectively to those touristic shapes which are in relation to fulfilling the need for physical activity. Table 2. Tourist regions, tourist areas and potentials for development of mountain tourism Fresh water Snow Land based based dependent Accommodation Naturе Tourist region Tourist areas adventure recreational recreational capacity walks activities activities activities Shar Planina √ √ √ √ Bistra Shar Planina√ √ √ √ √ Bistra Stogovo √ √ Korab √ √ √ Pelister √ √ √ √ PelisterGalichica √ √ √ Galichica Krushevo √ √ √ √ √ Jakupica √ √ √ √ Jakupica Skopska √ Crna Gora Osogovo Osogovo√ √ √ √ √ Maleshevian Maleshevo √ √ √ √ Kozhuf Kozhuf – √ √ √ √ √ Nidge region Nidge √ √

Source: Taleska, M., 2009

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The first Shar Planina-Bistra region is the biggest and it has total surface of 2250,7 km2, and here the Shara Mountain stands out, and has very favorable preconditions for development of mountain tourism, as a result here are absent only the activities that are connected to fresh water based recreational activities. This region, above all is one of the largest but also one of the most attractive mountain regions for tourists in Republic of Macedonia. On this mountain the most famous touristic location is the winter sport - ski center “Popova shapka”, which was one of the most important centers for winter tourism in the country and the region, however, unfortunately, as a result of the 2001 conflict, it lost its primate for winter tourism, just to regain it back, slowly but steadily in the last few years. Currently 20 hiking trails are marked here, with total length of 33035 meters and also three mountain-bike trails. The ski center has 6 ski lifts available, with total width of 10 km, with maximum capacity of 9,490 skiers, and real of 7,585 skiers per hour. With the eventual proclamation of this mountain as a National Park, the numbers of domestic as well as foreign visitors are expected rise. On Shara Mountain there are located 6 hotel capacities, large number of resorts and around 700 weekend houses. Based on article 30, paragraph 1, of the Law of Hunt of Republic of Macedonia, there is a total of 252 hunting grounds, out of which 107 are for large and small quarry only, and the hunting ground Letnica is one of the four national hunting grounds in R.M. On the territory of Bistra Mountain is located the biggest National Park in the country, concerning the size – Mavrovo, which also has a adequate infrastructure for tourism development that is associated with winter and also summer mountain activities. The region has available a large number of accommodation capacities of every category. The ski center Zare Lazarevski has available a cable railway with a capacity of 1500 visitors per hour, and 11 ski lifts with a capacity of 5000 visitors per hour. Stogovo and Korab mountains are ones of the highest mountains in the Republic of Macedonia (Korab – is the highest peack in the country 2764 m.) and they have preconditions for a tourism development associated with summer activities. Stogovo also has the potential for development of fresh water based activities, while Korab is more for land based activities. However, unfortunately here the situation with accommodation capacities is on a very low level, with minimal number of facilities. The next Pelister - Galichica region has available potentials for development of mountain tourism. In this region is the oldest National Park in the Republic of Macedonia Pelister, and also the ski center Bogova Cheshma. On Pelister there is a large number of walking trails and ski terrains as well as multiple accommodation facilities, represented with 3 hotels, three mountaineering homes and one hostel. Galichica Mountain also represents a protected region in the category of National Parks. This area has the available preconditions for development of the mountain tourism, which does not include snow and water based activities. The situation with accommodation capacities here is on a very unsatisfactory level. The initiative for the construction of a ski center is excellent and it will make the region grow into a destination with a longer season. Krushevo is the highest city on the Balkan Peninsula and features the hotels Panorama and Montana (one of them recently renovated). The cable railway here leads from the city to the ski tracks with a capacity of 720 skiers per hour. The city of Krushevo is the ideal place for mountain tourism activities throughout the whole year. Jakupica - Skopska Crna Gora tourist region does not have available potentials for a mountain tourism development, as the previously mentioned regions, which creates a problem or a challenge that has to be solved in the future, concerning the closeness to Skopje as a capital. The attention should be equally directed towards the mountain range of Jakupica from one side and of Skopska Crna Gora from the other side. It is necessary to establish

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conditions for development of mountain based activities such as marked riding terrains, hiking trails, paragliding activities, mountain biking, moto-tracks, appropriate terrains for hunt and fishing, as well possibilities for construction of ski centers accompanied with ski terrains, ski lifts, cable railways, etc. Building of appropriate accommodation facilities here is also necessary as well as hotels of more categories, hostels, mountaineering homes, etc. The region of Osogovo-Maleshevo Mountains has existing terrains and trails for nature walks. The Osogovo Mountains beside the marked walking trail, have the potential for land based adventure activities, fresh water based recreational activities and snow dependent recreational activities. In this region a mountain resort and a mountaineering home is located with small number of beds. Maleshevian Mountain also have the opportunities for nature walks, land base activities, fresh water based recreational activities, as well as a modest infrastructural base. The last differentiated region is Kozhuf – Nidge that spans the mountains of Kozhuf and Nidze, of which the former represents a good example for an investment in a ski center, where of the aforementioned modalities only the fresh water based recreational activities are absent. This region, besides domestic tourists, also attracts a large number of tourists from the Republic of Greece, but unfortunately a limiting factor is the absence of the accommodation facilities of different categories. Nidze Mountain, on the other hand, has conditions for tourism development but only for some types of mountain tourism that relate to activities connected with recreation and milder physical activities. Unfortunately a limiting factor here is that this region also does not have accommodation capacities available. CONCLUSION Mountain tourism is one of the leading forms of tourism in these contemporary market trends and Macedonia should exploit the advantages that it possesses and steer its tourism offer into the mountain areas. The impact of tourism, especially mountain tourism, can be very positive and progressive for development on some areas. Republic of Macedonia needs to build a strategic framework setting the course in which direction to run the planning of mountain tourism and to improve the preconditions for the development of this type of tourism, and increase the number of tourists and the participation of mountain tourism in total tourism flows in the country.

REFERENCES AND LITERATURE 1. FAO (2005), Mountain tourism: Making it work for the poor, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization 2. Flagestad, A.; Hope, C. A. (2001), Strategic success in winter sports destinations: A sustainable value creation perspective, Tourism Management, 22(5), pp. 445–461 4. Kruk, E; Banskota, K (2007), Mountain tourism in Nepal: From impacts to sustainability, Tourism & Himalayan Bio-diversity, Srinagar: Transmedia Publication, pp 15–34 5. Law of Hunt of Republic of Macedonia (2003), article 3, paragraph 1, Ministry of Economy, Skopje 6. Madzevic, M; Toshevska, A. B. (2011), Usage of the Mountain Areas in the Republic of Macedonia, Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions – Southeast Europe, pp 75-84 7. Marić I. (2002). Izgradnja u planinskim područjima, raubovanje resursa, odsustvo razvoja, odlazak stanovništva, Konferencija o razvoju planinskih područja Planina 2002, Savez inženjera i tehničara Srbije i Institut za arhitekturu i urbanizam Srbije, Kopaonik, 103-105 8. Mieczkowski, Z (1995), Environmental isses of tourism and recreation, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America 9. Milevski, I. (2011), Morphometry and Land Use on the Mountains in Republic of Macedonia, Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions, Southeastern Europe, pp 63-73 10. Milevski, I. (2009), Geomorphometrical characteristics of the high mountains in the Republic of Macedonia, Annual of the Institute of Geography No.38, Skopje, pp. 152-175 11. Nepal, S.K; Chipeniuk, R. (2005), Mountain tourism - Toward a conceptual framework, Tourism Geographies 7, pp 313-333

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12. Panov, N., Taleska, M., Dimeska, H. (2013), Development of mountain tourism in the Republic of Macedonia, with special references to Bistra Mountain and National Park “Mavrovo”, In Proceedings from the International conference Contemporary trends in Tourism and Hospitality 2013, Novi Sad 13. State statistical office (2013), Republic of Macedonia 14. Stojmilov, A. (1976), Hypsometrical characteristics of the mountains in SR Macedonia, Geographical review 14, Skopje, pp 17–28 15. Stojmilov, A. (1981), Definition and differentiation of hilly-mountain terrains in the SR Macedonia. In: Proceedings from the symposium: natural and social-geographic problems of the hilly-mountain terrains, Skopje, pp 1–7 16. Taleska, M. (2009), Rural tourism, Selektor, Skopje, pp 90-97 17. Taleska, M. (2013), Macedonia’s cultural tourism – are we treasuring our past and looking to the future. In: Proceedings from the 14th International Joint World Cultural Tourism Conference, Novi Sad 18. UNEP (2007), TOURISM AND MOUNTAINS: A Practical Guide to Managing the Environmental and Social Impacts of Mountain Tours, France: United Nations Environment Programme 19. UNWTO (2004), Tourism and poverty alleviation: Recommendations for action, Madrid: United Nations World Tourism Organization

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 528.425:004(497.113)

DIGITAL MODELLING OF FRUSKA GORA TOPOGRAPHIC EXPOSITION Dragica ŢIVKOVIĆ1, Aleksandar VALJAREVIĆ2 ¹Full professor PhD, Studentski trg 3/III 11000 Beograd, +381112637421, dragica@gef.bg.ac.rs ²Phd, Lole Ribara 29, 38440 Kosovska Mitrovica, +38128425397, valjarkosmos@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT Modern geomorphologic topographic exploration uses statistic and cartographic methods for showing topographic features, including the analyses among particular shaping factors and the comparison of quality differences based upon numeric parameters etc. One of the important morphologic features is a topographic exposition, which includes the area cover of a topographic shape side whose contour lines direction is positioned at a particular side of the world. The expositions of this kind modify the influence of light and warmth in terms of mutually related phenomena like soil and air temperature, rock dissolution, the length of vegetation period ,the contents of phytocoenoses, the distribution of agricultural crops, the height of snow layer, settlement altitude etc. Key words: relief, exposition, digital, map, graphic

INTRODUCTION Elements of a geographic unit are specifically interrelated into particularly spatially dynamic phenomena systems. Topography itself is one of the most important elements. The meaning of exposition for the intensity of recent topographic processes is primarily reflected as primary influence modification concerning solar radiation effects on the amplitudes of soil and air and mechanical rock crumbling and vegetation period length. (Pahernik, 2007). The topography area cover is a delevelled field of different topographic shapes. The expositions of topographic shapes area have come as a result of a mutual geomorphologic agent and modifier effects being a part of physical area disassembling processes and are elements of field delevelling. An exposition is the position of a topographic shape side area whose counter lines direction matches a world side direction (Sretenovic,1971). Rarely are mountain economic activities so much related to bright expositions as they are in the Pyrenees. The bright sides have a few degree higher temperature that the dark ones. Almost all the settlements are concentrated on the bright ones. It is only on these that vine growing is done at particular altitudes (Zivkovic, Ikonovic, 1995). Fruska Gora is of a similar position. It is one of the few remaining island horst mountains inside the spacious Pannonian Basin. It occupies the east –west direction, stretching from Star Slankamen to Sarengrad Sid Road. The lens-like body of Fruska Gora stretches in a 78- kilometre -long parallel direction, from Telek to Slankamen ( Bukurov, 1951). It seems the widest in its central part, following the direction of Sremska Kamenica to Irig, being about 15 kilometres long, and getting narrower from west to east. The outline of Fruska Gora profile is asymmetric. It once inclined more to the south as the northern valley is much wider. North side altitude decline is gradual; steps resembling terraces, decreasing with ever steeper cuts. The heights decline is gradual on the southern side (Bukarkov, 1995). The southern side is steeper than the northern one, but the steeps gradually decrease near the ground, getting transformed into a relatively mild mountainous valley finally becoming a loess hillock. The entire direction of the mountainous chain determines the expositions of topography as parallel ones according to its dispersing level. The entire area of Fruska Gora is segmented by elongated and parallel shapes whose elongations are exposed to the two opposite world sides. The mountain looks are presented as its central parts. An altitude exceeding 500 m is spotted in 8 localities in an area that does not surpass 1km2( S Curcic and others 2007). The Fruska Gora area cover, partly determined by a 100 -m -counter

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

line, embraces 2100 km². Taking geological and geo- morphological relations into account, Fruska Gora can be limited by a 150 -m -counter line. Then the entire plan metric (a twodimensional cartographic display), that is the real one (a three-dimensional one) comprises 815.6 km², that is 1160.9 km² (Curcic and oth.,2007). Practically, the term Fruska Gora is more in use, including not only the mountain but also the lower parts as well. That area embraces 1338.51 km². In the process, a 200- m counter line was used as the dividing line between low lands and hillside, with an area of 377.341 km². WORKING METHODOLOGY Digital cartography has made us possible to see the world with a different view. A digital map can be defined as digitally formatted cartographic visualization. The replacement of classic analogue resources with the digital ones with the application of algorithms for morph metric topography parameter calculations makes it possible for a precise and efficient determination of quantitative topographic parameters. A morphological feature- a topographic exposition is taken into account in the process on the grounds of the formed digital model. The satellites from which these recordings can be taken in Europe are Eros A and Eros B.The stress is on the morphological analysis of Fruska Gora slopes in the GIS area of a particular DEM. In order to analyse the digital topographic model of it there is a programme called Global Mapper 13 that has been in use. This is done by inserting a DEM (Digital Elevation Model), which is downloaded from the server of the same sight in function(Download Online Data). With the data downloaded in the Digital Altitude File a selected area is cropped and then extracted from the 200 -m -contour line. When the dividing line in function of the Generate Counters Software is selected, the next step is changing the values of a particular Fruska Gora area using the tools from Feature Info Tool. So this is how an area is measured. Then the two additional parameters are obtained. 1) Obtaining a 3 D -display of Fruska Gora mountain 2) Obtaining a basin area of the mountain. A 3D -display is obtained by using Show 3D View tools. Inside the interface of this set of tools, different functions are manipulated, for example Increase Water Level, where the entire 3D model is set measuring their parameters of zero sea level altitude or of the altitude being measured. An altitude is a changeable matter as it picks up topographic plasticity with the help of Emphasise Altitude Function, called Surprise Altitude. The complete display can be changed by using the Change Display Property function. This is how the parameters are set for design when topography is concerned. This is important for further steps, especially the later ones concerning exposition classification determined by angles which are then sorted out with the use of a special algorithm and finally changed into colors. The elevation model is obtained in the following way: Obtaining the major watersheds of Fruska Gora Mountain is carried out like the following. Inside a DEM, the Generate Watershed tools set is activated. When a window is opened, the number of watersheds is checked just as well within a couple of metres to determine major watershed areas. Inside a Description interface window, a layer is named for the very example as Fruska Gora. Resolution, whose quantity is placed in a window just like the stream cell count where the resolution is determined. The other functions which are to be checked in the algorithm window keep the current function, the number of streams, the number of watersheds per unit. Finally, function Calculating Watershed is used which calculates collectively and individually, so that we get the total number watersheds as well as the superficial number of basins.

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OBTAINING FIELD EXPOSITIONS AND FLT OF FRUSKA GORA FILE At the start of inserting a DEM, it is important that an active Fruska Gora projection be determined. Our projection file is displayed in the Hermans/Hogel date of UTM 8. The same file approximately matches Zone HKG 7. On having determined the projection and with the area determining the Fruska Gora border having been cropped in a 200-m valley, what comes next is the following: 1) A DEM is inserted into the Common Evaluation File function, 2) Then the function File Export Elevation Grid Format is stored in an FLT/ FILE 3) On opening the window Export Slope Direction Values Instead of Evaluations, it is the checking that needs to be done 4) Then we insert the file and activate the DEM windows 5) The function Generate Contours is activated as the four sides of the world are checked 6) When the expositions of the eight world sides are determined, measuring lines are grafted onto the area. The function that follows is the right click on the Advanced Feature Creation Options, so that we get the areas with the help of the tools set Create New Area (s), Features from Selected Lines. An area can be measured by using the tools from Info Tool. By combining analogue and digital methods, what is obtained is a comparison that is designed to present digital data in a most convincing way. The real advantage of Globe Mapper 13 lies in its liability to mapping physical and geographic elements, so that is the reason why it is considered to be the most efficient of all GIS. The only setback of this GIS tool set is the fact it posses less stronger analytic functions, while when coupled with software like Geo Media and Arc GIS, it gives excellent results. DEM PREPARATION AND INSERTION AND LAYER MAP FORMATION There are numerous ways and methods of inserting a DEM. One of the methods is inserting contour lines on a particular digital map. What matters is an ever -more natural form of the line, for it to be drawn manually. When the lines are classified according to their altitude (the major contour line being 100 m, the basic ones being 20 m), then all the lines are classified into a special layer called Modify Feature Info. That is the point at which the names of layer and feature are inserted (Feature Class), which is to be stored. The line name is given as well as basic altitude parameters, the altitude layer being most important, without which a DEM cannot be lifted. The function in which layers are drawn is marked by algorithm Elevation, and then it is enough to insert an altitude leaving a letter where the altitude is marked as x,y,z, for the software to recognize an altitude coordinate. When all the layers get into the basis, what is obtained is all the lines which now should be transformed into areas for them to become DEM altitudes, with the Digital Elevation Model finally achieved. The procedure is far more difficult to be carried out than the one that follows, yet better results are achieved as it is more precise. The next way to get a DEM is its download from a server where available. One of the possibilities is downloading and transferring data from the very server software, Global Mapper, which is found in the following command Download Online Data. When the window containing the command called Aster GDM, the data are downloaded inside the very link which then can be expressed in the following formats: DEM, Geo Tiff, DEM/ USGS, KML, OZI, ASC II. The selected area is then cropped as the coordinate is determined along with the projection later to be stored in a PJR file.

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Figure 1. Fruska Gora Mountain drainage and watershed networks

GEO VISUALIZATION Spatial relations among orientated areas should be regarded as a hole by using polar graphs in a semi- ratio;-base sign- circular cut;-the base indicator value is determined (G) and becomes randomly chosen, ranging from the numeric indicator values of a cartographic phenomenon (it can be the biggest, the smallest or any other value) with the limited and already determined scaling (S) of the sign chosen; g- Other numeric indicator values of a cartographic phenomenon with proper scaling; s- Scaling for other indicator values (g) J- Semi-ratio; sign-ratio T- Calculator, an immediate calculator in developed planning c- Geometric quotient for calculating straight line metrics, c- 1.5957691 Table 1 Fruska Gora Exposition Areas (Software error is calculated as varying like ±1,5%) Exposition Area км² % color North 21,857 5,792 North-east 43,320 11,480 East 52,830 14,000 South-east 75,320 19,960 South 83,234 22,058 South-west 43,456 11,516 West 28,765 7,623 North-west 28,571 7,571 Summary 377,341 100,000

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Formula for determining semi-ratio relation is: G min  Gnw  5,8km2 (1) (2) S  20mm 2 (3) T G/S T  0,0145 (4)

S  g /T

(5) 2

I  c G  S I  c2  T c  1,5957691 (7)

(6)

c  1,59576912  0,002 1: I  1: 0, 005 (9)

(8)

2

Figure 2. Polar Graph of relief exposition of Fruska Gora Mountain

CONCLUSION Digital Cartography has made it possible for the world to be seen with a different view. The digital map can be defined as digitally-formatted cartographic visualization. Classic analogue data replacement for those digital ones by using algorithms for calculating morph metric topography parameters has made it possible for fast and efficient topography quantity

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parameters. In the Fruska Gora example, the data obtained have shown that the south and the south-west side are the biggest. That shows excellent opportunities for fruit and vineyard growing. The world has also shown an increased demand for good-quality wines. Goodquality grapes lay the foundation for such wines, which is sustained on particular physical and geographic conditions. Fruska Gora meets all the demands for good-quality vineyards as there are domineering south, south-west and south-east expositions which preserve visible sun exposure, which implies a greater sugar level. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was financially supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science projectIII44006, and also for projec No. 176019.

REFERENCES Пахерник М.(2007): Дигитална анализа падина отока Раба, Геоадриа 12/1, Задар, стр.3-22 Сретеновић Љ. (1971): Картографски метод проучавања експозиција површине рељефа за потребе просторног планрања, Зборник радова ПМФ, Географски завод, XVIII свеска, Београд, стр.105-118 Живковић Д., Иконовић В. (1995): Картометријска анализа структуре експозиција рељефа Фрушке горе, Зборник радова, Географски факултете Универзитета у Београду, No XLV, стр.157-163 Букуров Б. (1951): Привредно-географске прилике и саобраћајне везе фрушкогорске области, САН, Посебна издања, књига CLXXXIV, Географски институт, књига 2, Београд, стр.3-7 Ћурчић С. и др. (2007):Фрушка гора, Завод за уџбенике, Прво издање, Београд, стр.22-24 Сретеновић Љ. (1981): Унификација семиоразмерног тематског картирања, Зборник радова Географског института ПМФ, св.XXVIII, Београд, стр 63-79 Chang K.T. (1982): Multi-Component Quantitative Mapping, ,, The Cartographic Journal 19” pp.95-103. Hopkins L.D. (1977): Methods of Generating Land Suitability Maps: ,,A Comparative Evaluation” Journals of American Institute of Planers 43. pp. 386-398. Robinson A.H. (1995) Elements of cartography. WILEY USA. pp. 200-213, 440-449. Software GeoMedia 6.1 Professional Software Global Mapper 13.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

УДК: 528.94:314.116-022.252(497.7)

MAPPING AND CARTOGRAPHING OF THE DEPOPULATED AND ECONOMICALLY INACTIVE LANDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Blagoja MARKOSKI Institute for geography, Faculty for Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University,Gazi Baba, b.b., 1000-Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: blagojamarkoski@gmail.com

ABSTRACT This article contains the mapping of the the territorial units within the Republic of Macedonia, which because of various reasons have significant depopulation, and have implicitly become economically inactive. The goal is to make records of the depopulated and economically inactive areas more concretely, To determine their size, the abilities for usage of the resorts they are abundant with as well as the perspectives for their revitalization. In the sense of the mentioned, according to a large number of criteria (physically-geographic, social-geographic, economically-geographic, infrastructural and administratively political) the mapped territorial layout of the depopulated and economically inactive areas against the demographically vital and economically developed area units, has also been determined. Key words: mapping, cartographing, depopulated areas, deagrarianization, economically inactive areas, revitalization of settlements.

INSTEAD OF INTRODUCTION The Republic of Macedonia is geographically located in the central parts of the Balkan Peninsula. It takes up 25713km2 and has a population of about 2000000. The territory is characterized with mostly hilly-mountain areas or, more accurately, 12254km^2 are mountain areas, 7598km2 are hilly areas and 5064km2 are field areas, while the rest are water covered areas. The climate in the Republic of Macedonia is characterized with variations of the Mediterranean climatenear the Gevgelija-Valandovo ravine, continental climate in the ravines and mountain climate (especially in the territories with altitude higher than 1000m) in the hilly-mountain areas. The average temperatures are around 14C in Gevgelija, up to about 8C in Mavrovo (at about 1200 altitude) while the rains are characterized with about 350mm in the region of Ovche Pole up to about 1500mm in the valley of the River Radika. The most important hydro-graphic objects are the River Vardar (as a major recipient) with its confluent rivers Treska, Topolka, Babuna, Crna Reka, Lepenec, Pchinja and Bregalnica, then the River Strumica as well as Crn Drim, the natural tectonic lakes Ohrid Lake, Prespa Lake and Dojran Lake, the roughly 20 larger accumulations as well as roughly 150 smaller accumulations. On the territory there are 1750 cadastral settlements. Out of these, about 30 are city settlements while the rest are villages (on average, one settlement has about 15km2 of land). In the field areas, or rather in all of the ravines the primary economic sector predominates. The secondary sectors (mining, industry, energetics) are mostly developed in areas of exploitation as well as the city settlements. However, under various socio-econimic conditions, a large number of the settlements in the mountain and hilly areas have been caught up with the processes of depopulation and deagrarianization for a longer period of time. If it is taken into account that nearly half of the populated area in the republic of Macedonia are affected by depopulation, the problem is rather serious and is therefore set as a subject of study.

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

PROBLEM OF RESEARCH The main problem of research in this article is the more concrete determination of the size of the depopulated and economically inactive territories as well as the number of populated settlements concerned with these processes. Through the process of research more concretely will be identified the settlements with their populated ares which due to several natural as well as societal factors are concerned with the processes of depopulation and deagrarianization. Among the mentioned, as a problem of research there is also the identification of objects in the area which resemble bright dots in (societal-economical development) the depopulated and economically inactive territories. GOAL OF RESEARCH The goal of research, among the establishment of the size of the depopulated and economically inactive territories, the identification of the hilly-mountain areas and the identification of objects with economical importance in the depopulated ares is to determine the reasons of abandoning these territories, and furthermore to present measures by which the problems in the hilly-mountain areas would be solved. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH The methodological process in function of this research involves the application of a larger number of methods. As basic methods there have been applied the geographical, statistical and cartographical methods. There have been applied geographic methods which through long term terrain observations and researches on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia lead to the knowledge of the natural and socio-economic characteristics in the distinct spatial units in the Republic of Macedonia. This kind of terrain discoveries have been verified through statistical evidence for various indicators in the populated areas. The concretization of the problem in the sense of determining the hilly-mountain areas, categorization of the populated areas according to the types of terrain, processes of depopulation, deagrarianization, the general economical activity/inactivity and so on, has been done through the application of the cartographic method. Based on the application of the above-mentioned methods, the following research process has been conveyed: 1) Terrain observations as well as notes made nearly 30 years through the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, realized on various grounds (for scientific purposes, realization of project assignments, through other researches, terrain education, mountaineering and recreational goals and similar) have been taken into account. That way, the knowledge of the terrain of the Republic of Macedonia has been obtained. 2) Cartographing of the areas of the settlements in the Republic of Macedonia has been made, with the scale of 1:25000 and the same are brought to the scale of 1:200000. 3) The planimetry of the hypsometrical belts for every 100m relative altitude (and for some territories in more detail) by populated areas in the Republic of Macedonia has been drawn and calculates, so that based on that there have been established the terrain type characteristics of the location of the settlements and those have been classified into field, filly and mountain settlements. 4) Based on the hypsometrical planimetrical data and the terrain type classification of the populated areas, mapping and cartographing of the field, hilly and mountain territorial units in

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the Republic of Macedonia has been done. 5) To the given data (point 4 and 5) data about the population has been added, so that it has been determined that in the mountain areas (generally above 1000m altitude) almost entirely, while in the hilly territories with above 70% the population has decreased compared to the population data from 1961, meaning that generally (with a few exceptions) the settlements usually have 50 inhabitants less. 6) According to the mentioned approach, the settlements which belong in the field, hilly and mountain unit areas have been established and according to that their concrete areas have also been determined.

Fig. 1 Republic of Macedonia, relief typеs

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

7) The resulting territories are cartographed throughout the entire territory of the Republic of Macedonia so that it has been fortified that there are 5065 km^2 of field territories with 600 functional settlements exist, 7599km^2 of hilly territories with 543 villages and 12254 km^2 with 558 populated areas. RESULTS Based on the applied methodology of research, the territorial type characteristics for the territory of the Republic of Macedonia have been established. In them, an overview has been made of the population characteristics of the population and the economical activity of the regions, so that there have been established stated of complete and of above 70% depopulation. A more concrete situation is shown in the table bellow. Table 1. The size of territories and number of populated settlements according to the type classification of the terrain in the Republic of Macedonia by settlements and statistical regions (municipalities according to the administrative territorial division before 1996) FIELD HILLY MOUNTAIN TOTAL MUNICIPALITIES NO. OF NO. OF NO. OF NO. OF КМ2 POPUL КМ2 POPUL КМ2 POPUL КМ2 POPULA ATED ATED ATED TED AREAS AREAS AREAS AREAS VELES 95 7 926 59 515 18 1536 84 KAVADARCI 66 8 451 24 615 14 1132 46 NEGOTINO 212 14 325 12 199 8 736 34 ST. NIKOLE 148 15 501 25 649 40 VARDAR R. 521 44 2203 120 1329 40 4053 204 BEROVO VINICA DELCHEVO KOCHANI PROBISHTIP SHTIP EASTERN REG.

59 3 201 145 408

4 24 17 45

193 162 335 194 369 1253

13 11 28 24 25 101

612 212 245 377 132 301 1879

3 1 21 10 29 64

805 433 583 578 326 815 3540

16 15 29 45 34 71 210

BROD DEBAR KICHEVO OHRID STRUGA SOUTH-WEST REG.

97 110 95 302

20 17 20 57

93 178 185 456

25 30 13 68

924 160 579 521 411 2595

50 11 28 19 28 136

924 253 854 816 506 3353

50 36 78 49 48 261

VALANDOVO GEVGELIJA RADOVISH STRUMICA SOUTHEAST REGION

115 249 213 527 1104

12 19 14 63 108

89 384 164 81 718

8 13 14 35

127 95 358 341 921

2 22 11 35

331 728 735 949 2743

22 32 50 74 178

BITOLA DEMIR HISAR KRUSHEVO PRILEP RESEN

687 67 61 573 194

69 18 10 61 33

673 205 73 616 -

35 17 9 40 -

438 171 104 486 355

20 3 4 10 10

1798 443 238 1675 549

124 38 23 111 43

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PELAGONIJA REGION

1582

191

1567

101

1554

47

4694

339

GOSTIVAR TETOVO POLOG REGION

93 313 406

16 48 64

-

-

1244 766 2010

72 44 116

1337 1079 2416

88 92 180

KUMANOVO KRATOVO KR. PALANKA NORTH-EASTREGION

305 14 77 396

35 6 41

587 145 732

49 13 62

306 217 642 1165

25 18 45 88

1198 376 719 2293

109 31 51 191

SKOPJE SKOPJE REGION

344 344

50 50

669 669

56 56

801 801

32 32

1814 1814

138 138

TOTAL 5064 600 7598 543 12254 558 24916 1701 Source: Markoski B. (1995): Hypromstry of the terrain and the population in the Republic of Macedonia – cartographic method. Makedonska Riznica page 1-316, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Personal cartometric research.

In the context of the presented data should also be mentioned the data regarding the arable lands in the Republic of Macedonia which (under the conditions of a uniform distribution of the population) were used in the agricultural production which with the processes of industrialization, urbanization and deagrarianization were reduced to a 706891ha total to 154341ha or 21.8% in the Republic of Macedonia. This means the the agricultural production capacities despite the improved conditions for agricultural production are still decreased. DISCUSSION From the data it can be concluded that the mountain regions of above 1000m altitude in the entire of the Republic of Macedonia, the regions Debarca, Zheleznec, Mariovo, Gorna Reka, Poreche, the river valleys of Babuna and Topolka, Slandol, Boshavija, Lakavica, Kozjachica, Sredorek, the region of Kalimanci and other smaller enclaves are with significant depopulation and nearly 90% economically inactive territories. Therefore, it is an area of 12254m^2 and 558 villages in the mountain regions and 7598km^2 territory and 543 village settlements in the hilly settlements, or nearly 20000km^2 with 1100 populated areas with significant depopulation, deagrarianization and general economical inactivity. As a reminder, in the hilly areas in 1961 lived more than 300000 inhabitants while in the mountain areas about 200000 inhabitants or a total of around 500000 inhabitants (which in the context of the population then represents about a third) or on average around 450 inhabitants per settlement. Today (in the absence of proper data, due to the unconducted census in 2012 due to political reasons) the average with insignificant exceptions in the hilly areas is generally under 100 inhabitants and in the mountain areas under 50 inhabitants. Realistically, economically active are only the field territories where the city settlements where the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors are located as well as the field village settlements where the primary sector exists, especially agriculture and animal husbandry. As opposed to the field territories, the hilly ones and especially the mountain territories, due to the depopulation and deagrarianization remained economically inactive. In these territories these days only a particular system of exploitation is characteristic. That is generally the exploitation of forests, metal and non-metal ore, meaning exploitation which can

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be done mainly by mobile work force, while a large number of economic deeds which could function on there territories are absent. A special characteristic of the hilly and mountain regions is the lack of infrastructural elements. The linear infrastructure is still not appropriate and the institutional infrastructure is especially absent against the situation in the sixties.

Fig. 2 Republic of Macedonia, economically active and inactive lands

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MEASURES FOR REVITALISATION OF THE HILLY-MOUNTAIN REGIONS The main precondition for the existence is the supply of wood and water. Because of this, during the primary location of the populated settlements it was taken into account that they are developed in places where there's abundance of water, in the existence of lands suitable for agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry. However, the technological development and the civilization achievements have also become an important need for the population as a whole, and according to that for the rural population as well. Because of this, it would be prosperous (instead of the population trying to get these benefits in the cities) a larger number of these benefits to be brought to the population in their own settlements. The technologically developed countries have made these moves half a century ago and are permanently working on this. Because of this, these countries don't see or see it in only minor amounts, the problem of depopulation and deagrarianization, and on that account, the production of various products (especially from the primary sector) is in constant increase. The functioning of the processes of living in the hilly-mountain regions in the Republic of Macedonia in the context of the new technological and civilization achievements assume a significantly different infrastructural organization and supply In the populated settlements by taking measures in the sense of:  Decreasing or lowering the rate of building buildings in the larger city settlements resulting in an increase of unproductive population in the cities.  Reparation of political documents which influence the development of the country such as the faulty “Framework agreement” in the Republic of Macedonia, inappropriate territorial organization, centralization, decentralization of sectors and deeds and so on.  Assuming a new functional administratively-territorial organization in the Republic of Macedonia (with a larger number of municipalities)  Protection of the national interests through the concessions for exploitation of metal, nonmetal, mineral and other raw materials  Factual, and not declarative, decentralization of the sectors from a country level to a lower, administratively territorial level  Complete formation and quality improvement of the road infrastructure to the settlements, large villages and important crossroads, localities and objects in the hilly-mountain regions  Dispersion and dislocation of the industry capacities in the places of raw materials, or closer to the rural areas.  Mobility with the work force from the place of living to the place of work  Redirection of the funds for development to the rural areas  Organization, building and sanitation of the objects for water supply in every settlement in the sense of water supply in every household and the building of modern hygienic and sanitational elements  Organization and building of a sewage network in the populated areas due to improvement of the general hygienic conditions in the settlements.  Modernization of the rural areas by asphalting or tiling the street network, bettering of the village fences and public objects.  Bettering the electro-energetic network in the linear and qualitative sense.  Establishing proper telecommunication connections.  Building objects for general mutual interest in function of development and promotion of the primary sector (farming, animal husbandry)  Building so called cultural homes in the rural areas as centers for counties, ambulances, agricultural societies, post offices, shops, selling points, folklore societies, sports clubs

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and so on. Maintaining and strengthening the role of the schools in the populated areas with permanent presence of teachers. Establishing new manifestations in the rural areas with activities of the material and spiritual culture of the local population. Implementation of policies regarding measures of reallocation of the lands due to more efficient usage. Building large water accumulations with poly-functional usage as well as building small accumulations in the function of the primary sector and the bettering of the hydrological state in the Republic of Macedonia in general.

  

The presented elements in the context of sanction and revitalization of the rural areas should be a guide for more concrete measures and activities in the Republic of Macedonia in the local self-managements (settlements), in the planning, but most importantly in the concrete realization of the planning of the lands. The perspectives of usage of the abandoned arable lands should be seen through the change of the economy, respective to the transformed lands. Or, the development of the organized intensive animal husbandry, strengthening of the forestry and the deeds that are related to it, exploitation of the increased presence of forest fruits, development of some of the tourist deeds and so on. The societal and the technological conditions in the organization of the production and the way of living in the last 20 nears in the Republic of Macedonia are significantly changes. In a particular time frame (50s, 60s, 70s) the population was called from the rural areas to work in the cities, or transitioning from the primary sector to the secondary and other sectors. These moves (because of the idea that only through development of the secondary sector can the society really develop) were at the time justified, but long term they are obviously incorrect. Because of this, a drastic unevenness has occurred in the distribution of the population on the territories, a change of the working habits, leaving the natural potentials in the lands and so on. The above-mentioned approach should allow dispersion of the population from the cities towards the rural areas. That way a part of the working force (from the cities and from the local rural areas) can be employed in various building engagements for a more urban set-up in the rural areas, sanction and building of various infrastructural objects as a base for more intensive development of the primary sector in the populated areas, increased production and enlarged economical effects all in all. Through already made conditions for a suitable life (suitable linear and institutional objects) in the rural area, certainly a art of the population will decide to continue their lives in the rural area where a large number of their existential needs can be satisfied in abundance in a more quiet environment as opposed to the city-like every day stresses. In the context of the mentioned, it is logical that this cannot be done in all of the populated areas. That is why a part of the villages which for various societal or economic reasons in a given period of time existed, today must be reorganized or be completely abandoned, however a part of the settlements which demographically and economically are more vital must be allowed survival and development. The concrete solutions of the problem must be regulated on a local level and in smaller areas (valleys, municipalities and similar). The reflections in the demographic and the economic revitalization will be multiple in the context of the local environment as well as in the context of the country.

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CONCLUSION Through the process of mapping and cartographing of the depopulational and economically inactive territories in the Republic of Macedonia, it has been established that 12254km^2 mountain and 7598km^2 hilly territories with about 1100 populated areas are affected with the processes of depopulation and deagrarianization and these are economically inactive lands. The mentioned territories according to long term researches are mapped so that through the process of cartographing according to the criteria of hypsometry and inclination of the lands, three types of terrain units have been identified (fields 5064km62, hilly 7598km^2 and mountain 12254km^2) in which several regions which are economically inactive with significant depopulation and deagrarianization have been identified. Such regions are Debarca, Zheleznec, mariovo, Gorna Reka, Poreche, the river valleys of Babuna and Topolka, Slandol, Boshavija, Lakavica, Kozjachija, Sredorek, the region of Kalimanci and other smaller enclaves. Through methodological approached it has been determined that out of 1701 populated areas (cadastral municipalities – settlements which possess their own territory) 558 are in the mountain terrain, 543 are in the hilly terrains and 600 are in the field terrain. According to this there are nearly 20000km^2 hilly-mountain territories with around 1100 populated areas which are with significant depopulation and with about 90% economical inactivity (10% are the objects at which raw materials, forests, small animal husbandry activities are exploited). As a solution of this serious problem, the following measures are recommended:  Decreasing or lowering the rate of building buildings in the larger city settlements resulting in an increase of unproductive population in the cities.  Reparation of political documents which influence the development of the country such as the faulty “Framework agreement” in the Republic of Macedonia, inappropriate territorial organization, centralization, decentralization of sectors and deeds and so on.  Assuming a new functional administratively-territorial organization in the Republic of Macedonia (with a larger number of municipalities)  Protection of the national interests through the concessions for exploitation of metal, nonmetal, mineral and other raw materials  Factual, and not declarative, decentralization of the sectors from a country level to a lower, administratively territorial level  Complete formation and quality improvement of the road infrastructure to the settlements, large villages and important crossroads, localities and objects in the hilly-mountain regions  Dispersion and dislocation of the industry capacities in the places of raw materials, or closer to the rural areas.  Mobility with the work force from the place of living to the place of work  Redirection of the funds for development to the rural areas  Organization, building and sanitation of the objects for water supply in every settlement in the sense of water supply in every household and the building of modern hygienic and sanitational elements  Organization and building of a sewage network in the populated areas due to improvement of the general hygienic conditions in the settlements.  Modernization of the rural areas by asphalting or tiling the street network, bettering of the village fences and public objects.  Bettering the electro-energetic network in the linear and qualitative sense.  Establishing proper telecommunication connections.

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 

Building objects for general mutual interest in function of development and promotion of the primary sector (farming, animal husbandry) Building so called cultural homes in the rural areas as centers for counties, ambulances, agricultural societies, post offices, shops, selling points, folklore societies, sports clubs and so on. Maintaining and strengthening the role of the schools in the populated areas with permanent presence of teachers. Establishing new manifestations in the rural areas with activities of the material and spiritual culture of the local population. Implementation of policies regarding measures of reallocation of the lands due to more efficient usage. Building large water accumulations with poly-functional usage as well as building small accumulations in the function of the primary sector and the bettering of the hydrological state in the Republic of Macedonia in general.

   

Applying the mentioned measures will surely contribute to the revitalization of the lands and usage of the natural resources, more concrete revitalization in a part of the populates areas as well as accepting the situation that a part of the villages will have to perhaps be completely depopulated (especially for settlements which under various historical, societal and economical conditions were forcefully formed) because of the fact that they will not be able to survive in the new technological conditions of living. REFERENCES VGI. (1970-1972): Topographical maps with 1:25000 scale (Gauss – Krieger projection) for the territory of the Republic of Macedonia (216 sections), Belgrade. VGI. (1976): Topographical maps with 1:25000 scale (Gauss – Krieger projection) for the territory of the Republic of Macedonia pages – 4221 – Skopje, 4222 – Kumanovo, 4223 – Kustendil, 4121 – Bitola, 4122 – Prilep, 4123 – Thessaloniki, Belgrade SSO (2004): Census of the population, homesteads and apartments in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002, total population, homesteads and apartments, total population according to declaration on national affiliation, native language and religion (data according to settlements) book 10, Skopje. SSO (2004а): Census of the population, homesteads and apartments in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002, total population by age and gender (data according to settlements) book 11, Skopje. SSO (2004b): Census of the population, homesteads and apartments in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002, Total population in the country according to activity and gender (data according to settlements) book 12, Skopje. Kolchkovski D. (2004) Physical Geography of Macedonia, p. 1-273, Skopje (in Macedonian). MANU (1992) Malesh and Pijanec 2, Natural end socio-geographcal caracteristics on Malesh and Pijanec, Skopje. Markoski B. (1992) Cartographic Study of Hypsometric Structures of Population Displacement in Republic of Macedonia. PhD. Paper – script, Institut of geograph, Natural sciences end mathematics, Ss. Cyril & Methodius University, page 1– 625, Skopje (in Macedonian). Markoski B. (1995) Space Hypsometry and Macedonian Demography – Cartographic Method. Macedonian Thesaurus, p. 1-316, Skopje, (in Macedonian). Markoski B. (2003) Cartography, Geomap, p. 1-411, Skopje, (in Macedonian). Markoski B. (2004) Cartographic Defining and Differentiating Mountain Space Complex in Macedonia. Geographic Bulletin, Institute of Geography, p. 25-34, Skopje. (in Macedonian). Markoski B. (2010) The Methodologyofthe Approximative Dispositionofthe Actual Surfaceand Volumeofthe TerritoryoftheRepublicofMacedonia, Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the Macedonian Geographers, Dojran 710 October 2010, Macedonian Geographical Society,Skopje. National Geodetic Authority (1982): SR Macedonia through the cadastral evidence, Skopje. (in Macedonian).

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УДК: 551.4.04:{528:[007:004(497.715)

GIS ASSESSMENT OF THE LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN THE GEVGELIJA-VALANDOVO BASIN Svemir GORIN*, Ivan RADEVSKI, Blagoja MARKOSKI, Ivica MILEVSKI Institute for geography, Faculty for Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University,Gazi Baba, b.b., 1000-Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: svemir@pmf.ukim.mk

ABSTRACT Landscape is changing permanently under the pressure of natural and human driving forces. Those changes are very important in creating landscape policy, landscape protection, and also for landscape planning, on local, regional and national level. The objective of this article is to conduct identification and classification of landscape changes based on the use of Geographic information systems (GIS), for the Gevgelija-Valandovo basin located in the Republic of Macedonia. As the primary data, CORINE Land Cover 2000 & 2006 for the Republic of Macedonia was used. Than, with the usage of GIS, reclassification of CORINE Land Cover changes into appropriate landscape change types has been performed. The results are showing that the most dominant landscape changes type for this period in Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin is deforestation. Keywords: Landscape changes, CORINE Land Cover, GIS, Republic of Macedonia, Gevgelija-Valandovo basin;

INTRODUCTION The landscape changes are dynamic and permanent ongoing process in the nature [1]. “Landscape means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors”[2]. These changes are sometimes planned by humans, but many times they are occurring spontaneously, caused by natural forces [3]. Their influence on the environment determines them as positive or negative changes. Importance of the landscape changes can been seen through their permanent treatment in scientific articles, especially in the last 10-15 years [4]. Investigation of the type of landscape changes and some other spatial characteristic is important for creating and implementation of landscape policy, quality objective, protection, management and planning on local, national, and cross-border level. For that reason it is useful to determine, measure and monitor actual and further landscape changes, but also availability of appropriate and comparable data for different time periods. GIS technology offers possibilities for collecting, storing, managing and analysis of diverse geographical and non-geographical data and is an appropriate tool for achieving the objective of this article. STUDY AREA The studied area is situated in the southeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, on the board with Greece (see fig. 1), covering the total area of 1077 km2 or 4,18% of the national territory. Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin is surrounded on its east side with Belasica Mountain, then on the north-east side with Konečka (1159 m), Gradeška (1031 m) and Plavuš (996 m) while on west and south-west side with Koţuf Mountain (2166 m). It is a part of the Southeastern planning region, divided between four municipalities: Gevgelija, Bogdanci, Valandovo and Dojran. Central part of the basin belongs to lowlands. With Fakirov Hill it is divided in two fields: Gevgelija and Valandovo field. Many low hills are spreaded across these fields. At Gevgelija field is the lowest point in the Basin, but (also

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in the Republic of Macedonia) is the point where River Vardar leaves the border-line with Greece, 43 m.a.s.l. A basin rim belongs to mountains, where highest point is on Koţuf Mountain 2166 m.a.s.l. Due to the proximity with Aegean Sea, the climate in the basin is characterized with mild winters, warm autumns, while the summers are hot and dry. Average annual temperature is 14,2 ºC, and annual precipitation 694,6 mm. River network is made of River Vardar along with its tributaries (Stara, Kovanska, Sermeninska, Konjska, Gradištanska, Anska and Luda Mara).

Fig. 1. Geographic location of the Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin

METHODOLOGY According to the Articles objective, identification of changes and reclassification of CORINE Land Cover changes into Landscape types of changes, the assessment process has been conducted in this order: literature research, adopting suitable methodological approach, collection of necessary data, application of GIS in order to perform transformation of changes. During the literature research, we have noticed that several authors already explored this issue. We were specially interested in the articles which treated Landscape changes in the region Skalica [5], region Trnava in Slovakia [6], municipality Bansko [7], region Plovdiv in Bulgaria [8], as well as the comparative study between the regions Trnava and Plovdiv in Slovakia and Bulgaria [9]. Based on this research, we have adopted the methodological approach developed on the Institute of Geography on the Slovak Academy of Sciences [10], [11], [12]. Than, we chose the boundary of the studied area, and that is the GevgelijaValandovo Basin on the territory of Republic of Macedonia, which extends to Greece, but that part is not included in this Article. The necessary data were collected for CORINE Land Cover in the Republic of Macedonia for the years 2000 and 2006 and for CORINE Land Cover changes which have emerged during that period.

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Fig. 2. CORINE Land Cover data of the Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin (a) 2000; (b) 2006;

Table 1. An example of a table 1 Artificial surfaces 3 Forest and semi natural areas 11 Urban fabric 31 Forests 112 Discontinuous urban fabric 311 Broad-leaved forest 12 Industrial, commercial and transport units 313 Mixed forest 121 Industrial or commercial units 32 Scrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations 122 Road and rail networks and associated 321 Natural grasslands land 322 Moors and heathland 2 Agricultural areas 323 Sclerophyllous vegetation 21 Arable land 324 Transitional woodland-shrub 211 Non-irrigated arable land 33 Open spaces with little or no vegetation 22 Permanent crops 331 Beaches, dunes, sands 221 Vineyards 332 Bare rocks 23 Pastures 333 Sparsely vegetated areas 231 Pastures 5 Water bodies 24 Heterogeneous agricultural areas 51 Inland waters 242 Complex cultivation patterns 511 Water courses 243 Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation Table 1. Source: Heymann et al. (1994) (Table is modified by authors)

By using of GIS, reclassifications of recorded changes in the studied area were performed. Reclassification is carried out in accordance with the conversion table [12], which is part of the adopted methodology, in the following types of Landscape changes: 1. Landscape change type - Urbanization and industrialization is a result of transformation of class 242 (Complex cultivation patterns) into classes 121 (Industrial or commercial units) and 122 (Road and rail networks and associated land). 2. Landscape change type - Intensification of agriculture is a result of transformation of classes 211 (Non-irrigated arable land) and 243 (Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation) into class 221 (Vineyards). 3. Landscape change type - Extensification of agriculture is a result of transformation of classes 221 (Vineyards) into classes 211 (Non-irrigated arable land) and 231 (Pastures).

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4. Landscape change type - Deforestation is a result of transformation of class 311 (Broadleaved forest) into class 324 (Transitional woodland-shrub). 5. Landscape change type - Forestation is a result of transformation of classes 231 (Pastures), 321 (Natural grasslands) and 324 (Transitional woodland-shrub) into classes 324 (Transitional woodland-shrub), 311 (Broad-leaved forest) and 313 (Mixed forest). 6. Landscape changes type – Other changes represents changes caused by transformation of class 242 (Complex cultivation patterns) and 243 (Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation) into 511 (Water courses) resulting with enlargement of water bodies. Reduction of water areas is representing by transformation of class 511 (Water courses) into 243 (Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation) and 331 (Beaches, dunes, sands). RESULTS The results of the completed reclassification of earth cover changes into landscape changes, show that the total change in the period 2000-2006 for Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin amounted to 2253,12 ha or 2,09% (see Tab. 2) of the surface of the studied area.

Fig. 3. Types of landscape changes in the Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin for the period 2000- 2006.

The total number of polygons manifested as changes amounts 54. The most common type of change is deforestation with 84% of all changes. It is manifested with transition of the class broad-leaved forest in transitional woodland-shrub. They are deployed mainly in the mountainous parts of the basin or in the basins frame. The main factor for deforestation are forest fires and logging of forests. In hilly and mountainous areas concentrated type of change is forestation. It is included with 7.17% of the total change. From the total of 161 ha of area occupied by forestation, the largest part is referring to the transition from transitional woodland-shrub in the broad-leaved 578


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forest 102 ha, 42 ha are referring to the transfer of pastures in transitional woodland-shrub, 14 ha of transitional woodland shrub in mixed forest, and only 1 ha refers to the transformation of natural grasslands in transitional woodland-shrub. Table 2. Landscape changes in Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin (2000-2006) Number of Changed Area % of changed % of Studied Landscape change type Polygons (ha) area area Urbanization/industrialization 2 22.92 1.02 0.02 Intensification of agriculture 4 116.94 5.19 0.11 Extensification of agriculture 3 26.53 1.18 0.02 Forestation 8 161.49 7.17 0.15 Deforestation 32 1892.15 83.98 1.76 Other changes 5 33.09 1.47 0.03 TOTAL 54 2253.12 100.00 2.09

Intensification of agriculture occupy a total of 116.94 ha or 5.19% of the total change. Spa¬tial¬ly, they are located mainly in the lower flat parts. It refers to increasing the areas under vineyards. It is manifested with the transition of non-irrigated arable land in vineyards with 107 ha and 9 ha of transition of land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation in the vineyards.

Percent from total change (%)

90

84.0

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1.0

5.2

7.2 1.2

1.5

0 Urbanization/industrialization Extensification of agriculture Deforestation

Intensification of agriculture Forestation Other changes

Fig. 4. Graphics of the Landscape changes in Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin (2000-2006)

Extensification of agriculture is the result of the reduction of arable land and reduction of vineyards. They occupy a total of 26.53 ha or 1.18% of the areas with emerged changes. They include the transformation of non-irrigated arable land in vineyards with 17 ha, and 9 ha of change on 221 vineyards in 231 pastures. Urbanization-industrialization cover the total of 22.92 ha or 1.02 % of the total registered changes. These changes can be explained as enlargement of industrial, commercial and transport built-up area. They are manifested as transformation of complex cultivation patterns in the industrial or commercial units with about 12 ha and 11 ha have been transformed from complex cultivation patterns in road and rail networks, and associated land. Changes in the landscape related to the increase and decrease of water flow are covering 1.5% of the total changes or 33.09 ha. Increasing of surfaces under water or land principally occupied by agriculture, with change of significant areas of natural vegetation in water courses with 8 ha and 13 ha on change of complex cultivation patterns in water courses. Surfaces that have been flooded and converted to another class approx. 10 ha. are referring to the transfer of water courses into land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant

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areas of natural vegetation with 5 ha and 5 ha on change of water courses in beaches, dunes, sands. Spatially, they are located along the river Vardar, in areas where the river is meandering. CONCLUSION The main objective of this article was identification of changes and reclassification of CORINE Land Cover Landscape changes in types of changes. The applied methodology has been developed at the Institute of Geography at the Slovak Academy of Sciences. GIS technology has been used for conducting the assessment, while the basic data were used from the CORINE Land Cover 2000 and 2006, as well as for the changes in 2000-2006 for Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin. Based on the analysis of landscape changes in the Gevgelija-Valandovo Basin, the total change in the period 2000-2006 amounted to 2253,12 ha or 2.09% of total area (1077 km2) of the Basin. From the results it can be concluded that the dominant type of change is forestation, with 84% of all emer-ged changes, which means it extends to a total surface of 1892.15ha. They are mainly located in the mountainous regions. Factors that cause forestation are logging of forests and forest fires. Fores¬ta-tion is represented with 7.17% Intensification of agriculture covers 5,19%, extensification of agriculture 1.18%, urbanization and industrialization of 1.02%. Change characterized by increase of water flows covers the surface of approximately 0.93% and reduction of water areas around 0.57%. It is obvious that we should pay more attention to the recorded processes by creating policies and strategies on local, regional and national level. REFERENCES Ludvikova B. Landscape development in the Czech - former GDR border region after the Second World War – a literature review. Journal of Landscape Studies 3, 2010, 41 – 51 Council of Europe. The European Landscape Convention. Strasbourg, 2000. Antrop M. Landscape change: Plan or Chaos, Land-scapeand Urban Planning 41, 1998, 155-61 Lipsky Z. Methods of monitoring and assessment of changes in land use and landscape structure. Journal of Landscape Ecology. 2007, 0: 105-118. Feranec J, Otahel J, Cebecauer T. Examples of the CORINE land cover database application in Slovakia. In: Workshop CORINE Land Cover 2000 in Germany and Europe and its use for environmental applications, 20-21 January 2004, Berlin, UBA Texte 04/04, ISSN 0722-186X, pp. 155-161. Oťaheľ J, Feranec J, Betak J, Husar K, Kopecka M. Landscape changes: analysis and classification. Klasyfikacja krajobrazu. Teoria i praktyka. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu. 2008, t. XX. 45-56. Vatseva R, Stoyanova Y. Landscape change analysis in Bansko municipality (Bulgaria) using satellite image data. GI Forum 2011, Symposium and exhibit Applied Geoinformatics with Learning with GI, July 5-8, 2011, Salsburg, Austria. Vatseva R, Stoimenov A, Borisova N. Assessment of the land cover changes in the Plovdiv region for the period 1990 – 2000 based on corine land cover data. Second Scientific Conference with International Participation SPACE, ECOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY;14 – 16 June 2006, Varna, Bulgaria Feranec J, Stoimenov A, Oťaheľ J, Vatseva R, Kopecká M, et al. Changes of rural landscape in Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 identified by application of CORINE land cover data (case studies – Trnava and Plovdiv region). (In): Braun, M., (ed.) EARSeL eProceedings of the Second Workshop of the EARSeL SIG on Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover Application and Development, (Bonn: EARSeL and Universität Bonn), 2006, p. 441-454. Feranec J, Šúri M, Cebecauer T, Oťaheľ J. Methodological aspects of landscape changes detection and analysis in Slovakia applying the CORINE land cover databases. Geografický časopis, 53; 2002, p. 279-288 Feranec, J, Oťaheľ J, Husár K. Landscape changes mapping by application of aerial photographs. In Ottoson, L., ed. Proceedings of the 18th International Cartographic Conference, Stockholm, 23-27 June 1997. Gäwle (Swedish Cartographic Society), pp. 306-313. Feranec J, Stoimenov A, Oťaheľ J, Vatseva R, Kopecká M., et all. Changes of rural landscape in Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 identified by application of CORINE land cover data (case studies – Trnava and Plovdiv region). (In): Braun, M., (ed.) EARSeL eProceedings of the Second Workshop of the EARSeL SIG on Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover application and development, (Bonn: EARSeL and Universität Bonn), 2006, 441-454.

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УДК: 551.3.053:{528:[007:004(497.735)

GIS AND REMOTE SENSING ASSESSMENT OF EROSION RISK AREAS IN PEHCHEVO MUNICIPALITY Ivica MILEVSKI1,Slavoljub DRAGIĆEVIĆ2, Radislav TOŠIĆ3 1

University “St. Cyril and Methodus”, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of Geography, Skopje, Macedonia, e-mail: ivica@iunona.pmf.ukim.edu.mk 2 Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 3/3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: slavoljubdragicevic@eunet.rs 3 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Banja Luka, M. Stojanovića 2, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, e-mail: rtosic@blic.net

ABSTRACT In this paper, GIS and RS assessment of potential erosion risk areas is presented. For that purpose Pehchevo Municipality (208.5 km2) in the easternmost part of the Republic of Macedonia is selected as a case study area because of high local impact of natural hazards on the environment, social-demographic situation and local economy. First of all, most relevant static factors for each type of natural hazard are selected (topography, land cover, anthropogenic objects and infrastructure). With GIS and satellite imagery, multi-layer calculation is performed based on available traditional model (EPM), clustering or discretisation procedures. In such way suitable, relatively “static” erosion risk maps (models) are produced. Then, precipitations as dynamic factor are included in previous models resulting in appropriate scenarios for daily rainfalls. Finally, GIS-based scenarios are evaluated and tested with field check and very fine resolution Google Earth imagery showing good accuracy. Further development of such GIS models in connection with automatic remote meteorological stations and dynamic satellite imagery (like MODIS) will provide early warning system of erosion hazards avoiding potential damages or even causalities. Key words: natural hazards, GIS, remote sensing, modelling

INTRODUCTION Republic of Macedonia (25713 km2) is highly exposed to natural hazards, especially to flash floods, excess erosion, landslides, heat waves, droughts, forest fires and earthquakes. Except the earthquakes as uncontrolled natural phenomena, the number of other hazards gradually increases in last decades generally due to climate change causing significant damages (Lerner, 2007; Mosquera-Machado and Dilley, 2009; Ristić et al., 2012; Jovanovski et al., 2013). Thus, identification of potential natural hazard areas is very significant for better prevention and protection of landscape and population (Tanislav et al., 2009; Dragicevic et al., 2011a,b; 2013a,b). One of the regions heavily endangered by natural hazards, especially soil erosion is Pehchevo municipality (208.5 km2) in the easternmost part of Macedonia. This municipality in upper Bregalnica catchment is selected as a test area for complex based Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling of potential erosion risk areas. According to the daily rain intensity, three scenarios for extent of erosion risk areas are produced, compared and corrected by field research and monitoring. Although population and economy in Pechcevo municipality were highly affected by severe soil erosion events, these were poorly documented. In domestic literature, insufficient attention has been devoted to the research of soil erosion in this area (Blinkov and Mincev, 2010; Dragicevic et al., 2010a,b; Milevski, 2010). STUDY AREA The Municipality of Pehchevo is one of the smallest in the Republic of Macedonia covering an area of 208.5 km2. It is located in the easternmost part of the country, up to the border with 581


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Bulgaria. On the west it is surrounded by mountain Bejaz Tepe (1348 m) and on the east by Vlaina Mountain (Kadiica, 1932 m) which is the second highest mountain in the eastern part of Macedonia (behind Osogovo Mountains, 2252 m). On the southeast it is surrounded by the highest part of the Maleshevo Mountains (Dzami Tepe, 1803 m). The Municipality of Pehchevo consists of a total of 7 settlements in which live just over 5000 inhabitants (of which 3,200 residents of the City of Pehchevo).

Figure 1. Map of location of the Pehcevo municipality in the Republic of Macedonia.

Regarding natural characteristics, apart from the small size, the municipality of Pehchevo is quite interesting and diverse. In geological terms, this area belongs to the SerbianMacedonian massif (SMM) built by rocks of varying age, from the oldest Proterozoic rocks (gneisses), through younger Paleozoic rocks (schist, granite) toward the youngest Pliocene and other recent sediments (gravel, sands, clay) which cover almost 70% of the area. This means that the prevailing rocks are with high erodibility, which favorably affects erosion, landslides and other gravitational processes. Landscape of municipality of Pehchevo on the east and the west side is enclosed by mountains, and in the middle part are open toward north-south direction. Besides the medium high mountains, important characteristic of the relief of the Municipality of Pehchevo is the Bregalnica river valley, which is deeply carved between the Vlaina and Maleshevska Mountain. Very interesting landforms are deep gullies, badlands called “mel” and earth pyramids. The climate of the municipality of Pehchevo is continental with moderately warm summers and cold winters. Temperatures range from -25°C during winter to above 30°C in July and August, but rarely exceed 35°C. Precipitations varied about 600-700 mm per year, mainly falling in the months of May and November. River network belongs to the basin of Bregalnica is long. The longest watercourses (longer than 10 km) on the area of the Municipality are Bregalnica (540 km) and its right tributaries: Zhelevica, Pehcevska River and Pancharevska River.

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Large part of Pehchevo Municipality is covered with deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests (54%). At the source of the Bregalnica River a dense complexes of natural beech, pine and fir forests are present, which is rarity in the eastern part of Macedonia (Milevski, 2004; 2010). METHODOLOGY In Macedonia, as well as in other countries in the region, estimation of average soil erosion potential and sediment yield is generally achieved with Erosion Potential Model (EPM) of Gavrilovic(1972). The model is in form: Wy = T ∙ H ∙ 3.14 ∙ sqrtZ3 ∙ f, where: W is average annual soil erosion in m3; T is temperature coefficient in form: T = (0.1 ∙ t + 0.1)0.5, where t is mean annual air temperature; H is mean annual precipitation sum in mm; Z is erosion coefficient ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 and over; and f is study area in km2. Among these factors, coefficient Z has highest importance combining: soil erodibility (Y), land cover index (Xa), index of visible erosion processes (φ), and mean catchment slope (J) in relation: Z = Y ∙ Xa ∙ (φ + sqrtJ0.5). Values of Z usually ranged between 0 (no erosion) and 1.5 or above (excess erosion). In the original form of the model which is catchment oriented, coefficient X*a, and especially φ are very subjective in nature, estimated by researches on the field. Because of that, starting from 2001, GIS approach of the model is introduced. Unlike the traditional cartographic tools, in GIS-modified approach of EPM, most of the model parameters are derived from digital elevation model and satellite imagery (Milevski 2001, Globevnik et al., 2003; Petras et al., 2007;Karim, 2009; Tošić et al., 2012). Thus, for the coefficient Y, previously prepared digitalized geologic and soil map are used with corresponding values for the rock and soil erodibility according to that proposed by Gavrilovic (1972). In general, values are in range from 0.1 (very resistant rocks) to 2.0 (very soft rocks and soils). However, because it is very difficult to exactly determinate erodibility, value averaging is made with square rooting in form: Y=sqrt(Y1) resulting in decreased extremes (0.3 to 1.4) and possible errors. Land cover index X*a is prepared from CORINE Land cover model (CLC2006) with added values ranging from 0.1 (dense forests) to 1.0 (bare soils) which is according the original model. For the value of φ coefficient of visible erosion processes, instead of very subjective estimation in traditional model, Landsat ETM+ band 3 (b3-red) is used in such way that grayscale values (0-255) are divided by 255. That is because this channel has 255 tones of gray where low values correspond to areas without visible erosion processes, and values near 255 correspond to areas with excess erosion. However, high values also may represent light anthropogenic objects, uncovered soils and rocks, deposition sites etc. For that reason, correction with slope gradient (a) in form: φ =((b3/255)*log(a+1)) is made, resulting in much more accurate values for coefficient φ. Slope factor J is calculated from available 20 m DEM as a raster layer for slope angle in radians (a=a/57.3). Finally, GIS-calibrated coefficient Z is calculated according to the equation: Z=sqrt(sqrt(Y))*X*a*(φ+2*(a/57.3)) In GIS procedure, with vertical interpolation (regression) based on meteorological data, regression of Lazarevski (1993) and elevation (h) from DEM, mean annual temperature (t) and precipitation sum (H) were obtained. For mean annual temperatures in the municipality of Pehchevo, this regression is in form: t=13.6-0.65*(h/100)+((h/1000)*(h/1000))

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For mean annual precipitation sum in the municipality of Pehchevo, the regression is in form: H=500+2*(h/10)+(h/300)*(h/100) In such way final Wy values can be calculated as average annual values. However, in this form, soil loss during only one rain event can’t be estimated. Because of that, instead of average annual precipitations (H), form of daily rain value is introduced as: H=Hy*(Hd/(Hy*0.1))2 where Hd is daily value of rain and Hy is average yearly sum of precipitations in the area. In that way, daily amount of soil erosion which is precipitation-related can be produced. Thus in the modeling of soil erosion in Pehchevo Municipality, several digital data sources are used: 20m digital elevation model from the SACRM (State Agency of Cadastre of the Republic of Macedonia). This model showing very good horizontal and vertical accuracy in contrast to freely available 1”ASTER GDEM or 3”SRTM DEM; 30m satellite imagery of Landsat ETM+ for this area, specially band 3; 100m Corine Land Cover CLC2006, scenes for this region; Digitalized geological map based on General Geologic Map 100k, Delchevo sheet Digitalized detailed soil map of this area, based on Filipovski et al., 1985 etc. Because of DEM accuracy, working resolution in soil erosion modeling is set up to 20m in which all base layers are previously resampled. In this research, only annual mean soil erosion risk and soil erosion potential (as a specific erosion rate) are modeled. Sediment load and sediment outcome can be further estimated with coefficient of catchment retention (Ru) from the traditional EPM model of Gavrilovic (1972). RESULTS Results from the modeling in the form of erosion coefficient (Z) show significant presence of areas with high and very high erosion risk (values greater than 0.6) with 58.8 km2 or 28% of the municipality of Pehchevo. On these areas, even modest rainfall cause high production, transport and accumulation of eroded material. This is especially evident during heavy rains (more than 0.5 mm/min). As the model show, the mean value of the coefficient Z for the municipality is 0.44. From the model follows that the average annual production of sediment yields in Pehchevo Municipality is 773 m3/km2. It is rather high value with very large spatial differences: the dense forest areas in the source part of Bregalnica River have only 50-100 m3/km2, while some areas in the bottom have over 2000 m3/km2. Highest erosion rate have areas in the valley of Zhelevica and its right tributaries, then the southern slopes of Bejaz Tepe and the area east of Pehchevo. In some places, the erosion intensity exceeds 3000 m3/km2/y (soil layer of 3 mm per year), which is a huge value. There actually appears severe or excessive erosion causing numerous destructive landforms, losing valuable fertile land and filling of river beds with a large amount of sediment material.

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Figure 2. Thematic maps of the causative factors used for the GIS-based modelling of erosion risk areas in the Pehcevo Municipality.

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On the other hand the well forested areas in the eastern part of the municipality have normal or “natural” erosion intensity, with values below 400 m3/km2/y. The eroded material is deposed on arable land, roads and buildings, sometime causing considerable damage. Interestingly, erosion risk is greatest at about 900-1100 m above sea level, where most of the population in the municipality Pehchevo lived. At about 1300-1500 m, erosion risk sharply decline, due to the dense forests in that areas. On highest altitudes erosion risk increase again because mountain peaks usually are bare or under rare grassland vegetation and unprotected from erosive action of rain.

Figure 3. Final model maps of erosion risk areas and annual erosion rate.

To recognize the influence of precipitation on the erosion risk, three scenarios are prepared showing daily rainfall of around 30 mm, 60 mm and 90 mm (which is extremely rare in this area). Areas with erosion intensity greater than 600 m3/km2/y (0.6 mm soil layer) are considered as endangered with accelerated soil erosion. The results are presented in Fig. 4.

Figure 4. Scenarios for extent of erosion risk areas during daily rainfalls of 30mm, 60mm and 90mm.

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Of course, the greatest risk and most affected areas are with the higher amounts of daily rainfall or so-called heavy rainfall. With daily rainfall of about 30 mm (or torrential rainfall of about 20 mm per hour), quite small areas are endangered with high and very high erosion risk. However, as seen in the model scenarios and the data in the table, with increasing rainfall intensity, the situation has changed dramatically.

Figure 5. Areas with excess erosion in Pehcevo Municipality.

From the presented scenarios, the most appropriate representation for spatial risk of erosion (over 600 m3/km2/y) provides the scenario with daily rainfall of 60 mm (actually daily rainfall of 50 to 70 mm/or a shorter, one-hour rainfall of about 30 mm). The third scenario (90 mm/day) is for rare or extreme cases, since the largest observed daily amount of rainfall in this region is about 70-80 mm. High erosive potential is associated with an increased potential for filling the riverbeds and alluvial plains with alluvial material. Thus, large deposits of sand, gravel, boulders and larger blocks are found in the beds of Zhelevica and its tributaries Vinicka River, Pancharevska River, Blatechka River, Umlenska River and others. In fact the amount and size of sediment material indicates the strength of erosion in these watersheds. Accumulation of sediments, not only reduces the fertile land in certain areas, but may increase the risk of flooding and displacement of river courses in unwanted directions. CONCLUSION Municipality of Pehchevo possesses valuable natural resources which are quite limited and susceptible to human degradation. Their degradation is closely related to natural hazards which are usually directly or indirectly caused by humans. Excessive erosion is one of the worst natural hazards in that area. As a consequence, there is a deterioration of the quality of the soil or their complete "loss", occurrences of floods, drought, landslides, gullies, rills and numerous other destructive forms which make parts of land to be completely "useless" for any purpose. The results for GIS-produced erosion risk coefficient (Z) according to EPM empirical model, show significant area with moderate, high and very high risk (Z>0.6) with 58.8 km2 or almost 28% of the total area. The mean value of the erosion coefficient Z for the entire area is 0.44, but there are areas with more than 1.5 of Z-value. On these areas, even during moderate rainfall, severe production, transport and accumulation of alluvial material occur. This is especially evident during intense heavy (over 0.5 mm/min) or prolonged rains. The models show that a large part of the municipality would be under some erosion risk in the next period. Therefore, it is necessary to take appropriate preventive measures to reduce the risk or limit their impact. In case of excessive erosion, biotechnical measures must be in first line, as well as construction of small and micro reservoirs, retentions and various other objects, changing the way of land use etc. The areas where the intensity of erosion exceeds 1000 m3/km2/y should take appropriate preventive anti-erosive measures and activities that will reduce the loss and degradation of natural resources, especially soil and water conservation.

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Acknowledgment: This paper is result of the projectJoint Applicable Research for Natural Recourses Preservation and Environmental Protection in the Cross border Region within the Municipalities of Pehchevo and Simitli, co-financed by European Union through IPA Cross-border Programme CCI 2007CB16IPO007

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and Torrent Control as a Factor in Sustainable River Basin Management 25-28 September 2007, Belgrade – Serbia, 10. Ristić, R., Kostadinov, S., Abolmasov, B., Dragićević, S., Trivan, G., Radić, B., Trifunović, M., and Radosavljević, Z. (2012). Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 23-35, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-23-2012. Süzen, M. L., Doyuran, V. 2004. A comparison of the GIS based landslide susceptibility assessment methods: multivariate versus bivariate. Environmental Geology 45-5. Berlin. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-003-0917-8 Tanislav D., Costache A., Murătoreanu G. (2009). Vulnerability to natural hazards in Romania. Forum Geografic. 8, 131. Tošić R., Dragićević S. Lovrić N. (2012). Assessment of soil erosion and sediment yield changes using erosion potential model – case study: Republic of Srpska (BiH). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 7(4), 147 – 154. Tošić, R., Dragićević, S., Zorn, M., Lovrić, N. (2014). Landslide susceptibility zonation: A case study from Banja Luka Municipality (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Acta geographica Slovenica 54-1. Ljubljana. DOI: 10.3986/AGS54307 (in print).

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УДК: 551.4.035:528.9(497.11)

CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL OF HILLY-MOUNTIAN AREAS OF SERBIA Jasmina M. JOVANOVIC University in Belgrade-Faculty of Geography, Studentski trg 3/3, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia email: jasmina@gef.bg.ac.rs, jasminaj121sunce@gmail.com

ABSTRACT The complexity of the problem of protection and preservation of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia demands the presentation of large quantity of data by modern multi-media forms of visualization of geo space. Cartographic visualization of the state and prospective of development of hilly-mountain areas enables analytic and synthetic approach in studying heterogeneous, mutually connected and conditioned, quantitative and qualitative structural and functional indicators of potential of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia. Hilly-mountain areas of Serbia have multi-functional predispositions for the development, i.e. extremely heterogeneous resources as possible potential of development. The current state indicates numerous aspects of inadequate approach in solving evident functional-structural changes of hilly-mountain areas up to now. Hilly-mountain areas of Serbia have been faced with numerous demographic, economic, social and ecologic problems. Solving these complex problems demands multi-disciplinary observation of potential and limitations connected to the development of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia. Gaining knowledge on complementary character of natural resources of hilly-mountain areas using cartographic visualization is vital for their development and preservation. Through use of cartographic database for assessment of structural and functional indicators of hilly-mountain areas, it is possible to consider certain aspects of their vitality and methods for securing sustainability of resources of hilly-mountain areas on long-term basis. Cartographic visualization of structural and functional indicators of potential of hilly-mountain areas enables efficient reception and use of geo-data, gaining complete knowledge important for the support in decisionmaking and efficient solving of complex, actual problems and possibilities for the development of hillymountain areas. Cartographic visualization implies conceptual modelling of geo space and therefore provides efficient analytic approach... Graphic-visual analytic base of the presentation of current state of hillymountainous areas, as well as the causes and factors for that state enables formulation of adequate development plans for interventions in hilly-mountainous areas. Cartographic visualization of structural and functional indicators of potential with heterogeneous characteristics of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia enables efficient integral presentation of knowledge about vitality and methods for securing long-term sustainability of resources of hilly-mountain areas. Key words: cartographic visualization, potential, hilly-mountain areas, structural and functional indicators, conceptual modelling of geo space.

INTRODUCTION The complexity and awareness of the problem of protection and preservation of hillymountain areas demands multi-disciplinary approach in studying heterogeneous, mutually connected and conditioned, quantitative and qualitative structural and functional indicators of potential of hilly-mountain areas of Serbia. The researches of complex problems connected to hilly-mountainous areas have to be observed in the context of achieving balanced regional development. The problem of development of hilly-mountainous areas has to be observed as an integral part of social-economic development. Regional and structural development problems of hillymountainous areas of the Republic of Serbia are evident, especially demographic and economic ones. Solving complex and long-lasting development problems of hilly-mountains areas has to be observed through multi-disciplinary approach by defining strategies of development on national level. This would enable complex coordination of sector-regional

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and structural politics of development – more complex approach in alleviating development problems. In other words, for more complex approach to regional development, as emphasized by Ţivanović Z., (2007) it is necessary" to follow the development on regional level, to classify the regions according to the needs and potential, and rank them according to the degree of their predisposition to the risk" (Miletić R., et al, 2009. pp.156.). In reference to the aforementioned, cartographic visualization of structural and functional indicators of potentials of hilly-mountainous areas"enables efficient reception and use of geodata, complete knowledge of great importance for the support in decision-making and efficient solving of complex, current problems and possibilities for development of hillymountainous areas… Cartographic presentation of indicators of state and perspective of hillymountainous areas is an important and demanding procedure with the objective to use multidimensional presentation of reliable pieces of information for the needs of defining development strategies. Cartographic visualization implies conceptual modelling of geo space and therefore provides efficient analytic approach...Graphic-visual analytic base of the presentation of current state of hilly-mountainous areas, as well as the causes and factors for that state enables formulation of adequate development plans for interventions in hillymountainous areas" (Јоvanović M. Ј. 2013 pp. 396-397.). Visual analytics based on cartographic interactive visualization of geospatial data represents scientific-information cognitive framework in the corresponding context of multidisciplinary research. Creating a presentation of adequate structure of geo-data set using interactive visualization enables accordingly the reception-presentation and upgrading of complementary sets of data with different levels of scope and content. The analysis of geospatial data using interactive visualization enables direct insight into situation, its assessment, as well as planning and decision-making with the set of parameters and their values. DISTINCTIVENESS OF PLANNING AND PROTECTION OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia have multi-functional predispositions for development, i.e. they possess extremely heterogeneous natural resources as possible potentials of development. The current state indicates numerous aspects of inadequate recent approach in solving evident functional-structural changes of hilly-mountainous areas. Hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia are faced with numerous demographic, economic, social and ecologic problems. Solving these complex problems demands multi-disciplinary observation of potentials and limitations related to the development of hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia. The problem of alleviating and, as much as possible, reducing consequences of unbalanced regional development, especially hilly-mountainous areas, have to be realized through wideranging Strategies of Regional Development. Therefore, it is necessary to permanently monitor and define the status of underdeveloped/insufficiently developed areas-defining the degree of development-categorization and typology of areas, and define relative measures and support for their accelerated urban development. According to the structure of the degree of development indicators (economic, demographic, infra-structural, educational, ecologic dimension of development) it is possible to study specific characteristics of problems and dimensions of underdevelopment. With introducing special dimension of underdevelopment, the territorial range of area with development problems has been enlarged. In the scope of the Strategy of Regional Development of the Republic of Serbia 2007-2012, according to the indicators, 37 municipalities that belong to the group of underdeveloped municipalities of hilly-mountainous areas were singled out. Out of this number, 29 municipalities belong to the group of economically underdeveloped areas, 8 municipalities belong to the group with special development problems (demographically endangered areas and bordering areas with

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structural and demographic problems). Main development problems and trends that hillymountainous areas face are economic and demographic. Economic underdevelopment, limited possibilities for employment, extreme depopulation, unfavourable age and education structure of population in hilly-mountainous areas, as well as emphasized infra-structural problems represent objective limitations for total development, especially for balanced regional development. Despite the accessibility of natural resources today, the complexity of problem of underdevelopment of hilly-mountainous areas" is even more apparent and it is manifested in polarization of economic activities and population where some territorial units remain on the periphery slightly or insignificantly developed" (Мiletić R., et al, 2009., pp.153.). "According to Tošić D., and Krunić N. (2005), urban structure of hilly-mountainous areas consists of "smaller urban areas formed by local concentration of population and functions in smaller municipality centres“. However, as the centres of emigrational municipalities "the majority of them does not have developed threshold functions or public and social infrastructure needed for further development which would depend on the possibilities of diversification of the functions and participation in the development processes of wider regional surroundings". According to Тоšić D. (2000) "They are, as a rule, mono-functional and isolated from traffic and they have large problems in harmonizing their local development tendencies with regional development flows" (Miletić R., et al. 2009 pp.160.). The question of regional development refers to vitality of hilly-mountainous areas, especially rural ones. Bogdanov LJ. N. (2007., pp. 23.) emphasizes that "one of the most important tasks in Serbia is defining adequate politics ( not only agrarian) which would stop negative demographic and economic trends and ensure preservation of natural and cultural heritage of hilly-mountainous areas, especially rural ones…. Ageing and devastation of hillymountainous areas, degradation of their natural potential and complete surroundings significantly influence entire changes in economic structure and implicate specific social problems... Today we are facing the problem: how to ensure sustainability of resources of hilly-mountainous area on long-term basis and ensure equal conditions for their incorporation into economic development"... Therefore, it is necessary to systematically and completely create efficient mechanisms for activation of potential of hilly-mountainous areas. Agriculture cannot stop unfavourable long-lasting and complex structural problems. This can be done by wide range of activities based on inactivated potentials of hilly-mountainous areas, especially rural ones. Decades long socio-economic underdevelopment of these areas has been objective limitation for complete and balanced regional development of Serbia. Possible revitalization of hillymountainous areas depends on the degree and specific characteristics of development problems and limitations: time period of the underdevelopment of area, intensive and continuous population decrease (demographically endangered areas), spatial-demographic disproportion in the settlement network, functional periphery of settlements in relation to economically developed centres, fragmentation and /or spontaneous displacement of rural settlements, economic (under)development, geographical location-relative isolation and inaccessibility, availability of natural resources, a degree of social, infra-structural equipment et cetera. Unfavourable situation of hilly-mountainous areas imposed by the processes and problems of disproportion in the way of using, organizing and arranging space, today has unforeseeable regional and structural development problems. The problem of their development has been marginalized for a long time and analyzed as a separate, not as a regionally important dimension of overall development. Today, hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia, especially those of strategic importance, are either insufficiently populated or completely empty and their natural resources are not used enough. Disproportion in regional development and high degree of population decrease of hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia due to the extreme process of

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demographic ageing, cause negative changes in space and its functional differentiation according to the level of development Hilly-mountainous areas, especially rural areas, are characterized with dominant processes of settlement, population and economic stagnation and disintegration. "Vojković G. et al (2000) point to the fact that current spatial-economic and spatial-demographic, extremely differentiated and polarized structure of Serbia has drastically moved from the principle of sustainability. From the point of view of underdeveloped areas, recent strategies of development have had negative consequences manifested especially in terms of economy, but in social and ecological terms as well" (Vojković G, et al., 2000., in Miletić R., et al. 2009., pp.153.). CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION IN THE FUNCTION OF PLANNING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HILLY-MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Cartographic visualization enables relevant and valid geo-space data of great importance in managing the development of hilly-mountainous areas considering the fact that it provides potential and possibility for interactive, dynamic-animated research in real time. The characteristics of recent development, current state and perspective of hilly-mountainous areas with large and hardly solvable conflicts have to be observed with clear spatial and structural dimension and be solved integrally-using regional approach. Solving actual problems of hillymountainous areas demands analytic approach with conceptual modelling of their state and perspective using modern information-communication technologies. During a research, the combination of information-communication technology and cartography provides better accessibility of needed geo-space pieces of information. Multimedia forms of cartographic visualization of geo-space provide complete insight into long-term and complex spatialstructural problems of hilly-mountainous areas. In other words, they more efficiently ensure relevant and valid geo-space pieces of information in planning and realization of planned activities of a possible revitalization of hilly-mountainous areas. Contemporary possibilities that digital cartography provides are based on using geo-space database for receiving quantitative and qualitative pieces of information important for studying and planning sustainable development of hilly-mountainous areas. Using digital cartographic visualization, it is possible to entirely and clearly present physical-geographical, demographic, economic and functional indicators of the degree of development/underdevelopment/ as well as the intensity of changes in the process of development in settlements and their centres in hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia. In other words, visual analytics supported by digital technology provides the most appropriate presentation of demographic and functional transformation and physiognomic changes of settlements of hilly-mountainous areas. Digital technology supports integration of graphics, image, text and sound, vertical connection of different map scale, as well as horizontal connection of the same scale of maps of the studied area. The combination of twodimensional, three-dimensional and four-dimensional cartographic presentations in scientific researches gives broader and more accessible use of geo-space data. Geo-information created by cartographic visualization represents the reflection of perception of geographical reality, changes in geo-space, and the base of adequate planning of development. In creating two-dimensional and three-dimensional presentations of geoinformation, apart from directed compliance to the needs of users, it is also necessary to focus cartographic applications on forming simple, clear, dynamic and adjustable cartographic presentations, interactive use of the map, the selection of data and their presentation, the use of signatures…(Frangeš S., et al. 2007).

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When using sophisticated cartographic applications for presentation of geo-data based on technological innovations, it is vital not to ignore basic cartographic principles, features of application of cartographic methods and aspects of technique of modern cartographic but respect them in professional way. Cartographic visualization of structural and functional indicators of potential with heterogeneous characteristics of hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia enables efficient integral presentation of knowledge about vitality and methods for securing long-term sustainability of resources of hilly-mountainous areas. Gaining knowledge about complementarity of natural potentials of hilly-mountainous areas using cartographic visualization is of vital importance for their development and preservation. Using cartographic database for valuing structural and functional indicators of potential of hilly-mountainous areas, it is possible to consider certain aspects of their vitality and methods to ensure sustainability of resources of hilly-mountainous areas on long-term basis (Јovanović M. J., 2013. а, pp.396). Digital cartographic visualization facilitates efficient reception of pieces of information about relevant mapped occurrences and processes important for planning activities of possible revitalization of hilly-mountainous areas. "Complete information, precision of formulation, simplicity in registration with the possibility for compatible processing of data and the possibility for carrying out some applicative solutions are only some of possible characteristics of positive effects of cartographic visualization. According to them, it is possible to make timely and adequate decisions related to development" (Jovanović M. Ј., 2013. b) of hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia. Digital cartographic visualization enables adequate, complete and appropriate presentation and productive research of geo space. The concept for complex valorization of development potentials of hilly-mountainous areas demands creation of adequate information base for valid, scientific and expert interpretation of state in hilly-mountainous areas. "It is necessary to use adequate and completely considered and planned, systemic and institutional regulative mechanisms in order to influence demographic, functional and physiognomic changes of hilly-mountainous areas, with regard to their overall specific characteristics of possible development in the limits of optimal and time real. According to valid, documented and graphically-visual analytic base of presentation of rural areas and conditions and factors of that state it is possible to formulate development plans for interventions in hilly-mountainous areas. Also, it is possible to consider some aspects of vitality of hilly-mountainous areas and methods for securing longterm sustainability of resources of these areas" (Јоvanović M. J. 2013а, pp. 396.). In researches related to specific development problems of hilly-mountainous areas it is necessary to consider limitations deriving from heterogeneous demographic, economic, social, physical-geographical and other characteristics of areas. Productive research of hillymountainous areas, aiming at integral planning and protection from any relevant aspect, has been improved by cartographic visualization. Cartographic visualization enables efficient analytic approach in studying components of space. Cartographic visualization enables integration of different types of geo-data. Simultaneously, the size and complexity of different types of spatial data can be put under the common denominator of mutual spatial connection (http://kartoweb.itc.nl/icavis/pdf/visagenda.pdf). Visual analytics enables efficient reception and use of geo-information, i.e. gaining complete knowledge about certain aspects of problems that are considered through systematic process of collecting pieces of information that would be used for: "- identification of disparities between realized results or current state and those planned or projected; - ranking of primary needs and/or extremely expressed problems; - selection of the most important problem that would be solved ...The responses expected from these researches are: - what the current state looks like; - attitudes and assessment related to it; - what reasons condition that state , what

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state would be optimal; - what solutions would improve that state" (Bogdanov Lj N. 2007.,pp.27.). The pieces of information about space presented on a map in digital form give possibility of integration and mutual connection of different database, i.e. the possibility of faster processing of large number of database, application of scenario and simulation method. The use of map as a database and as a instrument for organization, systematization and presentation of geo-information provides relevant pieces of information for the process of planning regional development of hilly-mountainous areas. CONCLUSION Complexity of the problem of the development of hilly-mountainous areas of Serbia demands the existence of objective and clear analysis of existing potential and their specific characteristics in terms of future development. One of the most important tasks in Serbia is defining adequate politics of sustainable development which would stop negative demographic and economic trends and ensure preservation of natural and cultural heritage of hilly-mountainous areas. It is vital to have permanent systematic and thorough planning and create efficient mechanisms for activation of potential of hilly-mountainous areas. Creating planned documentation on the basis of digital processing and map making enables efficient carrying out of the politics of planning and arranging of space. Contemporary possibilities that digital cartography provides are based on using geo-space database for receiving quantitative and qualitative pieces of information important for studying and planning sustainable development of hilly-mountainous areas. The importance comes from the need to secure, through the process of integration, necessary pieces of information on all levels aiming at gaining knowledge, studying and decision-making on the actions that need to be carried out for solving complex spatial problems. Cartographic processing of digitalized content presents synthesis of the results of relevant analysis of different but compatible pieces of information. Cartographic visualization of structural and functional indicators of potential of hilly-mountainous areas enables efficient reception and use of geo-data. Cartographic visualization implies conceptual modelling of geo-space and therefore provides analytical approach. Consequently, it becomes much faster, more precise and adequate to make decision on the selection of alternative direction for actions directed to the use, arranging and protection of hilly-mountainous areas. REFERENCE BogdanovLj. N.(2007):MalaruralnadomaćinstvauSrbijiiruralnanepoljoprivrednaekonomijaBeograd: UNDP./Small rural households in Serbia and rural non-farm economy Belgrade,UNDP./ (www.ruralinfoserbia.rs/publikacije/undp_mala_ruralna_domacinstva.pdf) Frangeš S., Poslončec-Petrić, V. i ŢupanR. (2007):Continuous development of cartographic visualisation, XXIII International Cartographic Conference, Moscow, Russia, poster. Jovanović J. (2013 а): Кartografska vizuelizacija stanja i perspektive razvoja ruralnog prostora.Zbornik radova sa naučno-stručnog skupa sa međunarodnim učešćem ”Planska i normativna zaštita prostora i životne sredine”. Beograd: APP Srbije; [i] Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu - Geografski fakultet., str. 395-399. /Cartographic visualization of state and perspective of development of rural area. Proceedings from Scientific Conference with international participation:”Planned and normative protection of space and environment”. Belgrade: APP Serbia; [i] Belgrade: The University in Belgrade -Faculty of Geography, pp. 395-399./ Jovanović J.(2013 б):Digitalcartographicvisualizationinthefunctionofthedevelopmentofintegratedculturaltourismandinternationalc ulturalcollaboration. International scientific conference „Cultural Corridor VIA DIAGONALIS – Cultural Tourism without Boundaries”,Tourism Department at the South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria; Faculty of Geography at the University of Belgrade, Serbia; Department „Economics and organization of tourism” at The University of Economics, Varna; International University College, Dobrich, Bulgaria; Union of Scientists in Bulgaria, Blagoevgrad; & Department of Culture Studies at SWU “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad. 3-

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6.10.2013.,Sofia,Bulgaria &Belgrade, Serbia.(Рад прихваћен и предат за штампу. The paper has been accepted and ready for printing). Милетић Р., Тодоровић М., Миљановић Д.(2009):Приступ неразвијеним подручјима у регионалном развоју Србије. Зборник радова. Књ. 59 № 2. Београд:Географскиинститут „ЈованЦвијић“ САНУ. стр. 149-171.The Collection of Papers, Tome 59 № 2, Belgrade: The Institute of Geography „Јovan Cvijić“ Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, pp. 149-171. Стратегија регионалног развоја Републике Србије, 2007-2012.Службени гласник Републике Србије Београд, 2007. /The Strategy of Regional Development of the Republic of Serbia, 2007-2012. Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, 2007. / ТошићД.(2000).Градскицентри – факторирегионалнеинтеграцијеСрбије, ГласникгеографскогдруштваРепубликеСрпске, Св. 4, стр. 83–96. /Urban centres-factors of regional integration of Serbia, Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society, Tome 4, pp. 83–96. / Тошић Д, Крунић Н.(2005). Урбане агломерације у функцији регионалне интеграције Србије и Југоисточне Европе. Гласник Српског географског друштва, Св. LXXXV, Бр. 1, стр. 137–148. /Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia and Eastern Europe. Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society, Tome LXXXV, No.1, pp. 137–148. Живановић З.(2007). Компаративна анализа регионалне политике Европске уније и Србије. Београд: Гласник Српског географског друштва, Св. LXXXVII, Бр. 1. стр. 193–205. /Comparative analysis of regional politics of European Union and Serbia. Belgrade: Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society, Tome LXXXVII, No. 1. pp. 193–205./ Vojković G, Miletić R, Miljanović D.(2000).Demografski tokovi i problemi odrţivog razvoja u Srbiji. U: Regionalni razvoj i demografski tokovi balkanskih zemalja, No. 5, Niš: Ekonomski fakultet, str. 335–344./ Demographic flows and problems of sustainable development in Serbia. Regional development and demographic flows of Balkan countries, No. 5, Niš: The Faculty of Economy, pages 335–344./ URL : VIS Agenda (http://kartoweb.itc.nl/icavis/pdf/visagenda.pdf ).

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УДК: 556.143:551.4.035]:502.131.1(497.7)

INVENTORY OF SMALL ARTIFICIAL LAKES IN FUNCTION OF HILLY-MOUNTAIN AREAS DEVELOPMENT ON THE TERRITORY OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Vladimir ZLATANOSKI* Blagoja MARKOSKI, Olgica DIMITROVSKA, Svemir GORIN, Ivan RADEVSKI Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Institute of Geography, Str. Gazi Baba bb, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia e-mail: zlatanoski@live.com

ABSTRACT Most of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, particularly inhabited places in the hilly-mountain areas, in different parts of the year face with problem of lack of water for various needs. In the context of this, it`s implemented an inventory over water artificial lakes and their impact on economic development in hillymountain areas. The paper presents the artificial lake distribution on the territory of Republic of Macedonia and the needs of new artificial lakes as a base of agricultural economy development. Also, in this paper is given appropriate guideline about the multi functional usage and utilization of the artificial lakes.

INTRODUCTION Proper and rational use of the available water resources, especially in hilly-mountain areas, draws attention in each society in the world. This interest becomes more current, if it is known that the natural resource of clean, i.e. usable water in the world, day by day becomes significantly reduced. Water resource, apart from enabling biological existence, also serves as mean and working tool in the industry, as energy source, means of transport, etc., which all together significantly affect the overall economic growth and development. The role of small accumulations in the hilly-mountain areas has functional significance primarily for irrigation of arable agricultural land in the vegetation period (directly from the artificial lake or with the construction of small irrigation systems) but also serves as a source of fresh water for the livestock, water supply and industrial water supply for nearby inhabited places, fish farming, sports and recreation, land protection from erosion and defense against floods. Geographic location Occupying the central position in respect of the Balkan Peninsula, Republic of Macedonia stretches eastward to Chengino Kale (long. 23˚ 02' 12'' E), Kestenjar to the west (lat. 20˚ 27' 32'' E), Anishte to north (lat. 42˚ 22' 21'' N) and Markova Noga to the south (long. 40˚ 51' 16'' E). Macedonia on the east borders with Bulgaria (177,7 km), on the south with Greece (261,6 km), Albania to the west (192 km) and Kosovo and Serbia to the north (257,9 km). In these borders Republic of Macedonia covers an area of 25.713 km2. Relief Concerning to relief features, Republic of Macedonia is a hilly-mountain country. The majority of it`s territory is represented with hilly-mountain spatial areas (19.853,1 km2) i.e. less than 77.2 %, while the plains cover 5.064,7 km2 or 19.7 %, and the rest of the territory is under water surfaces. In terms of the relief, the country is very diverse, thereby at relatively small area of 25.713 km2 mountains and valleys are alternated in a parallel as well as and in the meridian direction. The river valleys of the larger streams are composite, so the major rivers flow through several valleys, incised into gorges. Primarily, relief in the country is

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generated by the tectonic movements creating major morphological spatial units, such as mountains and valleys, and afterwards over these structures various exogenous processes influenced that continued changing the image of the today's relief. Climate From macroclimate prism, on the territory of Republic of Macedonia, continental and mediterranean climate are distinguished. In big spatial areas there are specific climate types whose primary features are modified by local climatic factors, while, all mountain areas are characterized by typical mountain climate. Climate as physical-geographical factor in geosphere has its major impact over artificial lakes, in terms of the temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and etc. The annual average air temperature in Republic of Macedonia from the majority measurement stations are characterized by positive values. The highest average annual temperature of 14,5 ˚C is measured in the station in Valandovo. The high value is due to the relatively low altitude (100 m), the vicinity of the Aegean Sea and its influence on this part of the country. In contrast of this measuring point, the pick Solunska Glava is the highest measurement station with absolute altitude of 2.540 m, where the average annual temperature is -0,6 ˚C. Absolute temperature maximum is noticed in cities located in the southern parts of the state and along the river Vardar, where warm air masses flow from the south. The highest value is measured in Gevgelija (44,3 ˚C), Demir Kapija (43,6 ˚C), Strumitsa (43,4 ˚C), Dojran (43,0 ˚C), Veles (42,5 ˚C), Skopje (42,4 ˚C) and Shtip (42,2 ˚C). Absolute minimum temperature is measured in Berovo -31,5 ˚C, Tetovo -28,6 ˚C, then Bitola (-28,0 ˚C), Resen (26,5 ˚C) and Skopje (-25,6 ˚C). At the majority of the measurement stations in Republic of Macedonia, annual amplitude of the extreme air temperatures are usually higher than 60 ˚C. The highest annual amplitude is noticed in the measuring station Bitola, where the difference between the absolute maximum and absolute minimum temperature is approximately 70 ˚C. Precipitation is also a very important climatic element that along with temperature gives a strong mark on the environment. The biggest impact on precipitation in Republic of Macedonia has the Adriatic Sea, where humid air masses come from and subsequently discharge at the high Macedonia-Albania mountains. In the most western parts of the state, annual amount of precipitation exceeds 1.400 mm (Valley of river Radika). Less impact on precipitation regime has the Aegean Sea, whose humid air masses flow through the southnorth direction. The largest quantities of precipitation of these humid air masses discharge on the high mountains in the southern part of the state. In terms of the annual intensity, there might be distinguished several specific regions, Veles, Shtip, Radovish and Kavadarci region (annual averages of precipitation amount below 500 mm), Kumanovo-Skopje and Kochani region (500-550 mm), Pelagonija, Demirkapija and Strumitsa region (550-600 mm), Valandovo, Berovo, Kriva Palanka region (600-650 mm), Dojran and Gevgelija region (650700 mm), Ohrid, Prespa, Makedonski Brod region (700-750 mm). Although, some parts of the country have sufficient amount of precipitation for development of hilly-mountain areas, they are not distributed properly. Consequently, during the vegetation period, occur long lasting droughts. The analyzed period of twenty five years, droughts that last among one and three months appeared sixteen times in Gevgelija, while fourteen times in Strumica and Shtip. Typical for the measuring stations Gevgelija, Demir Kapija and Strumitsa is the appearance of one dry period annually with duration of twenty to thirty days in the vegetation period (from April to October). Another dry period that lasts ten to twenty days in the vegetation period in these measuring stations, occurs four to five times.

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Hidrography From hydrographic point of view, the territory of Republic of Macedonia is divided into three basins, the Aegean, Adriatic and Black Sea basin. Aegean basin, covering the widest area, is a recipient of 87 % of the territory of the state, than, the Adriatic basin occupies 13 %, while the Black Sea basin occupies 44 km2, or insignificant 0.17 %. The main recipient in the Aegean basin is the river Vardar, that channels 80 % of the water resources in Republic of Macedonia. Strumitsa river basin, located in the southeast part of the state, occupies 1.535 km2, or 7 % from the territory. In the Adriatic basin, the major recipient is the river Crn Drim, to whom appertain to the basins of Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa. The most important confluent of river Crn Drim is the river Radika. This river recipes the most part of the water resources of the mountains: Korab, Deshat and Bistra. The major recipient of the Black Sea basin is the river Binachka Morava, whose capacity flow through the rivers Morava and Danube are emptying in the Black Sea. This basin covers a small area of the northern part of the Republic. Besides groundwater, springs and rivers, on the territory of Republic of Macedonia there are three large tectonic lakes, where of the largest is Ohrid Lake with area of 348,8 km2, the second large lake is Prespa Lake with area of 274 km2, and Dojran Lake the smallest one, with total area of 43 km2. Beside this type of lakes, on the high mountains there are a number of lakes with glaciations genesis, especially in the western part of the country. Pedogeography On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia the various pedogenic factors, as parent material, topography and climatic conditions, contributed to originate different types of soil, as most of prevalent are alluvial soils, colluvium, brown soils, rankers and vertisol. REVIEW OF HIDROGEOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL Republic of Macedonia in terms of surface runoff belongs to relatively poor countries. The specific annual flow is 312 l/sec. and this renewable natural resource is not equally represented in the whole territory. The greatest capacities of this resource are located in the northern and northwestern parts, while the eastern part is characterizes as rather poor. Due to the lack of study of groundwater in the country, in the paper below will be displayed only exploited quantities which are estimated at 50,15 m3/sec, or 1,58 km3 per year. On the whole territory, they manifest themselves as phreatic aquifers (mostly in the valleys, fields and river terraces) and artesian aquifers (characteristic of Pelagonia, Ohrid-Struga Vally, Strumitsa and Skopje Valley). Sources in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as groundwater are unequally distributed. On the total territory there are registered 1.100 sources with capacity of 1 l/sec., that both provide 80 % of the spring water. They are most common in the upper catchment areas of the rivers of west part of Macedonia, especially in karst springs: Rasche, Vrutok, Izvor, St. Naum, Vevchani and others. The river network in the country is divided into the following basins: Vardar, Crn Drim, Strumitsa River and Binachka Morava. By all parameters, Vardar river basin is the largest, covers an area of 20.535 km2, with average annual volume of 4,6 km3 and specific flow of 7 l/s/km2. The river Vardar is 388 km long and on territory of Republic of Macedonia it flows along 301 km. The stream has thirty seven tributaries and as a major are the following rivers: Pena (37 km), Treska (138 km), Lepenec (75 km), Markova (29 km), Kadina (34 km), Pchinja (135 km), Topolka (45 km), Babuna (65 km), Bregalnitsa (225 km), Reka Crna (207 km), Boshava (38 km) and Anska River (22 km). The rest 87 km flow through the territory of Greece.

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Strumitsa River as part of Aegean basin covers an area of 1.535 km2, with average annual volume of 0,13 km3 and specific flow of 3,1 l/s/km2. It has numerous tributaries and as a major are the following rivers: Oraovichka, Plavija and Turija form the left side and the Vodochnica River on the right side. The Basin of the River Crn Drim covers an area of 3.350 km2, with an average annual volume of 1,6 km3 and specific flow of 12,3 l/s/km2. Generally along its flow, Crn Drim absorbs short mountain rivers from the mountains Jablanica and Stogovo, and as an exception from these short rivers is the river Radika, that springs from the mountain Shar Planina with total length 64,7 km. The catchment area of Binachka Morava is the smallest in the country and covers an area of negligible 44 km2, located in the northern part of mountain Skopska Crna Gora. Republic of Macedonia has three large tectonic lakes and the largest is the Ohrid Lake. Located in the southwest part of the territory of Macedonia, between Mount Galichitsa on the east and Jablanitsa on the west, the lake is on altitude of 693 m. It covers total area of 349 km2, that 230 km2 belong to Macedonia, and the rest 119 km2 belong to Republic of Albania. The lake in the north-south direction is 30 km long, 14,5 km width, with maximum depth of 287 m. In this outlined sizes, the water volume of the lake is 50,6 km3. The second largest lake in Macedonia is Prespa Lake with altitude of 843 m. It is located on eastside of the Ohrid lake, separated with mountain Galichitsa. This lake covers an area of 274 km2, that 177 km2 belong to Republic of Macedonia, 49 km2 to Albania and 48 km2 to Greece. The lake is 29 km long, 17 km width and maximum depth of 54 m. Dojran Lake is the smallest one tectonic lake, located on the southeast, with an altitude of 148 m. It has ellipsis shape, in north-south direction the lake is long 8,9 km, while on the east-west direction it is 7,1 km wide. The lake surface covers 43 km2, that 27,4 km2 belong to Republic of Macedonia, while the rest square kilometers belong to our southern neighbor. The maximum depth is 10 meters with accumulation of 28 million m3 of water. ARTIFICIAL LAKES The building of artificial lakes in the country began in 1938, when the first artificial lake Matka was constructed, west from Skopje, i.e. upstream from the tribute of river Treska into the river Vardar, more concretely at the end of the canyon Matka. This process of artificial lakes building still remains, following the trend of human needs of water resources management as a base for future development, whether for flood protection, exploitation of hydropower potential, supply of potable water, irrigation, supply with technical water for large industrial facilities, tourism, sport, etc. Of environmental importance for Republic of Macedonia, especially for mountain areas, is the construction of small and micro artificial lakes. The construction of these hydro-facilities primarily stimulates the revitalization of hilly-mountain areas and the recurrence of numerous emigrated rural settlements, also improving the agriculture and stockbreeding, but also need to be considered the development of fish farming, sport fishing, the protection of land erosion and retention from torrential rain waves. The construction of small artificial lakes means creating conditions for development and utilization of agricultural land in hilly-mountain areas, that have not been sufficiently processed due to the lack of water in the vegetation period. If there is no facility of its type, water lees originating from heavy rains and melted snow turn into erosive floods that cost a lot of damage especially to agriculture. With the construction of small artificial lakes, these waters, that are typical for early spring and autumn period, would be accumulated in the artificial lakes, which in dry summers will make up the required amount of water for irrigation and for livestock watering. Besides the natural geographical conditions for the construction of small artificial lakes it should be considered the agricultural aspect, based on

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the progressive development of the area by planning and installation of capacities and planned crop. If this element is omitted, the artificial lake will not properly fit the needs (exaggerated or not providing sufficient quantity of water). Classification of artificial lakes can be defined by parameters such as the height of the dam, the dam length, type of dam, the lake water volume, purpose, functionality etc. In general, the classification is made according to accumulation water volume and by that aspect they are divided into major and minor accumulation. In Republic of Macedonia, a artificial lake can be characterized as small if meets the following parameters: the height of the dam to 15 m, a lower volume of 1.000.000 m3 and maximum overflow water to 1.000 m3/s.1 In Republic of Macedonia, in the period from 1938 (artificial lake Matka) to now, there are made a total of twenty four large artificial lakes, that all together accumulate 2451,5 106 m3 of water. The purpose of these artificial lakes is multifunctional, but primarily they are made for electricity generation, irrigation and water supply purposes. The following table shows the basic features of the major artificial lakes in the country.

no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Table.1 Main characteristics of big artificial lakes in Republic of Macedonia artificial lake river area (km2) volume (106 m3) usage Kozjak Treska 13,5 550 e, w, r, f Shpilje Crn Drim 13,2 520 e, w, f Tikvesh Crna Reka 14 475 e, w, f Mavrovo Mavrovska 13,7 357 e, w, f Kalimantsi Bregalnitsa 4,23 127 e, w, f Strezhevo Shemnitsa 4,32 119,2 w, t, f, e Globochitsa Crn Drim 2,7 58 e, f Mantovo Kriva Lakavitsa 4,94 47,5 i, f Turia Turia 0,16 48 i, f Lisiche Topolka 0,8 24 w, i, f Vodocha Vodocha 1,94 26,73 i, w, f Knezhevo Zletovska / 22,5 w, i Glazhnja Lipkovska 0,5 24 w, e, i, f Ratevsko Ratevska 0,57 10,5 i, w, f, ff St. Petka Treska / 9,7 e Mladost Otovitsa 0,84 8 i, f Prilep Dabnichka 0,54 6 i Matka Treska 0,25 3,5 e Paljurtsi Luda Mara 0,4 3,5 i Mavrovitsa Mavrovica 0,3 3,2 w Gradche Kochanska 0,19 2,4 w, i Lipkovo Lipkovska 0,4 2,25 w, i, e Slatino Mramorechka 0,3 1,47 i Topolnitsa Topolnichka 1,53 1,4 H (е)-electrogenesis, (i)-irrigation, (r)-retention, (w)-water supply, (t)- technicalwater supply, (h)-hydro-dump, (f)-fishing, (ff)-fish farming

The construction of small artificial lakes in Macedonia started in 1953 when the reservoir Rechitsa in the city of Kumanovo for irrigation of 12,6 ha of agricultural land, and the reservoir Dolanska in Municipality of Shtip were build. In the period time from 1953 to 1989 on the territory of Republic of Macedonia were built eight one small artificial lakes, and today the number expand to 297. Their territorial distribution is unequal, the vast majority are located in Bitolsko Pole (43), then thirty five in Skopje Valley, and twenty nine in the Tikvesh region and Prilep field, while small number of micro accumulations are located in the regions of Kochani, Kumanovo and Veles. 1

Cadastre of built minor dams and artificial lakes in the Republic of Macedonia.

603


604 57 29 0 1 28 61

108 70 37 26 42 78

1102,6

36,6

1492,7

973,3

645,3

75,4

129,8

1000

874,2

1020

768

1315,9

897,3

1318,3

2162

1475,2

944,6

558,9

943,9

1924,2

1482,8

2518,4

1166

91,9

24917,3

BEROVO-DELCHEVO

GNJILANJE

BITOLSKO FIELD

DEBAR-REKA

DEMIR HISAR

DOJRAN TRENCH

DVORANSKA REKA

GEVGELIJA-VALANDOVO

KICHEVO

KOCHANI

KRIVA PALANKA

KUMANOVO

MARIOVO

OHRID-STRUGA

OVCHEPOLE

POLOG

PORECHE

PRESPA

PRILEP FIELD

SKOPJE

STRUMITSA-RADOVISH

TIKVESH

VELES

KRIVOPALANECHKO

∑ 1087

5

45

74

52

87

25

72

60

42

55

1

32

km2

valley

rural settlemens in hilly-mountain areas

15952

101,7

753,7

1380,1

641,5

1057,7

539

399,3

662,6

980,9

1145,1

1152,6

785,4

818,8

695,9

775,1

704,6

310,4

85,8

0

396

763,8

796,5

22,3

899,6

area (km2)

335968

3346

14497

20493

11766

25355

18397

7416

5735

16778

32922

21802

18867

31207

24507

16295

8454

2591

1410

0

5395

3842

19639

632

24624

303

0

6

30

18

37

30

2

1

7

21

9

13

7

12

9

18

24

0

4

3

2

44

0

6

24

0

2

1

3

2

1

0

1

0

3

2

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

2

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

arable total total big big artificial big artificial agricultural artificial artificial lakes in fields lakes in hilly land (ha) lakes lakes areas areas

7

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

279

0

4

29

15

35

29

2

0

7

18

7

13

5

12

8

18

23

0

4

3

0

43

0

4

129

0

0

9

9

29

6

1

0

2

6

3

0

1

8

1

16

6

0

4

1

0

27

0

0

big artificial small lakes in total small artificial mountain artificial lakes in areas lakes fields areas

table 2. Overview of artificial lakes in Republic of Macedonia, by valley spatial units

107

0

4

8

1

2

21

0

0

0

12

1

13

4

0

6

0

16

0

0

2

0

15

0

2

43

0

0

12

5

4

2

1

0

5

0

3

0

0

4

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

small artificial small artificial lakes in lakes in hilly areas mountain areas

КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT


РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

For better visualization on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are constructed twenty four spatial units according to valley geomorphologic rules, i.e. as criteria in the process of drawing boundaries there are taken: water part lines intersecting the river flows on the most suitable places (gulches) and are separating the valleys each other (Markoski, 1992). In the table two are presented the valley units, their area, number of rural settlements in the hilly-mountainous areas, total rural districts in the hilly-mountain areas and the arable land in hilly-mountain areas, the total accumulations, the total large and small artificial lakes, as well as details on the structure of the area (plain, hilly and mountainous). Berovo-Delchevo Valley

It occupies the eastern part of Macedonia, i.e. the upper catchment area of the river Bregalnitsa and the watershed of river Kamenitsa. The basin covers an area of 1.102,6 km2. There are a total of thirty two rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas that cover 899,6 km2, from which 246,2 km2 is arable agricultural land. In this geographical unit, there are constructed six artificial lakes, of which two of them are large (Ratevsko and Kalimantsi), one is a hydro dump (mine Sasa) and three of them are small artificial lakes. Besides the two major artificial lakes made in the hilly-mountain areas, that partially meets the irrigation needs of the settlements distributed on the same or lower altitude, there are small number of micro reservoirs, that concludes the most fertile arable agricultural land is handicapped for more intensive treatment. Gnjilane Valley

This is the smallest morphological spatial unit with only 36,6 km2, located in the northern part of the state, particularly in the upper catchment part of Binachka Morava, covering 6 km2 of arable land within one rural settlement. This area has no accumulation, but the average annual rainfall of 800 mm meets the needs for the extend cultivation of various agricultural products. Bitola Field With area of 1.492,7 km2, covers the southern parts of Pelagonia valley, on west extends along the crest of the mountains Pelister and Bigla, east to Selechka Mountain, on the north separated from Prilep Field with Topolnichka beam. There are registered fifty five rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas that cover 796,5 km2, of which, the arable area is 196,4 km2. There are fourty four artificial lakes with only one accumulation (Strezhevo) that belongs to the group of large artificial lakes. The rest of the fourty three artificial lakes, twenty seven are in the plains, four are located on the slopes of Pelister, and twelve on the slopes of a mountain Selechka. From the above presented data, it can be noted a lack of such facilities in terms of arable land in the hilly-mountain areas with an accent on the slopes of Mount Pelister and Selechka. Debar-Reka Valley The valley extends to the western part of Macedonia, occupying the entire watershed of the river Radika. The entire valley covers an area of 973,3 km2, with a total of fifty seven rural settlements in the hilly-mountain area covering 763,8 km2, of which 38,4 km2 have arable character. This morphological spatial area has two large artificial lakes, without any small or micro artificial lake. With small area of arable land on one hand, and favorable rainfall regime on the other hand, it can be outlined that this region is not affected to the extent of utilization of agricultural land, but the construction of micro artificial lakes would contribute significantly to the live stocking.

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

Demir Hisar spatial unit It occupies the north-eastern slopes of Ilinska and Plakenska Mountain and the southern slopes of Mount Busheva, more precisely from the upper basin of Crna Reka to the entry of Bucim rural settlement district. In such a described boundaries, this unit occupies an area of 645,3 km2, with a total of twenty nine rural settlements in hilly-mountain areas, that cover 396 km2 of which the arable land spreads on 53,9 km2. In this area there are a total of three small artificial lakes, one is in the plain area, two of them are in the hilly areas, and there are no reservoirs in the mountain areas. With relatively small amount of rainfall, especially in the vegetation period (adversely affects the agriculture), constructing small and micro artificial lakes is needful, especially in the western, northern and eastern parts of the basin. Dojran Trench It encompasses the watershed of Lake Dojran on the territory of Republic of Macedonia, with a total area of 75,4 km2. On the territory of this district, all rural settlements are concentrated in the plains. On the common line of hilly and plain areas, of the southern slopes of Belasitsa, there are four small artificial lakes used for irrigation of agricultural land in the plains. The wellspring area of Dvoranska and Lebnica River One of the smallest spatial unit is located in the upper catchment area of the river Dvoranska and the river Lebnica. It is located in the most eastern part of the country, more concretely in the northern slopes of the mountain Ograzhden and southern slopes of the Maleshevski Mountains. This geographical area covers a total of 129,8 km2, and there is only one rural settlement in the mountain area, that occupies 85,8 km2, of which 14 km2 are arable land. There are no artificial lakes in this area. Gevgelija-Valandovo Valley In the southeastern part of the state, as a separate entity locks out GevgelijaValandovo Valley, that verges on the west to mountain Kozhuf, on north to the rural settlement Udovo, on east to mountain Plavush and south to the state border with Greece. This basin covers an area of 1.000 km2, and the total number of rural settlement in the hillymountain areas is twenty eight. The area of these rural settlement covers only 31 % of the territory (that is a small percentage) or 310 km2, of which 25,9 km2 is arable agricultural land. The territory of Gevgelija-Valandovo Valley has twenty four artificial lakes, and only one is large artificial lake Paljurtsi. Six small and micro reservoirs are distributed in plain areas and sixteen reservoirs in the hilly-mountain areas. Artificial lakes built in hilly areas are unequally distributed. Most of them (twelve) are placed in the southeastern part, more precisely in the line of rural settlements Kurtamzali-Gjopcheli-Crnichani-Selemli. Most of the small lakes in this region do not satisfy the needs of the local population in hilly-mountain areas, because of its altitude in range of 200-250 m. In same time this range is a border that separates the plain and hilly areas. The rest of the valley, particularly on the northeast and southwest there are no accumulations. Kichevo Valley This valley is placed among the mountains Bistra, Bukovic and Pesjak. It covers an area of 874,2 km2. In area of 704,6 km2 there are sixty one hilly-mountain rural settlements, with arable land of 84,5 km2. The situation of artificial lakes in the region is in a poor condition. They are made by human activities during the ore excavation. Most of them (sixteen) are located in plains, particularly near the thermal power plant "Oslomej", and the eponymous rural settlement. Another two reservoirs are located in the mine shaft Tajmishte.

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

Kochani Valley It covers the middle watershed of the river Bregalnitsa, downstream of the confluence of the river Kamenica to the Zletovska River. This valley covers an area of 1.020 km2 and there are forty two rural settlements that occupy 775,1 km2 of the territory, of which 162,9 km2 is arable land. There are nine artificial lakes, excluding the big accumulation Gradche located in mountain spatial whole, the rest is small or micro reservoirs. One small artificial lake is placed in the plain area, six artificial lakes are placed in the hilly areas and only one is located in the mountain area. Beside the small number of artificial lakes in mountain areas, another handicap is the unequal distribution. The artificial lakes in hilly areas are located in the northwestern slopes of mount Golak on three locations. In the district of the village Blatets there are two reservoirs, three of them are around the village Pekljani (two of them with periodical character) and one is located in the area of the village Trsino. The presented data of arable land and number of constructed artificial lakes gets perception of disability, especially in the mountain areas on the slopes of mountain Plachkovitsa and Osogovo Mountains. Kriva Palanka valley It is located in the north-eastern part of Macedonia, i.e. in the upper basin of the Kriva Reka. In these borders, Kriva Palanka valley covers an area of 768 km2. There are sixty rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas that occupy 695,9 km2 of which 245 km2 is arable land. This whole valley has twelve small artificial lakes, of which eight are distributed in the plain areas, all of them near the rural settlement Ginovci. There are four artificial lakes in mountain areas, two of them are in the wellspring of Kriva Reka, Otoshnitsa near the rural settlement Gulintsi and there is a hydro dump site-Toranitsa. In this entity there are no big artificial lakes. It can be considered that there is deficit of small artificial lakes throughout whole area. Kumanovo Valley The watershed of River Pchinja with the lower basin of the Kriva River, compose the Kumanovo Valley. In these outlined boundaries this unit covers an area of 1.315,9 km2. There are registered a total of seventy two rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas that occupy 818,8 km2, of which 312 km2 is arable land. The status of water irrigation sources in this community is not favorable. Seven artificial lakes are constructed in this area. Two of them are large reservoirs (built in the hilly part - Glazhnja and Lipkovo), and they positively affect the development of agriculture and livestock breeding. Regarding to the other reservoirs one is placed in the plains, and four are located in the hilly areas, of which one is inactive (hydro dump Lojane). The three artificial lakes that are located in the district of the rural settlements of Dolno Konjari and Sredno Konjari originated during the sand excavation from the coastal part of river Pchinja. They are not used for irrigation of arable agricultural land. According to the mentioned above, is evident the lack of artificial lakes throughout Kumanovo Basin, with accent on the Middle and Eastern part of the area, where there is no single accumulation. Mariovo spatial unit This valley encompasses the watershed of the river Crna Reka at the begging of Skochivirska Gorge to the trigonometric point of Gradishka Tumba near to the village Gugjakovo. This area is typical hilly-mountain with area 897,3 km2, and there are 25 rural settlements with arable land of 188,7 km2. This area has a total of thirteen small artificial lakes, all of them in hilly areas. The small number of permanent streams in mountain areas requires more artificial capacitance in order to create conditions for development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The main feature of this area is the concentration of artificial lakes in the north-western part, i.e. on Selechka Mountain, in contrast to mountain Nidze without any accumulation.

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

Ohrid-Struga valley The Ohrid-Struga valley covers the Ohrid lake basin and the watershed of the river Crn Drim (to the end of the Drimkol canyon). In these described boundaries, this unit covers an area of 1.318,3 km2 and has a total of eighty seven rural settlements in hilly-mountain areas with total surface of 1.152,6 km2, the rest of 218 km2 is arable agricultural land. In the whole valley there are nine artificial lakes, locking out from which Globochitsa and Slatino as large one. Small artificial lakes are constructed in the plain and mountain regions. In the plain areas there are four artificial lakes, located in Struga area (accumulation Shum and two artificial lakes resulting from sand excavations, near the village Dolna Belitsa) and Dolna Debartsa reservoir, near to the village Trebenishta. In the mountain area there are three small reservoirs on the mountain Galichitsa. In hilly area, the accumulation Slatino is the only artificial lake that meets the needs of the surrounding settlements for irrigation. The needs of reservoir are expressive in the mountains Jablanitsa, Stogovo, Ilinska and Plakenska. Ovche Pole The watersheds of the rivers Zletovska, Svetinikolska and Kriva Lakavica constitute the Ovche Pole area with total surface of 2.162 km2. This whole basin has the highest number of rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas, a total of 108, with 1.145,1 km2, and this unit has the most arable agricultural land occupying 329,2 km2. This spatial unit has a total of twenty one accumulation and three of them are large, Mavrovitsa, Knezhevo and Mantovo. Тhe accumulation Mantovo is not in function of developing the agriculture in this unit, because of the irrigation system constructed for Radovish field. In terms of small artificial lakes, there are total of eighteen objects. Six of them are in the plain areas, while twelve are located in the hills. From initial perception, the number of artificial lakes in the region look in a positive manner, but if more details are considered, the situation is not favorable. Notably, five artificial lakes are originated during the sand excavation from the coastal part of the river Kriva Lakavitsa. Another accumulation near Probishtip is with the same genesis, and not far from there is the hydro dump Zletovo. The artificial lake near the village Dolantsi is temporary functional. According to the data above, only four small artificial lakes have functional importance in this region. It can be concluded that despite the large area of arable land in this region, the number of artificial lakes doesn`t satisfait the local needs. Polog In the northwestern part of Republic of Macedonia, more precisely the upper catchment area of the river Vardar on the way to the Dervenska gorge with an area of 1.475,2 km2. There are seventy rural settlements in the hilly-mountain area occupying 980,1 km2 of which 167,8 km2 are arable agricultural land. The mountain area covers the largest part of this unit. There are constructed seven artificial lakes, i.e. two in the plains, and five in the mountain areas. According to the given data, the lack of artificial lakes in the mountain areas in the whole valley of Polog is evident. Poreche Valley The Poreche basin covers the lower watershed of the river Treska, more concrete, it begins at the city of Makedonski Brod to the way in of Skopje Valley. This unit covers an area of 944,6 km2, and it`s typical hilly-mountain area with total of thirty seven rural settlements occupying 662,6 km2, of which 57,4 km2 are arable land. The main feature of this whole valley is the largest accumulation in the Republic of Macedonia - Kozjak. This lake stretches across the entire length of Poreche Valley. Apart from this accumulation, there are no other artificial lakes constructed. The construction of new artificial lakes will satisfy the needs of the local population for processing agricultural land.

608


figure 1. Map of man-made lakes in Republic of Macedonia

РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

609


КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

According to the given data, Poreche Valley is among the areas with the lowest number of artificial lakes built in terms of arable land. Prespa Valley This valley occupies the watershed of the eponymous lake with a total area of 558,9 km2. There are twenty six rural settlements spreading to an area of 399,3 km2, with arable land of 74,2 km2 in the hilly-mountain area. This spatial unit has a total of two small artificial lakes, one is in the plains, while the other artificial lake is on the common line on the mountain slope and the plain area. The two artificial lakes don`t have any function in the hilly-mountain areas. Prilep Field The Prilep Field occupies the northern part of Pelagonija Valley, with its surrounded by mountains from east, north and west, and the Topolnichka beam on south. In these described boundaries, this unit occupies an area of 943, 9 km2. This spatial unit has forty two rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas with total surface of 539 km2 of which 184 km2 is arable agricultural land. In this valley, the total number of accumulations is thirty and there is only one large accumulation (Prilep). Six of them are in the plains, twenty one in hilly area and two in the mountain area. From twenty three artificial lakes in the hilly-mountain area, six of them originated from marble excavation, from marble plant "Sivets". The east and southeast parts of the hilly-mountain areas are well covered with small accumulations, but it is notable the lack of this type of facilities is in the western and northern parts. Skopje Valley Skopje Valley is in the immediate catchment area of the river Vardar, begins at the gorge Dervenska ending to the gorge Taor. This spatial unit covers an area of 1.924,2 km2. There are seventy eight rural settlements in the hilly-mountain area occupying 1.057,7 km2 of which 253,5 km2 are arable agricultural land. The Skopje Valley has a total of thirty seven lakes, two of them are macro accumulations (Matka and Sveta Petka), while the rest of them are small or micro artificial lakes. Most of them are located in the plains and they originated during the sand excavation from the coastal part of the river Vardar. There are a total of twenty artificial lakes of this type. Six artificial lakes are constructed for the needs of large industrial facilities, and three for recreational needs. In the hilly parts of this spatial unit are constructed only two accumulations, near the rural settlements Buchinci and Radusha. The situation in the mountain areas is similar, i.e. two small artificial lakes with periodic character are located in the area of village Pusta Breznica, one is located in the village area of Jabolci and onother near village Brodec. The real state of artificial lakes in this spatial unit is very poor, confirmed by the small area of arable agricultural land irrigated by these type of facilities. Strumitsa Radovish Valley The Strumitsa basin is located at the southeastern part of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. the catchment area of river Strumitsa. In these described boundaries, this unit occupies an area of 1.482,8 km2. This spatial unit has fifty two rural settlements in the hilly-mountain areas with total area of 641,5 km2 of which 117,7 km2 is arable agricultural land. In the StrumitsaRadovish Valley there are constructed eighteen artificial lakes. The major artificial lakes are lakes Turija, Vodocha and the hydro dump Buchim. Small artificial lakes are mostly distributed in the plain areas, mainly caused by the process of sand excavation. The hilly parts have only one artificial lake, located in the mine shaft Damian. The mountain spatial units have five artificial lakes, three of them are located in the village areas of Drvosh, Borisovo,

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РИДСКО-ПЛАНИНСКИ ПОДРАЧЈА -ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ, Охрид, 12-15 IX 2013 HILLY- MOUNTAIN AREAS -PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES, Ohrid, 12-15 IX 2013

and Damjan, and two of them are located in the mine shaft Buchim, originated by the ore excavation process. According to the presented data, it can be summarized that StrumitsaRadovish Valley has just three small artificial lakes in purpose of development of the hillymountain areas. Tikvesh The spatial unit Tikvesh is located in the immediate lower watershed of the river Crna Reka, more precisely in west-east direction this unit begins from the trigonometric point of Gradishka Tumba near the village Gugjakovo, to the confluence of the river Crna Reka into river Vardar, and in north-southern direction from the Veles Gorge to the village Udovo. In these described boundaries this is the largest valley on the territory of Republic of Macedonia. With an area of 2.518,4 km2, more than 50 % of the territory (1.380,1 km2) are hilly-mountain area. The rural spatial area covers a farmland of 204,9 km2. The Tikvesh Valley has a total of thirty artificial lakes, only one is large accumulation (Tikvesh) with capacity of 475 106 m3 of water. The small artificial lakes are distributed in all types of spatial structures. In the plain areas there are nine artificial lakes, of which six originated during sand excavation. One artificial lake is used as a gypsum dump. In terms of agricultural and livestock farming, only two artificial lakes are in function. In hilly-mountain area, there is a total of tweny small artificial lakes, two of them originated by the process of ore excavation. Although this is a large number of micro reservoirs, it does not satisfy the irrigation needs. A negative feature in this spatial unit is their unequal spatial distribution, i.e. the appearance of deficit of artificial lakes in certain areas. The primary irrigation function of the accumulation Tikvesh positively affects the development of agricultural production. Veles Valley Veles Valley is in the immediate catchment area of the river Vardar, that begins at gorge Taor to the gorge Veles. This spatial unit covers an area of 1.166 km2. There are forty five rural settlements in the hilly-mountain area occupying 753,7 km2, with 145 km2 of arable agricultural land. The artificial lake network in this unit is composed by two large accumulations - Lisiche and Mladost, three small artificial lakes, and one artificial lake constructed for industrial needs. All of the accumulations are distributed in the hilly-mountain areas, but their number is negligible. Especially are handicapped the rural settlements in the mountain areas. In the vegetation period, droughts negatively affect the development of agriculture in this spatial unit. River Pchinja watershed (outside of Kriva Palanka Valley) The River Pchinja watershed is a distinctive spatial area covering an insignificant 91,9 2 km . This spatial unit is mountainous with five rural settlements and an arable agricultural land of 33,5 km2. There is no artificial lakes constructed in this area. CONCLUSION According to the given results, it can be concluded that Republic of Macedonia in the hilly-mountain area, the arable agricultural land covers an area of 3.360 km2, irrigated by total of 150 small and micro artificial lakes. Considering the fact that one hectare of arable agricultural land in the vegetation period needs about 2.000 liters of water for irrigation, it can be resumed that Republic of Macedonia has to accumulate approximately 800 106 m3 of water, which means that the total number of artificial lakes should expand from 800 to 1.000. The territorial distribution of the artificial lakes in the country is unequal, i.e. in some regions the number of facilities is negligible or absent, while in other parts they are more

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КАРТОГРАФИЈА, ГИС, ЖИВОТНА СРЕДИНА ПРОБЛЕМИ И ПОТЕНЦИЈАЛИ, ЕВРОПСКИ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОГРАМИ ЗА РАЗВОЈ CARTOGRAPHY, GIS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND PROTECTION, EUROPEAN POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPMENT

numerous. As a negative feature of the small and micro artificial lakes constructed on the territory of Republic of Macedonia, is the fact of large number of artificial lakes created by human activities, generally during the sand and ore excavation. Small and micro artificial lakes in Republic of Macedonian are commonly used for irrigation of agricultural farmland, then fish farming, watering livestock (especially in high mountain areas), navigation, as well as for industrial and recreational purposes. On one hand the construction of small and micro artificial lakes does not requires large funds, because their construction is quite simple. Local material from nearby is commonly used to dam up the stream. On the other hand, the benefits from the development of agriculture and animal husbandry are enormous. Following the trend of implementation of renewable sources of energy, of great importance for improving the electrical power system of Republic of Macedonia is the construction of small and micro hydropower plants. In this manner, the artificial lakes will have even greater significance for the country . In terms of agricultural production it can be noted that the construction of small and micro artificial lakes will significantly affect the revitalization of the mountain areas, and the increased of agricultural production. In addition, there are given few examples about the construction of artificial lakes: - After the construction of artificial lakes in the tobacco industry, the quantity of production increased by 80 %, and the quality by 35 %. - In the production of forage crops, after the construction of artificial lakes and continuous irrigation, yields increased by 60 %. - Without irrigation conditions, the vegetable crops production is almost impossible to plant. When this conditions will be provided, this kind of cultures would spread over large areas. - Most of the examples indicate more livestock intensity in the high mountain areas where small and micro artificial lakes are constructed, than in this type of spatial area without this kind of hydrographical objects. REFERENCES Агенција за катастар на недвижности (2006): ТК 1:25.000 (сите секции), Скопје. Башевски, И. (1969): Прилепско езеро, Географски разгледи, кн. 7, Скопје. Колчаковски, Д. (2004): Физичка географија на Република Македонија, Скопје. Василески, Д. (1995): Малите акумулации и нивната просторна разместеност во Република Македонија, Прв македонски географски конгрес, Охрид. Колчаковски, Д. (2006): Геоморфологија, Скопје. Лазаревски, А. (1993): Климата во Македонија, Скопје. Маркоски, Б. (1992): Картографско картометриски проучувања на хипсометријата и разместеноста на населението во Република Македонија – докторска дисертација, ракопис, Скопје. Министерство за економија (2010): Стратегија за искористување на обновливите извори на енергија во Република Македонија до 2020 година. Министерство за земјоделство, шумарство и водостопанство (1992): Катастар на изградени мали брани и акумулации во Репбулика Македонија, Скопје. Никодиновски, Б., Маркоски, Б. (1998): Воена географија, Скопје. Панов, М. (1998): Енциклопедија на селата во Република Македонија, Скопје. Републичка геодетска управа (1982): СР Македонија низ катастарска евиденција, Скопје. Серафимов, П. (1970): Браните во Македонија, Југословенски национален комитет за високи брани – VIII конгрес, Скопје. Стојмилов, А. (2011): Географија на Репбулика Македонија, Скопје.

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УДК: 502.15:911.373

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FOR RURAL SETTLEMENTS Milena MOYZEOVÁ Institute of Landscape Ecology of SAS Štefánikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovakia e-mail: milena.moyzeova@savba.sk

ABSTRACT Environmental quality assessment is a very complex and exact process, which requires an interdisciplinary approach. It proceeds from an isolated evaluation to the comprehensive assessment of impacts on the entire landscape, landscape ecological stability, biodiversity, natural resources and immediate human environment. The comprehensive landscape-ecological assessment of the territory and solution to the landscape-ecological problems resulting from the collision of interests in the landscape plays an important role in landscape-ecological optimisation; it is the basic condition of sustainable development. Environmental quality assessment calls for an interdisciplinary approach encompassing all contributing factors. It is very important to pay sufficient attention to the subjective factors i.e. environmental quality assessment by concerned population. It is necessary to develop assessment methods for the stakeholders and public at large, methods of communication with the public as well as methods to improve the participation of the public in the decision-making processes. This paper presents the methods and measures of environmental quality assessment for rural settlements. Key words: quality of environment, stakeholders, sustainable development, rural settlements

INTRODUCTION Landscape is the living environment for all organisms. It is the space where humans accomplish their activities. Especially the economic activities of humans alter qualitative and quantitative indicators of individual landscape-forming components and elements, and an overall environmental quality. The process of alteration is characterised by great dynamics and numerous participating factors. It is the reason why the environmental quality assessment is demanding and complicated and requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach. RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT Numerous authors such as Cutter (1985), Pacione (1993), Walmsley, Lewis (1994), Cummins (2000), Havrlant (1999), Ira (1999), Huba (1996), Pašiak (1997) and many others dealt with the assessment of the settlement quality evaluating both objective and subjective factors. They are mostly geographical studies focused on urban settlements. Undeniably though, the changes that took place in Slovakia recently have, apart from urban environment, also concerned rural settlements. Precisely these changes have become the subject of landscape-ecological research devoted to the assessment of the environmental quality. It is known that settlements, as independent and special units, are determined by a combination of natural and socio-economic conditions, result of their specific features. Awareness of these specificities (differences) is the basic prerequisite for the assessment of environmental quality in rural settlements of Slovakia. Apart from the assessments known from literature, procedures that reflect national, regional and local specificities of Slovak rural settlements should be also applied. The inherent message of so far accomplished assessments is that the environmental quality is the result of natural environmental properties, their anthropic alteration, i.e. representation and significance of positive socio-economic elements and properties of the particular community. It means that the environmental quality assessment for rural settlements requires 613


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interdisciplinary approach encompassing the assessment of environmental, socio-economic and social factors. Attention has to be given to the subjective assessments, it means quality assessment expressed by the population. It is then necessary to elaborate methods of selection and methods of assessment and engagement of interested and involved persons (stakeholders) into the assessing procedures. So far acquired experience shows that the population is particular and aware of the environmental quality. They are also well informed and they recognize changes in environmental quality that took place in different periods; they can also specify factors that deteriorate or increase its quality. Conservation of healthy environment is considered by 66% of 197 questioned an important priority in life and development of a commune and a very important factor characterizing their living style. Challenges and claims posed by humans to landscape are constantly increasing and so is the negative impact on the environmental quality. The question is how long will landscape be able to resist such pressure before the eventual total devastation menacing even humans themselves. A glance at the recent history of Slovakia proves how the environmental quality has been changing in rural settlements. In the 1950s, the typical economic activity in Slovak rural settlements was the development of large-scale farming. Cooperatives and State Farms involved with plant and animal production existed almost in every commune and employed the majority of local population. Environmental problems in these settlements in time of collectivisation and socialisation were connected with the prevailing farming function. The diversiform landscape which existed around villages in the past has distinctly changed through land consolidation and coupling of small fields into large blocks of fields, by ploughing away the balks, removal of paths and linear vegetation, by cultivation of monocultures, intensification of production and other interventions. Landscape-ecological problems ensuing from the reduced landscape diversity, plant and animal diversity and diminishing ecological stability of the “new” agro-ecosystems emerged. Use of heavy machines, huge doses of chemicals and other crop protective measures had negative impact not only on the biota bound to the farmland but they also changed the quantitative and qualitative indicators of soil and water sources. Draining of waterlogged plots resulted in loss of rare biotopes that fulfilled many environmental functions. Another important change of environmental quality in rural settlements in Slovakia came in the 1990s. Those years are characterised by attenuation even extinction of large-scale farming connected with cessation of numerous agricultural companies, dilapidation of buildings once owned by the Cooperatives and State Farms, sale of technology, abandonment of fields and their progressive overgrowing, sale of land to investors, use of a top quality arable land for private business activities often having nothing in common with farming, etc. In the environmental area, problems threatening the biodiversity due to the abandonment of farmland appeared. Many vineyards were also abandoned due to the economic/financial or other reasons. Many of them were sold to developers and builders. Hundreds of hectares of top quality arable land were lost to construction of roads and logistic centres. These and other problems persisted as the result of the conflicting interests between the economic activities, nature, and resource conservation not only in rural settlements where farming activities prevailed but also in other communes and villages fulfilling the recreational, forest-managerial, industrial and other functions. The mentioned processes gave origin to problems not only in the environmental but also in other spheres of life. While in the 1950s, the majority of rural population worked in agricultural sector, in the 1990s this population group found itself unemployed. Failure to return to labour market increased the unemployment rate. Lack of funds in families of former farmers has led to a dramatic drop of their living standard, deterioration of interpersonal relationships, increased migration and increased frequency of socio-pathogenic phenomena.

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Apparently, the Slovak rural settlements have gone through several economic, social and political changes. The topical landscape-ecological problems of rural settlements are rather connected with the threatened and diminishing natural ecosystems, degradation of natural resources, and depreciation of environmental quality. Solutions to these problems require searching for new and progressive assessing procedures. The new methodology for the assessment of environmental quality in rural settlements should be based on the philosophy of combined landscape-ecological and socio-economic assessment. Research requires exploitation of the existing experience and focus on identification and analysis of factors determining environmental quality in rural settlements and specification of environmental quality and quality of life indicators. Knowledge and experience in the field of ecology, sociology, physical geography and geoecology should be exploited as well in order to formulate a multi-criterion assessment based on the estimation of ecological quality of spatial landscape structure and both the positive and negative impact of human activities on landscape-forming components including the evaluation of settlement communities and selected indicators. Stringing the new qualitative and quantitative methods and approaches together may contribute to formulation of more comprehensive criteria for the assessment of environmental quality in rural settlements. Environmental quality is interpreted as an immediate status of the environment, landscape and its components and elements. The word quality itself contains a certain degree of assessment. Environmental quality is the condition characterized by dynamics as it changes in time and depends on interaction of humans and the environment and the perception thresholds of assessors. Environmental quality is a kind of summarised assessment of qualitative landscape parameters and depends on qualitative indicators of its components and elements. Part of the quality assessment is selection, ranking, and characteristics of the most objective indicators for the assessment of individual landscape-forming elements and components and eventually the overall environmental quality. Apart from the objective aspect, subjective assessment is also important for the establishment of environmental quality. It is the reason why research should be complemented by the opinion and attitudes of people and their interpretation of environmental quality. That part of research is equally demanding as different individuals respect different values and their perception thresholds vary as well. The basis of such assessment rests in combination of objective assessment - environmental research and subjective assessment – research of the human and society. Environmental quality assessment of rural settlement must be then based on elaboration of the appurtenant methodology of assessment which is a combination of landscape-ecological, environmental, and sociological research. Such research will confront environmental problems attributable to the clash between the positive and negative socio-economic phenomena with the problems specified by the selected sample of population. Further investigations may possibly verify the hypothesis that the research into environmental quality should consider not only the landscape-ecological but also social and economic situation and conditions in the given territory. The base of such assessment is in: ● Development of methodology for the environmental impact (positive and negative) assessment of human activities regarding landscape structure and environmental quality in a settlement; ● Specification of quality indicators for rural settlements; ● Development of methods for the environmental quality perception; ● Assessment of population’s perception of environmental problems; ● Verification of methodology on model rural settlements in Slovakia. Emphasis should be laid on comprehensive landscape-ecological assessment of abiotic conditions, natural resources and potential, assessment of socio-economic conditions and the current use of the territory, as well as assessment of human resources and potential.

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Methods of environmental quality assessment in rural settlements must concentrate on identification of problems specific for rural settlements, identification of implications and causes, possible prevention of new problems, and a proposal of new way of management, which will ensure sustainable development of settlements. Part of such assessment should also be elaboration of environmental quality indicators for settlements suitable for long-term monitoring of changes in environmental quality of settlements. The obtained data complemented with the population’s opinion and attitudes will represent a valuable material for possible improvements in life quality of population in concerned settlements. Nature of such methodology will be that of an open system applicable to Slovak rural settlements. The basic procedure shall include: ● Specification of factors with positive effects on environmental quality of rural settlements and assessment of their significance; ● Specification of factors with negative effects on environmental quality of rural settlements and assessment of their significance; ● Assessment of overall effect of human activities on landscape structure, assessment of anthropisation level in rural environment; ● Assessment of the synthesised effect anthropogenic activities on individual landscapeforming components ● Assessment of collisions between positive and negative effects and ensuing problems; ● Establishment of overall environmental quality coefficients based on the synthesised effects of both, positive and negative elements; ● Selection, basic characteristics, and establishment of indicators determining environmental quality of settlements and proposal of their monitoring; ● Development of methods how to engage appurtenant stakeholders into environmental quality assessment for rural settlements; ● Proposal of management aimed at improved environmental quality and sustainable development in rural settlements; ● Comprehensive assessment of proposed measures in terms of social, environmental and economic impacts. Methodology respecting the above-quoted recommendations can be applied to all types of settlements in Slovakia. The proposed methodical procedures were verified in rural settlements in the Trnava District. The District is situated in western part of Slovakia. The majority of selected settlements with the top level of amenities and services is situated in areas with the heaviest impact of socio-economic activities on the environment. On the contrary, small settlements with scarce amenities and services are often located in the least impacted environment. Settlements were classified into three subregions based on the assessment of natural and socio-economic components of the environment: Subregion covering the close proximity of Trnava This subregion consists of 15 rural settlements with the lowest quality coefficient values: Zavar, Majcichov, Bohdanovce nad Trnavou, Pavlice, Ruţindol, Borová, Suchá nad Parnou, Zvončín, Šelpice, Zeleneč, Horné Dubové, Radošovce, Dolné Lovčice, Opoj, and Biely Kostol. The subregion was delimited based on the negative effect of human activities pursued in Trnava and Jaslovské Bohunice, which also affect environmental quality in the surrounding rural settlements. The District town and its surroundings suffer from concentrated, overlapping and cumulative negative effects of industry, farming and transports. Regarding this fact, it is necessary to plan and consider any further location of similar activities, either of

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productive or other nature with utmost responsibility. Introduction of technological measures reducing exhalants, water cleansing stations and preference for clean productions and wastefree technologies are recommended for settlements characterised by low environmental quality. Northern subregion This subregion comprises 8 rural settlements with the top quality coefficient (Buková, Lošonec, Smolenice, Naháč, Dobrá Voda, Dechtice, Horné Orešany, and Dolné Orešany) located in the north of the District. These are the settlements with the lowest concentration of industry, lowest population density and transport routes characterised by scarce intensity. Local mining is the most serious negative phenomenon. Other human activities are rather of a point nature. Farming is less developed; grapevines are grown on the local slopes. Forest in cadastral territories of these settlements is dominant. Forest ecosystems are protected under the Protected Landscape Area of Malé Karpaty. Water sources are also abundantly represented. The area possesses an interesting potential for recreation and tourism. Environmental impact of recreation is not distinctly negative – tourism is one of the proposed activities suitable for these settlements with high environmental quality. Subregion of wider surroundings of Trnava Thissubregion consists of settlements with prevailing agricultural production. The area boasts the best quality soils and suitable climate ideal for plant production. Regarding environmental quality, there is still potential for further development of economic activities in this territory although it is recommendable to apply the most recent technologies and ecological farming. Measures increasing ecological stability, by for instance planting woods and linear vegetation in intensively farmed landscape, are recommended. The remaining 21 settlements (Trstín, Bučany, Hrnčiarovce nad Parnou, Dlhá, Dolná Krupá, Boleráz, Vlčkovce, Brestovany, Horná Krupá, Voderady, Jaslovské Bohunice, Kriţovany nad Dudváhom, Kátlovce, Bíňovce, Špačince, Košolná, Dolné Dubové, Šúrovce, Slovenská Nová Ves, Malţenice, and Cífer) with estimated medium environmental quality from the landscapeecological point of view have been included in this subregion. CONCLUSION In order to maintain the environment in an acceptable condition, natural value should be respected, the carrying capacity of landscape and its resources should not be exceeded and principles/criteria of sustainable development must be observed. Gajdoš (2002) talks about three stages of human’s relationship to the environment: ● The first stage was that of a survival fight of humans with the natural environment. Regarding environmental quality this stage is seen as positive, the environment was of good quality thanks to the circumstance that human activities did not threaten landscape and its components. ● Humans progressively dominated the nature by one-sided exploitation of world material resources that exceeded their carrying capacity. This period also found negative reflection in environmental quality, which drops to the level when the self-regulating mechanisms are being damaged and the outlooks are disastrous when landscape would not be able to resist the pressure of human claims. ● Outlines of a third stage when people attempt at a certain harmony with nature and the environment accompanying the development in a healthy and nice environment are emerging. People are aware in this stage that if the present situation persists, landscape will be completely devastated and its capacities to provide conditions for human existence

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would be lost. Very critical environmental quality may threaten not only health of humans but also the very existence of society and biota. Research into environmental quality should bring, apart from new theoretical or methodological approaches, first of all applicable results. Research results should be applicable in the planning and designing activities and in educational process. Cognition of new qualitative indicators for the environment in rural settlements and innovative approaches to its assessment may contribute to improved overall life quality in rural settlements, protection of the environment, conservation of territory’s ecological stability and diversity, and to rational exploitation of natural, cultural, and historic sources existing in Slovak rural settlements. Results should be applied in the development of environmental policy on local, regional and national levels. Key stakeholders in individual natural or social territorial units represent a potential for generation of managerial measures leading to the improvement of the environment. Engagement and activation of the public will increase their participation in the development of their settlements. Raised environmental awareness of people starting with mayors and representatives of local self-administrations and ending with the public at large may lead to positive subjective attitude of locals to their environment and its protection. The paper is an output of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences Project No. 2/0120/12 “Evaluation of Environmental Quality of Rural Settlements”. REFERENCES Cummins, R. A.: Objective and Subjective Quality of Life Scale: an Interactive Model. Social Indicators Research, 2000, 52, p. 55 – 72. Cutter, S. L.: Rating Places: A Geographers Quality of Life Association of American Geographers. Washington DC: Resource Publications in Geography, 1985, 76 p. Gajdoš, P.: Man, Society, Environment. Some Problems of Spatial Sociology. Bratislava: Sociological Institute, SAS, 2002, 374 pp. Havrlant, M.: Geographical Aspects of the Environmental Quality Assessment. Folia geographica, 1999, 32, 3, s. 332 – 336. Huba, M.: Application of Sustainability Principles to the Environmental Assessment Impact of Developmental Concepts, Environment, 1996, 30, 1, s. 19 – 21. Ira, V.: Environment, Life Quality and Sustainable Development in Perceptions and Ideas of Population in Regions of Dolné Pomoravie, Tatry and Východné Karpaty. Folia geographica, 1999, 32, 3, p. 338 – 345. Pacione, M.: The Quality of the Urban Lifespace – A Geographical Perspective. In: Bonnes, M. (ed.): Perception and Evaluation of Urban Environmental Quality. Rome: UNESCO, 1993, p. 17 – 42. Pašiak, J.: Issue of Small Settlements and Sustainable Development. In: Actual problems of regional development, Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, 1997, p. 52 – 60. Walmsley, D. J., Lewis, G. J.: People and Environment: Behavioural Approaches in Human Geography. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical, 1994, 290 p.

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УДК: 551.4:332.12(497.76)

MORPHOLOGY AND INSTABILITY OF THE TERRAIN AS LIMITING FACTOR IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT Igor PESHEVSKI1 Milorad JOVANOVSKI2 1

MSc, Assistant University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” Faculty of Civil Engineering – Skopjepesevski@gf.ukim.edu.mk’ 2 PhD, Professor University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” Faculty of Civil Engineering – Skopje jovanovski@gf.ukim.edu.mk

ABSTRACT In the western part of Macedonia many rural settlements are placed in mountainous and hilly terrains. Lithological composition and complex morphology of the terrain present natural prerequisites for development of contemporary geological processes. In many cases, villages have suffered significant economic losses due to landslides, rock falls and erosion. In order to present the extent to which morphology and instabilities limit the future development of these areas DEM was prepared for the area of Mavrovo-Debar. Slope angle and slope aspect maps were derived from the DEM and combined with the existing landslide inventory map. Analysis showed that position of landslides greatly corresponds to the complexity of terrain morphology. However, in order to perform spatial prediction of instabilities and more accurately delineate zones for rural development, advanced methodology for landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) should be employed, that will incorporate other natural factors as lithology, rainfalls, land cover, river network, earthquakes etc. Keywords: morphology, instability, DEM, LHZ

INTRODUCTION According latest research, around 300 occurrences connected with instability of the terrain have been registered in R.Macedonia (Peshevski et al. 2013). This number would have been much higher if a systematic collection of data was provided. Landslides have usually developed in the hilly-mountainous terrains in western Macedonia and many of them have caused damage to rural communities. Regional and local roads, water supply lines, sewage systems, electricity supply, individual structures and others have suffered on many occasions. Many factors contribute to the development of these instabilities. Among them, lithology, morphology and groundwater play the main role. In order to avoid, prevent or mitigate landslide risk, proper land use planning is of essential importance. This is only achievable if specific techniques for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zonation are employed. The paper presents simple analysis of basic morphological elements in connection with the development of instabilities, which can be considered as an important limiting factor of the rural development. GEOTECTONICAL SETTING AND LANDSLIDES IN THE STUDY AREA The study area belongs to the geotectonical unit called Western Macedonian Zone, and small part in the zone Cukali-Krasta (fig 1). This region is characterised by presence of highly metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and high seismo-tectonical activity, with maximum expected seismic intensity is 7 and 8 according the European Macroseismical Scale. Landslides in this region have developed mainly on the contact between the hard rock masses in the subgrade and the disintegrated debris which covers them. From the 35 registered landslides (fig.2) 60% have been defined as deep seated while the rest 40% are noted as shallow slides. The area which they cover is from 500 to ~500000 m2. Most of these landslides activated in period of intense rainfalls.

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Study area Mavrovo-Debar

Figure 1. Gelogical map of the Repubic of Macedonia 1:200000 (not in scale)

Figure 2. Landslide inventory map of the study area

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Main landslide events which have caused damage from different degree in rural settlements are the one that occurred in the villages Skudrinje, Bitushe and Mogorce. The terrain of village Skudrinje is presented with geological formations with different composition and very high tectonical activity which play the main role in formation of relief structures. Above the village in a length of around 1.5 km defined is general sliding surface, followed by formation of parallel structures in the lower area which affect the village itself. Based on geophysical surveys many generations of sliding have been defined on this area. On certain parts of the terrain there are many fault jumps between certain sliding zones as high as 20 meters. Landslide risk in the village is very high (fig 3.).

a) b) Figure 3. a) Unstable zone above v.Skudrinje, b) damage of residential house

In recent years, similar situation have developed in the villages Bitushe and Mogorce. Debris material which covers stable rock masses has moved on several occasions. This resulted in formation of many so called “vertical jumps” on the terrain, which are clearly visible above on the terrain (fig 4.).

a) b) Figure 4. a) Overlook on the village Bitushe from the landslide b) formation of “vertical jumps” due to sliding

During fall and winter months, in periods of prolonged rainfalls or snowmelt (average year rainfall is 1400 mm), surface water infiltrates in the formed open fractures on the terrain. This results in increasing of groundwater to a critical level, which leads for further development of the instability. In this context table 1 lists the geology of each registered landslide event in the study area, its sliding mechanism and main triggering factor. 621


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Table 1. Morphological parameters of the terrain in the zone of registered landslides Land slide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

ID

X

Y

Geology

lanslide mechanism

Trigger

173-3-1_0001 173-3-1_0002 173-3-1_0003 173-3-1_0004 173-3-2_0001 173-3-2_0002 173-3-2_0003 173-3-2_0004 173-3-2_0005 173-3-2_0006 173-4-1_0001 173-4-1_0002 173-4-1_0003 173-4-1_0004 173-4-1_0005 173-4-1_0006 173-4-1_0007 173-4-1_0008 173-4-1_0009 173-3-3_0001 173-3-3_0002 173-3-3_0003 173-3-3_0004 173-3-3_0005 173-3-3_0006 173-3-3_0007 173-3-4_0001 173-3-4_0002 173-3-4_0003 182-1-1_0001 182-1-1_0003 182-1-1_0004 182-1-1_0005 182-2-1_0001 182-2-1_0002

4615925 4614110 4614026 4609780 4618326 4617832 4611607 4617157 4610182 4619310 4621980 4617687 4616646 4616595 4616673 4616803 4615124 4617182 4613675 4597131 4598420 4601808 4607958 4597635 4596925 4608420 4601061 4597234 4602609 4588382 4588248 4590277 4588846 4589626 4592695

7467987 7465063 7465984 7467115 7475003 7477806 7476148 7470997 7469385 7472996 7484423 7479829 7483110 7483876 7479418 7479223 7487860 7479714 7488394 7465001 7463783 7467759 7466278 7464167 7464999 7466545 7470254 7469309 7468734 7461355 7463219 7462542 7462298 7486046 7488315

limestone+debris limestone+debris limestone+debris limestone+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris limestone+debris rock+snow Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris diabase+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris Schists+debris gipsum Schists+debris glacial sediments Schists+debris proluvial sedim. glacial sediments Schists+debris glacial sediments Schists+debris limestone+debris limestone+debris Pliocene limestone+debris Schists+debris limestone+debris

translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide rotational debris slide rock fall avalanche complex slide rotational debris slide rotational debris slide rotational debris slide rotational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide rock fall translational debris slide translational debris slide rotational debris slide rock fall complex slide complex slide complex slide translational debris slide translational debris slide rotational debris slide complex slide translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide translational debris slide rotational debris slide translational debris slide rock fall

rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall snowmelt weak rock weak rock weak rock weak rock weak rock weak rock weak rock rainfall weak rock weak rock tectonic act. undercutting rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall

RELATION OF LANDSLIDES WITH MORPHOLOGY OF THE TERRAIN Besides the geological, hydrogeological and climate conditions, as mentioned above, one of the main factors for development of instabilities is of course the morphology of the terrain. Having this in mind, a DEM of the study area was prepared which was then analysed from several aspects. We note that the DEM was constructed by vectorisation of analogue geographical maps with scale 1:25000, thus precision depends on the quality of the analogue maps. All landslides from the study area were overlapped with the slope angle (fig. 5) and slope aspect maps (fig. 7) derived from the DEM. Results of the analysis are presented on respective histograms (fig. 6 and 8) as well as table 2.

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Figure 5. Slope angle map of the study area Mavrovo-Debar (slope angle of natural slopes is according colour legend 0-90)

Figure 6. Histogram of Slope angle distribution

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Figure 7. Slope aspect map of the study area Mavrovo-Debar (azimuth of natural slopes is according colour legend 0-360)

Figure 8. Histogram of Slope aspect distribution

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Landslide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Table 2. Morphological parameters of the terrain in the zone of registered landslides Slope aspect Slope angle Elevation ID of landslide X Y (amsl) () () 173-3-1_0001 4615925 7467987 1560 240 26 173-3-1_0002 4614110 7465063 1115 42 22 173-3-1_0003 4614026 7465984 1004 5 12 173-3-1_0004 4609780 7467115 867 75 30 173-3-2_0001 4618326 7475003 1135 3 17 173-3-2_0002 4617832 7477806 1298 360 15 173-3-2_0003 4611607 7476148 1619 346 21 173-3-2_0004 4617157 7470997 913 97 51 173-3-2_0005 4610182 7469385 2027 272 52 173-3-2_0006 4619310 7472996 1033 10 29 173-4-1_0001 4621980 7484423 953 41 20 173-4-1_0002 4617687 7479829 1384 163 21 173-4-1_0003 4616646 7483110 1275 60 11 173-4-1_0004 4616595 7483876 1329 4 22 173-4-1_0005 4616673 7479418 1243 68 19 173-4-1_0006 4616803 7479223 1294 78 13 173-4-1_0007 4615124 7487860 1170 87 34 173-4-1_0008 4617182 7479714 1252 179 18 173-4-1_0009 4613675 7488394 1197 210 42 173-3-3_0001 4597131 7465001 761 337 24 173-3-3_0002 4598420 7463783 1051 137 34 173-3-3_0003 4601808 7467759 971 84 46 173-3-3_0004 4607958 7466278 972 36 12 173-3-3_0005 4597635 7464167 617 104 27 173-3-3_0006 4596925 7464999 835 305 17 173-3-3_0007 4608420 7466545 902 17 30 173-3-4_0001 4601061 7470254 1309 238 44 173-3-4_0002 4597234 7469309 1234 53 19 173-3-4_0003 4602609 7468734 650 89 20 182-1-1_0001 4588382 7461355 800 244 20 182-1-1_0003 4588248 7463219 650 42 43 182-1-1_0004 4590277 7462542 652 21 15 182-1-1_0005 4588846 7462298 675 308 18 182-2-1_0001 4589626 7486046 950 261 24 182-2-1_0002 4592695 7488315 728 159 21

LIMITATIONS TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT DUE TO INSTABILITIES Upon the analysis of obtained parameters from the DEM we found that for the study area, instabilities develop on natural slopes with angle between 11 - 52, and average around 25 (fig.6). On the other hand, from the slope aspect map it is visible that landslides appear on natural slopes with varying orientation, and there isn’t some pattern according this morphological parameter. This is result of the intensive tectonical activity which has formed the complex morphological state of region and the development of the stream and river network. CONCLUSIONS In many mountainous regions, morphology usually presents natural prerequisite for development of instabilities. Thus, rural development is greatly limited and land use planning should be performed with great precaution from this aspect. For the subject study area Mavrovo-Debar, based on comparison of the generated DEM model, obtained morphological

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parameters and the existing landslide inventory map, it is concluded that future rural settlements should be developed on hillsides with slope angle lesser than 15-20. However, many other factors contribute to the limitation of rural planning in this area. Therefore it is recommended that complex landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zonation is performed, which will incorporate other factors besides morphology. Geology, land use, river network, seismic intensity, and other factors should be included in such zonation for this particular region. The success of landslide zonation will greatly depend on the quality of the used DEM model. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks to our colleagues from the Chair for Geodesy of the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Skopje, prof. Vancho Georgiev PhD. and ass. Gjorgi Georgiev MSc for their support in preparation of this paper.

REFERENCES Jovanovski, M. (2011) Landslides and rockfall occurrences and Processes in R. Macedonia, Croatia-Japan project on risk identification and land-use planning for disaster mitigation of landslides and floods in Croatia, 1 st Project workshop “International experience, Dubrovnik. Pesevski, I. Jovanovski, Markoski, B. Petrusheva S., Susinov B. (2013) Landslide Inventory Map of the Republic of Macedonia: Statistics and Description of Main Historical Landslide Events, Proceeding of the 1 st Regional Symposium on landslides in the Adriatic-Balkan Region (in press)

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УДК: 502.52:551.21]:504

THREATS (NATURAL AND DIRECT HUMAN IMPACT) IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Mila MIHAJILOVIĆ Direkcija za urbanizam grada Kragujevca, SERBIA -34000 KRAGUJEVAC, Kralja Petra I st., 23

ABSTRACT This document is about the problem of people living in mountain areas, where is a natural danger of activating the volcano. Specifics of the area, in terms of population living in the affected areas, are given. Potential of these areas are high, but the risk of possible volcano activation endangers progress in these areas. Major problem is the lack population awareness of the characteristics of the area in which they live. Around the world, a large percentage of the population lives in fear of the dangers and consequences of activation of the volcano in their community. The primary activity of these areas is tourism, because they are well known for rich and beautiful natural landscapes. In addition to tourism, these areas promote sustainable development, environment and agricultural production. As the main potentials of mountain areas stand out and unpolluted natural landscapes away from harmful influences, which are interspersed with rivers and lakes that have beneficial effects on the soil. Constantly expanding economy, followed with increasing world population has led to the global changes that are reflected in human’s environment. It is necessary to be familiar with the problem of potential natural disasters that each moment could befall mankind. Objective of the analysis of the problem of global change is anticipated way to combat the dangers of natural phenomena. The current settlements located in the immediate surrounding area of volcanoes are areas in which little is invested because of the risk of natural disasters. It is necessary to examine the potentials and shortcomings of volcanic areas and develop a strategy to improve these areas and their promotion. Motivation of people to work and live in these areas and higher investments in the volcanic areas is increased. That is possible to achieve with campaigns that will inform people about the issues and guidelines for improvement. Keywords: volcanic areas, settlement development strategies, investing in volcanic areas, living condition problems in high volcanic areas.

INTRODUCTION Changes in the environment caused by natural processes can cause significant, sometimes catastrophic damage to ecosystems and mankind. To know that protecting the environment is necessary to understand natural hazards (natural hazards), such as floods, droughts, storms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and mudslides.2 At present appearance of Earth's surface is greatly influenced by all natural disasters, under what influence the Earth's surface is changing. Hot, molten mass from the center of the earth can penetrate the Earth's crust in the form of lava usually accompanied by large eruptions. Volcanic eruptions are often accompanied by earthquakes and strong sea waves accompanied by large destructive consequences. Every year on planet earth happens over 25 volcanic eruptions, some of which are large and accompanied by major consequences for a human and not known to have occurred. Depending on the activity of volcanoes distinguish active, dormant and extinct volcanoes. 2

Natural disasters appear due to the effectof natural forces, and manifested asthe formation ofearthquakes, fires (includingforest fires), floods, droughts, avalanches,lightning storms, landslides andmudslides, hurricanewinds,volcanic eruptions, etc. One of the commoncharacteristicsof naturalthreatsrelated tomost of them is thesuddenness ofoccurrence(eg,earthquakes, mudslidesand landslides, fires open space, etc.), even though thescientific achievementsand modern technologycanpredictthe emergence ofsome of the naturalthreatsby place and time.scientific achievementsand modern technologycanpredictthe emergence ofsome of the naturalthreatsby place and time.

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Picture 1- Volcano

Natural changes that pose the greatest natural disaster to human health and environment are active volcanoes. They can erupt at any time and do great damage to the environment, depending on the size of the volcano, the consequences could be global. Unlike active volcano, dormant volcanoes are dormant for several hundred years, but you cannot know if and when they reactivate. For example, option for volcano to reactivate is almost nonexistent. These are very interesting natural forces that affect many processes in nature. The appearance of the volcano is affected by many factors, and one of the most significant is the acidity of magma, if the magma has a Si content (over 63%) the consequences of these eruptions can be disastrous. Create a combustible flows with temperatures up to 1200°C, due to which these flows burn everything in their path, forming a large, thick layers. In addition to these adverse effects, there is a large amount of ash, which can be transmitted to the atmosphere over long distances. If magma contains small amounts of silicon then it can form pillow lava over oceanic rift zones forming new oceanic or continental plate.3 In addition to these negative effects that volcanoes leave behind, the surrounding area is very rich in minerals and the soil is very fertile which is why this is a populated area. Living close to a volcano is very dangerous as we bear witness many examples of volcanic areas. Volcanoes have existed since the beginning of our civilization, and people eventually got used to living in their vicinity. They provide a fertile land, mineral wealth and the extraordinary natural beauty. Can lead to short-term inconvenience followed by small earthquakes or changes in the atmosphere while in the worst cases can cause massive loss of life, destruction of economic and agricultural goods, or to the destruction of entire civilizations as it were in the old days often had happened.4 The name "volcano" comes from the Roman god Vulcan, god of fire and volcanoes.

3

Highestvolcanicpiles: 1 MaunaKea (Hawaii) -8818m (4650 mbelow theline), active, 2Kilimanjaro (Africa) 5895m, extinguished, 3Damavand (Iran)-5670m ,extinguished, 4 Popokatepetl (Mexicali) -5452m, extinguished, 5 Kenya (Africa) -5200m, extinguished, 6 Ararat (Turkish) -5165m, extinguished, 7 Ključevskaja Bouquets (Kamchatka) -4800m, active. 3 Marinatos, 1939; McCoy and Heiken, 2000; Torrence and Grattan, 2002 and references therein; Vitaliano, 2002)

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VOLCANO ERUPTION Volcanoes on Earth are divided into three areas: Fiery belt Pacific, Mediterranean area and the Atlantic-oceanic area, where the fire zone Pacific region has the highest number of active volcanoes. The fear of global destruction that can make a man is not as powerful as the forces of the Earth, which is created by nature. Destructive power of volcanoes can be very large and can make a real wasteland for miles around. Large volcanic eruptions can cause large, global changes, which is why it is important to understand the potential hazards. It is necessary to constantly do monitoring, forecasting and risk assessment in order to be on time to appeal to the public and to take the necessary security measures. Frightening explosion and spectacular outpouring of hot lava from the Earth's interior consists of volcanoes natural phenomena that uninformed man cannot understand and is the most afraid of. Volcanoes had caused disasters where ancient civilizations and contemporary culture were victims, from Pompeii and Stromoblija in Italy over Pinatubo in Indonesia and Fudţijame in Japan, to Popkatepetla Jeloustona in Mexico and the United States. One of the largest eruptions in history, the eruption of the volcano Tambora Indonesian island Sumbava 1815th year. Before the eruption in 1815th The Mountain Tambora was approximately 4,000 feet high, but after a powerful explosion destroyed a large part of the mountain and its current level is only 2,850 meters. Diameter volcano at sea level is 60 kilometers, and the crater is 1,110 feet deep and has a diameter of 6 kilometers. The eruption had thrown in the air 150 cubic kilometers of volcanic material, and the amount of eruptive column was 44 kilometers. Large amounts of hot volcanic material had fallen into the ocean, which caused additional explosions. Ashes had fallen down 1,300 kilometers away from the volcano. Is assumed that 10,000 people were directly injured by the eruption and 82,000 died from the consequences - hunger and disease. Tambora eruption changed the climate and the part of the summer practically did not exist. In late summer and early autumn, the daily minimum temperature in the northern hemisphere were abnormally low. Harvests were poor and hunger was felt on the whole earth. Material ejected volcanic eruption formed a new topographical formations, gently rounded hills, mountains, steep slopes, flat plateaus, highlands and islands adds new square miles of territory. Disastrous consequences left the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii in 1983year, where its activity lasted one week. Consequences of the volcano killed about 200 buildings and 13 kilometers of the road had disappeared. Lava reached the sea and formed several Peninsulas, and had prepared a"foundation" for the new territory in the water.

Picture 2 - Vulcano on the Indonesian island of Java Picture 3 – Bulusan volcano in the east of the Philippines

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SPATIAL PLAN AS A MEASURE OF PROTECTION AGAINST NATURAL DISASTERS In order to improve the protection of the environment from natural disasters a solution should be planned to predict the way of development areas at risk of natural disasters. In some countries that are found in volcanic SECTIONS although they have great potential for economic and social development problems represent a constant threat of volcanic disaster. Unplanned expansion of settlements, a steady increase of population and infrastructure have increased the risk of volcanic activity. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically dismissed areas at risk and ensure the proper use of the land at risk how we so the devastating effects of the volcano could be predicted. It would be good If the volcano could be examined and the then the results implemented. Tests can identify the natural and artificial features of the volcano and predict responses volcano5. The plan should provide the construction of artificial barriers that would have modified the path of lava and thereby protect the settlements, this way the effects of the volcano could slow down, which would increase the evacuation of the area affected by volcano. In the event of a volcanic eruption, the plan would predict the energy supply lines, roads, railways, and special attention is paid to the design of strategic objects that have a special role in the evacuation of the population. If the risk could be predicted on time, the plan may provide adequate strategy for protection and to provide the basis for the emergency plans. The planning of these areas is a complex task that requires monitoring of volcanoes and monitoring its activities throughout history. The plan for emergency situation have special attention to the design of the escape, where it is of utmost importance to choose the safe route for evacuation as many people in the shortest time. In urban areas near the volcano lives a large number of people that have to be quickly evacuated in the event of volcanic activity. The success of an evacuation greatly depends on the willingness of organization and community at the time. In order for residents to be evacuated in time it is necessary to be familiar with the risk of living in a place like this and be prepared for possible volcanic crisis. The problem arises because the villagers in volcano’s areas show a lack of understanding volcanic processes and hazards of them. The population of these sites shows a high level of fear of the impact of the volcano as well as poor ability to protect themselves from the impacts of future eruptions. Although for these areas the plans for emergencies exist they are generally not able to adequately respond to the volcanic crisis, in terms of rapid evacuation for a short period of time. Therefore it is necessary to improve the strategy of the plan in order to facilitate the evacuation and to explain to the local community the risk from volcanic crisis. The planning of these areas is a complex and demanding job, and the most important is to find appropriate land use, locating settlements in the best possible way and solve the problem of emergency evacuation from the danger zone. The plan must provide zoning of the volcanic areas according to the previously made maps on the basis of behavior of volcanoes in the past. A major role in planning has a civil protection which should define the level of risk and devise a monitoring system. A key element in the implementation of the spatial plan of volcanic areas represents an improvement of living conditions, public health and mobility of the village. Due to lack of funds, these plans usually do not develop fully and do not meet all the requirements of the development of such areas. It can be said that the planning of this area is a key element in 5

The study of volcano’s activityis hard work.Needs to know what is happening, but if you come too close, death is certain. Technology has enabledscientists to more easily track the movement of magma and volcanic ashwastearound the globe. This technology allows them to do research from a distance, even from space. Some of the machine snow that can breakinside the volcano.

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terms of community development. Adequate planning must take into account various aspects of development and cannot concentrate only on particular sectors. Many natural systems represent a real threat to the human community why it is imperative to understand their significance and discuss planning of the areas at the global level. Proper land use can be achieved if you make plans for the development which would take into account all the natural systems that represent a threat to society. The value of preparing the plan may be great at the moment, but its significance is much greater because the plan is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of all areas and to estimate unexpected and undesirable effects. The result of unplanned changes in the environment due to natural processes may endanger the safety of life, disruption leads to disruption of production and destruction of property of all social classes.6 METHOD OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SPATIAL PLAN Problem of development plans for emergency situations in the volcanic areas is a global problem that is necessary for each country to solve in accordance with their social, political, economic and legal conditions, as well as the level of technological development of the country in which is the volcano. The most important thing in these areas is that there is awareness of existing risks to life, property and that the whole community is involved in solving problems. To involve the public it is essential that there is a plan at the national level and to provide the necessary measures to protect vulnerable areas. How the public would be informed on time about the dangers of the volcano and took appropriate measures of protection it is nec