Stone Dust Materials + Performance SP2011 – Material Research – Kimberly Kelly
Limestone Quarry that uses modern blasting method to extract stone from the quarry. According to the United States Geological Survey, 1.72 billion tones of crushed stone worth $13.8 billion was sold or used in 2006.
Hanson Aggregates Bellefonte PA
Stone Dust: Stone Excavation Hanson Aggregates Bellefonte PA – Crushed limestone Quarry
UK ‐ In 2008, 210 million tones of aggregate were produced in the UK of which 67 million tones was recycled product, according to the Quarry Products Association.
Stone Dust: Stone Excavation By products and hazards
Crushed stone is recycled primarily as construction aggregate or concrete. Here is one method of breaking down the stone with rock crusher jaws.
Photograph Steve Ford Elliot
Stone Dust: Stone Excavation Rock Crusher Jaws
Where neither stone, nor sand and gravel, are available, construction demand is usually satisfied by shipping in aggregate by rail, barge or truck where most of the cost of the product comes from transport.
Stone Dust: Stone Excavation High Volume low value commodity – most of the cost comes from transportation
Gravel is not the same as crushed stone. Gravel is rounded and worn down by weathering and crushed stone is broken down mechanically and is often angular providing different applications. Both can be used as permeable surface treatments.
Stone Dust: Applications Paved vs. Gravel vs. Crush Stone
Crushed stone and stone dust is used to cover nature trails, paths to avoid erosion allowing water to porous surface to allow water penetration while providing a surface that does not get muddy
Stone Dust: Applications Without a Binder ‐‐ Trails and Roads
Stone Dust: Applications Without a binder ‐ Track Ballasts
Strong, hard wearing, stable and drainable are material properties that make ground stone a good foundation for train tracks. Particle size is important to improve drainage – larger effects ties from being distributed improperly. Angular stones are preferred to round because they interlock inhibiting track movement. Harder stones such as granite are preferred over limestone that will detereate over time. Similar to Macadam road construction.
It may also be used with a binder in a composite material such as concrete, tarmac, or asphalt concrete. Stone Dust as an aggregate and extender Tarmac Application used as an aggregate + Stone Mastic Asphalt.
Stone Dust: Applications With a Binder – Stone Dust as an aggregate and extender
This elastic composite, which was specifically developed for coastal protection consists of gravel and a specifically developed hydrophilic polyurethane which produces an open‐celled stone microstructure. The composite is produce mixing two liquid components of the special synthetic polyurethane together on‐site. That mixture is then mixed with the gravel. Because the material is somewhat elastic, it protects the rip‐rap from the force of the impacting waves as the connected cavities between the stones absorb its energy. Stones of different sizes can be agglutinated in various thicknesses, so that the composite is also be suitable for applications in interior design and trade fair construction.
Stone Dust: Applications Coastal Protection
Stone Dust and gravel is used to maintain gardens by controlling unwanted vegetation, it also provides minerals and water filtration to the soil below. Used as a composite for an exterior paver it can act as a water permeable exterior covering that is an alternative to concrete. Avoiding runoff from storm water the surface may be cleaned like concrete by brushing or washing and it also has a similar life span. It is impervious to most chemicals and has a high compressive strength/ granule size of 3/8 in (9.5 mm), no fines. Current applications are for residential patios, ornamental fountains, golf‐cart paths and parking lots. gettyimages.com
Stone Dust: Applications Replace lawns and paved driveways
Liming is the application of calcium‐ and magnesium‐rich materials to soil in various forms, including marl, chalk, limestone, or hydrated lime. This neutralizes soil acidity and increases activity of soil bacteria. However, oversupply may result in harm to plant life. Lime is a basic chemical, the effect of it makes the soil more basic thus making acidic soils neutral.
Stone Dust: Applications Soil Treatment – agricultural lime or liming
Colorless and light colored marbles are a pure source of calcium carbonate used in a wide variety of industries. It is a component of paper (hold in pigment and filler strength), toothpaste pill fillers, plastics(strength and structural stability) and paint(weather resistant) Ground Calcium carbonate can come from limestone, chalk, and mostly from ¾ world wide is made from marble.
Stone Dust: Applications Crushed Marble as calcium carbonate
Coal dust is highly explosive – trays of stone dust or stone dust coffers are used to dilute coal dust and avoid explosions.
Stone Dust: Applications Stone Dust ‐ Trays used to prevent coal mine explosions
About 6 million tones of crushed stone (mostly limestone or dolomite) is used as a flux in blast furnaces and in certain steel furnaces to react with gangue minerals (i.e. silica and silicate impurities) to produce liquid slag that floats and can be poured off from the much denser molten metal (i.e., iron). The slag cools to become a stone‐like material that is commonly crushed and recycled as construction aggregate.
Stone Dust: Applications Flux in Blast Steel Furnaces
Earthbag construction is a means of creating masonry units by filling bags with crushed volcanic rock, pumice and rice hulls. This yields a higher insulation value than clay or sand. The outer surface is covered with an opaque material such as cement based stucco or earthen plaster to protect bags against UV rays and moisture. Acting as a thermal mass strawbale.com
Stone Dust: Applications Earthbag Construction
Example of a Quartzite counter top mixed with aggregate to form consistent surface texture. Cultured Marble is often used in thresholds and formed sinks and tubs. This example is a solid surface called Caeser Stone
Stone Dust: Applications Cultured Marble or filler in solid surface countertop
Terrazzo is used for floors, patios, and panels by exposing marble chips and other fine aggregates on the surface of finished concrete or epoxy‐resin. Stone particles can also be mixed in to show up as surface patterns as in this terra‐slab or terrzzo sink and floor.
Stone Dust: Applications Stone textures mixed in aggregates.
Gamal Stan Metro Station
Stone Dust: Applications Historical use ‐ Terrazzo
Archaeologists use the word terrazzo to describe the floors of In early Neolithic buildings in Western Asia, terrazzo is constructed of burnt limestone and clay, colored red with ochre and polished. The embedded crushed limestone gives it a slightly mottled appearance. Eco Terra Slabs
Children mix colored powder with soft stone dust mixture inside a factory ahead of the Hindu festival of Holi, on the outskirts of the eastern Indian city of Siliguri March 5. Holi, also known as festival of colors, heralds the beginning of spring and is celebrated with great enthusiasm all over India.
Stone Dust: Applications Holi – Festival of Colors
As part of the Holi festival the color stone dust is celebrated paired with body paint and rich color of food as a celebration of Spring
Stone Dust: Applications Holi ‐ Pushkar, Rajasthan
Quentin Curry is an artist based in New York creating semi‐abstract landscapes of scenic views and industrial wastelands, painted with a mixture of stone dust and oil paint pressed through fabric to produce textured canvasses. On the right are Venetian Votives, made from a mixture of stone dust and resin Thehomepot.com
Stone Dust: Applications Artist painting and cast resins
Images show surfaces made of inlaid semi‐precious stones and fossils that are translucent. such as amethyst, blue agate, tiger eye, jasper and quartz, and fossils, supetrified wood, are inlaid within a proprietary resin and polished to a flat surface. This surface is hard, non‐ porous, scratch, heat and stain resistant‐oil absorbent and in some cases translucent. Applications are for wall panels, counter surfaces, decorative inlays an bathroom vanity surfaces
Stone Dust: Applications Resin with Semi‐precious stones
Structured wall covering. This natural product has a surface composed of sedimentary sandstone with a quartz concentration of 95% and a woven backing. This PVC‐free wall covering is flexible, does not contain plasticiz solvents and is fire‐retardant. Applications include interior wall areas for hotels, offices, and areas and are suitable for all types of masonry, plaster, concrete, fiber‐cement plasterboard and other mineral based wall surfaces.
Stone Dust: Applications Stoneplex – Wall Covering
Basalt lava or lava stone from the Italian volcano, Mount Etna, which has withstood the wear and tear of time; applications include various types of pavement and exterior architectural design. Material ConneXion
Stone Dust: Applications Lava Stone
library.materialconneXion.com strawbale.com archrecord.construction.com/products/productreports/default.asp greensource.construction.com/news/080114quarrylifecycle.asp greensource.construction.com/news/2009/091123Granite‐Study.asp thehomeport.com en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthbag_construction en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nader_Khalili en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macadam interiordesign.net/newproducts/5823‐Sana_Stone_Floor_Tiles.php?intref=sr sanastoneny.com Ceaserstone.com
Stone Dust: Resource
Research Presentation on Stone Dust from extraction to applications in and outside the design field.