science and technology
We move the boundaries of our research far beyond the scope of the solar system and into the smallest particles imaginable.
From exploring the environment in space to understanding organisms' internal chemistry and ecosystems. Our scientists are breaking new ground in numerous areas every day.
Table of contents World class research . ........................................ 4 Active students . ................................................. 6 Interdisciplinary research .................................. 8 Biology. ................................................................ 10 Computer Science ............................................. 12 Physics and Astronomy ..................................... 14 Earth Sciences .................................................... 16 Chemistry ........................................................... 18 Mathematics ....................................................... 20 Engineering Science ............................................ 22
Production: Uppsala University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Box 256, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden
Campus ............................................................... 27
Photo: Mikael Wallerstedt, Jim Elfström, David Naylor, Oscar Edwards, Hervé Nicoloff/Nature, Mikael Lundström, Kristoffer Bergman, Kim Steige, R. Reeve Ingle, Erik Nordblad, Fotolia.com, ESA-C.Carreau, CERN, Dylan Taylor, Christian Zdanowicz, Juliane Hubert, Fritjof Fagerlund, Börje Dahren, Daniel Spångberg, Sami Vihriälä, Mats Kamsten, Teddy Thörnlund, Alejandro López, Alexandra Pacureanu, Ola F., Daniel Golabiewski, Katarina Grip Höök, Martin Cejie, Dreamstime, EUROCONTROL, NASA, iStockPhoto
Facts ................................................................... 29
Education ............................................................ 24
Uppsala, March 2014
to Science and Technology at Uppsala University
ppsala University offers a unique range of subjects in science and technology. Research and education take place here across a broad spectrum encompassing biology, computer science, physics, earth sciences, chemistry, mathematics and technology. The faculty's successful research and education contributes to the University continually being ranked among the top 100 universities in the world. Crucial to this success are our many collaborations with companies, the surrounding community, and other universities. Collaboration within and between disciplines, combined with a culture of academic freedom, fosters a creative environment that breeds success in research and education. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a comprehensive presentation of our activities, illustrated with current examples â€“ welcome to our world of science and technology.
"Omnia mirari etiam tritissima" (Be curious and fascinated by everything) Carl Linnaeus, appointed Professor at Uppsala University in 1741
WORLD CLASS RESEARCH - science for a better world
Uppsala is one of the world’s leading research universities. According to an external international evaluation, more than 50 of our research groups in science and technology are world-leading. These research groups can be found in each of the faculty's departments and subjects. Since the time of Linnaeus and Celsius, research at Uppsala University has expanded the boundaries of our knowledge, and created opportunities to make the world better. The field of science and technology is purposefully concentrated on a wide range of fundamental cutting-edge research that, in turn, enriches research of a more applied nature. We host several successful research environments and research groups of the highest international quality. These strong research environments are necessary in order to build successful interdisciplinary collaboration. This is achieved by working together actively with other universities, public bodies, institutes and industry. The faculty is constantly working to identify and conduct research that caters to the needs of society and to find efficient ways of taking advantage of new knowledge and innovations. A dynamic research environment, consisting of both profound fundamental research and research with greater societal relevance, helps to create a unique study environment that inspires both Swedish and international students. Science and technology research provides us with knowledge about nature and about humanity´s potential for social development. We live in a complex world full of challenges. For social development to be sustainable, we need knowledge, not just about the details, but also about the larger picture.
More than 200 international assessors from other institutions from over 30 countries have, on two occasions (2007 and 2011), evaluated all of the research taking place at Uppsala University. This expert evaluation awarded high ratings to the research that had also been allocated resources by the University for development in accordance with the experts' proposals.
An environmentally-friendly battery, a pharmaceutical vehicle, and a new way of separating biomolecules – these are but a few of the possible results from more than a decade of fundamental research into the material characteristics of cellulose from the algae Cladophora.
Elements of astronomical research such as advanced mathematical tools, technical instruments, and experience of the extreme environment in space also drive developments in other areas. The image shows a dying star, taken from the ALMA telescope in Chile. This is where researchers from Uppsala University conduct measurements of various types of stars in order to trace the origin of different chemical elements.
Entrepreneurs and scientists establish new contacts and share their expertise in common areas of interest at AIMday®, the successful meeting concept of UU Innovation.
Visual Information and Interaction Computer Systems Evolutionary Biology Animal Ecology
Computing Science Solid State Electronics
Computer Sciences Limnology
Systems and Control
Solid State Physics
Micro Systems Technology
Physiological Botany Evolution and Development
Plant Ecology and Evolution
Algebra and Geometry
Biology Molecular Biophysics Systematic Biology
Microbiology Computational and Systems Biology
Structural & Molecular Biology
Solid Earth Geology
Air, Water and Landscape Science
Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Engineering Science Applied Mechanics
Signals and Systems
Applied Materials Science
Mathematics Chemical Biology
Analysis and Probability Theory
Comparative Physiology Molecular Evolution
Global Energy Systems
Earth Sciences Geophysics
Applied Mathematics and Statistics
Structural Chemistry Molecular Biomimetics Inorganic Chemistry
High Energy Physics
Physical Organic Chemistry
Biochemistry Synthetic Organic Chemistry
Physics Education Research
Physics Materials Theory Applied Nuclear Physics
Theoretical Astrophysics Theoretical Physics
Materials Physics Observational Astrophysics Space Plasma Physics
Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics
With curiosity and fascination as a starting-point, the quest for knowledge leads to important insights and ideas. Every discovery generates opportunities to explore and push back the boundaries of our knowledge. The more we know, the more likely we are to find answers to both undefined questions and solutions to known problems. At Uppsala University, science and technology research are united in a broad spectrum of subjects with an enormous scope.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
By taking an active part in my studies, as well as in my extracurricular activities, I've learned what is most important: Responsibility, Willpower and Dedication Håkan Emilsson, student
ACTIVE STUDENTS - prepared for future challenges
Our students are the future. They are the excellent researchers, inspiring teachers and creative entrepreneurs of tomorrow. People that will contribute to a sustainable world. We contribute with a wide range of programmes that offer not just a specialisation and breadth in the specific subject, but also a perspective that looks beyond disciplinary boundaries. Some of these are unique in their field. The programmes and the teaching are structured in a way which provides students with the knowledge and skills they need to forge successful careers, but they also contribute to improving quality of life and sustainability at a global level. Uppsala University consciously and continually invests in educational development and rewards skilful teachers. Active students become better at thinking creatively, critically and independently; they learn more, and have more fun. Students today need to be prepared to use their knowledge in new ways, in an increasingly complex world. Many situations demand originality, ingenuity and the ability to do novel things, or to do things in novel ways. The University's new and varied teaching methods stimulate activity, collaboration and creativity – methods that encourage experimentation and the breaking down of boundaries. In combination with the ability to think critically and to take into account the overall perspective, we provide our students with opportunities to achieve their goals. Our students have a strong influence on their education and contribute to maintaining the high quality of our programmes. The Uppsala Union of Engineering and Science Students (UTN) is one of Uppsala's student unions and protects the interests of students in matters concerning education, student welfare, the labour market and internationalisation. Many students are involved in UTN, with several working full-time to look after the interests of students. Another great example of student involvement is the Centre for Environment and Development Studies (CEMUS), which came about thanks to the initiative of students. CEMUS offers courses with a disciplinary approach to global developmental issues, the content of which is based on specific problems.
The annual science festival SciFest, organised by Uppsala University, amongst others, offers school classes and the public a smorgasbord of experimental workshops, as well as presentations of every-day science and technology and of how research can be put to good use. This is where the recruitment of our future researchers begins.
Three students from the School of Entrepreneurship are helping the company Animech Technologies to analyse the market for an application that monitors and evaluates Parkinson's disease in the home environment using a mobile phone. The School of Entrepreneurship is an alternative to the concluding year of a long degree programme in science and technology.
The picture shows colour-producing E. coli bacteria, produced by Uppsala students for iGEM 2012, an international synthetic biology competition. The picture, "A Microbial Decade" also made it to the cover of the prestigious journal Nature Reviews Microbiology.
Niklas Zennström, founder of the VoIP software application Skype, holds a double degree from Uppsala University in Engineering Physics and Business Administration. He is firmly committed to environmental issues, and actively involved in the foundation Zennström Philanthropies that supports over twenty organisations. He has also donated SEK 15 million for a visiting professorship in climate research at Uppsala University.
COVETED SKILLS The students develop knowledge of their subjects by practicing their written and oral presentation or group interaction skills. This improves their ability to communicate within and between subjects. A large proportion of practical elements in the science technology programmes provide students with good professional skills that stimulate learning and the ability to communicate. TheÂ ability to use and develop both broad-based and in-depth knowledge of the subject in collaboration with others will be of great importance in many future occupations.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
An interdisciplinary approach to the boundaries between different research areas paves the way for a unique comprehensive view and new research fields.
INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE - rewarding encounters between and across subject boundaries The breadth and diversity of Uppsala University's subjects is beneficial to inter- and multidisciplinary research. On our campuses, researchers from different subject areas are gathered around a common theme, such as materials science at the Ångström Laboratory, or life sciences at the Biomedical Centre (read more about our campus areas at the end of the brochure). Research excellence and dedication to the fundamental scientific disciplines lay the foundations of successful collaboration across boundaries. Complex issues affect many disciplines and pave the way for new innovative approaches that, just like reality, cannot be divided into different areas of academic research. An additional impetus for interdisciplinary collaboration is its ability to open new doors behind which unexpected knowledge is found, allowing 1 plus 1 to suddenly equal 3. The greatest discoveries are often made at the boundaries between two research areas, where various methods, concepts, and theories meet and new ones are developed. Brand new research areas emerge, while others change their subject affiliation, in a continuous, dynamic process. Molecular biomimetics and biophysics are two examples of our new research areas. Uppsala University's Faculty of Science and Technology is one of Sweden's most complete faculties, and this breadth provides both strength and great opportunities. Working together with the other sciences medicine, pharmacy, social sciences, as well as the humanities, we are ably equipped to tackle the major societal challenges. Energy, functional materials, sustainable development, information and communications technology, and life sciences are some of our major research areas, and ones which are particularly characterised by interaction between disciplines. All our educational programmes have multidisciplinary content, but some have been designed to be particularly wide-ranging and have a multidisciplinary perspective. Some examples are the master's programmes in sociotechnical systems engineering, environmental and water engineering, molecular biotechnology engineering, sustainable development, and computational science. There are approximately 80 different doctoral subject specialisations to choose between, several of which occupy the boundary between two disciplines. For students interested in materials science we have the Graduate School of Advanced Materials, offering an interdisciplinary environment for doctoral students in physics, chemistry and engineering science.
Researchers in digital image processing have developed an advanced tool enabling surgeons to plan the restoration of serious facial skeletal damage. Stereo visualization and haptics (force feedback) provide virtual reality, and mathematically calculated attraction forces (snap-to-fit) simplify the 3D-piecing-together of bones.
Microscopic image of a neuronal stem cell growing in a gel of collagen and hyaluronic acid. The picture is from a research project aimed at developing an injectable gel that can be used for regeneration of damaged brain tissue.
One of the foci of a research project between limnologists and meteorologists is the role of lakes in the carbon cycle. The amount of carbon dioxide and methane produced and released from lakes is measured, and is turning out to have a non-negligible impact on the climate.
Advanced molecular biology is used, together with modern bioinformatics and systems biology, to genetically engineer cyanobacteria and produce solar fuel. This research takes time, but if it is successful on a large scale, we will gain a literally green, sustainable source of biofuel.
COMMON INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDES QUICKER ANSWERS TO THE ENIGMAS OF LIFE The Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab) is a national research centre using advanced techniques, instruments and skills that use a molecular perspective to contribute to answers to health and environmental issues. The centre is Swedenâ€™s biggest-ever investment in research infrastructure in the life sciences and is a partnership between four universities in the Stockholm-Uppsala region. One of the locations of SciLifeLab is the newly built premises on the Biomedical Centre campus, which brings together researchers from different disciplines. SciLifeLab has a dozen technological platforms such as genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and functional biology. They are associated with several facilities. InÂ the above picture, a doctoral student in eukaryotic microbiology delivers a sample to a research engineer at SciLifelab at the facility for masspectrometry analysis at the proteomics platform. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Biology is the collective patterns and processes of life, in humans and all other organisms.
– from molecules to ecological systems The biological education and research at Uppsala university is consistently ranked among the world's most prominent in international evaluations. Basic research covers a wide spectrum, but also contains strong elements of application, particularly in the areas of biotechnology, energy and the environment. Uppsala’s basic biology education is one of the country’s largest in the fields of biology, molecular biology, biotechnology and bioinformatics. The biology programme at Uppsala university consistently receives the highest ratings for its wide range of courses, close links to research and large number of supervisors. In 2010, biology was also awarded the CHE Excellence Ranking seal of approval by the German organisation Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung (CHE). The main focus of Uppsala’s biomedical research is on cell and molecular biology. Scientists examine how biological processes can explain molecular structures, how microorganisms function and how they interact with their hosts, and how intracellular processes and cellular communications can explain normal tissue development, the emergence of cancer and degenerative diseases. Uppsala has one of the world's leading centres for structural biology research, involving studies of structures in macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA and RNA. Extensive research is also carried out into systems biology, molecular biophysics, molecular evolution, as well as in drug uptake and effect mechanisms. The evolutionary biological research at Uppsala university is at the international forefront and concerns evolutionary patterns and processes at all levels: from molecular evolution and the evolution of genes, genetic systems and entire genomes, development processes and immune systems to the evolution of local adaptation and social behaviours in natural populations, speciation processes and the systematics of organisms. The research includes all major groups of organisms and aims to map the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary background to biological diversity. There is also outstanding research in areas such as environmental toxins, nature conservation, and ecosystems.
With a combination of optical microscopy and stroboscopic laser illumination, scientists are able to follow the movements of individual protein molecules in living cells. These methods are particularly important for enabling accurate measurements to test the physical models of cellular regulation systems.
Studies of the genome of the plant species Capsella rubella have shown that self-fertilisation makes natural selection less effective. Negative evolutionary consequences of self-fertilisation may appear more rapidly than previously thought.
Combining modern genetic analysis with functional studies of the zebra fish brings unique opportunities to study congenital diseases and effects of environmental toxins. The picture shows the head of a zebra fish embryo seen from below with green fluorescent protein expressed into blood vessels and cartilage cells.
Research shows that the key to treating prion diseases, such as “mad cow” disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may be found in the ribosome, the cell's machinery for protein synthesis. The protein folded activity (PFAR) of the ribosome is probably involved in prion formation and thus a new potential target for drugs against prion diseases.
THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE
The jaw in the picture belonged to a person who lived in Sweden during the Stone Age, and has played a key role in the investigation of the agricultural spread to northern Europe. Newly developed molecular methods and bioinformatic analysis tools allow examinations of DNA in very old bones from modern humans. This enables detailed studies of the relationships between individuals, as well as to other archaeological findings. Not only does this research shed new light on genetics, but also the demographic and cultural history of humans. This is just one example of how biology at Uppsala University takes a broad and interdisciplinary approach when formulating evolutionary questions. The research encompasses everything from the origin of life in its simplest form, biochemical processes at the cellular level and speciation, to investigation of the interaction, distribution and reproduction of organisms in an ever-changing world. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Today, information and communication technology is an integral part of everyday life.
– from 1s and 0s to limitless applications Computer science is a wide ranging subject with great practical importance in our computerised world. Information technology at Uppsala covers a variety of issues, from data collection and data mining via signal processing, computational engineering and control engineering, to the communication of the results by means of database management and human-computer interaction. The department is considered the foremost in the country in its field and offers a unique width of education and research quality with great international impact. Research in computer science includes computing science, computer systems, visual information and interaction, systems & control engineering and scientific computing. A common basis is provided by research into theoretical computing science, real-time systems and computer architecture. Mathematical and numerical methods are developed and used for algorithm design, knowledge-based systems, signal processing and automatic control, image analysis and more. Applied research targeting engineering sciences is a significant feature in areas such as computer communication, software development, systems engineering, scientific computing and image analysis. There is a strong interdisciplinary component in the research, where many projects interface with other fields, such as biology, economics, medicine and psychology. Sustainability issues are also central in several research projects in areas such as water purification and energy-efficient computer architecture, where the focus is on reducing energy and resource consumption. The width of the subject area is reflected in a large number of collaborative projects that take place across various disciplines in business and the public sector. About thirty research groups are associated with information technology in Uppsala, as well as several centres playing an important role in the development of advanced information technology activities. At UPMARC (Uppsala Programming for Multicore Architectures Research Centre), research is conducted into software development for multicore computer systems. Several research groups are also working on wireless sensor networks with industrial partners in WISENET (Uppsala Centre for Wireless Sensor Network).
Microscopic images are widely used in medical and biological research. The computer helps draw conclusions in a more efficient manner from the content of images by measuring and classifying for example cells. Scientists in the field of visual information and interaction develop methods for automatic image analysis.
Magnetic resonance images may sometimes be disturbed by dark bands caused by limitations of the MRI scanner. These can easily obscure the details of interest to a physician. By using signal processing, it is possible to combine multiple images to create a clean image without the band, facilitating diagnosis.
Constraint programming techniques can be used to improve airspace capacity by optimising traffic flow. With multiple cores in the processor, computer speed increases, but it places new demands on program designers to avoid collisions and conflicts between the processor cores. Researchers in computer architecture produce methods and tools to develop effective and safe parallel programs.
Denna bild byts ut mot en på Carolina Wählby och bildanalys
Networks in information technology
Research within information technology concerns computer systems and methods for using such systems for the storage, processing, communication, presentation and analysis of data. The picture shows computers at UPPMAX, the University's resource for high performance computing and large-scale storage. An important aspect of UPPMAX is to provide the necessary infrastructure, human resources and skills, for example in algorithm and code development. Information technology is now well integrated into society, be it as computers, the internet, mobile phones, electronic commerce, advanced medical equipment, environmental engineering or other technical systems. The discipline has had a significant impact on everyday life and will continue to shape our future in new ways. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Thinking freely is great; measuring correctly is greater – successful physics research unites math-based theory and advanced experiments. Gunnar Ingelman, Professor of Sub-Atomic Physics
PHYSICS and ASTRONOMY – from micro- to macrocosm
Uppsala’s research in physics and astronomy extends from the innermost building blocks of matter via molecules and materials to the structure and development of stars and the universe. This advances the frontiers of knowledge and changes our conception of the world. Results and methods of basic research are put into practice by applied research of benefit to technological development and society at large, such as novel materials and sensors, as well as energy and climate. Studies of the smallest building blocks of cosmos and their fundamental interactions are carried out in particle collisions in accelerators and detection of cosmic neutrinos in the South Pole ice. This lays the foundation for new theories, for example superstrings as the basis of everything. The first compound complex systems, hadrons and nuclei, are studied in order to understand how quarks are bound into nuclear particles by the strong force. Measurement techniques in nuclear physics are developed for use in today's nuclear reactors and control of non-proliferation of nuclear material, as well as for future fusion reactors. The next level in the structure of matter, atoms, molecules, and materials are studied with for example laser and synchrotron light, and compared with theoretical calculations based on fundamental quantum theory. This provides a rich field for both basic physics and applications in terms of materials with interesting properties, possibly leading to new technologies. Research in space physics and astronomy uses satellites and large telescopes in combination with theoretical models to understand the formation and evolution of planetary systems, stars and galaxies. A new research area is planets around other stars than the Sun, so-called exoplanets, with properties that may provide conditions for life. The physics education research group is nationally unique. The didactics of physics teaching and student learning are investigated, which contributes to the development of course contents and teaching methods in physics and related areas. Degree projects enable also students to participate at the forefront of research. Physics in Uppsala has hosted two Nobel prize laureates, Manne Siegbahn and his son Kai Siegbahn, and is internationally renowned with several examples of world-leading research.
The tandem accelerator at the Ångström Laboratory is used for basic research in nuclear physics and applications, such as the dating of archaeological findings by use of radioactive isotopes.
Nobel prize-winning graphene is a material only one atomic layer thick and composed of carbon atoms bound in a hexagonal pattern. It is an example of novel materials with exceptional properties that are explored experimentally and theoretically.
Exoplanet HD 189733b, passing in front of its star, as seen in an artist’s view. Analysis suggests that the planet, which is a gas giant, has water vapour in its atmosphere.
In order to study new magnetic materials and then study their properties, the materials must first be built, atom by atom, in combinations that do not occur in nature. The materials studies may come to use, for example, in new electronics or data storage.
THE HIGGS PARTICLE DISCOVERED Scientists from Uppsala take part in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN that in 2012 discovered the Higgs particle, which explains how the fundamental particles of the standard model acquire their masses. The picture shows the experiment's large-scale construction with the eight magnet coils installed (compare with the researcher from Uppsala in the foreground). The entire space was then filled with high-tech sensors, registering the hundreds of particles that are formed when the two counter-directed beams of protons collide with the highest energies obtained, corresponding to the energy density of the universe at a millionth of a millionth of a second after Big Bang. Huge amounts of data must to be processed in GRID-computers at Uppsala University and around the world in order to find the Higgs particle, which is so rare that it is only created in one in ten billion collisions. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Planet Earth is governed by a variety of inter-linked processes. Our aim is to understand these processes and investigate how the planet's limited resources can be used in a more sustainable way. Sebastian Willman, paleobiologist
– from mineralogy to environmental sciences Earth sciences make visible the processes and events that have formed and are still shaping conditions on our planet. Uppsala University has one of the most comprehensive academic departments in earth sciences in Europe, according to international assessments. Its unique width in education and research, and its extensive global fieldwork, contribute to our knowledge about the properties, systems and development of planet Earth. The subject area covers literally everything between heaven and earth and includes applications of chemistry, physics and biology. Research at Uppsala University ranges from the Earth's core to the atmosphere, from microscopic minerals and fossils to the formation of mountains and oceans, and in time from the formation of the Earth up to the processes currently reshaping the planet. The development of Earth and life over billions of years is mapped out, as is the transformation and continuous impact of glaciation, wind and water on the landscape. The relationship between the atmosphere and the oceans is also studied with regard to climate change, based on research successfully linking the past and the present in the context of sustainable development. Applied research is directed toward questions of the importance of earth sciences to our civilization. One focus area is environmental and natural resource issues, such as pollutants in groundwater, lakes and the sea, noise-pollution, prospecting for ores, minerals and fossil fuels, weather and climate forecasts, assessment of earthquake risks or investigations of areas for deep storage of nuclear waste or carbon dioxide. Close collaboration with the Centre for Sustainable Development contributes to education and research into natural resources and energy issues. Other areas of priority include natural disasters and the development of life, giving rise to transdisciplinary research collaboration. The interaction between the research groups leads to dynamic, interdisciplinary research into issues of fundamental importance for sustainable development and the world economy.
By studying fossils, palaeontologists try to understand how life has evolved over millions of years and adapted to the constant changes in environment and climate. For example, remnants of a group of early arthropods known as trilobites have been uncovered in the 500 million-year-old Transantarctic Mountains.
Mercury is a chemical element used in products on a daily basis, but it is also a dangerous pollutant. Measuring levels of mercury now stored in the ice in Yukon, Canada, improves knowledge about the emissions of mercury to the atmosphere.
One way to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is to find methods for the storage of CO2 in the bedrock. Within the EU-FP7 project MUSTANG, development and modelling of CO2 injection experiments take place, as shown here at the experimental site of Heletz, Israel.
What does the ground look like deep beneath your feet? With geophysical methods of measurement, here performed at the Red Sea, geophysicists can study the Earth's properties and visualise its subterranean appearance, search for cracks and fault zones, or conduct explorations of natural resources.
VOLCANIC GASES PROVIDE IMPORTANT CLUES Research into natural disasters investigates, among other things, why some volcanoes' eruptions are particularly powerful, in order to predict when these will occur and warn people who could be affected. Collecting samples of volcanic gases and rocks, analysing these and simulating eruptions in the laboratory are all part of this work. Thanks to this approach, researchers have now demonstrated that the composition of the earth's crust plays a crucial role in extreme volcanic eruptions. Carbon dioxide and water, which are both stored in large quantities in sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone, can act as an additional detonator, considerably intensifying an eruption. But volcanoes are more than simply threats; they also offer a source of renewable energy â€“ geothermal energy. Hot gases can be collected and used to generate electricity. Today, this takes place on a relatively small scale, but it is a resource with huge potential. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
By understanding how substances are formed on a molecular level, we can create sustainable methods for developing new innovative medicines, materials and forms of energy without compromising our grandchildren's assets. Joseph Samec, researcher in organic chemistry
– from anti-atoms to biosensors Chemistry forms the basis for new substances that raises the hope of discovering smarter materials, new medicines and gaining new insights into the mechanisms of nature. As a science, it spans a wide spectrum: from mapping molecular properties to the latest cancer drug, from batteries for electric vehicles to innovative computer technology, and from the development of alternative energy sources to the study of distant galaxies. Uppsala University offers one of the country’s best educations in chemistry with strong links to world-leading research. The teaching is characterised by a wide range of courses, excellent research affiliation and a large proportion of laboratory work. The creative and research-intensive environment contributes to a broad knowledge-base as well as cutting-edge expertise in areas such as Uppsala’s unique focus on chemistry for renewable energy. Research in the subject area at Uppsala University includes theoretical chemistry and computational chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, as well as inorganic chemistry and materials chemistry. This breadth and expertise are reflected in prominent research in areas such as the synthesis of complex molecules and materials for catalysis as well as medical uses in pharmaceutical development and the understanding of brain diseases. Many prominent scientists have worked at Uppsala University, including Nobel Laureates The Svedberg and Arne Tiselius. Their research has contributed to methods for purification and characterisation of complex materials, even in extremely small amounts. Today, synthetic materials with different functions are produced and studied in Uppsala, from those that are able to mimic photosynthesis in plants to polymeric materials that can replace damaged human tissue. The development of renewable energy sources and energy carriers occupies a special position in Uppsala and includes solar cells, artificial photosynthesis, hydrogen production, fuel cells, biofuels from biomass and smarter batteries. World-leading research collaborative projects map the structure of metals and chemical compounds, including those with unique catalytic activity, electrical conductivity, and the ability to store energy, contributing to future sustainable energy systems.
They may not look like typical batteries, but this type of lithium-ion batteries are used in everything from cellular phones to electric cars. At the Ångström Advanced Battery Centre, scientists have been involved in the development from the beginning and are now examining how to replace the input materials to make them cheaper and more environmentally friendly.
By directed evolution, it is possible to have cells produce designer enzymes with desired functions such as this epoxide hydrolase. This enables the production of new, more effective and environmentally-friendly chemical catalysts.
Computer simulations have revolutionised chemistry with revealing pictures of unique features that are difficult to detect using other methods. The fluffy cloud shows the movement of atoms on the surface of a substance, and the green indicates an atomic leap during a chemical reaction. Such reactions provide keys to a variety of industrial processes, and to a cleaner environment.
Chemical solar cells, so-called Grätzel cells, are the new generation of solar cells mimicking photosynthesis in addition to being less material-intensive and cheaper to produce. The principle is so simple that a solar kit for secondary schools has been developed, where students can construct a solar cell that powers a calculator.
BRAIN CHEMISTRY MAPPED The brain is one of the body's most complex organs and also controls most of the body's vital functions. The signalling system between the brain and the cells of the body is based on pure chemistry. For a neurochemist, the fascination is found in understanding the occurrence of disturbances in the brain's signalling system and how this causes neurological disorders in humans such as chronic pain and dementia. By using unique methods of analysis, research into analytical chemistry has revealed the constitution of spinal fluid in healthy people and described its biochemical characteristics, in unrivalled detail. This is used for comparisons with sick patients to find markers for early diagnosis, but also disease prognosis. In addition, it provides clues to the causes of disease, which is needed in order to develop cures. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
It is perhaps not generally known that there is so much momentum and intensity in mathematics. We are surrounded by a great number of unsolved problems; nothing is static and everything has not been done. Tobias Ekholm, Professor of Mathematics
– from abstract algebra to animal behaviour Mathematics has long been the language used to formulate scientific laws and theories. At the beginning it was closely linked with the practical reality and served as a tool to perform calculations of observable objects. But in the 20th century, mathematics underwent a dramatic change and is now an independent science in constant progress. Since the explosive development of mathematics, many new theories have seen the light of day and several of them have proven useful in a variety of areas. Some examples are the advanced mathematical models hidden behind the Google search engine or the abstract thesis in mathematical logic that underlies the modern computer. Even though the most abstract areas of mathematics are often transferred successfully to applications, many mathematicians are driven by a passion for the subject and a fascination for logical conjunction and precise thinking. The largest part of the mathematical research at Uppsala University consists of basic research, where scientists are developing existing mathematical theories and discovering new ones. Uppsala's mathematical research is particularly strong in various forms of analysis, algebra, topology, geometry, and probability theory. One of the more notable areas includes symplectic geometry, with a close connection to quantum and string theory. Another prominent area of research in mathematics is number theory, which was originally intended to resolve questions about the basic properties of integers. Number theorists are particularly interested in prime numbers because primes construct integers in a way that is easy to understand while they form a highly irregular and elusive series. Many of the problems raised at the birth of number theory are still unresolved and the search for solutions has resulted in a large collection of methods and theory constructions that constantly lead to new questions. At Uppsala University, innovative interdisciplinary research is also conducted at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Mathematics (CIM). Here, mathematics is involved in various fields and provides a platform for collaborative research between mathematics, other scientific disciplines and industry.
A growing new mathematical field is computer-aided proofs, where researchers are developing methods for translating mathematical theorems into problems that can be calculated by a computer.
Two scientists discussing an algebraic phenomenon. Lie groups are structures studied in algebra. The image depicts a two-dimensional visualisation of the 248-dimensional Lie group E8. In mathematics, many long-term basic research projects are carried out that will often be useful in other subject areas, and then often in a ground-breaking way. A blackboard and a chalk can sometimes be the only tools needed when new types of mathematics are emerging, such as symplectic geometry.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS ILLUSTRATE BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA Mathematicians fascinated by how mathematics is manifested in reality usually conduct research into applied mathematics. A new addition in Uppsala to this field is mathematical biology, where scientists are developing models that can explain biological phenomena extending from cell biology to group behaviour. Researchers in mathematical biology have, for example, been the first to explain what governs the organised movement in a fish shoal. Other applied areas where outstanding research is conducted include computational mathematics, financial mathematics and mathematical statistics. Research in applied mathematics covers a wide range of topics, spanning from pure mathematics to industrial applications. There is also a considerable emphasis on mathematical modelling and simulation. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Our focus is not on any single detail – we keep a whole systems perspective. The basic idea is to create technology for a better and sustainable future. Malin Göteman, wave energy researcher
ENGINEERING SCIENCE – from biomaterials to energy systems
Engineering scientists in Uppsala conduct extensive research with a clear focus on energy and life sciences. The aim is to understand and develop technology that will lead to a sustainable future and a better life for people and society as a whole. The overall perspective and close link between basic research and its applications ensure the usefulness of the work; even when the research is at an early stage, the overall conviction is that it will lead to improved living conditions for people. Activities in Uppsala span from basic studies at atomic level up to applications at a high system level. Specific areas of strength are micro-and nanotechnology, materials science and energy systems. The Ångström Laboratory hosts the largest cleanroom facility in the Nordic countries, with a unique combination of equipment for advanced micro-and nano-manufacturing as well as high-resolution microscopy and microanalysis. Another speciality is micro-systems for advanced applications, where some areas of research aim to reduce the launch costs of space craft through extreme miniaturization. Uppsala’s engineering sciences feature a broad expertise in materials and components for electronic applications. Smart and energy-efficient electronics, among them wireless sensors, are being developed rapidly as well as more efficient signal processing in the fields of information transmission, control and audio. Technological development is often crucial for breakthroughs in the interdisciplinary area of technology and life sciences. This makes it possible for researchers at Uppsala University to map the structure of proteins and different protein markers for quick and easy medical diagnosis, and develop ways to regenerate damaged neural pathways in the body. In Uppsala, world-leading technological research and prominent businesses are in close proximity. This provides exceptional opportunities for cooperation and development of innovations at the University and in industry alike. Each year, around two new companies are formed as a result of research at Uppsala’s engineering sciences. These spin-offs reflect the breadth of research as well as entrepreneurship, a potential that is also gaining international spread and attention.
Vasa is an old Swedish war ship and the only preserved seventeenth-century ship in the world. Located in a museum in Stockholm, its wooden structure is slowly deteriorating over time. Current research aims to build a better support system that prevents further deformation and improves the load distribution.
A bone-cement, adapted to the characteristics of the leg, will make it possible to mend bone fractures in the vertebrae. This will prevent subsequent problems with additional fractures as happens with today's rigid cement. The picture shows osteoporosis in a vertebra with the newly developed cement in orange.
Smart use of energy, such as thin-film technology in smart windows, can greatly reduce the energy demand in buildings. Environmentally-safe nanotechnology allows windows to let in light and heat radiation when needed, and to block it out when there is enough indoor heat.
Researchers in Uppsala have succeeded in developing a unique measuring instrument called a magnetometer. It weighs only one thousandth of its conventional counterpart, and fits as payload on a pico-satellite. The picture shows a launch in 2012 from the international space station, ISS, whose gigantic solar panels fill the background.
TAILWIND FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Technology responds to human needs and desires by transforming natural resources or intangible assets into products, processes, facilities and systems. At engineering sciences in Uppsala, researchers have developed a wind turbine that spins around an upright pole instead of a horizontal axis. It is more robust and easier to maintain than conventional wind turbines, which increases the possibility of more durable and more efficient extraction of wind power. The world's leading energy research in Uppsala comprises everything from solar, wind and water power to hybrid reactors for nuclear power. Research is conducted with a focus on sustainable energy production for future supply needs. This enables the development of research-based solutions of long duration, even in industries and sectors of society that are constantly changing. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Our students are the future. They are tomorrow's excellent researchers, inspiring teachers and creative entrepreneurs that contribute to a sustainable world.
- choices and possibilities Our programmes in science and technology combine disciplinary scope and depth with cross-boundary perspectives, some of them of a unique nature. The main strengths are the close links to research, the commitment to educational development, as well as the diversity of courses offered to students, both within and beyond their own subject areas.
ENGINEERING PROGRAMMES We offer nine Master of Science in Engineering programmes (5 years), and five Bachelor of Science in Engineering (3 years). They are all technically-qualified programmes with a scientific basis and they provide a combination of broad and specialist knowledge. Our students are taught to quickly acquaint themselves with new ways of thinking and techniques in order to solve problems. They also learn how to use existing technology and to develop both this and the technology of the future. MASTER DEGREE PROGRAMMES IN ENGINEERING
BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMMES IN ENGINEERING
Environmental and Water Engineering
Computer and Information Engineering Electrical Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Engineering Physics
Materials Engineering Molecular Biotechnology Engineering Sociotechnical Systems Engineering
Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Nuclear Engineering Quality Engineering and Management
BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMMES IN SCIENCE We offer eight bachelor's programmes, which give students freedom to choose courses and specialisations according to their particular interests. Students can also combine two scientific subjects or broaden their knowledge with additional courses in other fields such as journalism, finance or law. There is a close link between the bachelor's programmes and research, and they can be followed up with both master's and doctoral programmes; however, they also prepare the student for a career outside of academia. BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMMES IN SCIENCE Biology/Molecular Biology Computer Science Physics
Earth Sciences Chemistry Leadership – Quality Management - Improvement
Mathematics Environmental Science
For several years, the Faculty of Science and Technology has run a mentoring program for students in the final stage of their studies, in which mentors share their experiences from different professional sectors.
Research and education are found under the same roof. This proximity fosters relaxed relationships between students and researchers. Strong research resources allow our students to use the latest technology. In the picture we see a student experimenting with high-energy ions at the Ångström Laboratory's tandem accelerator. Our teachers are also researchers, which inspires the students and involves them in world-leading research and the latest advances.
Uppsala University has agreements for student exchange with approximately 500 foreign universities in 50 countries. International experiences enrich both teachers and students
Bild p책 l채rare som undervisar studenter i face to face-situation. Bild kommer p책 Arnold Pears och hans studenter.
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Education of highest quality is developed by committed teachers reflecting on the importance of pedagogics, looking for improvements, and willing to try new methods. In order to achieve the highest quality of education, the faculty offers its teachers support in educational development through both expertise and resources. The University Committee for Educational Development at the Faculty arranges seminars and courses for teachers and provides resources for educational development projects. To further develop the excellence of the University's educational environments, a Centre for Mathematical, Engineering Science, Natural Sciences and Engineering Education has been set up, carrying out research into learning. Uppsala University also honors brilliant educators with the title of Excellent Teachers. U ppsala
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Because of the tremendous range of programmes in Uppsala, it is possible to get to know many diverse and interesting people at the student clubs. This gives insight into a wide variety of areas, which provides an important foundation for the future. Beatrice Orback, former student in molecular biology.
MASTER DEGREE PROGRAMMES
We offer fourteen master's programmes (two years), twelve of which are international and taught in English. The master's programmes provide the opportunity to pursue various specialisations. However, it is also possible to create an individual profile that is complemented by courses in, for example, research and product development, entrepreneurship or business administration. We attach great importance to developing our students' analytical abilities and with a master's degree in science and technology, they will be well-equipped for a career in research, management or industry, among other things. Applied Biotechnology Bioinformatics Biology/Molecular Biology (nine specialisations) Chemistry (seven specialisations) Computer Science (two specialisations)
Computational Science Earth Sciences (four specialisations) Embedded Systems Industrial Management and Innovation Mathematics (two specialisations)
Molecular Biotechnology Physics (four specialisations) Renewable Electricity Generation Sustainable Development Wind Power Project Managements **
* (taught in Swedish) ** (one- year Master's degree)
We offer doctoral programmes in many subjects. The issues investigated range from fundamental to applied and industry-related research. There are two different doctoral degrees that can be obtained at the Faculty of Science and Technology: Doctor of Philosophy (four years) and Licentiate of Philosophy (two years). Vacancies on doctoral programmes are announced by the department or research programme responsible for the subject or specialisation. Uppsala University's aim is for every doctoral student to be employed on a doctoral employment, but students may be admitted with alternative funding, such as external scholarships. The programmes are of a high quality and are structured so that those who have successfully completed them are well-qualified for employment at the best universities, both in Sweden and abroad, as well as in industry, public authorities and other sectors of society. The educational environment has an international character with employees from every corner of the globe.
STUDENT LIFE Students at Uppsala University are immersed in a vibrant cultural setting that builds on several centuries of tradition. These include, among others, the “Student Nations”, which are student-run clubs and the core of student life in Uppsala. Each nation is located in a separate building with their own differing characteristics, history and traditions. There are cafes, restaurants, pubs, theatres, music and sports activities as well as more than 100 different interest groups. The nations are perfect venues where students get to socialise across program and subject borders, and where they can have fun, get involved and make valuable connections. Students in science and technology also have a student union of their own (UTN). In addition to monitoring students’ interests in the areas of education, social activities and labour market affairs, the union also organises many events. The largest takes place each year at the end of April, when students arrange a river raft race down the waterfalls of the city’s river, formed by spring’s high water flows.
Our courses contain a high proportion of laboratory operations, providing our students with practical skills and theoretical understanding. The laboratory teachers are usually doctoral students tutoring students during labs.
During the River Rafting Festival at the end of April, students build rafts to shoot the water falls of the Fyris river while keeping the crew still on board. Tens of thousands of people gather along the river to watch the amazing floating constructions challenge the rapids.
Uppsala University boosts a large number of ancient traditions, symbols, and festivities that have survived as a natural part of academic Uppsala of today. One example is the Conferment Ceremony for those receiving PhDs during the year.
It has been possible for students of Uppsala to study at Campus Gotland since the summer of 2013, when Gotland University College merged with Uppsala University. The programmes in science and technology offered here are wind power project development, environmental science, and quality engineering and management.
THe ÅNGSTRÖM LABORATORY
The Ångström Laboratory is one of Europe’s most advanced laboratories for research and education in energy and functional materials. It houses research and education in chemistry, mathematics, physics and technology. Research here is at the international leading edge with atomic-level design of functional materials for applications in such areas as electronics, life sciences and sensors. Energy research is an area of particular strength with applications like wave power, solar cells, solar fuels, batteries, and vertical wind power. The Ångström Laboratory hosts the largest cleanroom facility in the Nordic countries, with a unique combination of equipment for advanced micro- and nano-manufacturing as well as high-resolution microscopy and microanalysis.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
The activities of the Faculty of Science and Technology are gathered in five campuses that are all situated near the centre of town.
Our campusES Uppsala Biomedical Centre (BMC) The Centre houses research and education in chemistry and molecular biology, among others. It is one of Europe’s largest centres for life sciences. There is a strong concentration of researchers in chemistry, biology, physiology, and various pharmaceutical disciplines, which provides unique conditions for developing new drugs. Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC) A large proportion of Uppsala University's biological research and education takes place at EBC. The research is world-leading, largely based on genetics and focused on understanding the evolutionary origin of organisms' characteristics. Here you will also find the Museum of Evolution. EARTH SCIENCE CENTRE The Centre comprises research and education in earth science subjects, including the use of natural resources, environmental risks, natural- disaster science, climate systems, and evolution. Information Technology Centre (ITC)
The renovated regimental buildings house computer scientists and information technologists. Research and doctoral education is pursued in everything from multidimensional problems to technological applications in automatic control and software technology.
Uppsala University’s newest campus is situated on the largest island in Sweden, the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. Here you will find education and research in for example energy technology and sustainable development.
Uppsala Biomedical Centre (BMC)
See picture and information to the left.
Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC)
Earth Science Centre
Information Technology Centre (ITC)
the faculty of science and technology at uppsala university Uppsala University
Sweden’s best-known university abroad
Sweden’s highest-ranked full university
First university in Sweden, established in 1477.
111 Times Higher Education, no. 88 in Engineering & Technology, no. 38 in Life Sciences
79 QS World University Rankings
73 Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities
STAFF Total 2013 1 358 Admininstrative staff 263 Technical staff 142 Professors 242 Teachers and researchers 711*
FINANCES TURNOVER 2013 1 859 miljoner
Faculty funded research 671
Externally funded research 753
Students number 2013 approx. 11 000 (40% women)
Master level 2 200
Bachelor level 8 000
Doctoral level 850
*Doctoral students are counted as students and not as staff in these diagrams, although almost all of them are employed at the University
Friends of Uppsala University
Japan’s emperor Akihito is an honorary member of Uppsala University.
Carl Linnaeus brought renown to Uppsala, attracting both scientists and students from other countries and sending his "apostles" around the world.
Anders Celsius did not make the first thermometer, but in 1741 he did construct one that was superior in precision.
Olof Rudbeck made “the first scientific discovery by a Swede”. It was the lymphatic system and its distribution in the human body.
Entrepreneur Anders Wall is an honorary member of Uppsala University. Among other things, he has endowed a professorship in entrepreneurship and a scholarship for students at Uppsala University.
Niklas Zennström, founder of the Internet telephony company Skype, studied engineering physics and business at Uppsala University. He has also donated funding for a professorship in climate science.
The Nobel Prize Sweden is the home of the Nobel Prize. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish inventor and businessman. Every year the new laureates visit Uppsala and hold open lectures at the university. Uppsala University scientists have won a total of eight Nobel Prizes and this has helped make the University known throughout the world.
Uppsala University is located in central Sweden in the city of Uppsala. It takes just 40 minutes by train to reach the capital city, Stockholm, and only 20 minutes to get to Arlanda International Airport. Uppsala has 200,000 inhabitants and is the fourth largest city in Sweden. It offers small-town charm along with a big-city selection of shops, restaurants, and things to do. You will also find unique cultural treasures and an exciting history to explore. WithÂ its 40,000 students and 6,000 employees, the University dominates the city.