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Monica Gaura evolutionary architecture: adapting millennial values to architectural form & content


CONTENTS 5 13 25 45 47

61 67 75 85 93

Project Intent Abstract Research Academic Research Developing an Architectural Vocabulary [connectivity • productivity • diversity • versatility • simultaneity • identiy ] Learning from Past Design Projects connectivity: a university master plan productivity: a new york city skyscraper diversity: a co-housing community versatility: a community library simultaneity: a velodrome for buenos aires identity: a university dormitory Site Selection Design Intent Site Analysis Schematic Design Design

A Thesis for Drexel University Bachelor of Architecture, June 2013 Thesis Advisor: Jon Coddington Programming Advisor: Kathy Dowdell Academic Research Advisor: John Defazio


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


[Preliminary] Thesis Statement The millennial generation has presented itself with a new set of architectural challenges. Technology has transformed how we interact, learn, work, and consume. Individual activities no longer need to correspond to specific settings; we can work and communicate with anyone from anywhere. These generational shifts have not yet been addressed architecturally. As our private and public lives blur, so should our buildings. By mashing programmatic elements in a physically transformable and personalizable architecture, we can create a building typology just as adaptable as we are.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PROJECT INTENT

5


Architecture as a Result of Socio-Political-Economic Values Generational Trends:

Strauss-Howe Generational Theory 20 year generations on an 80-year cycle every generation reacts to actions of prior generation

REACTIVE [nomad] crisis CIVIC [hero] high

generational archetypes:

social mood eras:

IDEALIST [prophet]:

HIGH:

born during end of crisis/ rejuvenated community life + new societal order. focus on morals + principles

REACTIVE [nomad]:

born during awakening when young adults are attacking institutions / underprotected/ pragmatic crisis leaders

CIVIC [hero]:

grow up protected, come of age during crisis. emerge energetic, overconfident, and focus on common good

ADAPTIVE [artist]:

born during crisis, grow up overprotected by adults dealing with crisis, come of age socialized and conformist

post crisis: institutions strong / individuals weak. confident collective society; stifled feelings by those outside majority

AWAKENING:

institutions attacked in name of personal autonomy. time of social discipline / recapture personal authenticity

UNRAVELING:

CRISIS:

institutions weak and distrusted; individualism strong and fluorishing. society wants to autonomize + enjoy perceived national threat; people associate themselves as part of a larger group. “founding moments� that re-define national identity

ADAPTIVE [artist] awakening IDEALIST [prophet] unraveling

dynamics:

IDEALIST [prophet]

REACTIVE [nomad]

CIVIC [hero]

ADAPTIVE [artist]

childhood

high

awakening

unraveling

crisis

young adult

awakening

unraveling

crisis

high

midlife elderhood

unraveling

crisis

high

awakening

crisis

high

awakening

unraveling

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


historically... generation type birth years formative era [late medieval saeculum] arthurian CIVIC [hero] humanist ADAPTIVE [artist] [reformation saeculum] reformation IDEALIST [prophet] reprisal REACTIVE [nomad] elizabethan CIVIC [hero] parliamentary ADAPTIVE [artist] [new world saeculum] puritan IDEALIST [prophet] cavalier REACTIVE [nomad] glorious CIVIC [hero] enlightenment ADAPTIVE [artist] [revolutionary saeculum] awakening IDEALIST [prophet] liberty REACTIVE [nomad] republican CIVIC [hero] compromise ADAPTIVE [artist] [civil war saeculum] transcendental IDEALIST [prophet] gilded REACTIVE [nomad] - CIVIC [hero] progressive ADAPTIVE [artist] [great power saeculum] missionary IDEALIST [prophet] lost REACTIVE [nomad] G.I. CIVIC [hero] silent ADAPTIVE [artist] [millennial saeculum] baby boomer IDEALIST [prophet] generation x REACTIVE [nomad] millennial CIVIC [hero] homeland ADAPTIVE [artist]

1433-1460 1461-1482

Unraveling | Retreat from France Crisis | War of the Roses

1483-1511 1512-1540 1541-1565 1566-1587

High | Rudor Renaissance Awakening | Protestant Reformation Unraveling | Intolerance & Martyrdom Crisis | Amanda Crisis

1588-1617 1618-1647 1648-1673 1674-1700

High | Merrie England Awakening | Puritan Awakening Unraveling | Reaction + Restoration Crisis | King Philip’s War + Glorious Revolution

1701-1723 1724-1741 1742-1766 1767-1791

High | Augustan Age of Empire Awakening | Great Awakening Unraveling | French & Indian War Crisis | American Revolution

1792-1821 1822-1842

High | Era of Good Feeling Awakening | Transcendental Awakening

1843-1859

Crisis | American Civil War

1860-1882 1883-1900 1901-1924 1925-1942

High | Reconstruction/GIlded Age Awakening | Missionary Awakening Unraveling | World War I/Prohibition Crisis | Great Depression/World War II

1943-1960 1961-1981 1982-2004 2005-?

Crisis |

High | Superpower America Awakening | Consciousness Revolution Unraveling | Culture Wars/Postmodernism FInanical Crisis/War on Terror

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PROJECT INTENT

7


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


ADAPTIVE

IDEALIST catalyst

Fourth Turnings [societal shifts happen between idealists + civics]

REACTIVE regergency

CIVIC climax

ADAPTIVE resolution

a sudden shift in mood

collective action to solve societal problem

definitive collapse & re-birth of a system

conclusion resolving public questions

Boston Tea Party [1773]

Revolutionary War [1775-83]

Battle of Yorktown

Passing of US Constitution

2nd Fourth Turning: CIVIL WAR

Formation of the Confederacy

Northern defeat at Bull Run

Lincoln re-election Confed. surrenders

End of Reconstruction

3rd Fourth Turning: NEW DEAL

Stock Market Crash of 1929

Election of Franklin Roosevelt

FDR reelection & New Deal

Centrally controlled strong fed. gov’t

4th Fourth Turning: ?

9/11 & Financial collapse of 2008

Election of President Obama

??

??

Historically: 1st Fourth Turning: AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PROJECT INTENT

9


They are the most threatening generation since the boomers brought about social revolution, not because they’re trying to take over the establishment, but because they’re growing up without one.”


Two Cross Country Couch-Surfing Road Trips Examining Who The Millennials Are September 2012: West + Midwest

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


March 2013: South

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Philosophy-> Form -> Function Philosophy: A Collection of experiential essays + observations: essay #1: essay #2: essay #3: essay #4: essay #5: essay #6: essay #7: essay #8: essay #9: essay #10: essay #11: DESIGN INTENT essay #12: essay #13: essay #14: essay #15: essay #16: essay #17: essay #18:

24 august 2012 06 september 2012 06 september 2012 10 september 2012 11 september 2012 12 september 2012 14 september 2012 17 september 2012 18 september 2012 04 october 2012 21 october 2012 FALL GROUP REVIEW 24 february 2013 16 march 2013 19 march 2013 22 march 2013 24 march 2013 03 april 2013 03 may 2013

on the immensity of architecture on design, collaboration, and the social atmosphere architecture and technology integration of city into landscape and of buildings into city culture of collision the architecture of consumerism social media and the digital age streetscapes and architectural proportions transit hub as urban streetscape borders: imaginary lines fear and architecture THESIS STATEMENT time // transitions // thesis the tiredness that comes from being tethered people would be a lot happier if they stopped creating reasons not to be the long lost san francisco post the open-mindedness that comes from the open road a [different kind of] road trip the conclusion: part I

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1990

1989

Exxon Oil Spill Berlin Wall Falls Pan Am Flight 103 bombed US shoots down Iranian Airliner

Vietnam War Memorial Opened in DC Assasination Attempt on the Pope Assasination Attempt on President Reagan First Woman Appointed to US Sepreme Court

Gulf War

“Black Monday� NY Stock Exchange Drop Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster US Bombs Libya Hole in Ozone Discovered

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

Nelson Mandela freed

1991

1992

Oper. Desert Storm Collapse of Soviet Union

1993

1994

1995

Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa

1996

US Stock Market is booming

Rwandan Genocide WTC bombed

LA Riots after South Africa Rodney King Verdict Repeals End of Cold War Apartheid Laws

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


What’s Shaping the Millennials?

A POLITICAL Timeline

1997

1998

US President Clinton Impeached India + Pakistan Test Nuclear Weapons

1999

2000

2001

2002

Euro enters circulation Unclear Winner in US Presidential Election

September 11 WTC bombings Iraq Invasion

Elion Gonzalez returned to Cuba Euro = new European Currency

2003

2004

2005

Train bombings in Madrid MA legalizes same sex marriage London suicide bombers

Indian Ocean Earthquake Hurricane Katrina N. Korea nuclear testingG

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

McCain/Palin Saddam Hussein executed Crude oil production reaches plateau

Stock Market Crash Oil prices hit record high

Obama elected

2011

9.0 earthquake in Japan

7.0 earthquake in Haiti 8.8 earthquake in Chile BP Oil Spill Healthcare Reform Bill

Arctic Sea hits record low lobal economic downturn

2012

2013

Obama endorses same-sex marriage Boston Marathon Bombing

Hurricane Sandy

Death of Osama Bin Laden

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

Cosby Show premieres MTV launches

Letterman Origins of Internet Smiley

MTV Music Awards Sally Ride becomes first Woman in Space

Michael Jackson’s Thriller

PG-13 movie rating created

Ted Turner establishes CNN John Lennon Assasinated Millions Watch Royal Wedding on TV New Plague Identified as AIDS

Nancy Raegan’s “Just Say No” anti-drug campaign launches

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

1988

Simpsons “We are the World” recorded for famine relief

1989

1990

1991

Sci/Fi Channel

1992

Seinfeld premeires Disney’s Hollywood Studios opens

1994

1995

1996

Unabomber DVD Arrested OK City Two Royal bombing Divorces

MTV’s “Real World” Debuts Magic Johnson HIV ad

Spike Lee released “Do the Right Thing”

1993

HoTMaiL OJ Simpson arrested Daily Show for double murder JenniCam Cult Compound in Waco, TX raided

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


What’s Shaping the Millennials?

A SOCIAL Timeline

1997

Harry Potter book Princess Diana dies in Car Crash

1998

1999

2000

Titanic Released

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Youtube launched Twitter launched

First Harry Potter movie

Virginia Tech Campus Shooting First public appearance of the Internet activist group Anonymous against Church of Scientology Justin Bieber’s first Youtube video uploaded

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

2010

2011

2012

Will.I.Am’s viral video promoted Obama’s “Yes We Can” slogan

2013

“The “Social Media Election”

Hope for Haiti Global Benefit

Facebook launched

Columbine Shooting

Boy Bands

2002

American Idol Myspace launched

TRL

JFK Jr. dies in plane crash

2001

Royal Wedding

KONY Occupy Wall Street

MTV’s “Jersey Shore” premeires Shift towards portable PCs

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

Apple Macintosh ARPANET creates internet

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

Weather Channel debuts Pac-Man Video Game Released

1995

1996

WWI becomes public

Motorola Cell Phone

USSR launches Mir Space Station

Hubble Telescope Launched

Channel Tunnel Opens Connecting Britain + France

Space Shuttle Challenger Explodes

Rubik’s Cube becomes Popular

1994

Debut of Prius Nintendo Gameboy

Times man of the year is The Computer Personal Computer Introduced by IBM

1993

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

Use of Internet grows exponentially

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


What’s Shaping the Millennials?

A TECHNOLOGICAL Timeline

1997

1998

1999

Google Scientists clone sheep

Ebay

2000

2001

2002

2003

2005

2004

dot com Bluetooth bubble Apple burst Launches Pathfinder Y2K Apple iMac G4 sends back scare Launches images of Mars the iPod Microsoft becomes Microsoft first Space most valuable company ordered cyborg Shuttle Ask Jeeves to split Columbia Wikipedia Launched Disaster Mapping the “ILOVEYOU” Virus Human Genome USB replaces floppy

Mars exploration Rovers

Web 2.0 disks

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

2006

2007

2008

2009

Apple introduces the iPhone

2011

2012

2013

Quad-core smartphones and tablets

Amazon releases the Kindle Google Street View is launched

2010

First commercial spaceport Mac Book Air

Space Shuttle fleet retired Augmented reality enters mainstream Apple introduces iPad

CGI advancements

3D scanner enters consumer market Water discovered on moon

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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1980

1981

1982

1985

1983

Parc de la Villette Paris design competition

AT&T Building Philip Johnson

Xanadu Houses experimental homes showcasing computers and automation Tilted Arc - Federal Plaza Richard Serra Santa Monica Place | Frank Gehry

1986

1987

Lloy’d Building Richard Rogers BIM introduced in Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD

HSBC HQ Norman Foster

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

1988

1989

MOMA exhibit: Deconstructivist Architecture I.M. Pei Pyramid addition to the Louvre

1990

1991

1992

Stansted Airport Terming Building Norman Foster Frederick Weisman Museum of Art Frank Gehry

Riga Radio & TV Tower | Riga, Latvia

1993

1994

1995

1996

Umeda Sky Building St. Ignatius Chapel Osaka, Japan Steven Holl Arch, Basel Signal Box Herzog and de Meuron Niterói Contemporary Art Museum Oscar Neimeyer

Bank of America Corporate Center Aronoff Center for Design César Pelli and HSK Architects & Art | Peter Eisenman

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


What’s Shaping the Millennials?

An ARCHITECTURAL Timeline

1997

1998

Guggenheim Museum Bilboa Frank Gehry

1999

2000

2001

2002

Petronas Twin Towers César Pelli

2004

2005

Taipei 101 C.Y.Lee & Partners

Emirates Towers Dubai, UAE Jewish Museum Berlin Daniel Libeskind

2003

Bibliotheca Alexandria Snøhetta

“The Gherkin” Norman Foster

Millennium Bridge Wilkinson Eyre

Casa de Música Rem Koolhaas

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

2006

2007

2008

New Museum of Contemporary Art SANAA

2009

CityCenter Las Vegas Strip

“Water Cube” “Bird’s Nest” South Railway Station Beijing Olympics [construction begins on] 1 WTC David Childs, SOM

2010

2011

2012

2013

Tverrfjellhytta Snøhetta CCTV HQ OMA Red Building César Pelli Burj Khalifa Adrian Smith, SOM

[ABSTRACT] RESEARCH

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Foundations of Contemporary Design: Social Shifts and the Evolution of Modernism.

accompanying essay won the Joseph M. Wilson Award for Architectural Research Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

[ACADEMIC] RESEARCH

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Foundations of Contemporary Design: Social Shifts and the Evolution of Modernism.

1

Architectural Zeitgeist

The understanding of architecture is far more complex than subjective conclusions based off external aesthetics. A building stands as an embodiment of a social mood era: a physical form attempting to capture transcending feelings resonating through society and adapting them through the medium of architecture. But time doesn’t stand as still as a building; time is rapidly changing. There’s a push/pull with history: culture inherently followed by counterculture. New ideas emerge, then are re-evaluated, stepped back, and new ideas emerge again. The things that matter to us evolve alongside social, political, and technological influences, and those influences cascade through architectural dialogue. Chaotic, messy architecture soon returns to formalism, symmetry, hierarchy and scale. “Desires to experiment return to desires for truth and order. Ideas, qualities, sentiments [both tangible and intangible] create the spirit of the time, and a work of architecture creates an aesthetic for the experience of existing in that time.1”

1

Colin Rowe, “The Avant-Garde Revisited.” Autonomy and Ideology: Positioning an Avante-Garde in America. Ed. R.E. Somol. (New York: The Monavelli Press, Inc., 1997) 53-56.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

[ACADEMIC] RESEARCH

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


2

The Spirit of Modernism

The notion that a “Modern Age” exists at all is in itself a statement that there was an era prior to “Modern” that embodied an entirely different level of thinking. Philosopher, social theorist, and historian Michel Foucault argues that there are two periods in history: “Classical,” which is when language intersected with representation, and “Modern,” which merged historical continuity with self-generated analytical processes2. In essence, the classical era saw architecture as timeless; there was no past or future to address. Truth was universal; God was synonymous with a temple. Ideal architecture could be attained through rules of proportion. Classicism used to be synonymous with architecture, but by the mid-nineteenth century it was a historicized style3. The Modern Age substituted this universal idea of relevance for a universal idea of history, substituted analysis of program for analysis of history4. This shift to modernism happened in the late twentieth century, when architecture of the early part of the twentieth century itself came to be considered part of history5. The post WWII era brought with it an immense amount of social, political, and economic change, as well as an unfathomable amount of destruction. People no longer felt that classical notion of purity could be attained, since forces of man had shattered that idealized harmony6. Architects had to address the issues of rebuilding in one of two ways: either build these cities up again the same way they did before, based on the very principles that led to their destruction, or take this as an opportunity to start anew. Urban social structure was given the opportunity to be re-assessed. Science and technology brought new social truths; analysis and reason replaced self-evidence; the timeless notion of truth ended and the need for verification began7. Form follows function declared that modern buildings should express their function honestly. It was an idea completely reflective of the characteristics of the Machine Age: utility, efficiency, functionality, and scientific and technical positivism. This was paired with the idea that architecture played an important role in the development of a society, and should be addressed accordingly8. Efforts were made to address integrated planning and “contemporary consciousness” into the redesign of these destructed cities. All the while, America was entering the Golden Age of Capitalism. After the war, the economy was booming. The GI Bill of Rights provided low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business or farm, and cash payments of tuition and living expenses for veterans to attend school to when they came home from the war. The Federal Highway Act and mass production of the automobile enabled rapid means of travel as well as Westward and suburban expansion. Modern architecture had freedom to experiment. Pure functionality was no longer appropriate. Society was far more complex than that.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Michel Foucault, The Order of Things. New York City. Random House, 1973.pxxii. Eisenman, Peter.“The End of the Classical: The End of the Beginning. The End of the End.” Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal, 1984: pp. 154-172. Eisenman, Peter. Eisenman Inside Out: Selected Writings 1963-1988. Yale University Press. 157. Jean Baudrillard, The Order of Simulacra. Simulations. New York City, Semiotext(e), 1983. 83. Leon Krier and Peter Eisenman, “Eisenman and Krier: A Conversation.” Eisenman/Krier: Two Ideologies. Ed. Cynthia Davidson (New York: The Monacelli Press, Inc., 2004) 37. Eisenman, Peter. Eisenman Inside Out: Selected Writings 1963-1988. Yale University Press. 158. Sigfried Giedion, “Reaffirmation of the Aims of CIAM: Bridgewater 1947,” in A Decade for New Architecture. (Zurich: Editions Girsberger, 1951) 16-17.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


3

Social shifts throughout the 1950s and ‘60s

Modernists didn’t see themselves as part of the continuity of classicism, of history. “The zeitgeist bound them to their present history with the promise to release them from their past history: they were ideologically trapped in the illusion of the eternity of their own time.”9 However, not unlike the classicists, modernists were also seeking an ideal. They wanted to utilize the machine age and the automobile in a way that would perfect society. Contrasting solutions began to emerge. Low-tech housing models of New Empiricism contrasted with the super-highway, monumental and mass-residential tower city proposed by Le Corbusier. Rigid, simple machine-like forms contrasted with the human, organic complexes of Frank Lloyd Wright. Higher awareness of anthropological issues in third-world countries introduced a complex physical organization of social and urban structure that proved European based housing models were not universal. Hierarchical elements such as “house, street, district and city needed to be re-addressed, for they stood for values that were no longer socially relevant.”10 “In the real situation..(aspirations, desires) change all the time, the forces at work are not only physical but ideological - the climate of opinion...the desire for different expressions of the new social set-up...”11 There also ensued a struggle between architecture as a visual art, and architecture as an art that is accessible to the everyday person. The general public had trouble relating to modern architecture, so modernists began to question if the architect should just do what he feels is best and hope people will eventually come to like it, or use his role as an architect to bridge those feelings of economic and social unrest architecturally.12 All of modern architecture started to be questioned, especially in regards to identifying with history. Modernism, in its earliest stage, was meant to diverge from history. So when architecture began to relate back to history, people questioned what modernism even was.13 In America, though, an entirely different set of unrest developed. The optimism of the 1950s began to crumble in the 1960s. With mass populations relocating to the suburbs, inner cities were left declining, in poverty, and racial tensions stirred up cynicism and social anger. With little discussion regarding urban planning, planners turned to what they believed to be most modern: Le Corbusier’s Radiant City model. Large scale residential towers with amongst green spaces were thought to be the solution. The development of Stuyvesant Town by Robert Moses followed this model, and was sharply criticized by Lewis Mumford who went as far as to claim that the controlled, single-use, completely uniform blocks of this Manhattan community embodied the architecture of a Police State.14

Urban planning took a new turn when Kevin Lynch published The Image of the City (1960), which broke down what made cities memorable, and successful, by inter9 10 11 12 13 14

Eisenman, Peter. Eisenman Inside Out: Selected Writings 1963-1988. Yale University Press. 158. Alison and Peter Smithson, Gillian and William Howell, and John Voelcker, from “Urban Reidentification” Grid, cited from Eric Mumford, the CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000) 234-5. Alison and Peter Smithson, “Open Letter to Sert and Team 10,” in The Emergence of Team 10 out of C.I.A.M., ed. Alison Smithson. (London: Architectural Association). 54-55. JM Richards, “Contemporary Architecture and the Common Man,” in Sigfried Giedion, A Decade for New Architecture. (Zurich: Editions Girsberger, 1951). 33. Remarks on the design of the Torre Velasca, Milan (1959), cited from CIAM ‘59 in Otterlo, ed. Oscar Newman. (Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlog, 1961). 92-97. Lewis Mumford, “Prefabricated Blight” (1948). Reprinted in From the Group Up: Observations on Contemporary Architecture, Housing, Highway, Building, and Civic Design. (New York: Harcourt Bruce Jovanovich, 1956) 108-109.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

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viewing residents and developing a vocabulary by which to measure a city’s “imageability:” paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks.15 Jane Jacobs had the largest impact, though. She was not an architect, or an urban planner, so what she saw was the underlying sociological fabric of the city. She abhorred the planning techniques of the twentieth century, arguing that they were completely disregarding what makes a city a city: the accidental, unplanned chaos, the collision of mixed uses, and most importantly, the street life.16 Mumford disagreed with these theories, arguing that the high densities Jacobs called out for (like that of her own Greenwich Village) were unsuccessful in other parts of New York: areas like Brooklyn, Queens, and Harlem17. But then, sociologist Herbert Gans, who studied Boston’s West end “ghetto”, discovered a remarkably livable internal community, bringing an even higher level of complexity to the discussion of urban planning success.18 The restless struggle between man and the machine, and the machine and nature, continued throughout the decades, as some condemned the chaos and of urban living overridden by machine-made streets reeking of capitalism and greed19, while others began to embrace those same images as a visual language of design.20 These debates were all brought into the limelight during the national crisis of the 1960s. Chaos ensued after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, followed by the national Civil Rights Movement, the more aggressive Black Power Movement, and the “War on Poverty.” Urban city centers experienced an influx of rioting and anger directed at the “white flight.” The federal administration’s response was to essentially wipe out these slum areas and replace them with high-rise towers.21 But as seen in Pruitt-Igoe and the city of Brasilia, these methods would prove unsuccessful.22 People began to study these urban issues in a broader sense. In order to understand a city, maybe it was more fitting to address the more intangible issues that have developed in the modern city: issues of communication and transportation, rather than formal spatial parameters.23 Regardless, the future of urban planning was now a major issue. Architects were no longer thinking about buildings as their own entities, but in the context of urban spatial and social values.24 Later in the 1960s, a new generation of young revolutionaries emerged: the Baby Boomers. Younger populations were disheartened by the social turmoil, the Vietnam war, and acted out. Global population was also rising, and a new technological frontier was opening: The Space Age. This was immediately reflected in architecture. In 1959, Yona Friedman developed an idea of the “Spatial City,” which consisted of plug-in housing units within a large space-frame. It addressed not only the new technologies of the machine and space age, but also the need for a city to be transformable. Cities are unpredictable and rapidly changing, so architecture should be able to perpetually transform with the needs of any given time.25 This notion was reiterated during the World Design Conference, when a Japanese architecture collective, the Metabolists, published a manifesto identifying the city as a living organism that is constantly growing and changing.26 But alongside these new complex urban theories lay also the new complexities of the presence of technology. At the beginning of the Machine Age, the struggle with 15 Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (1960). (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1971) 46-48. 16 Jane Jacobs, The Life and Death of the American City. (New York: Random House, 1961). 20-2, 202-3. 17 Lewis Mumford, “Mother Jacobs’ Home Remedies (1962)”, cited from The Urban Prospect.(New York: Harcourt, Bruce & World, 1968) 194-5. 18 Herbert J Gans, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans. (New York: The Free Press, 1962) ix-x. 19 Peter Blake, God’s Own Junkyard. (New York: Rinehart & Winston, 1964). 33. 20 Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 22-3. 21 Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964) 6-8. 22 Mapping American Culture. Wayne Franklin, Michael Steiner. 247. 23 Melvin M. Webber, “The Urban Place and Nonplace Urban Realm,” cited from Melvin M. Webber et. al, Explorations into Urban Structure. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965) 139-40, 46-47. 24 Charles Abrams, “Housing in the Year 2000,” in The City is the Frontier, cited from Environment and Policy: The Next Fifty Years, ed. William R. Ewald, Jr. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968). 214-15. 25 Yona Friedman, L’Architecture Mobile: vers une cite concue par ses habitants. (Paris: Casterman, 1970, trans. Christina Contandriopoulos and Harry Francis Mallgrave). 26 Kiyonori Kikutake, Noboru Kawazoe, Masato Ohtaka, Fumihiko Maki, and Noriaki Kurokawa, from Metabolism: The Proposals for New Urbanism. (Tokyo: Yasuko Kawazoe, 1960) 22-3.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


technology was that people felt like the issue was more black and white: it was either the dense, mechanized urban streets, or the grassy lawns of the suburbs. But with the introduction of smaller scale machinery like home appliances and small devices, as well as from the influence of technological advocate Buckminster Fuller’s, there came a Second Machine Age: a new era of architectural thought was developing.27 A backlash to modernism was seen in the counterculture of groups like Archigram, who no longer identified with the austere rationale of the urban idealists.28 Another emerging characteristic of the 1960s was the issue of environmentalism, brought to the forefront by Rachel Carson. She saw the history of the earth as a constant interaction of living things and their surroundings, and so the rise of the machine also meant the threat of contamination to the earth and air.29 Shortly thereafter, Buckminster Fuller himself shifted his attention from solely advancing architecture through technology, but by also attempting to map the world’s resources to use them more efficiently.30 When “Spaceship Earth” was first published, this saw an even greater awareness in regards to the state of the planet. This was the first time people saw images of Earth from space, and it shifted the level of understanding people had in regards to this much greater global ecosystem they lived in.31 The notion of design’s integration with the environment was illustrated by landscape designer Ian Mcharg32, and culminated in the creation of Earth Day.33 The 1960s set up a new era of architectural thought. Social, political, economic, technological, and now even environmental complexities traversed earlier notions of design. There still existed opposing beliefs of whether modernism was it’s own new age34 or if it existed within the continuity of history and should be free to explore pre-modern ideas.35 These constant diverging theories left architecture to begin to purely emphasize form, rather than struggle with complexities. Movements such as postmodernism and deconstructivism revolted against the modernist movement. Simultaneously, superficial notions of technology were also disregarded by some and instead focused on the human experience and the notion of “place.”36 Meaning in architecture was becoming a more prevalent topic.37 Psychological and anthropological issues were attempted to be quantified in architectural design38, and the meaning of the city was re-defined in terms of the timelessness that exists in monuments, paths, neighborhoods, and features that define its culture.39

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Reyner Banham, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. (New York: Praeger, 1978) 9-10. Archigram, “Manifesto.” Archigram 1 (May 1961). Rachel Carson, Silent Spring. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1962). 5-6. R Buckminster Fuller, “World Design Initiative: Mexico Lecture, 1963,” cited from R.Buckminster Fuller, Your Private Sky: Discourse, ed Joachin Krausse and Claude Lichtenstein. (Zurich: Lars Muller, 2001). 278. Kenneth E. Boulding, “Earth as a Space Ship,” Kenneth E. Boulding Papers, Archives (Box 38), University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Ian McHarg, Design with Nature, cited from paperback edition. (Garden City, NY: American Museum of Natural History, 1971). 20-22. John McConnel, “Earth Day Proclamation,” press release, United Nations. Reyner Banham, “The Italian Retreat from Modern Architecture,” Architectural Review 125 (April 1959). 231-35. Ernesto Nathan Rogers, “The Evolution of Architecture: An Answer to the Caretakers of Frigidairs,” Casabella-Continuita 228 (June 1959). addendum, pp. v, vi. Aldo Van Eyck, “Is Architecture Going to Reconcile Basic Values?” (Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlog, 1961). 26-7. Joseph Rykwert, “Meaning in Building,” Zodiac 6 (1960). 193-95. Christopher Alexander, Notes on a Synthesis of Form. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971). 8-9. Aldo Rossi, L’architectura della citia, trans. Diane Ghirado and Joan Ockman as The Architecture of the City. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984). 29, 32.

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4

Rise of Architectural Theory

By the 1970s, fundamental modernist beliefs were deteriorating alongside an economic recession that stalled building projects and left architects with time to reassess the state of architecture.40 Urban strategies proposed by early modernists had proved unsuccessful, and a counter-culture began to develop. A return to pre-modern forms, elements, and types of construction were being re-introduced. Architects were going back to the fundamentals, looking for something that had been overlooked, and looking for something that could steer them away from embodying the capitalist values of the post WWII era.41 This was the founding of architectural theory, and the second age of Modernism. Peter Eisenman brought theory to the forefront with the establishment of the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies (IAUS)42, an architectural think-tank seeking to research and study architectural history and theory.43 Accordingly, the “New York Five” declared this return to withdrawal from modernism and return to historicism in Five Architects.44 The “neo-realism” of Venturi clashed with the “neo-rationalism” of Rossi, Eisenman, and Hejduk.45 Yet the modernist sensibility as a whole was a reflection of a time of social, philosophical, and technological change translating itself into a new cultural attitude.46 Unlike the “primitive hut” design of nature and reason, and the “machine for living” design at the founding of modernism, this new architecture was reflective of, and founded on, history.47 The 1970s also brought with it the introduction of linguistics and semiotics in architecture.48 Further philosophical meaning and analysis of architectural rhetoric was introduced into the realm of the built environment.49 In the same way the introduction of perspective during the Renaissance altered the way people perceived physical volumes, the notion of “space” and “place” attempted to illustrate the philosophical elements of modernism.50 However, any “explanatory science” provokes backlash, since rules inherently translate to limits of the freedom of the designer.51 Regardless, the merging of philosophy and architecture was well underway52, and with continued analysis, the founding principles of modernism collapsed as swiftly as the housing of Pruit-Igoe.53 Social and philosophical complexities reinforced architectural complexities, and the search for architectural strategies continued in the debates of the “Grays” and the “Whites:” the “Whites” believing they were in a third age of modernism and could revive those fundamental values54, while the “Grays,” (led by Venturi and Scott Brown)55, embraced the complexities of an architecture that was “black and white and sometimes gray.”56 40 Jonathan Glancey. “Frozen Skyline.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 16 Nov. 2008. 41 Manfredi Tafuri, “Per una critica dell’ideologia architettonica,” trans. Stephen Sartarelli, in Architecture Theory since 1968, ed. K. Michael Hays. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). 31-22. 42 Inagural editorial in Oppositions 1 (September 1973). 43 Peter D. Eisenman, “Notes on Conceptual Architecture: Towards a Definition,” cited from the version in Casabella 359-360 (1971). 51-53. 44 Colin Rowe, “Introduction,” in Five Architects: Eisenman, Graves, Gwathmey, Hejduk, Meier. (New York: Wittenborn, 1972). 4-7. 45 Mario Gandelsonas, “Neo-Functionalism,” in Oppositions 5 (1976). 7-8. 46 Peter Eisenman, “Post-Functionalism,” in Oppositions 6 (1976). n.p. 47 Anthony Vidler, from “The Third Typology,” in Oppositions 7 (1976). 2-4. 48 Charles Jencks, “Semiology and Architecture,” Meaning in Architecture. (New York: George Braziller, 1969) 11-13. 49 George Baird, “La Dimension Amoureuse’ in Architecture,” Meaning in Architecture. (New York: George Braziller, 1970) 81-82. 50 Christian Norberg-Schulz, Existence, Space & Architecture. (New York; Praeger, 1971) 11-12. 51 Alan Colquhoun, “Historicism and the Limits of Semiology,” Essays in Architectural Criticism: Modern Architecture and Historical Change. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985) 130-1. 52 Kenneth Frampton, “On Reading Heidegger,” Oppositions 4 (1974). n.p. 53 Charles A. Jencks, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. (New York: Rizzoli, 1977). 9-10. 54 Robert A.M. Stern, “New Directions in Modern American Architecture: Postscript: At the Edge of Modernism,” Architectural Association Quarterly 9:2-3 (1977). 66. 55 Denise Scott Brown, “Learning from Pop,” Casabella 359-360 (1971). 15-17. 56 Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 22-3.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Adding to these complexities was the notion that architecture could be more accessible to the general population if it were something that was “incomplete” and allowed for change over time.57 MIT’s Building 20 stands as an example of this theory, as it generated some of the century’s leading innovations due much in part the to fact that its patrons felt free to modify it, (as well as the the “culture of collision” its long corridors and mixed-disciplines created)58. But alongside architecture’s continued desire to address the general population, the living needs of smaller-scale, less financially well-off inhabitants and the traditional materials and methods their communities built in also translated into the modernist vernacular59 and reiterated that there was no universally functioning architectural utopia.60

57 58 59 60

Herman Hertzberger, “Homework for More Hospitable Form,” Forum 24:3 (1973). n.p. “Can Architecture Make us More Creative?” ArchDaily. n.p. Hassan Fathy, Architecture for the Poor: An Experiment in Rural Egypt. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973). 19-21. Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, “Collage City,” in Architectural Review 158:942. (August 1975) 83-4.

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


5

Complexities of Architecture at a turning point

Critiques of modernism, emphasis on theory, attention to urban planning, and analysis of the built environment outside the realm of buildings would transform into an all-inclusive “total architecture.”61 Christopher Alexander’s A Pattern Language (1975) translated this theory into a design language: the notion that everything was a repeated element, yet never repeated the same way. In other words, everything from a town square to a bedroom is just a series of private and public rooms.62 Urban forms were addressed as all inclusive entities, and nowhere else does urban form come alive as in New York, where “the invention and testing of a metropolitan lifestyle and its attendant architecture could be pursued as a collective experiment in which the entire city became a factory of man-made experience.”63 Rules of architecture and philosophy of forms had been debated for decades, and by the 1980s, architecture would go insane. “We are tired of seeing Palladio and other historical masks. Because we don’t want architecture to exclude everything that is disquieting. We want architecture to have more. Architecture that bleeds, that exhausts, that whirls and even breaks. Architecture that lights up, that stings, that rips, and under stress tears. Architecture should be cavernous, fiery, smooth, hard, angular, brutal, round, delicate, colorful, obscene, voluptuous, dreamy, alluring, repelling, wet, dry, and throbbing. Alive or dead. Cold then cold as a block of ice. Hot - then hot as a blazing wing.”64 Intensity in architecture would translate into Dionysian themes65, as well as the necessity of a “rigorous imagination” to tackle this age of architecture.66 And even though the postmodernist, deconstructivist, and structuralist movements could be, in retrospect, viewed as branches of reactions to modernism, branches that still had no collective ideas, they did at least all address the notion of historicism.67 The original rationalism of Modernism made sense for a devastated post WWII era that sought renewal and stability. But it didn’t take long for those modern, standardized, rationalist forms to become as alienated and dehumanized as the assembly lines they were produced on.68 History and culture needed to be embodied in architecture in order for it to be fitting of the time.69 Poetic emphasis70 and the notion of “memory” in architecture71 were being introduced as architectural elements. This created a decade rich in architectural dialogue. Yet starchitects like Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, and Rem Koolhaas were building in forms not resembling anything previously seen in history.72 This catalog of architecture was starting to seem like it was too much of a counterculture to modernism rather than its own culture addressing the actual social and environmental needs of the time.73 Postmodernism was arguably as dehumanizing as modernism was, and maybe the solution was to emphasize geographical context in order to strengthen the relationship between building and user.74 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

Arthur Drexler (quoting Walter Gropius), preface to the exhibition catalogue The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1975). 3-4. Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). 311-13. Rem Koolhaas, Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978) 9-10. Coop Himmelbau, “Architecture Must Blaze,” Architecture is Now: Projects, (Un)Buildings, Actions, Statements, Sketches, Commentaries. (New York: Rizzoli, 1983) 90. Bernard Tschumi, “The Violence of Architecture,” Artforum 20:1 (1981). 44-47. Daniel Libeskind, “Symbol and Interpretation,” Between Zero and Infinity: Selected Projects in Architecture. (New York: Rizzoli, 1981) 29. “Beyond the Modern Movement,” Harvard Architecture Review I (Spring 1980). (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). 5-7. Andreas Huyssen, “Modernity and Postmodernity,” New German Critique 33 (Autumn 1984) 13-16. K. Michael Hays, “Critical Architecture: Between Culture and Form,” in Perspecta 21: The Yale Architectural Journal (1984). 47-9. Michael Graves, “A Case for Figurative Architecture,” Michael Graves: Buildings and Projects 1966-1981, ed. Karen Vogel Wheeler, Peter Arnell, and Ted Bickford. (New York: Rizzoli, 1982). 11. Josef-Paul Kleihues, “1984: The Berlin Exhibition, Architectural Dream or Reality?” Architectural Association Quarterly 13:2/3 (January-June 1982). 42. Heinrich Klotz, “Postscript: Since 1980,” The History of Postmodern Architecture, trans. Radka Donnell. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988). 433-4. Vittorio Gregottie, “The Obsession with History,” Casabella 478 (March 1982). 41. Kenneth Frampton, “Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance,” The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, ed. Hal Foster. (Seattle, WA: Bay Press, 1983) 20-21.

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


6

The Information Age

A new age of erupting digital technology would soon translate itself into warped and complex architectural forms.75 This “DeFormation” was argued to be setting the stage for a new era of architecture.76 Yet, translating advancements in science directly into architecture has superficial undertones.77 There are deeper issues to address; the age of information technology has strong connections to history; “The computer is not an Unidentified Flying Object that landed one day in a California parking garage.”78 The over-conceptualization of postmodern theories was countered in the 1990s by a revival of pragmatism and real human values: architecture that engages our senses79, and acknowledges the passage of time.80 “Mega-projects” were deemed to lose sight of the human scale and compete with urbanism.81 Yet “New Urbanism” also identified that the current state of cities and suburbs was failing because it was disregarding basic human and cultural values: parking, traffic, separation of uses, and low densities had been taking precedent over the community atmosphere of dense, walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods.82 A “New Pragmatism” would attempt to ground architecture in present values83, values reflective of a new age of technology, but also grounded in natural homo-sapien values that transcend time84. Themes of sustainability would also be re-introduced85, as preserving an ecological balance86, and using technological advancements to strive for net-zero building and carbon-neutral cities87 would be brought to attention with the advancement of technology after the first energy crisis.

75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

Greg Lynn, “Architectural Curvilinearity: The Folded, the Pliant, and the Supple,” Architectural Design 102 (March/April 1993). 8-9. Jeffrey Kipnis, “Towards a New Architecture,” Architectural Design 102 (March/April 1993) 43. Cecil Balmond, “New Structure and the Informal,” Lotus International 98 (1998), 83. Bernard Cache, “Digital Semper,” in Anymore, ed. Cynthia C. Davidson. (New York: Anyone Corporation, 2000). 191. Juhani Pallasmaa, “An Architecture of the Seven Senses,” a + u (July 1994) 29, 41. Moshen Mostafavi and David Leatherbarrow, On Weathering: The Life of Buildings in Time. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 112-14. Winy Maas, “Datascape,” Farnax: Excursions on density, ed. Winy Maas and Jacob van Rijs with Richard Koek. (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1998). 100-3. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Chester E. Chellman, “New Town Ordinances and Codes,” Architectural Design, 59:11-12 (1989), 71-72. John Rajchman, “A New Pragmatism?,” Anyhow, ed. Cynthia C. Davidson, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998). 217. “Urbanized: A Documentary Film by Gary Hustwit.” Film. 09 September 2012. William McDonough, “The Hannover Principles,” The Hannover Principles: Design for Sustainability (1992). 5-6. John Beardsley, “A Word for Landscape Architecture,” Harvard Design Magazine 12 (Fall 2000), 62-3. WWF and Abu Dhabi’s Masdar Initiative Plan for world’s first carbon-neutral, waste-free, car-free city.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

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Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


A new digital age would also bring with it a new “weightless economy,” one where a building or a space may not even be necessary for tasks that can ultimately be done virtually.88 Not only does it create more complex programmatic strategies, but accessories such as the smartphone and the iPod are distorting our perceptions of the entire built environment: “Within the span of a decade, the impact of media in our experience of space has entirely transformed: what was once one-way (the Jumbotron and the video wall) is now two-way (the smartphone and the Facebook wall). At the urban scale, the flaneur’s sacred act of walking down the street is gone—or at least half gone, as one ear and one eye (and one brain?) become snagged in the device. “A ‘place’ used to comprise a physical space and the people within it…What is a place if those who are physically present have their attention on the absent?”89 In addition to a new age of digital and social technology, political and economic shifts would soon alter our society yet again. In 2003, the architectural think-tank group IAUS, started by Peter Eisenman, re-opened after a 20 year gap “due in a large part to the 9/11 renewal awareness in the critical impact of the built form -- how it is experienced, mediated, remembered and imaged-in our daily lives. The New Institute purports that this new awakening in the power and role of architecture exposed a need for an independent, multidisciplinary think-tank, or pedagogical “free speech zone”, in which to question, provoke, debate, experiment, explore and rethink the future of the metropolis at all scales.”90 What we’ve learned from the last 100 years of architecture is going to be ever present in the evolution of architecture. We’ve learned that what makes a city is unplanned chaos, that mixed-use spaces are more human that single use. We’ve learned about human scale, and about programming architecture loosely so that it can accommodate different needs through time. We’ve learned about sustainability, and our presence on the global ecosystem. Most importantly, we’ve learned that to truly capture a time through architecture, one must look past the superficial qualities and instead focus on the underlying themes. Digital technology does not need to translate to a digital screen on the facade of a high-tech tower. An age of sustainability does not need to translate to dropping solar panels or wind turbines onto a building site. In this age, an economic crash, distrust and skepticism in political and corporate figures, as well as the rise of a sharing economy91 are putting emphasis back on the individual. A rise in entrepreneurship92, sustainability through small scale movements and DIY methods93, and embracement of diversity and equality94 are the defining characteristics, and the overconfident yet agile95 next generation of architects will see to it that these values are embraced in the built environment.

88 William J. Mitchell, e-topia: “Urban Life, Jim - But Not As We Know It.” (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999). 148-9. 89 “Here but Not Here,” Metropolis Magazine. Web. n.p. 90 “Institute New York - Introduction - Institute NY.” Institute NY. Web. 91 Geron, Tomio. “Airbnb and the Unstoppable Rise of the Share Economy,” Forbes. Forbes Magazine (23 January 2013). 92 Scott Hartley. “Rise of the Global Entrepreneurial Class,” Forbes. Forbes Magazine (25 March 2012). 93 Bruce Nussbaum. “4 Reasons Why the Future of Capitalism is Homegrown, Small Scale, and Independent,” Co.Design. n.p. Web. 94 May Mgbolu. “Millennials are on the Frontlines of Social Innovation to End Discrimination (03 April 2012).” n.p. Web. 95 Meg Brown, AIA, and Cliff Moser, AIA LEEP AP. “Tethered Millennials: Training the Net Generation.” Ameican Institute of Architects. n.p. Web. n.d. Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content [ACADEMIC] RESEARCH

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[Revised] Thesis Statement A new age of rapidly evolving social technology paired with political unrest and an economic downturn have created a new level of awareness and agility amongst the emerging Millennial generation. Social shifts and skepticism are translating into compelling creative, communal, and interdisciplinary skills. An entitled sense of purpose and confidence in their ability to enact creative solutions is setting the stage for an experimental, limitless architecture just as adaptable and excited for change as they are.


[[developing a]]

MILLENNIAL VOCABULARY

CONNECTIVITY

access to so much information- more aware, and more skeptical. less likely to trust the media// politicians// corporations access to all sorts of opinions, all over the world, connecting with like-minded people// and pop up support communities. “transactions” are no longer just monetary; more about connections with people than exchange of product. ex. coffee shop culture isn’t about consumerism- it’s about creating an atmosphere//an experience, like consuming a play.

PRODUCTIVITY

like to build/make/invent. like to solve problems in innovative and collaborative ways. we appreciate raw, human, man-made, creative solutions. more interested in fashion, food, and the arts than previous generations. self-expresive, imaginative, and interdisciplinary.

DIVERSITY

moving back into cities over suburbs. enjoy dense, mixed-use neighborhoods where the opportunities for interaction and the spread of ideas and opinions is higher. dense environments are more productive, and more eco-friendly [lowest carbon footprint is in manhattan]. affordable density.

VERSATILITY

simultaneously grounded + nomadic. less likely to buy cars and homes; more likely to rent apartments and share lodging, use zip cars and car shares. love public transportation. products of globalization but also identify locally // the way a gothic cathedral is both place specific and universal.

SIMULTANEITY

real world interactions become increasingly sought out because of the developing virtual world. enjoy wi-fi hot spots where everyone can sit on our laptops, but sit on them amongst other people also on their laptops. we experience the world differently because half of our attention is on the physical world while the other half is in the virtual world // in our headphones and in our smar phones. we shop online, and we shop at local markets. we exist in local environments and we exist on facebook.

IDENTITY

don’t identify with the college -> career -> corporate ladder climb -> retirement timeline of previous generations. would rather invent a job than find one. startup culure. meaning over money.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


[[developing an]]

ARCHITECTURAL VOCABULARY

CONNECTIVITY

through SITE SELECTION + CIRCULATION

PRODUCTIVITY through PROGRAM

DIVERSITY through PROGRAM LAYOUT

VERSATILITY through LIMITED “[over-]DESIGN”

SIMULTANEITY through CHARACTER OF SPACE

IDENTITY through FORM

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

ARCHITECTURAL VOCABULARY

45


LEARNING FROM PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

connectivity: a university master plan productivity: a new york city skyscraper diversity: a co-housing community versatility: a community library simultaneity: a velodrome for buenos aires identity: a university dormitory


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

49


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

51


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

53


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

55


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

57


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

PAST DESIGN PROJECTS

59


SITE SELECTION


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Philadelphia Neighborhood Map

metro

polita

metro

polita

n bord ers,

2010

n bord ers

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

, 1960

SITE SELECTION

63


Largest municipal park system in Eastern US Fairmount Park

Under•utilized potential

adandoned infrastructure with opportunities for re•use

Central Location in NE mega-region Connections to NY, DC, + rest of country from 30th Street Station

Transformative US History First capital

2 3

metrop

olitan

1 4

border

s, 201 0

minute walk 10 0m nu ute ew k 20 minu minute walk uew alk lk k

6

5

30 minute nute e walk lk k

Destination for tourism

7

Art, Science, Culture, History 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Liveable, walkable, + adaptable

30th Street Station Philadelphia Art Museum Barnes Foundation // Franklin Institute LOVE Park Kimmel Center Independence Plaza Penn’s Landing

89 93

87 97

88

A city that’s growing: urban expansion

5th most walkable city; average walk score of 74

Girard Ave

READING VIADUCT

40th Street

Spring Garden

l

h

Metropolitan Borders, 1960

Washington Ave

Population [in millions]

i a e p ia Popu ation C ange 1790-2010

South Street

Ph l d l h

Metropolitan Borders, 2010

2.5 1,529,006

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 1800 1850 Source: US Census Bureau

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

1900

1950

2000 2010

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


READING VIADUCT [Chinatown/Callowill-North: Neithborhood at a Turning Point] Opportunities for Growth//Limitless Connections with History//Opportunities for Re-Adaption “your grandfather’s railroad re-adapted in ways he couldn’t have imagined” Wilderness amidst urban jungle Potential for corridor connecting Center City to North Philadelphia Diverse and Growing Neighborhood

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE SELECTION

65


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

Design Intent Current Viaduct Concept Plan proposes an elevated park, not unlike the NYC High Line or the Parisian Promenade Plantee. The intent of this project is to utilize this greenway on a multi-dimensional level in accordance with the modern, millennial design values. Reading Viaduct: Opportunities for Growth/Limitless Connections with history// Opportunities for adaption: “your grandfather’s railroad re-imagined in ways he couldn’t have imagined” Wilderness amidst urban jungle Potential for corridor connection Center City + North Philadelphia Diverse and Growing Neighbhorhood

design goals connectivity • productivity • diversity • versatility • simultaneity • identiy

empowerment of the individual in a community setting -invigorate local economy permanent: bring in people to permanently occupy the space; the “regulars;” live/work and stabilize local economy temporary: people to visit and activate the area -encourage interactions/the mixing of ideas/creativity -provide means for distriubuting and producing goods production spaces + vendor units [two types] [long-term]: within living units / modern day residential units with transforming storefronts below [short-term]: vendor stations that can be built in production facility and positioned on viaduct. re-located and re-designed as needed

DESIGN INTENT

67


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE ANALYSIS

75


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE ANALYSIS

77


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE ANALYSIS

79


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE ANALYSIS

81


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SITE ANALYSIS

83


SCHEMATIC DESIGN


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

87


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

89


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

91


DESIGN


FOUNDATION DETAIL concrete slab foundation wall

[phase one].

Existing structures are demo’ed + removed from site. Site is partially excavated, and foundation is poured in place.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

grade beam and rebar wire mesh underslab rigid insulation vapor barrier compacted fill

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


FRAMING PLAN 24’-0”

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18’-0”

19’-0” 16’-0”

19’-0” 16’-0”

19’-0” 16’-0”

15’-0”

15’-0”

15’-0”

15’-0”

15’-0”

16’-0” 8’-0”

16’-0” 8’-0”

16’-0” 8’-0”

8’-0” 0’-0”

8’-0” 0’-0”

8’-0” 0’-0”

16’-0”

16’-0”

30’-0”

30’-0”

heights shown from face of concrete slab to b.o. of truss multiple heights = multiple stories

16’-0” 30’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

60’-0”

60’-0”

60’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

60’-0”

60’-0”

60’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

STEEL FRAME DETAIL W10x54 Column W8x54 Girder

thru bolted to column

Open web steel truss

[phase two].

Steel structure set in place. Freight elevators brought on site.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

95


SLAB DETAIL

metal decking wire mesh poured in place concrete slab

DETAIL AT CONCRETE CURB + STEEL TRACK steel track metal plate rubber roofing membrane concrete curb poured in place concrete metal decking

[phase three].

Floor and roof slabs poured in place. Concrete curbs and steel tracks installed over column lines.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


The Trestle Inn Gogo and Whiskey Bar

WALL SECTION KMER Art Gallery Cambodian Art Collection

Vox Populi Art Gallery

Artist Collective: exhibits/talks/performances/etc.

Liao Collection Asian Antiques

[reflective] dropped ceiling light shelf louvers catwalk

steel studs batt insulation weather resistive barrier pintels secured to studs

brick facade grade

[phase four].

Brick facade closes off production area. Interior walls and mechanical systems installed; production machinery brought on site. Electrical wiring installed over tracks, connecting to viaduct

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

flashing

DESIGN

97


RAMP/STAIR HYBRID social + circulation stair ADA ramp

axon

collapsed axon

KINETIC FACADE

pattern reminiscent of QR code

[phase five].

350mm sq. lumber cut in production area; installed in conjunction with steel ramps for vertical circulation Kinetic facade constructed on icon element.

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

images courtesy ned kahn + UAP

6x6 metal reflective panels • respond to airflow • reflect skyline across vine street expressway

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


preliminary live/share unit design:

[phase six].

Construction of live/work/share vertical kits in production space; brought up freight elevators + constructed on site. Landscaping + hardscaping elements brought on site.

Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

99


Transforming Live/Work Units adaptable throughout the day modular: can be stacked/fits into grid of viaduct design

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

101


rainwater collection

DISTRIBUTION LEVEL viaduct level

shell tube heat exchanger

COMMUNITY LEVEL "second floor"

storage •  stock room • tools

terrace

service • loading / unloading

studio north studio

vocal booth

finishing/ painting

assembly

control room recording studio lounge

manual machining welding metal fabrication

small kitchen

south studio

cyclorama

photo studio

dark room

large format printing

wood shop

mechanical laser cutting/ engraving

wet lab/microlab

cnc machining

shop utilities

grinding/plasma room

PRODUCTION LEVEL "ground floor"

Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

103


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

105


Drexel University Architectural Thesis

2012-2013

Monica Gaura


Evolutionary Architecture: Adapting Millennial Values to Architectural Form & Content

DESIGN

107


Thesis process