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Running Head: Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body

Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Melissa M. Fipps Graduate Ministry Wesley Seminary Indiana Wesleyan University January 2012


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Abstract This project explores how an improved understanding of communion might lead to an enhanced experience and improved communication from generation to generation beginning with the origin of communion and common practices as well as learning styles of children and the theological implications of communion—including offering it to children. A small research study within a local church sheds light onto that congregation‘s current understanding of communion and types of communion events that have helped make an impact on those individuals and families, leading to possible actions the congregation can take to assist families as they teach their children about communion.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1 Background to the Study............................................................................................................. 1 The Problem Statement ............................................................................................................... 2 Objectives of the Study ............................................................................................................... 2 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 3 General Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 3 Structure of the Study ................................................................................................................. 4 Chapter 2 Literature Review ........................................................................................................... 5 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 5 Implications of Communion as Shared Sacrament ..................................................................... 5 Childhood Development and Learning Implications .................................................................. 8 Ministry Implications .................................................................................................................. 9 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 11 Chapter 3 Theological Reflection ................................................................................................. 12 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 12 Biblical Connections ................................................................................................................. 12 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 13 Chapter 4 Research Method .......................................................................................................... 15 Research Problem Summary ..................................................................................................... 15

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Research Method and Reason ................................................................................................... 15 Population and Sample Size...................................................................................................... 16 Steps to be Taken ...................................................................................................................... 17 Research Tool ........................................................................................................................... 19 Chapter 5 Research Findings ........................................................................................................ 21 Introduction to Findings ............................................................................................................ 21 Findings..................................................................................................................................... 21 Chapter 6 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................... 28 Research Problem ..................................................................................................................... 28 Summary of the Research Method ............................................................................................ 28 Explanation of Study Limitations ............................................................................................. 31 Chapter 7 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 33 Brief Restatement of Research Problem ................................................................................... 33 Summary of Key Results .......................................................................................................... 33 Solution or Program .................................................................................................................. 33 Implications of the Study .......................................................................................................... 34 Suggestions for Future Research .............................................................................................. 37 References ..................................................................................................................................... 38 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 39

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 1 Introduction Background to the Study Crossroads Community Church has experienced a great deal of growth over the past ten to twenty years. The new attendees come from a variety of backgrounds ranging from little to no church experience to Catholicism to the Church of Christ denomination and many more. The diversity and large growth within a relatively short time period have resulted in varying degrees of understanding of common church practices, such as communion. The communion portion of the worship service came about due to Jesus‘ words to the Apostles during his last meal with them before he was arrested. During the meal they were sharing, which happened to be the Passover meal, he told them that the bread was like his body. Then, he broke it and told them to eat it. He took the wine and told them that it was like his blood that would be shed for them. He told them to drink it. Finally, Jesus told them to continue to do those things in order to remember him. Beginning with the early church, throughout history Christians have eaten small pieces of bread (usually unleavened, since that was the type of bread eaten during the Passover meal) and drank a small portion of wine or grape juice. (Grape juice has become more common in Protestant congregations, especially in the United States, since wine is typically not served to those less than twenty-one years of age.) This celebratory act has become known as communion, because it is practiced when Christians come together—or commune, remember Jesus‘ sacrifice of dying on the cross for the sins of the world, and celebrate his victory over death through resurrection. Crossroads has made a declaration to families, church members, and the community. They believe families should take most of the ownership in teaching children about God, the

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Bible, and their faith. They believe that one hour out of one hundred sixty-eight hours in a week is not enough to teach children about God sufficiently. They believe that children learn by example and look to their parents for leadership. The Problem Statement The communion service, when discussed within the context of the worship service, is often fraught with ―churchy‖ words which are confusing and unfamiliar to children. Crossroads often offers communion without giving much explanation to it, mostly due to the time constraints of the morning. Most children typically attend a separate age-appropriate worship service. Although communion is sometimes discussed during that service, it is not typically offered. In addition, attendance studies at Crossroads have indicated that many families only attend two weeks out of every four. So chances are not high for a child to hear communion explained during a children‘s or adult service. Therefore, it is necessary to study the current understanding of communion by churchgoers and the pastoral staff of Crossroads Community Church in Kokomo, Indiana, in order to prepare families to teach their children and teens about communion. Objectives of the Study Research was gathered of churchgoers and pastoral staff in order to learn what they know about communion, in general. Participants were asked if they had ever explained communion to a child or youth. If so, they were asked to share, to the best of their knowledge, what they had told the child or youth. They were also asked what special memories, if any, they had in regards to communion. By asking these questions, one can learn the types of things churchgoers know. It was possible to identify terms with which churchgoers relate to communion but may not be able to

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body explain adequately to children or youth. It was also possible to identify types of experiences that have helped churchgoers better understand communion. Significance of the Study Communion has been celebrated by almost every Christian since Jesus‘ resurrection. This common thread connects Christians of today with Christians of the past; it connects Christians of every denomination; it connects Protestants and Catholics. It is a significant part of the Church‘s heritage. Over the last several centuries, communion in many congregations has become a time of quiet contemplation, a confusing ritual in which only certain people within the church body are allowed to serve or participate. However, when Jesus instigated this ritual, it was during a friendly gathering of close friends and family for a meal. (It should also be noted that the Catholic Church and some Protestant denominations view the communion elements as actually becoming the body and blood of Christ, instead of just representing them.) By determining what people have understood from their parents and what types of communion services have been meaningful to them, the catholic Church can both better educate their parishioners and offer communion in meaningful ways. General Conclusions Although churchgoers had diverse experiences involving communion, they did find it to be a meaningful part of the worship service. They did not all use the same language when describing communion. However, some similar words with comparable meanings were mentioned. For example, the words remembrance, remember, and remind were used by twentythree participants. Seven people mentioned ―sacrifice‖, while eleven people mentioned

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body something regarding what Christ had done. Putting these three categories together, one can see that at least one third to one half of the participants understood communion as a time to remember Christ‘s sacrifice and resurrection. Most participants felt that a shared communion experience was more meaningful, and therefore, more memorable. Almost all of those shared experiences involved a spouse and one or more family members. They recalled special services involving families sharing communion as well as taking communion with their family as a child during weekly communion services. Participants enjoy and cherish times when Crossroads and other congregations offer communion in ways that encourage families to participate together. Some participants felt that communion was not explained in depth often enough during weekly worship services. This, coupled with the observed reluctance or inability to describe communion to others, may be reason to explore venues in which communion might be shared and explained in more detail. Structure of the Study Chapter two will outline information gathered from peer reviews and other educational sources, while chapter three focuses on the theological implications of the study. The research method will be defined and explained in chapter four with the results following in chapter five. The analysis of the collected data will be covered in chapter six with the final conclusion occurring in chapter seven.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 2 Literature Review Introduction The purpose of this literature review is to explore the role of communion in the Church and assess the role of parents and of the Church in teaching children about communion. Throughout Old Testament scripture, the people of God used physical items to remind them and stand as a witness to others of God‘s power and working within their lives. Sometimes alters or piles of stones served as the reminder. For instance, Jacob‘s father-in-law, Laban, did not like Jacob. After twenty years of working to earn the hand of Laban‘s daughters in marriage and to earn some flocks, Jacob decided to leave. While sneaking out, Laban‘s younger daughter, Rachel, stole the family‘s idols from her father. Upon learning that Jacob, Leah, Rachel and the idols were gone, Laban went after Jacob. However, God spoke to Laban telling him not to harm Jacob, so Laban conceded to make a peace covenant. Jacob had his family make a pile of stones as a reminder of their covenant (Genesis 31). Other times, a ritual or celebration feast served as a reminder of a covenant with God or as a reminder of what God had done. God commanded Abraham and all of his descendants to be circumcised as a sign and reminder of His covenant with them as their God (Genesis 17). Implications of Communion as Shared Sacrament Sacraments should symbolize that the presence of God is accessible, according to Liderbach (1991), and reminds the worshipper that Christ is alive. Sacraments should be the reason Christians gather together. Communion ―directs the person to an awareness of a new dimension of the world‖ (Liderbach, 1991, p. 223). Communion allows worshippers to ―confess‖

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body their faith in God to others and ―confess‖ their belief that they share with other believers the promise of everlasting life through Jesus Christ. (Liderbach, 1991) Barnabas Lindars noted John‘s thoughts on communion in his article, ―Word and Sacrament in the Fourth Gospel‖. Although John left out part of the traditional wording used in most communion services, John still saw the importance of the so-called ‗first communion‘. His inclusion of Jesus washing the disciples‘ feet reveals that communion is not just an empty ritual. It is, instead, a reminder that the baptized believer has a responsibility of discipleship to the Church. (Lindars, 1976) Communion is often thought of as being a very personal interaction between God and the worshipper. However, G. Raymond Carlson takes the definition of communion a step further. He believes communion begins in fellowship with God, resulting in fellowship with one another, and finally resulting in a spiritual cleansing. His explanation for this interpretation can be found by looking at Revelation 2:1-7. Carlson explains that this passage recognizes the church at Ephesus as upholding doctrine, hating evil, and being known for their works. However, they were without faith, hope, and love. Fellowship with God requires faith in Him, not just obeying the rules. Good works shown to others is not enough; one must have a genuine love for those they serve. Finally, hating evil does not provide hope; but being cleansed by God does produce hope in a future and continuing relationship with God. (Carlson, 1979). Fourth-Century Christians shared communion during their gatherings. According to Ruth, Steenwyk, and Witvliet, at least some of those Christians living in and around Jerusalem during the fourth century had very strict regulations regarding participation in communion. Those who had not been baptized were not allowed to go into the room where the communion took place. It

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body was a special sacrament that was only shared among the baptized believers. (Ruth, Steenwyk, & Witvliet, 2010) It should be noted that communion services differ between Catholic and Protestant faiths, and even within the Protestant denominations. The Roman Catholic Church has very strict rules concerning who is allowed to touch the elements, because they believe the elements actually become the body and blood of Christ. Some protestant denominations agree with this theology; however, some do not. Some denominations focus on the personal aspect while others look at communion as a shared act of community. Some congregations serve communion from a common loaf of bread and common cup of juice, while others have individual servings for each person. Some take communion all at once, while others let believers take it when they feel ready. Only a few congregations choose not to offer communion. So, even though it may look very different, communion is a common thread between most Christians. (Bence, 2011) Although most Christians seem to agree that communion is a shared sacrament, not all of those same believers feel that children should participate. Matthew Mason contends that there is biblical evidence for allowing children, even infants, partake in the ritual. He contends that the Passover meal was eaten as a family. There is nothing indicating that infants or children under a certain age were prohibited from participating; tradition only indicates that participating children are assigned questions to ask during the Passover meal. Mason also indicates that there are similarities and connections between communion and the Bread of the Presence, as well as the Passover. The Bread of the Presence was reserved for priests. However, according to the New Testament, all baptized believers are made part of a holy priesthood. This would give any baptized believer the right to participate in communion. Finally, Mason compares Peace Offerings with communion. The male leader of the household made the peace offering and, as

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body seen in I Samuel 1, verses three through eight, he would give some of the meat to his wives and children – even though they might not have fully understood the act of the peace offering. (Mason, 2007) Childhood Development and Learning Implications There are multiple stages of cognitive development recognized by experts such as Jean Piaget. According to Piaget, people assimilate information into categories of information of which they are already familiar. When previously categorized information is challenged, the person must re-assess the information and draw new conclusions. This is often observed in children as they experience and hear information from the Bible. Stories have often been told of children that want to know when the snack will be passed out or report that David must have been an excellent farmer due to his many combines. James D. Foster and Glen T. Moran examine the relationship between Jesus‘ style of teaching in parables and Piaget‘s theory in the article, “Piaget and Parables: The Convergence of Secular and Scriptural Views of Learning,” (Foster & Moran, 1985). Stonehouse looks at many aspects of psychological and faith-based childhood development through the eyes of other experts, such as Ana-Maria Rizzuto and Robert Coles. Rizzuto and Coles studied children and their awareness of and relationship with God. As children grow and learn more about God, their faith is affected. According to Stonehouse, ―[James W.] Fowler examined the faith of children, youth, and adults and identified specific changes in faith as it developed,‖ (Stonehouse, 1998, p. 146). Children and adults learn in various ways or styles. Uchenna Ogu and Suzie Reynard Schmidt looked at how one classroom of kindergartners learned about and made connections between rocks and sand in their article, “Investigating Rocks and Sand: Addressing Multiple

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Learning Styles through an Inquiry-Based Approach.” Students were allowed to ask questions, wonder about results, study rocks and sand, and draw their own conclusions. By allowing students to construct their own learning, instead of being lectured to in the traditional manner, they gained a deeper understanding of rocks and sand and their relationship to one another. (Ogu & Schmidt, 2009) Learning styles are also impacted by the social relationship between students and teachers, according to Daisuke Akiba and Kimberly Alkins in their article, ―Learning: The Relationship Between a Seemingly Mundane Concept and Classroom Practices.‖ When students feel safe, trust their instructor, and have a relationship with them, this impacts learning, regardless of the students‘ learning styles. (Akiba & Alkins, 2010) Ministry Implications The world is constantly changing; this is a widely agreed-upon fact. As ministry leaders have begun to look at post-modern society, they have found the need to change the way in which ministry is accomplished. Younger evangelicals (approximately, those believers under twenty) do not wish to participate blindly in rituals. They do, however, have a thirst and desire to learn about ancient traditions and customs. Many find something missing in contemporary worship practices. (Webber, 2002) In Postmodern Youth Ministry, Jones made the discovery that students were willing to learn in ways that once seemed outdated and very traditional. His team planned confirmation classes in which youth participated. They were required to study and memorize scripture along with attending classes. Jones and others stated that ministry leaders from the modern era need to recognize postmodern needs and rethink the way ministry is done. (Jones, 2001)

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body James Evans contends that worship originally occurred in the home. Before the Temple was built, there was no other place for worship to happen. It was expected to be taught to children by parents. Even after the temple was built, most worship occurred in the home. Even in the early New Testament church, Paul traveled from house to house while delivering the message of Christ. According to Evans, home worship does three things: it removes the spectator aspect; it helps worship become a daily part of a believer‘s life; and it helps to develop an authentic faith. (Evans, 1995) Parents spend the most time and have the most influence on their children when it comes to faith learning. Looking at the role of community and family within faith development, Ivy Beckwith explores how children‘s ministry can influence the post-modern child in her book entitled, Postmodern Children’s Ministry. Parental involvement can be seen from a learning aspect as well as a ministry aspect. Parents want to be active in their children‘s faith learning, but do not always have those skills, especially if they are fairly new Christians, themselves. (Beckwith, 2004) According to Kathleen Cotton in her booklet series, Lifelong Learning Skills, parents can play an important role in affecting their child‘s learning. Parents who actively participate in the learning process help their child to become a lifelong learner and have a positive attitude towards learning. (Cotton, 1998) In Jerome Berryman‘s book entitled, Teaching Godly Play: the Sunday Morning Handbook, he identifies six objectives helpful in leading children to ―encounter God and find direction in their lives‖(Berryman, 1995, p. 17). These objectives include modeling religious language, linking meaning to that language through experiences, allowing children to make their own learning objectives, organizing the learning according to the natural flow of the Christian

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Year, modeling and allowing children to work together with others within the community, and creating a learning environment in which children naturally experience religious language and make connections between language and their biblical knowledge. (Berryman, 1995) Conclusion As seen in this literature review, a large gathering of children will include those of differing developmental stages, faith stages, learning styles, and previous knowledge bases. Instructing a large group of varying ages of children demands more teaching styles and environments than mere lecture-based (preaching) models afford. Even Jesus recognized the need to teach in varying styles using parables and hands-on experience with his disciples. Parents play a large role in faith-based learning, as children learn most of their faith-knowledge from their parents. God knew this and designed families to pass down faith from generation to generation. Many adults and children do not understand the connection between Old Testament celebrations and rituals and New Testament fulfillment of scripture. Intentional family ministry can combine the aspects of communion, childhood learning development, differing learning styles, the impact of family on learning and ministry implications to initiate learning opportunities for children and their families through exploration, experimentation, and experiential learning to connect ancient and traditional practices and rituals such as the Passover and Holy Communion with one another in an effort to more fully understand the nature of God and the Bible.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 3 Theological Reflection Introduction Although evaluating other‘s research is helpful, going back to the source of communion is necessary. Communion is mentioned by multiple writers of the New Testament. Jesus celebrated the first communion with his disciples shortly before he was arrested. It is evident from scripture written by Paul that some form of communion was celebrated by the early church. As something is more frequently passed down from generation to generation, its likelihood of being changed increases. So, if a person living 2000 years after Jesus‘ assent into Heaven wishes to increase his or her understanding of communion, studying its origin and practices of those who first participated becomes pertinent. Biblical Connections Jesus initiated the idea of the modern-day communion service while partaking of the Passover meal with the disciples just before his denial, arrest, death, and resurrection. ―While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, ‗Take and eat; this is my body.‘ Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, ‗Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins‘‖ (Matthew 26:26-28, New International Version). The same account is referenced in Mark 14 and Luke 22. The Passover meal was instituted by God to the Israelite people and their descendants as stated in Exodus chapter 12. The Israelites had been held in captivity by Pharaoh and the Egyptians. Moses and his brother Aaron delivered messages from God to Pharaoh via verbal warnings and ten subsequent plagues. Before the tenth plague, the people of Israel were given

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body explicit instructions from God for a meal involving the blood of a lamb and unleavened bread. Households were to find ―year-old males without defect…from the sheep or the goats‖ and ―take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs‖ (Exodus 12:6, 7). Carefully following these and the rest of the instructions delivered by Moses enabled the Israelites to escape the ensuing punishment of God upon the Egyptians and household of Pharaoh (Exodus 12:12-13). The celebration of their deliverance from the LORD and the Egyptians is referred to as the Passover and Feast of the Unleavened Bread, respectively. Paul refers to Jesus as our Passover sacrifice in I Corinthians 5:7. Then, in I Corinthians 10:16, Paul says that the cup is the communion, or fellowship, of the blood of Christ and the unleavened bread is the fellowship of the body of Christ. The first century church began the tradition of drinking the wine (or juice) and eating the unleavened bread when they gathered together in worship; their focus was on Christ and was a celebration (Ruth et al., 2010). As time passed, different interpretations of the meaning of the bread and wine arose. As referenced by Dr. Clarence Bence, Roman Catholic priests quoted Jesus saying, ―this is the body of me‖ (Bence, 2011). Those of the Catholic faith also had, and still have, strict regulations for the treatment of the bread and wine, because they believe the items actually become the body and blood of Christ. In contrast, Evangelicals believe the sacraments only represent Jesus‘ body and blood. The Lord‘s Supper is used as a time of remembrance of Christ‘s sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins and his resurrection, conquering death and providing the gift of salvation. Conclusion The writer of Hebrews describes in detail how Jesus became the ultimate and perfect sacrifice for the Church. Because of his undeserved sacrifice, it is no longer necessary for the

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body high priests to sacrifice animals to pay for the sins of the people. Jesus became the Lamb of God; He became the High Priest. He opened the way for the entire church to be able to enter into God‘s presence. This is why Jesus told the apostles that the bread was like his body, broken and no longer whole. That is why Jesus told the disciples that the cup was like his body—blood poured out—a sign of the covenant that began with Abraham and continued with Moses. This is why Jesus told the apostles to continue eating the bread, drinking the ―wine‖, and remembering that Jesus was the sacrifice. (Hebrews) The apostles observed Jesus‘ actions and then participated in the first communion as followers and disciples of Christ. Eventually, they came to more fully understand the meaning of communion. Then, they shared their understanding with others as they shared in the celebratory act. In this same way, the church continues to allow those who follow Christ and call themselves disciples (even though they may yet be children) to observe and share in communion. As time passes, the children and adults more fully understand communion and are able to share its meaning with others. It is the responsibility of those who have a greater understanding of communion to share with those who are just learning about communion.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 4 Research Method Research Problem Summary The study of churchgoers‘ understanding and interpretation of communion is an important pre-step to writing curriculum that will assist church families as they teach children and students in their lives about communion. This is especially true in a larger congregation that has attendees from varied denominational backgrounds and with a varied degree of instruction on the matter. Crossroads Community Church in Kokomo, Indiana, has made a declaration to D6. ―So, what is D6 again? D6 is a strategy shift at Crossroads that is based on Deuteronomy 6:4-9. We want to adjust the focus of ministry from the church to the home, and become a spiritual partner to it rather than the sole spiritual provider for it,‖ (CCC, 2011a). The church leaders made the decision to come alongside parents, supporting them and providing them with the tools necessary to teach the children in their lives about God, the Bible, church doctrine and church history. Determining what the adults of the congregation know and understand will enable curriculum writers to focus attention to concepts and information which seems to be missing or perhaps even misinterpreted. Research Method and Reason Two variations of the qualitative method of gathering research will be utilized in an effort to gain both a general picture of understanding and a more in-depth picture of the understanding of churchgoers. First, all participants will be asked to a share what comes to mind when they hear or see the word, ‗communion‘. This will provide an overview of the thoughts and understandings of those surveyed. Second, six additional questions will be asked of participants before and after services on December 3-4, 2011 in order to gain a better understanding of the

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body background of the interviewees and their knowledge on the subject. In addition, eight members of the pastoral staff will be given the full list of questions during in-depth interviews on Wednesday, December 7, 2011. The next generations pastor—who is transitioning to become the senior pastor—along with the worship, administrative, and media/communications pastors will be asked to elaborate on the ways in which the serving of communion has changed over the last twenty years. The children‘s, administrative and next generations pastors will be asked their feelings regarding children participating in the communion service. Population and Sample Size Those people participating in the study are adult churchgoers (whether regular attendees or members) of Crossroads Community Church in Kokomo, Indiana. Kokomo is a city in Central Indiana with a population of approximately 45000, according to 2010 census records. (Bureau, 2011.) Crossroads has a weekly average attendance of 1500-2000 people, with approximately 2500 to 3500 calling Crossroads their ―home‖ church. Crossroads began as Union Church of the Northern Indiana Association of Separate Baptists with nine people in 1846. They changed their name to Oakford Baptist Church during their move to Oakford, Indiana, a small town just south and east of Kokomo. As they grew, new buildings were constructed. Eventually, they purchased a large parcel of land at the intersection of State Road 26 and US 31 and once again changed their name. This name change, to Crossroads Community Church, also marked the official move to part from the Baptist denomination and become an independent church body. (CCC, 2011b) As Church of the Northern Indiana Association of Separate Baptists, the congregation rarely participated in a communion, once or twice per year. Beginning in the 1980‘s, they began to participate in communion more often, four to twelve times per year. In 2000, the church body

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body voted to change their name from Oakford Baptist Church to Crossroads Community Church, making an official move to an independent church, separate from the Baptist denomination. By thier final name change, they were participating in communion almost every week. Their youth ministry also offers communion during their weekly morning and evening services. However, their elementary children‘s ministry does not currently offer communion on a regular basis in their age-appropriate services. (L. Fipps, personal communication, November 29, 2011) (CCC, 2011b) Approximately forty to fifty people will participate in the study. The same initial question will be posed to ten to twenty willing adult participants attending a weekend service on Saturday, December 3, or Sunday, December 4, 2011. In addition, in-depth interviews will be conducted with twenty to twenty-five family units, whether single adults or married adult couples, on December 3 and 4. Interviews will also be conducted with five to ten members of the Crossroads pastoral staff on December 6. Steps to be Taken 1. Request permission from the pastor and other church staff of Crossroads Community Church to conduct the study. 2. Prepare Research Tool. a. Write and print the appropriate number of copies of the Confidentiality Agreement. b. Write the questions to ask attendees during the interview process. c. Write the questions to ask during the church staff interviews. 3. Make arrangements for any necessary equipment and space to be used during the interviews.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body a. Get permission to use a classroom or other appropriate space. b. Determine what days and times the interviews will take place with attendees and church staff. c. Arrange to use special lighting and camera equipment. i. Get instructions on how to assemble and use the equipment. ii. Know where the equipment will be located for pick up. iii. If available, arrange to have individuals to assist in assembling and running the equipment. Be sure to have all assistants sign confidentiality statements, including the fact that they should hold answers they hear in confidentiality. 4. Be prepared for interview sessions. a. Arrive early to any prearranged interview sessions. b. Make sure all equipment is properly set up and working correctly. c. Have available all necessary paperwork and writing utensils. d. Distribute staff interview questions to them ahead of time, so they may be fully prepared to answer your questions. This also will show them that you value their time and input. 5. Digitally record interview sessions for more accurate data analysis. 6. Keep all records organized. a. Collect all paperwork into a folder labeled, ―data‖. b. Keep digital copies of interviews in data folder.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Confidentiality Interviewees will complete confidentiality forms containing their names and signatures and other general information about them. Any personal information (name, phone number and email address) will be kept confidential. Specific information directly relating to the study will be shared in the data analysis of the study. These same research results will be shared with the Crossroads staff, the student‘s instructor and classmates, and anyone else who reads the research paper. Research Tool A release of information form was modified and then provided to and signed by each participant. A copy of this modified form can be found in the Appendix. The following question is for the random ten to twenty people whose answer will be digitally recorded in person: 1. "What comes to mind when you hear or see the word ―communion‖? The following questions are to be asked of all in-depth interviewees: 2. What comes to mind when you hear or see the word ―communion‖? 3. Do you have any special memories related to communion? 4. Have you ever discussed communion with children or youth of whom you have spiritual influence? (If ‗yes‘) Please, describe one of those times, as best as you can. 5. Do you know any other words associated with communion? (If ‗yes) Please list and possibly explain one or two of them. 6. If someone asked you what communion was, how would you explain it to them? 7. Are there any other things about communion that you would like to share with me?

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body These additional questions will be asked of the next generations, worship, administrative, and media/communications pastors: 1. Please, describe the frequency and ways in which communion is currently offered at Crossroads. 2. How has the communion service changed over the years that you have been at Oakford Baptist and Crossroads? 3. Please, describe Crossroads‘ official stance on children participating in communion. 4. What is your personal conviction regarding children participating in communion? 5. Do you have anything else you would like to share about communion as it relates to Crossroads Community Church?

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 5 Research Findings Introduction to Findings Although there were a large variety of answers to the interview questions, some trends stood out in during the gathering of research. The terms participants associated with communion, whether initially, through a special memory, or as a part of explaining communion to others, were easily dividable into three categories. Many participants were able to identify at least one special memory associated with communion, when asked. Some participants related to communion as a more personal time whereas others related the experience to a communal time of sharing. Most participants had explained communion to a child, teen or adult at some point in their life. Generally speaking, the majority of participants had a positive overall view of communion. Findings Words interchangeable with communion (out of 14 responses)

Table 5-1

2

3

Eucharist Lord's supper 1

3

Last Supper Intinction Sop

5

The participants‘ words associated with communion can be divided into three general categories: terms interchangeable with ‗communion‘, terms associated with the physical 21


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body components of ‗communion‘, and other terms used when describing the meaning of ‗communion‘. The five interchangeable terms mentioned were Eucharist, the Lord's Supper, the Last Supper, Intinction and Sop (the latter two being more descriptive terms referring to the type of communion service) as can be seen in Table 5-1. The Last Supper, referring to what is commonly recognized as the first communion instigated by Jesus during what is understood to have been a Passover meal celebrated by the apostles and Jesus just before His betrayal and crucifixion, was the most term expressed most often. Only one person mentioned the term intinction, a term indicating bread dipped into grape juice or wine. Instead, sop was used three times to describe the same act at Crossroads. Table 5-2

Terms associated with the physical components of communion

number of people who used the term

25

20

elements

20

sacraments 15

15

13

13

bread 10

10

unleaven bread broken (body) cup

5

5

6

juice

5

wine 1

Christ's/Jesus' blood shed

0

The second category, ‗terms associated with the physical components of communion‘, was larger and slightly more varied (Table 5-2). Throughout the interview process, interviewees referred to these terms referring to the components of the communion service. Although five people mentioned unleavened bread, most people just said, ―bread.‖ Occasionally, wafer or cracker was used, but the participant would usually follow up with ―bread.‖

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Even though Crossroads uses grape juice in their communion services, thirteen people still referred to the drink as wine. Again, they would usually follow the statement with ―or [grape] juice.‖ Thirteen people mentioned the broken body of Jesus [Christ], while fifteen mentioned His [Jesus Christ‘s] blood that was shed. Only one person used the word, sacraments, in reference to the bread/cracker/wafer and wine/juice. Table 5-3

Words used when describing the meaning of communion

16

number of people who used the term

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

sacrifice

sacred

covenant

rembrance

remember

remind

examine

Christ (he) did/has done

fellowship

celebrate (celebratory)

symbol (symbolize)

The third category contains terms participants typically linked with the act of describing communion to another person (Table 5-3). Most items were listed during interviewees‘ responses to the first question, but were again used to describe the meaning of communion. Seven people 23


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body referenced Jesus‘ sacrifice for the believer. Covenant was mentioned by only one person, while the words remembrance, remember, and remind were used by a collective total of twenty-three persons. Table 5-4

General focus of information shared regarding communion (out of 47 people interviewed)

11 17

19

shared with others, done as group/church, unity, commune, together personal, reflect, remember

In general, interviewees‘ responses were almost evenly balanced between a personal event and a communal/shared event (Table 5-4). This was determination was made by considering participants‘ word choices. A participant was thought to have a more communal focus if they mentioned such terms as group, family, commune, or together. If no reference was made to a group and words such as personal, reflect, or remember were used, they were noted as viewing communion as a more personal event. Twenty-three percent of the participants either did

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body not use any words indicating a particular focus preference, or they tended to use both types of Types of special memories associated with communion (out of 30 total responses)

7

12

shared with family shared with others

3

first communion no special memories

8

words in their descriptions. Table 5-5

The second question asked of most interviewees was, ―Do you have any special memories associated with communion?‖ Most participants were able to share a memory which ranged from a communal event with other church goers, a communal event shared with family members, or a personal memory relating to the first time communion was taken. A few participants could not think of a special memory linked to communion. Although the focus of the participants‘ first reaction to ‗communion‘ was fairly balanced between a shared, communal event, as opposed to a personal time of reflection, a greater number noted that their special memory was a shared experience rather than a solitary one (Table 5-5).

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Although most people shared about a serious moment shared with others, two people related a funny anecdote. One of those related the following story, ―While kneeling at the altar with my ten-year-old grandson, he kept tugging on my shirt, saying ‗Grandma, Grandma‘. Thinking he was going to say something profound, I asked him what he wanted. He proceeded to point out the large spider crawling on the next step. I quickly killed it, and we went back to our prayer. I figured it was God‘s way of reminding me that even He has a sense of humor.‖ Table 5-6

Have you ever explained communion to a child or teen? number of people questioned

35 30 25 20

no

15

yes

10 5 0

Most interviewees had explained communion to a child or teen (Table 5-6). Of those few who remained, some of them had explained communion to an adult. Most people discussed the sacrifice Jesus made, the bread/cracker representing Jesus‘ body, and the wine/juice representing Jesus‘ blood. Most indications of communion being a personal time of reflection and remembrance were mentioned as an explanation of communion to a child, teen or other adult. Most people who had explained communion to a child or teen had done so with their own children or grandchildren. A few people did not have children or grandchildren, but they work with children or teens in ministry. Only two people had never explained communion to a child or teen and had no regular opportunities to do so. 26


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body It should be noted that most participants had trouble coming up with words or terms that would be considered special or unique to communion and unfamiliar to someone with little to no knowledge of communion. Seven of the eighteen people initially responded, ―No,‖ when asked, ―Do you know any special words related to communion?‖ Even some staff members were initially hesitant to answer or could provide no answer, although they had mentioned several words fairly specific to communion in their answers to previous questions. Some pastoral staff members were asked additional questions regarding the communion practices of Crossroads during the past and present. These questions were mostly asked to clarify information shared in chapter four. However, some responses will be addressed during the analyzation process in chapter six.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 6 Data Analysis Research Problem As stated earlier, ―it is necessary to study the current understanding of communion by churchgoers and the pastoral staff of Crossroads Community Church in Kokomo, Indiana, in order to prepare families to teach their children and teens about communion‖. Summary of the Research Method Data for this research study was collected through an in-person interview process. About one-third to one-half of the participants were only asked one question, ―What comes to mind when you hear or see the word ‗communion‘?‖ The rest of the participants were also asked to describe a special memory associated with communion; to share how they have shared (or might share) the meaning of communion with a child, teen, or adult; and to list any special words associated with communion that they know. A few staff members also shared information regarding the history of the communion service at Crossroads Community (previously Oakford Baptist) Church. Interviews were digitally recorded for my convenience in reviewing the data. All participants were told that the research was being conducted by me for a master‘s class, and would also be shared with the CCC staff for their review and use. Each participant signed a release paper indicating their permission to use the data (but not their name or video) for the aforementioned reasons. Although each participant had diverse initial thoughts, some similar, some very dissimilar, one common thread was that communion was a meaningful part of the worship service just as it did with the early church. Whether or not they participate in communion on a weekly basis, no matter what type of communion service they prefer, all found it to be special

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body and have a definite purpose within the worship service. Brent Faulkner, the high school youth pastor, talked about the significance of communion throughout the history of communion. He explains it to youth this way, ―It [communion] is one of the things we do that almost every Christian throughout history has done.‖ He said that he wants teens to see the legacy and impact of communion and how it unifies the corporate church. Since Jesus‘ original teaching to the apostles commanded them to continue the practice of communion until his return, it is natural that this practice has pervaded into the modern-day New Testament church. Many of the participants‘ initial thoughts regarding communion focused on a personal time with God, remembering Christ‘s sacrifice through the bread and juice that are typically served during the ceremony. The words: remembrance, remember, remembering, reflect, and examine were used by ten of the forty-four people. Eighteen of the forty-four people mentioned the bread/cracker and/or the wine/juice as a first reaction to hearing the word, communion. By the end of each interview, almost every person had mentioned the bread/cracker and/or wine/juice and their significance as related to the crucified body and spilled blood of Jesus. Obviously, most participants connected Jesus‘ teaching to their own experience, using the bread and juice of the communion service as physical reminders of Jesus‘ sacrifice and resurrection just as the Israelite people remembered God‘s deliverance from Egypt by celebrating the Passover. Interestingly enough, even though many participants answered the first question using words indicating a personal time of reflection and introspection, almost every person who had a special memory associated with communion shared the experience with a small group or with family members. Several mentioned sharing it as children with their parents. Others mentioned sharing it as adults with their children or grandchildren. This was in spite of the fact that most

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body children attend a separate service geared towards them. Three people remembered their first communion. Tying in with this information was a statement made by the next generations pastor, Christian Duncan. During his interview, Duncan stated that, someday, he would like Crossroads to help parents lead children in their first communion the week after they are baptized; making it a special occasion much like the Passover meal was to each family member. All of the participants who had children had explained it to them at some point. However, many of those same people recalled not understanding their own parents‘ explanation when they were young. One staff member recalled his young child asking to ―drink the Kool-aid‖ and how it was very odd trying to explain such an abstract concept to a child. One churchgoer remembered not being allowed to take communion as a child, but the reason was not explained to him. As discussed earlier, children need concrete learning experiences to assist them with learning. In addition, learning styles differ from child to child. Making parents aware of these facts might aid them in teaching their children about such an abstract concept. Only learning about such things during a ten to fifteen minute portion of a worship service in which the child is asked to be quiet and only observe actions of adults does not sufficiently allow learning to occur. Encouraging families to discuss abstract theological concepts during everyday activities to help children to process the information and learn on their own terms might prove to be beneficial. Most participants seemed to be taken off-guard a bit when asked if they knew any special words associated with communion. Some could not think of any words; others simply stated words such as ―bread‖, ―cup‖, ―body‖, ―blood‖. Several of those same people had previously used words such as ―partake‖, ―elements‖, ―reflect‖, ―redemption‖, ―symbolic‖, and ―sacrament‖ when telling how they had described communion to a child or youth. Making adults aware of the

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body ―churchy‖ words they are accustomed to hearing and using will help them understand how more clearly to explain the concept to children or new Christians. Several participants volunteered the information that communion was not offered on a weekly basis in the past, because the Baptist denomination historically believed it would become mundane and no longer be special. However, over the years, as more people from the Christian Church background began attending Crossroads, communion was offered more frequently. Those people who shared those thoughts found that communion was special, regardless of how often it was taken. Although Jesus did not indicate exactly how often to celebrate communion, the early church seems to have participated quite frequently and with great fervor. Consequently, no one indicated that they wanted to go back to offering it less often. However, it should be noted that six people would like for communion to be explained more often and in greater detail, instead of just simply stating that it is available throughout the song portion of the worship service, indicating their agreement that the church (including leadership) should not forget their responsibility of discipleship. Explanation of Study Limitations This study only consisted of forty-seven total participants, although there are between fifteen hundred to two thousand people who call Crossroads their home. Participants were randomly selected among those in attendance on December 3-4, 2011. Due to the time it took to interview each participant, only a small percentage of the congregation was included in the research. However, the answers gathered by this method, as opposed to a written survey, were much more thorough. The participants on Saturday evening were only asked one question, since there was only one service and churchgoers do not come as early or stay as late as those who attended a service on Sunday morning. If the research could have been gathered over an

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body extended period of time, a larger sampling could have been included. However, the similarity of answers given in the smaller sampling suggests that most answers within a larger sampling would have provided similar findings.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Chapter 7 Conclusion Brief Restatement of Research Problem This study was conducted in order to assess, and thus enhance, Crossroads Community Church attendees‘ current understanding of communion. This information will be helpful as Crossroads continues to reach out to families and assist them in teaching their children about God, the Bible, and the history of the Church. Summary of Key Results Although almost an equal number of churchgoers and staff members seemed to indicate that communion should be a shared event versus a personal event, almost twice as many people had a special memory associated with a shared communion event, as opposed to a personal event or no special memory. There was a wide variety of words people associate with communion, most of which tend to be specific to the church community, especially communion. A third observation to be noted was participants‘ general hesitation or lack of ability to realize that the words they use to describe communion are quite specific to communion and would not be generally known to the so-called unchurched or to a young child first learning about communion. Solution or Program Although most people were comfortable talking about communion, they did seem uncomfortable trying to relay undertood ideas regarding communion to a child or teen. This, along with their inability to recognize that the words they use may not be understood by a child or non-churchgoer and the fact that Crossroads does not currently spend time explaining communion on a weekly basis, although it is offered that frequently, is cause to develop familyfriendly curriculum and family events centered around communion. Even providing literature to

33


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body parents and families regarding communion should be a help. Most adults do understand the main abstract aspects of communion, but they do not seem comfortable explaining it on a concrete level in which children or teens can easily comprehend. Providing different types of resources to assist the adult family members in their own understanding should help them be more comfortable when explaining communion to children, teens, and other adults. Implications of the Study Although only a small portion of Crossroads‘ churchgoers were interviewed, their answers seemed to be fairly consistent. They used similar descriptive words and had similar memories associated with communion. As indicated by the next generations pastor in his interview, the city and community of Kokomo has a large influence from the Christian Church and Church of Christ. These congregations tend to serve communion on a weekly basis and emphasize their interpretation of its meaning just as often. During the last twenty years, the pastoral staff at Crossroads Community Church (previously, Oakford Baptist Church) has made a general commitment to explaining communion on a regular basis. Only during the last few years has it not been discussed as frequently. Therefore, it was not surprising to find that most people were able to list common words associated with communion, whether or not they were aware they were doing so. As noted in this study, many churchgoers do not even realize that the language they use when discussing communion, or other Biblical and spiritual concepts, is not something a child, teen, or non-churchgoer would fully understand. In addition, since the people of Crossroads have varying church backgrounds, many of them have different, and sometimes slightly inaccurate, interpretations of communion. Crossroads‘ dedication to being a D-6 church, encouraging families to teach their children about God, Jesus and Scripture, means coming alongside those

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body families and providing them with the necessary knowledge and resources to do just that. However, with a large staff with a variety of church backgrounds itself, it may be necessary to begin by making sure they are on the same page. What are non-negotiables regarding communion? What gaps in knowledge and understanding exist among the pastoral staff? Of course, we are human and will never fully comprehend things of God. However, a baseline must first be established. This is necessary for all church congregations, as a part of the catholic church. Some aspects of communion should be considered non-negotiable. Some aspects are merely preference. All evangelicals must be sensitive to the language used as it can be confusing to those not familiar with it. One interesting piece of data collected is the understood focus of communion, as opposed to memories associated with communion. Communion in the early church seemed to have been more communal and a shared event. The church was instructed to partake in communion whenever they gather together. However, the emphasis of the Christian Church and Church of Christ is a personal focus – looking inward, reflecting, remembering, quiet, and alone. Even those who remembered their first communion would say that it was not taken in a room, alone; they were with their family and friends. The first communion shared by Jesus with the disciples was part of the Passover meal. They were not sitting quietly while contemplating their sinful nature. They were sharing time with family and friends. Jesus even took time to serve the others by washing their feet. Afterwards, Jesus spent a lengthy amount of time in the garden, praying. During ―communion‖, he simply stated that the apostles (and subsequently the church) should share in this ceremony as often as they meet together and remember what he, Jesus, did by dying on the cross for. His sacrifice has made it possible for believers to celebrate new life just as he defeated death and sin and was resurrected.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body The disciples did not understand what Jesus meant at that moment in time, but they did understand after he was resurrected and reappeared to them. No, believers should not participate in communion lightheartedly or in the wrong mindset. However, remembering Jesus‘ sacrifice should create a thankful and celebratory mindset to share with one‘s church family, not a somber, isolated time, reminiscent of an unsaved person who does not know God. This is part of Crossroads‘ decision to offer communion throughout the song and prayer portion of the worship service instead of as a separate, quiet time. As Crossroads Community Church in Kokomo, Indiana, develops ideas, resources and tools to assist families in understanding communion so that they may in turn explain it to children, teens and adults, it is obligated to share its successes with others. Perhaps collaboration with other congregations should even be established up front. At the least, their result should be made available to the larger church community. As more congregations move towards the current one-service model (most attendees only attend one worship service, few, if any, typical Sunday school classes of the past are offered, and only a portion of the congregation participates in a regular Bible study with other Christians), many of those congregations will experience the need for resources that teach about things such as communion. There is not ample time in ninety minutes per week to cover information previously shared by most congregations (during the 1950‘s – 1970‘s) in which churchgoers typically attended three to five hours‘ worth of services per week.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Suggestions for Future Research There were several details not requested during this research study. Participants were not asked what type of service they prefer, although some offered their opinion. They were also not asked how often they actually participate, even though communion is offered almost every weekend. I did not ask people if they would like to have received additional resources when teaching their children about communion. This might be an interesting piece of information. It would also be interesting to learn of any traditions families have in their own homes regarding communion. It would also be interesting to see if people understand the relationship between communion and the Passover. Of course, it would also be good to look at current programming and curriculum that is used by the children‘s and youth pastors. Although many parents have explained communion to their children, it would be good to know what concepts the children actually understand. There is still much that can be learned that will aid the pastoral and teaching staff as they come alongside families and teach them about communion.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body References Akiba, D., & Alkins, K. (2010). Learning: The Relationship Between a Seemingly Mundane Concept and Classroom Practices. The Clearing House, 62-67. Beckwith, I. (2004). Postmodern Children's Ministry: Ministry to Children in the 21st Century. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Bence, B. (2011, August 8-12, 2011). [Global Chrisitanity]. Berryman, J. W. (1995). Teaching Godly Play: The Sunday Monring Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Bureau, U. S. C. (2011). Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/ipmtext.php?fl=18 Carlson, G. R. (1979). Maintaining unbroken communion with God. Paraclete Winter 1979. CCC. (2011a). Frequently asked questions about D6 at Crossroads, from http://docs.ecrossroads.cc/ecrossroads/faq/D6-FAQ.pdf#zoom=95,250,10 CCC. (2011b). Our History Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://ecrossroads.cc/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=58&Itemid=64 Cotton, K. (1998). Lifelong Learning Skills (4 booklet series). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Lab. Evans, J. L. (1995). Worshiping at HomeBringing God Home: Family Devotions for the Christian Year: Smyth & Helwys. Retrieved from http://www.helwys.com/learningmatters/lm_pages/childarchives/chldarchv_worshipatho me.html. Foster, J. D., & Moran, G. T. (1985). Piaget and parables: the convergence of secular and scriptural views of learning. Journal of Psychology and Theology Summer 1985. IWU. (2011). Retrieved November 30, 2011, from https://family.indwes.edu/UniversityRelations/Marketing.aspx Jones, T. (2001). Postmodern Youth Ministry. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Liderbach, D. (1991). The community as sacrament. Philosophy & Theology, 5(3), 221-236. Lindars, B. (1976). Word and sacrament in the fourth gospel. Scottish Journal of Theology, 29(1), 49-63. Mason, M. W. (2007). Covenant children and covenant meals : biblical evidence for infant communion. Churchman (London) Summer 2007. Ogu, U., & Schmidt, S. R. (2009). Investigating Rocks and Sand: Addressing Multiple Learning Styles through an Inquiry-Based Approach. YC Yound Children, 64(2), 12-18. Ruth, L., Steenwyk, C., & Witvliet, J. D. (2010). Walking where Jesus walked : worship in fourth-century Jerusalem. Cambridge, U.K. ; Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. Stonehouse, C. (1998). Joining Children on the Spritiual Journey: Nurturing a Life of Faith. Grand Rapids: BridgePoint Books. Webber, R. (2002). The younger evangelicals : facing the challenges of the new world. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.

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Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body Appendix (modified) INDIANA WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY RELEASE FORM (IWU, 2011) I authorize Indiana Wesleyan University and those acting pursuant to its authority to: A) Use my testimonial, story, and/or biographical information. B) Record my image, appearance, and/or participation on video tape, audio tape, film, electronic, or any other medium now known or later developed, and to use my name, likeness, voice, testimonial, story, and/or biographical information in connection with these recordings. C) Display, copy, distribute, and make derivatives of, or from, such testimonial/story/biographical information and/or recordings, in perpetuity, in whole or in part, without restrictions or limitations, for any educational or promotional purposes which Indiana Wesleyan University and those acting pursuant to its authority deem appropriate. This includes, but is not limited to, official University publications and publicity materials such as Triangle magazine, the Annual Report, postcards and mailers, print pieces, advertisements (including billboard, magazine, radio, and television), email communications, the University websites, and the IWU online photo and media library. Any recordings used may be reasonably retouched or altered. If recordings are deemed to represent an imaginary person, I agree that Indiana Wesleyan University or any person authorized by or acting on their behalf may add accompanying wording, and that no such wording shall be considered to be attributed to me personally unless my name is used. I hereby release and discharge Indiana Wesleyan University and their agents, representatives, and assignees from any and all claims, actions, damages, and demands arising out of or in connection with the use of the testimonial/story/biographical information and/or recordings, including without limitation any and all claims for invasion of privacy, right of publicity, and defamation. I further waive any claims to any property rights, including, but not limited to, any copyrights, common law copyrights, or intellectual property rights, with respect to the testimonial/story/biographical information and/or recordings or other works associated therewith, and grant permission for them to be copyrighted by Indiana Wesleyan University. I have read this form carefully and fully understand its meanings and implications. This Release shall be binding upon me and upon my heirs, legal representatives, and assigns. No modification of this Agreement shall be of any effect unless it is made in writing and signed by all of the parties to the Agreement. If this Release is limited to a particular project or is subject to other limitations, those conditions are stated here: MIN591 project for Melissa Fipps involving videotaping. Specific data results, only, will be shared with classmates, professor, and CCC staff. (Videos, names, and personal information will not be shared.) General data results may be shared with the entire CCC congregation. 39


Communion: moving from observation to sharing with children, families and the church body I understand that my answers will be used in this project. I understand that the data will be shared with the people as indicated. If I am open to the video possibly being shared with others, I have included contact information. I understand that the video recording will not be used unless someone personally contacts me and receives my consent.

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Master of Arts in Ministry capstone project