CATALOGUE.01

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Despite having reflected the general characteristics of its term (within conceptualisation, representation and control), the twenty-year experience of METU MUD reveals its own peculiarities and identity due to the particular interpretation of urban and design within the continuous experimentation at the studio. The term ‘experiment’, in this sense, is quite a key notion in consideration of the programme. As observed even after a quick look at the works presented by years, one could recognize that in each and every term, there are different concepts, frames and definitions suggested in an implicit search for the new and novel in practice. As the compilation of fifty (individual and/or group) projects introduced by 43 authors, the ex-grad students of the studio, CATALOGUE.01 involves six opening papers reflecting on both the experience of METU MUD in particular and the contemporary urban design education in general. This suggests the readers and researchers of urban design not only a retrospective view on the issue, but also a projective perspective for future. METU

mf 9 789754 293593

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METU

ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi 2016 / METU Faculty of Architecture 2016

CATALOGUE.01

METU MASTER OF URBAN DESIGN

1996 - 2016

Taken in this way, though it might be considered quite a late attempt, publication of the selected studio works of METU Master of Urban Design Program (METU MUD) at its 20th anniversary of foundation does actually provide an opportunity to have a holistic view on the general profile of both the programme and the contemporary urban design education from the mid-1990s. By this catalogue commemorating the twenty-year experience of the studio, it is possible to review the changes and continuities in the disciplinary tradition originally established by Baykan Günay and his colleagues.

CATALOGUE.01 METU MASTER OF URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996 - 2016

The current studio catalogue represents the works of a generation of ‘urban designers’ taught in the last twenty years at Middle East Technical University (METU), Turkey. Sharing similar values, priorities, expectancies and ideologies with their young colleagues from other parts of the world, they have pursued their creativity in the way that the collective experience would eventually represent a certain period in the disciplinary history of urban design as well.

Edited by Olgu Çalışkan


CATALOGUE.01

METU MASTER OF URBAN DESIGN

1996 - 2016

Edited by Olgu Çalışkan CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

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METU

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©2016 Middle East Technical University Faculty of Architecture, Dumlupınar Bulvarı, 06800, Ankara/Türkiye tel: +90 312 210 2202, faks: +90 312 210 2297

Type of Publication: Catalog Faculty Press Board Resolution: 20.05.2016 Faculty Press Board: Müge Akkar Ercan, Adnan Barlas, Çağla Doğan, Namık Erkal, Haluk Zelef, Gülşen Töre Yargın Graphic Design: Güliz Korkmaz Tirkeş Cover Photo: Eren Efeoğlu Pelin Ofset, Ankara, September 2016 ISBN: 978-975-429-359-3 All rights of the photographs and other visual material used in this book belong to the writer unless stated otherwise. All publication rights of this book are reserved. No part can be reprinted, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the advance written consent of the copyright holder.


to Professor Baykan Günay, the founder of urban design education at METU



Contents

Preface vii METU MSc Urban Design Programme: A Retrospective View Baykan Günay

1

My Urban Design ‘Education’ Erhan Acar

9

Urban Design Beyond The Borders Müge Akkar Ercan, Adnan Barlas

11

20 Years of Work: Mapping The History of METU Urban Design Studio Yiğit Acar

17

Urban Design In Historic Urban Landscapes: Linking Design With Conservation –the case of Italian schoolsAçalya Alpan

25

Nanos Gigantum Humeris Insidentes: The New Challenges For Future Olgu Çalışkan, Duygu Cihanger

33

STUDIO PROJECTS 1996-2016

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1996 - 1997 METU TECHNOPARK Planning & Design Project Tolga Ünlü, Fikret Zorlu, Tolga Levent

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1997 - 1998 Atatürk Forest Farm Urban Design Project Sinan Burat, Banu Aksel Gürün

52

1998 - 1999 Barrier-free METU Urban Design Project Meltem Şenol Balaban

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1999 - 2000 Gölyaka Post-Earthquake Urban Design Project Ebru Gürler

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2000 International Urban Planning and Architectural Design Competition: Ostrava, Karolina, the Czech Republic Ebru Gürler

72

2000 - 2001 METU Northern Cyprus Campus Planning and Design Project Yener Baş, Aybike Ceylan Kızıltaş, Funda Baş Bütüner

76

2001 - 2002 Bozburun Urban Project Feray Koca, İrem Erdem Almaç

84

2002 - 2003 Pogradec Urban Project Açalya Alpan

90

2003 - 2004 Doha Corniche Urban Design Project Yücel Can Severcan

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2004 Pananos Beach Urban Design and Landscape Project Competition Özgül Acar Özler

104

2004 - 2005 Gallipoli National Park and Eceabat Urban Project Miray Özkan

108

2005 - 2006 Alaçatı Urban Project Meltem Şentürk

114

2006 - 2007 Bodrum Peninsula Urban Project & Başakşehir Urban Design Competition Berk Kesim, Serhat Celep

120

2007 - 2008 Urban Project for the Historical National Park of Troy and the Environs Ender Peker, Bilge Serin

128

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2008 - 2009 METU Kosovo Campus Design Project Yiğit Acar

134

2009 - 2010 Northern Cyprus Coastal Planning and Design Project Nihan Oya Memlük, Nazli Songülen, Deniz Kimyon, Görsev Argın, Selen Sarıkulak 140 2010 - 2011 Kızılay Urban Design Project: Reproduction of Kızılay As A ‘Central Business and Art District’ Duygu Cihanger

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2011 - 2012 Urban Morphology and Design Explorations in Batıkent Erkan Kerti, Itır Özinanır

156

2012 - 2013 Urban Transformation and Design Explorations Along Ankara Railway Hakan Şanlı, Şule Demirel, Emre Sevim

164

2013 - 2014 Urban Interface & Design Explorations in Ayvalık Pınar Kesim Aktaş, Gözde Güldal

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2014 - 2015 ‘Ruling the City’: Parametric Urban Design Coding Deniz Akman, Burcu Uysal, Ilgın Kurum, Elif Uzunoğulları, Merve Başak

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2015 - 2016 ‘Envisioning the City’: Design Explorations of the Future Urban Forms and Spaces Onur Tümtürk

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2016 Mars City Design: International Design Competition Onur Tümtürk, Eren Efeoğlu, Ebru Şevik

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Preface Evolutionarily, human being has a self-reflective cognition as the capacity to think about one’s own behaviour and action. Designers take this faculty and adapt it into their original practice as tacit knowledge. The institutional organisations mimic this faculty for the sake of their own performance, as well. Therefore, any programme accomplished its institutionalisation, following a certain period of practice, needs to stop for a moment and reflect on what has been realised as the accumulated outcome of the active practice so far. Such critical reflection is not only necessary to access the built-up capacity of a team, but also for setting new goals and objectives up for future. Presenting the selected works of the twenty-year studio experience of METU Master of Urban Design (MUD) Program, publication of this catalogue has been taken from this critical perspective. While compiling more than fifty individual and group works conducted in the design studio of METU MUD, CATALOGUE.01 presents a wide collection of works that enable us to reconsider the future of urban design education with a genuine inspiration from the long experience of our programme. ‘.01’ in the title does actually indicate the clear intention to repeat that critical reflection regularly in future (for sure, without a need to wait for the 40th anniversary!).

By mapping out the twenty-year experience of design education and research at METU MUD, Yiğit Acar provided an elegantly devised epistemic analysis for the catalogue. As another graduate from the programme, Açalya Alpan supported the catalogue, with a paper questioning the fundamental relationship between conservation and design with reference to the specific context of the selected grad schools in Italy. Finally, Olgu Çalışkan and Duygu Cihanger argued the main strategic components of an alternative perspective for future via an international survey on the graduate programmes in urban design. The second part of the catalogue is prepared by the collection of the studio works sorted by year. All the works are introduced by the informative descriptions written by my dear colleagues graduated from METU MUD as active participants of the studio at their term. Though it was pretty hard to give insight on a specific project made years ago, they did it. I am truthfully grateful to all of them. Due to the difficulty of working with the twenty years of intensive production, I could not specify and cite the exact authors for every individual projects involved in the studio works. Therefore they are anonymously presented together with the group works within each studio term. I hope they will forgive me about that.

The papers given in the first part of the catalogue, in this regard, provides a general critical framework by which the following works could be (re)interpreted. Following an elegantly conceptualised and overarching retrospective evaluation by Baykan Günay, the founder of METU MUD, Erhan Acar shared the personal reflection on his long involvement in the studio, via a short and very heartfelt writing.

It should be noted that without the personal efforts of Serdar Özbay and Cansu Canaran to sort and document the studio works for years, it would have been impossible to compile this catalogue. They have proved the vitality of archive for the collective memory of a programme.

Last but not least, the true authors of this publication are the designers of all these projects along with those which could not be presented in here. I am proud of being one Subsequently, Müge Akkar Ercan and Adnan Barlas of the members of this precious ‘urban design culture’. discussed the multi-disciplinary nature of urban design as an already established merit of the studio tradition at Olgu Çalışkan The Graduate Program of Urban Design. Ankara, September 2016

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METU MSc Urban Design Programme: A Retrospective View Baykan Günay1

The Urban Design Graduate Program of the City and Regional Planning Department of Middle East Technical University is celebrating the twentieth year of its foundation. My previous students, now distinguished colleagues have been organizing a symposium to commemorate the incentive of urban design education at Middle East Technical University. In the meantime, I know that they have been working hard to realize a publication to document the works accomplished in the urban design studio.

In the 1580s, its use as a noun appeared to mean:

When they asked me to write something on this occasion, I immediately noticed that, in one way or another, I have written all I could on what I understand from and how I have formulated the context and content of urban design from my points of view. Eventually I have decided to touch upon the two facades of designing; design as an individual act and design as a cultural trait.

Since its first appearance in the 16th century, the terms, design, designer and designing have advanced into almost all fields where the human being (mind) has used them in landscape, interiors, fashion, jewellery, hair trimming, etc., where a form is to be created. In this framework, design has been considered as the act of the talented for more conspicuous and prestigious artefacts.

The term ‘design’ has appeared around the sixteenth century in many European languages. Cooley (1988) has argued that designing was not a new ac­tivity, rather “it was being separated out from wider productive activity and recognized as a function in its own right.2 This recognition can be said to consti­tute a separation of hand and brain, of manual and intellectual work; and the separation of the concep­tual part of work from the labour process. Above all, the term indicated that designing was to be separated from doing.

But on the other hand, designer drug as a phrase has also been used metaphorically in defining artificially made drugs. Hence design and its derivatives have been used for more than four centuries for the individual act of producing form or shape of things. Although mankind has designed urban settings since the emergence of the first cities on earth, the usage of the terms urban or city design has waited for the development of the modern city in the mid-20th century. The originators and founders of this field have defined and scrutinized numerous facades of the field.

From Middle French desseign “purpose, project, design” from Italian disegno, from disegnare “to mark out,” from Latin designare “to mark out”.4 The use of the term, ‘designer’, on the other hand, developed in the 17th century; ‘one who schemes’ agent noun from design (v.). Meaning ‘one who makes an artistic design or a construction plan’ is from 1660s.5

Etymologically, design as a verb was used in the 16th century: Inspired by Jonathan Barnett’s seminal book, Urban Design as Public Policy6, I had attempted to focus on 1540s, from Latin designare ‘mark out, devise, choose, the context and contents of the design works of distindesignate, appoint’ from de- “out” (see de-) + signare guished proponents of the field in a modest book titled ‘to mark’ from signum ‘a mark, sign’ (see: sign (n.)). Urban Design is a Public Policy7. Moreover, conceptual Originally in English with the meaning now attached to frameworks of urban design were also formulated to undesignate; many modern uses of design are metaphoric derstand urban design’s roles in the control of the physiextensions. Related: Designed; designing.3

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cal environment besides zoning ordinances and land-use fore, not share the knowledge of earlier gen­erations. He would, however, solve problems and learn from experiplans. ence, so do other ani­mals. By the acquisition of culture Jonathan Barnett insisted that a new outlook should be and by tapping the heritage of his past, man becomes developed not just for buildings but for the design of the dis­tinctively ‘human’9. city. He argued that, “planners tended to regard land use as an allocation of resources problem, parcelling It is presumed that the culture or social heritage of any out land for zoning purposes, without much knowl- society produces a distinctive way of behaviour of the edge of its three-dimensional characteristics, or the group and their complete de­sign for acting. Culture prenature of the building that may be placed on it in the sumes the existence of human society and provides the future”. nec­essary skills for making societal group works. Moreover, he claimed that “a good architect will do all he can to relate the building he is designing to its surroundings, but he has no control over what happens off the property he has been hired to consider”.

As an extension of the culture debate, the process of socialization has been accentuated in the social sciences. Although human being comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs and impulses, the organism is conditioned to respond in so­cially determined ways. The individual learns socially defined ways of acting and feeling, and he learns many of them so fundamentally that they become part of his personality. The proc­ ess of building group values into the individ­ual is called socialization”10. Eventually, culture becomes a large part of what is transmitted in the process of socialization.

A parallel argumentation was pronounced by John Ratcliff (1988) who called the urban designer “a hybrid animal” indeed: “In recent years great emphasis has been placed upon the role and function of the ‘urban designer’ who falls neatly between the respective professions of architect and town planner and is likely to be drawn from both. His attention is directed towards not only the impact of individual buildings but also the physical repercussions of group of buildings, the space around them, the movement between them, and the forces that direct the planning and development processes.” 8

To conclude, in its 20 years of subsistence the Urban Design Graduate Programme of the Department of City and Regional Planning at Middle East Technical University, individual talent was considered as only one aspect of the design process. The main idea should be to cultivate design as a culture and a social heritage binding students from different disciplines and socializing them so that group values would become a part of their personality.

Considering both the individualistic character of design being restricted to the talented and design as a social act, the Urban Design Graduate Programme of the City and Regional Planning Department at Middle East Technical University has endeavoured to consider design as a phase in the development of human action and intelligence which, in turn, developed urban design as a cultural act woven in the mind and capabilities of the students. In my studentship, we were taught by social sciences in which the term cul­ture refers to man’s entire social heritage, all the knowledge, beliefs, customs, and skills he acquires as a member of society. A man who grew up apart from human association would lack culture because he had not com­municated with other men and would, there­

In this long march, I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to Adnan Barlas and Müge Akkar Ercan in the preparation of the philosophy and initiation of the program. Serdar Özbay’s contribution in transforming the urban design studio into a day and night working space has been very substantial in the production of design as culture. Özgehan Özen and Umut Toker have taken part in further development of the program for which their role is highly commendable. Although coming from the discipline of architecture, the contribution of Erhan Acar, a devoted man of the urban field, a man full of vigour and enthusiasm has been

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enormous. In his limited period of participation, the late Özcan Esmer has always invited the ambiguous design oriented minds to rationality. Despite being an outsider, Türel Saranlı has always been of great value with his mental and material support.

2. Cooley, M. (1988) ‘From Brunelleschi to CAD-CAM’ in (ed. J. Thackara) Design After Modernism, Thames and Hudson: New York, pp. 197-207 3. see: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_ in_frame=0&search=design, accessed in September 2016

When I am to talk on devotion, Cansu Canaran turns into a key figure. His insistent efforts and energy in formatting studio works, his serious and sincere participation, and his consistency in injecting professionalism into theory has been priceless.

4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Barnett, J. (1974) Urban Design as Public Policy, Architectural Record Books: New York

Now, the torch is passed to Olgu Çalışkan. A person so full of energy is beyond my comprehension. Educated as a part of the urban design culture, I am proud and very happy to observe that the urban design studio is in good hands and probably perform much more efficiently in future.

7. Günay, B. (1999) Urban Design is a Public Policy, METU Faculty of Architecture Press: Ankara 8. Ratcliffe, J. (1985) An Introduction to Town and Country Planning, Hutchinson & Co.: London, p. 33

My final thanks should go to my students most of whom are now in the academic and professional fields not only in Turkey, but also in many parts of the world. They have created the METU urban design group values as a culture and a design heritage. I thank them all.

9. Broom, L., Selznick, P. (1963) Sociology, Harper & Row Publishers: New York 10. Ibid.

Notes 1. Founder of the Urban Design Graduate Program at METU; Prof. Dr., TED University Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning, Ankara.

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My Urban Design ‘Education’ Erhan Acar*

picked up to be driven to the Embassy I discovered that we would be introduced to the Ambassador – and I was hardly fit to be presented to an ambassador as one of the professors of the group with the ‘espadrillos’ on my feet, and the summery shirt and blue-jean topped by a whitening beard. I found the solution in silently filtering my way to the back of the group to disappear among the students as we were ushered into the meeting room at the top floor. The door opened and the Ambassador walked in: his eyes directed at my hiding corner and his smile accompanied by a warm welcome: “Ooh Erhan, my dear!” Ertuğrul Apakan! An old friend from my earlier years! UD was reminding me once again that I was not a student anymore!

“I never design such long buildings!...” No reaction from Baykan except the smile in his eyes! “…Maybe I divide it in two; slide one half back. I cannot propose just a straight long building!” Baykan was just smiling with the patience he developed through putting up with architects’ whims for years: “Break it or patch it, Moruk (Old Man)! All I want from you is a building that defines the edge of the valley!” We were discussing the Guest House Building we thought of for the Kalkanlı Entrance of the North Cyprus Campus Project and I was learning for one more time to put aside great architectural philosophies for buildings and give my attention to the context of the settlement. Both that project and the Bozburun Project had been ‘lessons’ for me to emphasize the educational importance of developing alternative approaches. My years in the Department of City and Regional Planning was enriched by the things I learned not only about my profession but also about life itself from working together in the same studios with my first generation students such as Çağatay Keskinok and Adnan Barlas. UD was both the mature phase of my professional life and the advanced stage of my ‘on-the-job training’.

The UD years were among the happiest of my professional life. I lived through many exciting experiences in our top-floor studio with its mezzanine: from the Gölyaka Project clouded with the sadness of the 1999 Earthquake to the Troy Project, when I witnessed in admiration Baykan’s interest in the spatial world of 4000-5000 years ago while I was used to his patient smile for my usual interest in distant historical periods. Notes

But the field trip to Cyprus was not only an experience * Urbanist architect, instructor at METU Master of Urban for me to increase my ‘sensitivity for settlement con- Design Studio between 1999 and 2010. text’: at our arrival at the Ercan Airport where we were

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Urban Design Beyond The Borders Müge Akkar Ercan1, Adnan Barlas2

“…. urban design is an interdisciplinary activity. If professionals from different disciplines of the built, natural and social environments work together in teams, they create an urban design process. Similarly, if urban space is to be shaped and managed by any professional, there will be a need for multi-disciplinary concerns and awareness. The key is to go beyond the narrow boundaries of professions and disciplines and approach urban space from an interdisciplinary, socio-spatial perspective.” (Madanipour, 1997: 376)

notions of ‘borders versus borderlessness’. We discuss the merits, challenges and difficulties in terms of education, research and professional practice, as well as its organization and management that have been faced by the program over twenty years. ‘Borders’ in urban space and planning ‘Border’ seems to be a simple notion, defined as “the line dividing two countries or areas”, or “the land near this line” (OAL, 1995). Urban space is composed of not simply as a geographical area bordered by physical or tangible barriers, but also a territory bounded by intangible barriers such as social practices, political and cultural regulations of actions and aesthetical symbolic representations. Some borders in urban space can be visually seen, touched or felt, while some others have to be discovered. In this sense, borders are not only territorial limitations, but also frames that are set and developed by public authorities, societies and cultures. These limits also define the limits of exchange between societies and cultures even within a same city, region or country. In this perspective, borders are built and dismantled through interactions, representations, and social practices. Borderlines within urban, regional or country contexts therefore bring along a wide set of interconnected dimensions that require an approach to complex urban systems. This approach does not address single elements, but connections that continuously produce new configurations of dynamic balance.

The Graduate Program of Urban Design, launched in 1996 in the Department of City and Regional Planning of Middle East Technical University (METU) and progressed in some modest way until now, posed a great deal of challenges for both the participant academic staff and students. Within the program, the experiences of urban design education and professional practices that have been carried out over twenty years have brought people together from different disciplines, professionals, expertise by overarching borders between spaces, disciplines and practices. As a result, the Program has raised a number of generic and specific, real and utopic issues to discuss not only in the fields of planning, design, architecture and landscape architecture, but also in the fields of education, research and practice. Another significant merit of the program has been the motivation of the participant academic staff and students to find solutions for real-world problems in Turkey, and some other parts of the world by plans and designs, guidelines, and sometimes by critical documents. In this part of the catalogue, our key intention is to discuss the mission of the Graduate Program of Urban Design by employing the

CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

The focus of the Graduate Program of Urban Design is not solely the notion of ‘border’. Yet, seeing the borders from this perspective, the Graduate Program of Urban Design at METU offered the opportunity for the students and academic staff to discover different forms and types of border in urban space, and the process of urban plan-

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proposals were developed through an interdisciplinary collaboration. In this sense, the Urban Design Graduate Program did not only provide the participants with the opportunity to experience the process of dismantling the borders between disciplines, but also to experience an interdisciplinary collaborative process. While developing their projects, the participant students addressed the difficulties of creating a common language among the team members. Most students raised the problem, thinking that their English or Turkish language skills were not enough to communicate. Nevertheless, they eventually realized that the problem did not come from the shortcomings of their language skills, but the lack of a common language or terminology among them. While developing their projects, each student team gradually developed their common language.

ning and design. On the one hand, we all have learned the roles and effects of ‘urban border’ while shaping the urban space. In this way, by studying, planning and designing different cities, regions or countries, such as METU Science Park in Ankara, Northern Cyprus Campus of METU, Northern coastal line of Cyprus and Pogradec in Albania, it was possible to perceive the concept of border within different geographical, societal, cultural and political contexts. And, each time, the studies, planning and design practice on urban space led to develop rich understanding of the concept, as it was studied in relation to its complicated interconnections with other dimensions of urban space. With every urban design studio experience, participating academic and student members sought to grasp the reality of a specific location by gaining adequate and situated knowledge, by interacting with the ‘knowledge of experience’ and by developing connections and positive relations among differentiated subjects. Consequently, in every design studio, we found that the problems of ‘urban border’ were so rich that one can continuously produce new conceptualization of the problem studied, continuously reset the ‘frame’ and the consolidated approaches and attitudes to the concept of urban borders according to one’s disciplinary background. In this sense, for the students and academic staff of the Graduate Program of Urban Design, especially the studios created the rich settings for the experience of investigation, education, innovation and advocate of change.

For the participants, another outcome of the interdisciplinary collaboration was to learn the perspectives and attitudes of the different disciplines. The students taught each other about their disciplines, transmitted their understanding to see the urban problems, and exchanged their ideas on the focused urban problems. They also claimed that despite the difficulties of the process, the outcomes of the projects were much richer compared to the projects produced according to the perspective of a single discipline. Within the framework of this design methodology, the Graduate Program of Urban Design aimed at creating as many opportunities as possible for the students to exchange between each other. Different from conventional education methods which place the academic staff as the key figures of teaching process, the academic staff of urban design studios avoid interrupting the interactions among the students throughout the learning experience of the design studios. The students therefore became the key actors of the planning and design process in the course. The extensive and intensive exchange process of every design studio included tough discussions among the members of the student teams who tried to agree on the definition of urban problems, the research and design methods, the analysis of the collected data, as well as the ways to find out possible solutions to resolve these problems. The general attitude of the planner stu-

‘Borderlines’: barriers or connectors between disciplines and different forms of knowledge which are relevant for planning practice and education The urban problems of the 21st century are so complex that they cannot be understood or resolved within the framework of a single discipline. One of the key objectives of the Graduate Program of Urban Design was to promote a crossover attitude among different educational profiles (planners, architects, landscape architects, etc.) in the knowledge process as far as urban space is concerned. During the twenty-year design studio experiences, the students were organized in small groups, mixed in terms of nationality and educational background, and the urban problems were studied, defined, and the

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dents was towards the identification of the urban problems within a wide range of contexts by offering a systematic approach to urban problem and the planning of the process beside the product. Architect and landscape architect students, being more focused on the spatial outcomes with a motivation of quick syntheses, showed their wide skills on the design details. In this sense, it is possible to argue that the Graduate Program of Urban Design that addressed the borders between disciplines also provided both the participant academicians and students with the chance of re-thinking about the disciplines related to urban space production (urban planning, architecture, landscape architecture, etc.) in terms of professional practice, education and research fields.

directed (Ozawa and Seltzer, 1999). Different from this conventional conception, the Urban Design Graduate Program aimed to enable the participant students from different planning- and design-related disciplines to experience a communicative planning and design process which acknowledges:

As for the roles of the participant academicians, different from the conventional education methods, the studio teachers followed the discussions and debates of the student teams closely, supervised the design projects without dictating ideas, and intervened in the way the projects were carried out, when necessary. They were also responsible for managing the workshops/seminars suitable to the Program schedules, and creating opportunities for the students while gathering data or developing proposals for their projects. In this sense, acting as a ‘big brother’ and avoiding the spoon-feeding of the students as much as possible, the participant academicians mainly tried to keep the central role of the students in the education experience.

o the role of the experts/professionals related to urban space as active participant in a process of public discourse and social change;

o the stubborn social and political nature of planning work; o that knowledge is socially constructed rather than identified, collected and analysed by the experts/ professionals in relative isolation from the general public, special interest groups, and even the decision makers to whom they deliver advice;

o a rich range of roles for the experts related to urban space (especially for planners, architects, landscape architects), such as mobiliser, facilitator, mediator, educator, etc. (Ozawa and Seltzer, 1999) The communicative planning experience of over twenty design studio classes, on the one hand, is important in terms of letting the participating students to experience the communicative role they will play when practicing their professions. On the other hand, this experience can be seen as the way of bridging the gap between education and professional practice. The student projects were found richer in terms of their contents and outcomes. One of the key reasons for that is the active engagement of the students with local actors, experts and communities while understanding, diagnosing, and producing suggestions for the urban problems which they tackled with. A possible conclusion we can draw from this experience is that education in planning and related fields should be delivered by being based on a dynamic aspect of the talk of the planning community. In this sense, the Urban Design Graduate Program experience of METU indicated that the curriculum of undergraduate and graduate education in planning and related fields should address the communicative role of the future professionals.

Ideas on the relationship between education, research and professional practice ensued by the Graduate Program of Urban Design The collaborative and participative planning experience of the Urban Design Graduate Program brings about a rich setting for the discussions about the relationship between education, research and professional practice in urban space. The curriculum for many undergraduate and graduate education in planning and related fields has been largely dictated by a conception of the professional’s role (especially planner’s role) as a technical expert, advisor or conveyor of technical information working independently and distinctly apart from the political fray occurring within the community for whom their work is

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As a principle, one of the most commonly recognized ideas across Europe is that the curriculum in all disciplines’ education must bring universities closer to practice. In planning and related fields, as suggested by Ozawa and Seltzer (1999), this can be done through the undergraduate and graduate education which include a more explicit orientation towards ‘teaching practice’ rather than simply teaching research, in order to prepare students and to ensure a rich dialogue ensues between practitioners and academic staff. The close relation between the education and practice will, in turn, provide a broader view and understanding of the dynamics of planning and design within changing institutional and physical contexts, and as a source for innovation (Ozawa and Seltzer, 1999). In this sense, the METU’s Graduate Program of Urban Design can be seen as a step forward towards putting this idea into practice. The efforts of working on the real urban problems, defining, diagnosing and finding out the ways for resolving them through an active engagement with local experts, professionals and communities indicate that this could be one of the ways of ‘teaching practice’, and thus that of bringing professional education, research and practice together. In spite of being a compact experience within a limited time, the Urban Design Graduate Program can be seen and used as a model which incorporates the curriculum structure of the undergraduate and graduate education and research in planning and related fields into professional practice. Other pedagogical merits of the Graduate Program of Urban Design Over the last ten years, the Urban Design Graduate Program has provided the network and infrastructure for the students wishing to internationalize their learning experience and to gain life experience abroad, along with the increasing ERASMUS exchange agreements between METU and European universities, and the individual efforts of academic staff to organize international design workshops and charrettes with universities abroad (e.g. Hamburg and Gdanks field trips since 2014 in cooperation with Hafencity University and Gdanks University, Urban Exchange Studio ’08 organized in cooperation with Adelaide University). The participant students found the opportunity to study at a new university in a different city

and to work with the academic staff and students from different European countries. They thus had the chance to work on foreign context (other than Turkey), to share their knowledge with others from other contexts. This Graduate Program experience developed their awareness of transnational and transcultural differences, and contributed to their personal lives and personal development. It also opened up and enhanced their perception of life for their future plans. For some students, the Urban Design Graduate Program has been their first experience of living in a foreign country. The students have improved their foreign language skills, improved their capacity to adapt to a new environment, to learn and to react quickly. In this sense, they have gained independence, and a better understanding of and deeper insight into foreign cultures through this graduate program experience. Another pedagogical merit of the Program is that learning by experience created more permanent learning experience for the students. As well as the professional knowledge and experience, the improvement of all these qualities in university education is of great importance for personal development of individuals while planning and shaping their future life. Despite the improvement of such skills that is generally undermined in university education, the Graduate Program of Urban Design provided the students with the great and important opportunity to gain and improve these qualities. Lessons to be drawn for the future challenges The Graduate Program of Urban Design experience for over twenty years revealed that both the project themes and places selected by the program and the pedagogical method followed are valuable in terms of teaching the students the perspectives and attitudes of the different disciplines related to urban space and make them experience interdisciplinary collaborative process, as well as the participatory, collaborative and communicative planning and design process. The experience of many planning and design studios once again showed that:

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o the urban problems cannot be addressed within the borders of a single discipline; o graduate programs in urban planning and design, as well as other fields related to urban space,

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should be enriched by the environments of academic staff and students from different disciplines and courses addressing multi-disciplinary topics and approaches; o

o

o

o

internationalize the learning experience of the students in planning, architecture, landscape architecture, and the related fields, to develop their awareness of transnational and transcultural differences, and to contribute to their personal development. Also, it revealed that such such educational programs should be designed programs provide good opportunities to develop further in order to accommodate the collaboration of reinternational collaborations, cooperation and partnerlated disciplines; ships in education and research activities. such educational programs should be redevelReferences: oped in order to generate the profile of a professional who is capable of dealing with urban space Madanipour, A. (1997) Ambiguities of Urban Design, and policies assuming that a plurality of stakeholdTown Planning Review 68(3), pp. 363-383 ers, of local actors and of professionals is directly Ozawa, C.P., Seltzer E.P. (1999) ‘Taking Our Bearings: concerned whenever change in the organization Mapping A Relationship Among Planning Practice, of space is concerned; Theory and Education’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 18, pp. 257-266 the curriculum of graduate education in urban planning/design and related fields should address Oxford Advanced Learners (OAL) (1995) Oxford University the communicative role of the future professionPress: Oxford. als; Notes the curriculum of graduate education in planning/ design and related fields should bring education 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr., METU Faculty of Architecture, Deand practice together. partment of City and Regional Planning

Beside the aim of improving the professional knowledge, 2. Prof. Dr., METU Faculty of Architecture, Department the Urban Design Graduate Program experience showed of City and Regional Planning that such educational initiatives should be developed to

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20 Years of Work: Mapping the History of METU Urban Design Studio Yiğit Acar1

“You load sixteen tons, what do you get? the studio works, locations and people involved in those Another day older and deeper in debt. design studies along a timeline. Saint Peter, don’t you call me, ‘cause I can’t go; Just like any other types of mapping (i.e. geographical or I owe my soul to the company store...” conceptual), the maps presented here are indeed subSixteen Tons by Merle Travis (1946)2 jective. The maps presented here, in this sense, represent the author’s reading of the history of the program. This brief study is a preliminary inquiry to interpret the The reader should approach them critically as the maps work of more than 200 scholars over the course of 20 represent not the absolute truth, but the representation years. The content of the life and production of the of its content. Nevertheless, the mapped relations are programme is, of course, somewhat represented in the still real and they are open to further interpretations. outcomes such as theses and the studio projects, however the experience itself is much larger. The experience An Overview of the Program’s Production of METU Urban Design Graduate Program cannot be exA quantitative analysis of the concepts and relations plained only on a verbal medium, at least not without any within the maps presented here is considered the most music or beverages. direct approach to this type of a study. Nevertheless, this This brief study should be read as an act of mining, from type of an approach would miss the points about intrinwhere the accessible sum of materials relations and pat- sic nature of the programme. Therefore, after a brief terns are sought out to decode the patterns of life and introduction about the obvious findings of the study, a relations.34 The method is akin to map making, where critical reading of the body of knowledge represented by things (concepts, people and products in this case) are the maps will be given in the rest of the paper. located within a system of relations. This is an act of episGeographical Distribution: temic mapping. Unlike the absolute coordinate system of geographical maps, where a thing is located at a single Looking at the geographical distribution of the studies location, in an epistemic map, a thing (an idea, a concept and projects in the first map (see: Figure 1), we can noand so on) can occur at many places and times.5 tice a couple of things immediately. First, the METU UD Studio has a tradition of working on Aegean and MediterThe body of knowledge examined includes 136 master’s ranean shores, with no obvious reason. Other than this, degree theses and 25 projects including studio projects the works are clustered in Ankara, Balkans, Turkish Reand competition entries. Whole body of knowledge propublic of Northern Cyprus and the neighbouring towns duced through the last 20 years of the Graduate Program on the south eastern border of Turkey (i.e. Aleppo). The of Urban Design is mapped out in three diagrams. First location of studio works coincide with the context of the one presents the geographical distribution of studies, a thesis studies, as in most cases, the thesis topics, studio second one presents the central concepts of the masworks, and in some instances, professional projects of ter’s degree theses and the advisors of the studies, and the studio ran together as in the case of METU Cyprus the third one presents the central concepts related to Campus Design Project.

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Figure 1. Locations of the master’s studies and studio projects conducted at METU Urban Design Program since 1996.

Table 1. Locations of the master’s studies and studio projects conducted at METU Urban Design Program since 1996. 14

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Figure 2. Network graph of the master’s studies mapped out in accordance with the research themes and the advisors involved. (for more information, see: http://bit.ly/2bgVqcr)

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Figure 3. Network graph of the studio and competition projects conducted at METU Urban Design Program between 1996 and 2016. (for more information, see: http://bit.ly/2bR71BI) 16

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Prominent Themes: Considering the themes of the master’s degree studies, we can argue that the large number of studies on design methods, urban cognition, urban form and transformation is a common characteristics for any urban design programme. In this respect, METU UD program does not suggest an exception. The majority of the studies conducted in the programme are on these themes. There exists a large amount of studies on urban form and the control of urban form, which are indispensable issue for a programme on urban design. Just to cite a few, we can count B. Serin’s study on the taxonomy of design control tools6 and T. Ünlü’s study on urban coding7 as examples of this category, where both the concepts related with urban coding and design control are evaluated as well as the potentials and shortcomings of the Turkish legislative framework examined. We can consider these types of studies as means to define the necessary tools that could be utilised in practice.

Such studies both studio project and master’s study are spread to a geography which mainly covers the part of the Middle East in close relation with Turkey and the Balkans. Countries such as Syria, Albania, Kosovo, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and Pakistan have always been in the agenda of the programme. The emergence of the themes like ‘post-soviet cities’ or ‘history of the nation’ in the conceptual maps could be regarded in this respect. This is seen as a result of the responsibility towards the peculiarities of the geographical region. The Poetics of Research As the first scholarly attempts of researchers in academic writing, master’s theses are much more experimental and flexible as compared to PhD. studies. Still having proper methods and a certain academic conduct, those studies embody a selection of research topics that are very much personal in nature.

The study by D. Cihanger on the meaning and sense of space generated by the ancient oak tree in Yalvaç10, D. Considering the specializations of the major scholars Altay’s study on the appropriation of space by young urcontributing to the programme, the specific themes banites’ night life and the concept of ‘minibar’11 can be such as, ‘property relations’ and ‘politics and space’ are listed just to cite a few in this genre. distinguished. This is also an evident case as the theme Poetics is not necessarily light hearted; there are also of property relations is also the major contribution of studies that are very much loaded with history and poliBaykan Günay to the field, and the latter is a leitmotiv tics. F. A. Ubaid’s study on the political history of Karaof many studies at METU that is bound with the political chi defined with many faces such as “Located Karachi, history of the university. Named Karachi, Mapped Karachi, Colonized Karachi, Violent Karachi and Romantic Karachi” could be regarded Serving the Nation(s) within this type12. Besides the studies on/of the Aegean settlements in Turkey, a certain pattern of location choice is recognised in Together with the technical expertise, this combination both the master’s degree theses and the studio projects of humanitarian and politically loaded perspective can be conducted in the programme. Accordingly, places of the considered a part of the essence of the programme as design and research studies signify the locations which well. are important for national identity. Projects on Ankara The Emergent Spiral / Atatürk Forest Farm / Railroad, Gallipoli / Eceabat and Albenia / Pogradec are examples of this stance. Consider- While making a timeline for the studio projects, a trial ing the master’s degree research studies we can mention with a ‘network graph tool’ resulted in an unexpected E. A. Miroğlu’s study that juxtaposes the political history result.13 While mapping the discrete nodes, the program and morphological transformation of Allepo8, or R. Al- also calculates the number of connections from a node par’s thesis on the divided city of Nicosia9, just to cite as to the others in order to determine the relative power of few typical examples. each node in the graph. As nodes are related with one another, they attract each other and result in self-orga-

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nizing graphs. Within the analysis calculating the attraction of persons and the related themes involved in the studio studies, the timeline folded into a spiral. This was actually revelation of the concept of ‘intellectual spiral’ at the conclusion of Adnan Barlas’ course, CRP551 Theories and Principles of Urban Design with his impressive blackboard performance.14

The Epistemic Community As the question of whether the programme belongs to the domain of planning or architecture is an everlasting topic, it has not suggested a productive basis to develop the field of urban design. The maps generated within this brief study do actually provide insights on the multi-disciplinary collaboration within research conducted within the METU Graduate Program of Urban Design. Looking at the contributions of advisors, we can see that following the most productive planners in the programme (Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Z. Müge Akkar Ercan and Çağatay Keskinok), the most frequent advisors of the programme have been architects (Güven Arif Sargın and Cana Bilsel).

The spiral formation reveals a number of relations. Obviously, it is seen that Baykan Günay has acted like the ‘centre of the universe’ of the METU MUD Program the highest number of involvement of him in the studio works. Secondly, some of the research themes reoccur in time, resulting in bending of the spiral. Urban coding, for instance, is one of them recurring in early projects such as Considering the studio works, Erhan Acar, Türel Saranlı, METU Technopark in 1996, Northern Cyrpus Coast planÖzcan Esmer and Umut Toker have contributed to a ning in 2010 and in later studies like Parametric Urban number of studio works as architects. Though it is not Design Coding in 2014. visible in the network graph, Güven Arif Sargın, Ayşen There are a number of campus design studies since the Savaş and Kerem Yazgan ran a graduate studio together METU Technopark Project (1996) followed by Barrier Free with the Urban Design team studying Pogradeç, Albenia METU (1998) and METU Northern Cyprus Campus Proj- in 2002-2003.15 ect (2000), and as a later attempt, METU Kosovo CamAn Overview pus Project (2008). Thus there is a significant body of knowledge accumulated on design of campuses in the Revealing the real nature of co-operation and personal programme. relations exceed the limits of this paper. There are many personal relations and shared stories made up the history There are three distinguishable groups of studies in the of the programme. Despite unproductive debates on the course of the studios. First there are series of works on disciplinary boundaries of the program, the community waterfront developments. Second, the works on Ankara of urban design at METU has already formed numerous gaining intensity between 2010 and 2013 represent the interdisciplinary partnerships in accordance with the second group of studies conducted in the studios. Third, trans-disciplinary nature of urban design. there is the newly developing track of parametric urban design in the last two years. The concept of urban mor- The histories of institutions are bound by the histories phology binds the last two categories to each other, pro- of individuals and the community. As the community viding a ground for a smooth transition from one issue to changes, new chapters of the history are written. An another together with the changing studio team. overarching history of the program exceeds the limits of this brief study. The aim of the short paper has been to Another type of studio project is the design competiprovide a number of maps and concepts to understand tions. We can see that there exists the practice of urban the history of the programme, as means of further digdesign competitions together with the members of the ging into the history. studio in the early years. (Ostrova in 2000 and Pananos in 2004) which is later abandoned for a time. With the This brief study, as stated above, aimed to provide a Mars City Design Project in 2016, this practice seems to number of maps for those who are interested in the hisbe revived. tory of the programme. In this respect, the maps pre-

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sented here are merely the companions to the materials Birleşimindeki Kentsel Alanın Dönüşümü: Halep Şehri’, presented in the rest of this catalogue. MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University. Notes

9. See: Alpar, R., 2001, ‘Divided Cities: Physical and Social Restructuring of Lefkoşa, Cyprus / Bölünmüş Kentler: Lefkoşa Suriçinin Sosyal ve Fiziksel Değişimi ve Yeniden Oluşumu’, MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University.

1. Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture 2. The song is related with the author’s mental map of the METU Urban Design Studio as it is one of the songs Baykan Günay chanted in the studios. Originally written by Merle Travis in 1946, the 1955 version by Tennessee Ernie Ford is much better. 3. The contents of this short paper are extracted from the larger study conducted by the author as his ongoing PhD. research in Architecture, in METU, under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Güven Arif Sargın, titled The Omnipresent Urban Atlas: An Inquiry into Intersubjective Knowledge of Urban Environments. 4. The methodical approach of the study has been partly- adopted and further developed by the author through his participation in the project: State of Doctoral Research in Architecture in Turkey at the Beginning of 21st Century, at Eskişehir Osmangazi University, under the supervision of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hakan Anay.

7. See: Ünlü, T., 1999, ‘Urban Coding as a Tool to Control Urban Form / Kent Formunu Denetleme Aracı Olarak Kentsel Kodlama’ MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University.

11. See: Altay, D., 2004, ‘Urban Spaces Re-Defined in Daily Practices: The Case of “Minibar”, Ankara / Gündelik Faaliyetlerde Yeniden Tanımlanan Kentsel Mekanlar: Ankara, “Minibar” Örneği’ MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University. 12. See: Ubaid, F.A., 1999, ‘Kararchi: Some Steps in Experiencing Karachi’,MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University. 13. To make your own network maps see: https:// graphcommons.com/

5. For further reading on critical cartography: Monmonier, M. 1991, How to Lie with Maps, University of Chicago Press: Chicago 6. See: Serin, B., 2010, ‘Taxonomy of Design Control Tools / Tasarım Kontrol Araçları Taksonomisi’ MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University.

10. See: Cihanger D., 2013, ‘Trees in the Urban Context: A Study on the Relationship between Meaning and Design / Kentsel Bağlamda Ağaçlar: Anlam ve Tasarımın Ilişkisi Üzerine Bir Çalışma’ MSc. in Urban Design, Middle East Technical University.

14. Professor Adnan Barlas’ course of Theories and Principles of Urban Design course ends up with a great introduction of the spiral of the intellectual history of human being as described by Dominick LaCapra (1984). See: LaCapra, D. (1984) Rethinking Intellectual History: Texts, Contexts, Language, Cornell University Press: Ithaca 15. Results and reflections of this studio were later published. See: Sargın, G.A. (2004) Hybrid Spaces, METU Faculty of Architecture Press: Ankara

8. See: Miroğlu, E. A., 2005, ‘The Transformation of Urban Space at the Conjunction of the Old and New Districts: The City of Aleppo / Eski ve Yeni Mahallerin

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Urban Design In Historic Urban Landscapes: Linking Design With Conservation –the case of Italian schoolsAçalya Alpan1

Introduction

area that embraces all the dimensions of urban design and needs more effort to both preserve the authenticHistoric built environments constitute a significant part ity and genius loci of a place while serving the needs of of many contemporary cities. Preservation of these landcontemporary urban life. In other words, it connotes to scapes as heritage assets revealing the traces of world the state of conserving and designing at the same time. civilization, the evolution of town in history and its transmission to future generations is of particular importance. It is not only the policies and approaches in professional While preserving them, fulfilling the needs of contempo- life that have to be upgraded and updated, but also those rary life is important as well. in higher education. Regarding HUL approach, the need to integrate urban design and urban conservation in edHistoric built environments are not isolated parts of the ucation has critical significance in the future destinies of cities; they are intertwined with the other parts and as our cities. In this context, with the purpose of improving any other part they are affected by global, regional and Urban Design Program at METU, this short paper aims to local challenges such as climate change, immigration, be an introductory discussion on how urban design and terror, globalization, neoliberal policies, poverty, mass urban conservation could be linked with each other in tourism and so on. To underline the phenomenon, the higher education at master’s level. In this regard, Italy is ‘concept’ and ‘approach’ of historic urban landscape chosen as the case to investigate. The selection of Italy is (HUL) is introduced by UNESCO first in 2005 as a necesno causal but depends on the country’s rich urban herisity to catch the realities of the contemporary world and tage and its long and successful history of urban consersucceed in conserving our cities under such challenges. vation. For this purpose, a program and course content As a still developing concept, HUL can be defined as the analysis involving the 33 Italian universities, which has arhistoric parts of our cities as a total unity through its spachitecture or planning related departments or units, has tial stratification -historical timeline-, socio-cultural stratibeen conducted. Related faculties, schools, departments fication, spatial morphology, landscape, geomorphologior units in those universities have been contacted by ecal and hydrological features and climatic features. As mail for further information as well. From the analysis, it an ‘approach’, HUL stands for a management aiming to is inferred that Italian universities have diverse modes of conserve these areas without isolating them from other dealing with urban design in historic urban landscapes or parts of the city without ignoring the contemporary urapproaches of relating urban design with conservation in ban challenges that the whole city faces. At this point, education. In this short article, first the Italian higher edthe role of urban design comes to foreground regarducation system will be briefly introduced. After summaing its contribution to urban space by providing higher rizing the relationship between urban design and urban socio-spatial quality. The relationship between historic conservation at undergraduate education as the basis for urban landscape and spatial design involves all the dithe graduate programmes are investigated. Other edumensions of urban design that are morphological, visual, cational activities related to the subject are also handled perceptional, social, functional and temporal, as defined in the article. Though they might not have direct relaby Carmona et. al. (2003). In brief, it can be argued that tionship with the master’s programmes, these activities ‘urban design in historic urban landscapes’ is a practice

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are concluded to be supportive in teaching urban design grammes, they will be used together (long-cycle/singlein historic urban landscapes at master’s level, and there- cycle) in the article to prevent confusion. fore interpreted by the author as the diverse modes of The 2nd cycle and long-cycle/single-cycle are the focused linking urban design and urban conservation. programmes in the context of this paper. Urban archaeological areas are important part of most Urban Design-Urban Conservation Relation in 1st and Italian historic cities, like in many Anatolian towns. There2nd Academic Cycles in Italy fore, programmes, courses, workshops and educational events that might support master education related to Bachelor (laurea) programs: design in these particular areas are also investigated and Majority of the universities do not have any special emmentioned under a separate title. phasis on designing in historic environments at their The study might contribute in developing different edu- bachelor programmes. However, despite not focusing cation methods compatible with HUL approach and pro- on the subject, most universities stated that urban demote positive changes in design pedagogy at the Urban sign in historic urban landscapes is part of the studio Design Program at METU, as well. programmes. Depending on the annual program of the studios, the issue is given priority. Italian Higher Education System The content analysis indicates that many architecture Since 1999, to meet the objectives of the Bologna Prorelated bachelor programs have the separate studios of cess, the Italian higher education system has been re‘restoration’, ‘urban design’ and ‘urbanism’. Although organized in three academic cycles. (See: Table 1) In this these studios are not directly related, they might prost nd framework, the 1 cycle programs give access to the 2 vide the students with an insight so that the students nd rd cycle and the 2 cycle gives access to the 3 cycle procan combine their own skills for designing in historic urgrams, respectively. ban environment. It is also seen that in general, all the For several disciplines such as medicine, veterinary medi- bachelor programmes either on architecture or urban cine, law and architecture, long-cycle (Laurea a ciclo planning have the theoretical required courses of hislungo) or single-cycle (Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico) tory of architecture and history of urban design to supdegree programmes are offered in few universities. Since port the studios. Most universities have other supportive long-cycle and single-cycle refer to the same type of pro- courses or studios, either required or elective, on cultural

Table 1. Italian higher education system.2 Cycle 1st 2nd

3rd Long-cycle / single cycle

Equivalent Bachelor’s degree (Laurea triennale) Master’s degree (Laurea magistrale/ Laurea specialistica) 1st level Master (Master di I livello) Doctoral degree (PhD) (Dottorato di ricerca) Specialization Degree 2nd level Master (Master di II livello) Master’s degree (Laurea a ciclo lungo / Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico)

Duration 3 years

Title Required High school diploma

Degree Earned Bachelor’s degree

2 years

Bachelor’s degree

Master’s degree

1 to 2 years

Bachelor’s degree

Specialization diploma

3+ years

Master’s degree

Doctoral degree

1 to 5 years 1 to 2 years

Master’s degree Master’s degree

Specialization degree Specialization diploma

5+ years

High school diploma

Master’s degree

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Table 2. Master programs devoted to designing in historic urban landscapes, and those involving particular studios or courses on the subject (the programs marked with ‘*’ has their focus on conservation) Title of the Program

*Architecture-Restoration *Architecture: there are 6 modules. One is “Conservation of Architectural and Environmental Heritage” *Architectural Design: there are 3 modules. One is “Architecture, City and Landscape” *Architectural Design and History

University

Notable Studios and Courses

Polytechnic University of Milan

- - - - - - - - - - - -

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria Polytechnic University of Milan

*Architecture for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Polytechnic University of Milan Polytechnic University of Torino

Urbanism, Landscape, Regional and Environmental Planning

Polytechnic University of Torino

*Architecture -Restoration

Sapienza University of Rome

Architectural Engineering (longcycle/single-cycle) *Architecture

University of Catania

*Architectural Design

University of Genova

University of Napoli Federico II

- Studio of conservation of urban environment - Studio of conservation of urban environment: urban design - Studio of urban design

- - - - - - - - - - - -

Architecture

University of Parma

- -

Architecture (It is stated by the University that the first semester of the program is partly devoted to urban design in historic contexts and the second semester to restoration)

University of Sassari

-

Restoration studio Studio of urban design Studio and urban and landscape design Urban restoration Architecture for the built heritage (elective) Planning in historical context studio Heritage management Studio of renovation of the consolidated city: architectural and urban design Urban design studio: city and regional planning / architectural and urban design Urban sociology and cultural heritage legislation Studio of analysis and design of urban morphology History and criticism of regional heritage (it is stated by the University that the course questions the built environment through the emphases of UNESCO HUL approach) Lab of urban regeneration and cultural heritage regulatory framework (involves the studio of rehabilitation and urban regeneration; Town planning and cultural heritage regulatory framework) Urban morphology and professional practice Planning Technics (it stated by the University that the studio is devoted to planning in historic cities.) Studio of architectural restoration Studio of architectural, urban and landscape design Studio of integrated design (restoration, architectural and urban design) Studio of restoration Conservation and restoration technics Lab of restoration (involves must modules of: restoration, history of architecture) Studio of architectural and urban design Lab of environmental design (involves must modules of: technology, legislation of cultural heritage, economics and legislation for architecture and urbanism) Lab of urbanism (involves must modules of: urbanism, landscape architecture, urban design) Lab of urban design (involves must modules of: architectural and urban design) Core Urban Regional and Landscape Planning Studio (focuses on the issues of the evolution of planning and legislative instruments; the historic centers planning focused on valorization; compatibility between historic center and modern functions; public space design and role; conservation. The module starts with a number of well-known case studies regarding historic centers and industrial sites reuse and recycling.) Studio of design in historic contexts


heritage related issues (including industrial archaeology) or on architectural and urban morphology to teach the analysis of urban space and form. Master (laurea magistrale/laurea specialistica) and long-cycle/single cycle (laurea a ciclo lungo/laurea magistrale a ciclo unico) programs Similar to bachelor programs, most of the universities stated that at the studios of the master’s or long-cycle/ single cycle programmes (either on architecture or urban planning), design in historic environments is a part of the studio or it is the focus of the curriculum depending on the studio’s annual theme and content. Besides, several universities offer master’s programmes directly related to design in historic urban landscapes or embrace particular studios or courses on the issue. These programs are listed in Table 2. The title of the department at Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria offering the programme of Architecture–Restoration, “Cultural Heritage, Architecture and Urbanism” is worth highlighting since it is a combination of the disciplines for design in historic urban landscapes. Labs at long-cycle/single-cycle programs: Although the term ‘lab’ can refer to modules, studios, workshops or research units in Italian universities, to prevent confusion in this article, it is used as the equivalent of ‘module’ in this section. Different from singular studios or courses, the labs are the modules with a particular theme. Depending on the university, students are either obliged to enrol one lab, or they can enrol on will. The universities that have the labs concerning design in historic environments are University of Basilicata, University of Bologna, University of Chieti-Pescara and University of Ferrara. University of Basilicata has three labs at the program of long-cycle/single-cycle Architecture program. The module, ‘Architecture and the city’ focuses on urban regeneration, while the module, ‘Architecture and the Heritage of the Built Environment’ deals with architectural heritage. Figure 1. Design drawings of an exemplar project from Master’s in Architecture at University of Parma (2012): Requalification of Moretta Square in Historic Center of Rome (Source: https://labarchpr.wordpress.com/, accessed in September 2016)

University of Bologna offers several labs specialized on particular themes; one is the Lab of Design, History and

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Restoration. Fifth-year students of long-cycle/single-cycle programme of architecture can enrol the lab, which involves the courses of Architectural Design/Museology, Consolidation of Historic Buildings, Aesthetics of Landscape, New Technologies For The Relief of The Built Environment, Design and Conservation of Landscape and Historic Open Spaces, and Restoration.

Turin School of Development, Polytechnic University of Torino and the International Training Centre of the ILO (ITC-ILO), in collaboration with the UNESCO Cultural Sector, World Heritage Centre and ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property). Despite not focusing on design, it might involve design depending on the project.

University of Ferrara has five fifth-year synthesis labs at the long-cycle/single-cycle programme of Architecture; the students are obliged to enrol in one. The labs do not have specific titles; they are categorized as A, B, C, D and E. Lab A is partly related to design in historic areas; it consists of the courses/studios of Architectural Design, History of Contemporary Architecture, Architectural Design for Urban Conservation and Museology. Lab B focuses on restoration by involving the courses/studios of Restoration, Project of Architectural Restoration, Conservation of Historic Buildings, Material Degradation in Historic Buildings, History of Construction Technics. Lab D focuses on urban issues, including conservation. It consists of the courses/studios of Urban Design, Environmental, Urban and Regional Conservation and Requalification, Urban Sociology, and Strategic Planning.

Supportive formations and activities: modes of integrating urban design and urban conservation

1st level master programs: It first should be indicated that these programs might not be permanent programmes. By the survey, it was noticed that these programs should annually be reviewed. Therefore, the master’s programmes in this section are the programs of 2016-2017 and might not exist next academic year. Similarly, since an archival analysis has not been carried, previous programs related to design in historic contexts are excluded in the survey. ‘Cultural Heritage and Project: Protection, Conservation and Recovery of the Architectural Heritage and of the Landscape’ offered by University of Basilicata in collaboration with University of Florence and ETSA Madrid is the only 1st level master program devoted to design in historic urban landscapes. Another 1st level master program worth mentioning is ‘Master in World Heritage and Cultural Projects for Development’. It is a joint program offered together by

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Research programs and units: Research programs and research units may be supportive for master’s students to gain more insight in a particular subject. University of Basilicata, University of Napoli Federico II and University of Florence has research programs and units in connection with design in historic contexts. To give an example, the research program of ‘Cultural Heritage’ offered by University of Basilicata unit of DICEM is a post-graduate and an interdisciplinary programme, encouraging synergy among the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, geography, literature, psychology, sociology, history and art history aiming to contribute the studies related to cultural heritage (i.e. tourist systems, development of policies and appropriate conservation practices, protection and enhancement of territorial spaces etc.) in the city of the Sassi. Labs: Labs involving both research and didactic activities operate in the form of workshops, where the academic staff of the department interested in a specific subject work, teach and research together. These labs are mostly interdisciplinary. For instance, in Roma Tre University, students, researchers, scholars from other departments, faculties, national or foreign universities can join as well. In this way, cultural exchange and collaboration between different institutions are also promoted. The labs also offer training and promote development of bachelor theses through organized meetings, seminars, conferences, collective reviews, etc. The number of students participating in the lab cannot exceed twenty. Roma Tre University Faculty of Architecture currently has eight labs, each on a different specific subject. The lab of Historic Centers aims to conserve the historic environment by

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developing tools of rehabilitation and restoration of the urban archaeological sites in their 1st and 2nd cycle proarchitectural and urban heritage such as conservation grams. manuals, plans, codes of practice, etc. In the bachelor programme ‘Science of Regional, Urban, Workshops: Landscape and Environmental Planning’ at University of Palermo, there is the 3rd year course of Ancient TopograOne of the best ways of handling design in historic urban phy, which might be interpreted as supportive course for landscapes is organizing workshops. These workshops design in archaeological areas. The aim of the course is might be of several kinds. They might have ECTS credto provide the students with the skills of understanding its so that students might enrol in (similar to lab); they the archaeological topographies and stratification, anamight be organized in the scope of particular courses or lysing the problems of the cultural heritage in context programmes; or they might be in the form scientific rein order to use these skills in urban and regional plansearch. Design workshop of DEEPbrera, offered to masning. University of Bologna offers its fifth-year students ter students by Polytechnic University of Milano, stands of long-cycle/single-cycle program of Architecture, the as a good example to such kind of supportive activities. undergraduate lab of Architecture for Archaeology. The The purpose of the workshop is designing the new space lab consists of the courses on museology, structural arof Brera Academy and enhancing the historic heritage chitecture, architectural and urban design, the art of of Brera. building and its evolution. Competitions: The subject of design in urban archaeological areas is Another method of touching on ‘design in historic ur- usually supported by workshops in Italy. ‘Rome Internaban landscape’ is promoting or organizing competitions tional Design Workshop 2016: Rethinking Urban Voids either for students or open to both students and profes- in the Historical Center of Rome: the Case of Piazza sionals. Design competitions, either promoted or orga- della Moretta’ by Sapienza University of Rome is a good nized by Bologna University Faculty of Architecture stand example of such workshops. The Workshop embraces as a good example of this method. In Bologna case, the the enhancement of urban archaeological remains in the students are obliged directly to contribute in competi- area. tions projects, such as the latest competition on re-qual‘International Workshop Archaeology, Architecture and ification of the historic square of Cesena.3 the City: Rethink the Relations between Architecture and Archaeology in Rome’ organized by Roma Tre UniCourses of Training: versity in 2013 in collaboration with Iowa State University These are basically courses on a specific theme such as can be considered a good example for joint workshops. summer school or winter school. For instance, the Winter School of ‘Reading the Historic Framework: Interpreta- Evaluation tion and Design’ (2016-2017) by Sapienza University of In this short article, 1st and 2nd cycles of Italian higher Rome is a two-week programme. The course consists of education are investigated to take a glance at how urban two modules: a series of conferences and workshops. design and urban conservation are connected to each Guided visits to several Italian historical town centres will other. With the survey, it would be appropriate to conalso be included. The course obliges a final work presenclude that despite the deficiencies and inadequacies in tation. the programmes as stated by several universities, Italy is not a country only to be appreciated with the actual Design in Urban Archaeological Areas professional practice of design in historic contexts, but Despite the fact that urban archaeological sites are a also with educational activities on the issue. As presented significant part of the historic urban landscapes in Italy, in the article, there are diverse ways of linking urban defew universities touch upon the issue of urban design in sign and urban conservation in Italian higher education.

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Moreover, it should not be ignored that while connecting these two fields, the criteria of EU Programme, ‘Horizon 2020’ are also followed, so that, design in historic urban landscapes involves other key issues such as energy efficiency and disaster-resilience. The rationale behind the Italian higher education’s success might lie in the content of studios involving design in historic contexts as part of the studio; the supportive educational activities offered to master students; and the interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and international work-culture. Looking from that perspective, METU Master of Urban Design, after its twenty-year experience in design and research, does actually suggest a real potential to improve its programme, and take a leading and inspirational position for other universities as well.

• organizing inter-institutional or international jointstudios or workshops, • organizing and participating the design competitions for students would ensure an update and upgrade of the programme in the way of integrating design and conservation. Doubtlessly, the desired effects would be seen in the long run through the invaluable historic urban landscapes of Anatolia. References: Carmona, M.,Heath, T., Oc, T., Tiesdell, S.T. (2003) Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions Of Urban Design, Architectural Press: London

Notes Such an improvement would be compatible with the special context of the university locating in the histori- 1. Dr., part-time instructor, Gazi University Faculty of cally and spatially stratified geography of Anatolia with Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning invaluable cultural heritage. In this regard, as revealed in 2. ‘Italian Higher Education System’, < http://web.unithe case of Italian programmes examined; ud.it/international-area>, accessed in September 2016 • adding courses related to urban heritage resourc3. See: Concorso di idee:“Piazza del Popolo a Cesena dal es, mercato al future”, http://www.da.unibo.it/it/bandi/ • integrating the HUL approach into its studios, concorso-di-idee> , accessed in September 2016 • making the studio more interdisciplinary,

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Nanos Gigantum Humeris Insidentes: The New Challenges For Future Olgu Çalışkan1, Duygu Cihanger2

In one of his personal letters, Isaac Newton says “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” That acquainted aphorism of him does actually derive from a Latin expression, which takes place in the title of this short paper. In the meaning of ‘discovering truth by building on previous discoveries’3 (Wikipedia, 2016), the expression has a real relevance with the issue of foundation and prospective (trans)formation of institutions. Having been established with a very ambitious start-up project in 1996, METU Master of Urban Design (MUD) Program is at the 20th anniversary. Since then, the program has not given a break in studio education and research. For the institutionalization of an organization, in the way of embedding a norm or a particular mode of behaviour as a whole, this is a long period. It is long enough to put a self-reflective perspective revealing what has been achieved and what has to be done on the basis of that meticulously constructed tradition, as well. In the context of this paper, the authors who are also the ‘products’ of this tradition suggest the headlines of a projective trajectory for METU MUD based on the accumulated experience reflected within this Catalogue. Urban Design: (In)Between Architecture and Planning Fifteen years ago, in the sixth year of the establishment of METU MSc Urban Design under the Department of City and Regional Planning, the first author of this article was one of the students within the program, and he organized a panel discussion at the Faculty of Architecture. Having invited four academics from both Architecture and Planning departments, he kindly asked the participants to make their own definitions of urban design from their professional perspectives in order to trigger a

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Figure 1. The medieval manuscript and allegorical drawing depicting the Greek mythology of Cadalion acting on the shoulder of the giant. -Library of Congress, Rosenwald 4, Bl. Süd-Deutschland, ca. 1410(Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org)

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tological question whether the act of design should be categorically considered ‘urban’ or not; even within that panel discussion, it was revealed that there was apparently no consensus on neither urban design nor design among architects and planners. Yet the question of the disciplinary position of urban design as the field between architecture and planning4 has remained relevant considering the expected quality of urban design education, which is the main concern of this paper.

Figure 2. Poster of the panel discussion organized at METU Faculty of Architecture in 2001: Re-considering Urban Design (Source: Personal archive of Olgu Çalışkan) fruitful intellectual debate on the issue. At the very hot moment of the discussion, one of the panellists argued that there should have been no term like ‘urban design’ because every design act is essentially ‘urban’ due to its intentional and operative context. Apart from the fact that ‘urban’ plus ‘design’ does not necessarily equate to ‘urban design’ or the relevance on-

Long after this panel dated in 2001, the authors have recognized that the question had not been resolved even at the 60th anniversary of the first Urban Design Conference at Harvard where Josep Lluís Sert opened up the discussion for a common disciplinary definition of the emerging field in 1956. Within the enduring debate, the first argumentation is that urban design is a subset of planning. The champions of this opinion support that idea with the claim that in the context of global/neoliberal economies, planning’s intrinsic attainment of public good, social justice and sustainable ecology and its builtcapacity for social science research necessitate urban design to be retained within city planning and planning education (Stenberg, 2000; Gunder, 2011; Talen, 2009, 2011). The counterview against this perspective points out the naivety and romanticism inherent within the argument which in fact disregards the actual involvement of planners in commodification of urban land through the formation of gated communities, closed complexes or privatized public spaces financed by the global capital (Banerjee, 2011). The ones seeing the futility of grounding the discussion on a normative basis offer a more substantial framework. Accordingly, the first view suggests that urban design tends to be an independent school of design professions and disciplines (Childs, 2010). This perspective implicitly excludes planning. Another position emphasizes the ‘interdisciplinary’ nature of the theory and practice involving architecture, planning and landscape architecture5 (Lang, 1994/2007; Forsyth, 2007). The more flexible view, in this context, suggest even a broader disciplinary framework that includes all the disciplines interested in the planned production of space -i.e. civil engineering, real estates, law and social sciences- (Schurch, 1999). Questioning the ontology of

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Figure 3. A domain-specific definition of urban design: the necessary position of architecture and planning as the parent disciplines of urban design. (urban) design practice and thinking in relation to art, Marshall (2015) argues the most overarching framework positioning urban design between the ‘disciplinary territory’ of fine-arts, infrastructure/product design and planning. Constructing the cognitive relation between design and art, this point of view is severely rejected by the perspective which is sceptical about the personal creativity intrinsic in (urban) design within the broader socio political context of urbanism6 (Cuthbert, 2016). The point that the ‘big debate’ achieves does actually originate from the early discussion of Kevin Lynch one of the founding figures of the field. Regarding its both sensory/ aesthetical dimension and its procedural insight (dealing with plurality, continuous change, and conflict), Lynch (1984) sets ‘city design’ on the skills of both planning and architecture against the background knowledge of politics, sociology and economy.

trans-, cross- or inter-disciplinary nature of urban design does not suggest an added-value on the discussion of urban design education. No counter argument excluding any parent discipline is convincing anymore with regards to the field that was originally established by the protagonists who were prominently architect7, as well as the contemporary practice that occurs in the overarching framework of planning today. More substantially, the main spatial domain on which urban design acts does necessarily involve the practice of both planners and architects through integrative coordination (see: Figure 3).

As seen in Figure 3, urban design process can be conceptualized in two domains: rule and structure, and form and pattern having their own morpho-logics to operate with8. These two domains ask for both the guiding and regulatory role of planning9 and the compositional skills and cognition of architecture10. Without one or another, Based on this perspective and bearing the very basic con- the field does not perform properly. Therefore the main ception of the field as the organization of space and its question to be discussed for the prospective future of integral definition with form and function (Madanipour, urban design education here manly concentrates on the 2006), the authors believe that reclaiming the multi-,

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Country

North America

US

Canada

Europe

United Kingdom

Germany

The Netherlands Belgium Sweden

Instutition

Berkeley University College of Environmental Design Georgia Institute of Technology School of Architecture Harvard University Graduate School of Design Columbia University Ball State University Savannah College of Art and Design Carnegie Mellon University Arizona State University The University of Texas in Austin School of Architecture University of North Carolina at Charlotte University of Miami School of Architecture University of Colorado Denver Collage of Architecture and Planning University of Toronto John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design The University of Melbourne Melbourne School of Design University of Toronto John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design University of Nottingham Architecture and Built Environment University of Westminster Architecture and the Built Environment Oxford Brookes University School of the Built Environment University College London School of Planning TU Berlin Department of Urban and Regional Planning University of Stuttgart Hafencity University of Hamburg Urban Design Program TUDelft Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture Lund University Faculty of Architecture

Programs Master of Urban Design Master of Science in Urban Design Master of Architecture in Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Science in Urban Design Masters of Urban Design Masters of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Architecture and Urban Design Master of Arts in Urban Design Master of Arts in Urban Design Master of Research in Interdisciplinary Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Science in Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design Master of Urban Design Master of Science Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Master of Urbanism and Spatial Planning Master of Sustainable Urban Design


Eurasia

Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design Jerusalem Israel

Turkey

Australia

Lebanon Australia

China Hong Kong Japan

The Urban Design Master’s Degree Program Laboratory for Contemporary Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Urban Development and Design

The University of Sydney Faculty of Design and Planning Singapore

Asia Pacific

Tel Aviv University Department of Geography and Human Environment. Middle East Technical University Faculty of Architecture American University of Beirut University of New South Wales Built Environment

Master of Urban Design

National University of Singapore Department of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Architecture The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Architecture The University of Tokyo Department of Architecture

Master of Art (Urban Design) Master of Science in Urban Design Master of Urban Design Master of Architecture and Urban Design

Table 1. Selected graduate programmes in urban design. content (epistemology and methodology) rather than ate programmes in urban design from 15 countries have been investigated (see: Table 1). the claimed (disciplinary) structure of the program. Towards a dynamic programming: an international perspective Following the overall outlook briefly presented above, the current state-of-art in urban design education through surveying the leading programs in different regions of the World is evaluated. This is basically to provide some critical indications for the strategic transformation of urban design education either at METU or those searching for a projective perspective for future. The survey takes only the graduate programs thought in English into consideration. The data is mainly collected by the web-survey on the basis of the index made by Planetizen, the independent resource on planning.11 Nevertheless, the index has been updated by a number of programs not included in the list. Eventually, 34 gradu-

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The main selection criteria in selecting the programmes and forming the dataset are the active and accessible presence of the educational programme and the availability of their curricula. Accordingly, 288 courses of the urban design graduate programme from six different geographical regions in the World have been examined. The course titles are divided into their main contents in order to gather the essence and the main topic (i.e. The Theory and History of Urbanism course is used as two different contents as theory and history). Having gathered all the main concepts included in the course titles from all programmes, the frequency of mention of the contents is visualized through a World Cloud program. The main intention with this analysis is to see the most commonly focused urban design issues and topics easily. This analysis is conducted not only to show the most frequently mentioned contents as it is usually done, but also

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Figure 4. World Cloud Including main contents gathered from all of the course titles from all programmes (frequency of mention ranging between 1 and 15)

Figure 5. World Cloud Including main contents gathered from all of the course titles from all programmes (frequency of mention ranging between 2 and 5)

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Figure 6. World Cloud Including main contents gathered from all of the course titles from all programmes (frequency of mention ranging between 1 and 3)


Figure 7. The courses offered at the graduate urban design programmes and the major thematic clusters in which they position.

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to express the mid-size and low-size mentions. Meaning that, not only the main tendency in the overall course scheme is unveiled but also the structuring and specifying body of courses are exposed. The final verbal-maps present the most frequent concepts relatively larger in size than the other ones involved in analysis aiming for specifying the most common and marginal use of the shared concepts. (see: Figure 4, 5, 6)

cialisation) on certain topic, it has to invest on certain methodology (i.e. mapping, analytics, digital design) or up-to-date themes (i.e. media, mobility, informality) by supported course works.

On the basis of the survey, a clustering is made to classify all the examined course titles in principal themes is suggested as well. (see: Figure 7) The catalogue provides a basis to define an ideal framework for the curriculum of No need to mention that the broader the range, the wid- a grad-level urban design programme. er the common use of term among various programmes Looking at Figure 7, one can easily recognise that the indicating high level of relevance. In this context, it is topics (i.e. place-making, morphology, typology and seen that the generic concepts such as sustainability, control) which directly touch upon the design issues real estate, theory or form are indicated as the most take the broadest coverage and the foremost position frequent notions defining the curricula. (see: Figure 7). in the programmes. Nevertheless those topics, in all Apparently, they are the very basic concepts that would the programmes, are strongly supported by the design characterise the curriculum of any urban planning decourses on urban policy, economics, environment, heripartment. Yet the point is that all those generic concepts tage, history, methodology and theory. This seems quite are taught by the courses of urban design programmes a condition of a full-fledged urban design education. The within the specific framework of physical planning and authors argue that to be genuinely called ‘programme’ 12 design . In this sense, though they may seem too gein the international context today, this condition should neric, they are specifically re-framed in urban design. (i.e. be met within certain optimality. Besides, for coherency The concept of sustainability embody the course Susin educational scheme, an umbrella course framework tainable Approaches in Urban Design, see: Figure 7) In covering the basic topics of urban planning and design the second range, more specific concepts like housing, should be supported by a strong body of specialized, environment, economics, community building and GIS well-focused and maintained urban design topics. come to foreground. The diversity within this group basically indicates the topics which are subject to be given METU MUD: From ‘urban design studio + research’ as thematic concentrations, which are ideally provided to ‘advanced urban design research programme’ for operative specialisation within urban design. The third Since Ecole des Beaux Arts in the 19th century France, and the narrowest range of frequency cluster, gives an ‘atelier’ system, studios are the central platforms of deoverview on the topics that differentiate any programme sign education. Studios are basically the places where with a particular concentration on a specific theme (i.e. creativity is thought and theory is tested by simulated regeneration, public participation, informal urbanism) practice (Long, 2012: 445). Yet design studios are not or a certain methodical/technical topic (i.e. typology, vithe places where only the practical apprenticeship is sualisation and drawing). conveyed. Bearing the fact that design is an intellectual We may argue that the quality of an urban design pro- operation by which objective knowledge on the studied gram can be examined with the extent to which it ef- phenomenon is driven, design studios can be considered fectively covers the wide conceptual area of urban(ist) the core area of knowledge production as well (Dutton, issues presented. The more diversity within the first and 1987: 17). Taken in that way, a design studio could act second type of thematic universe, the higher the com- as a research platform where research is done by depetence the program suggests for the fundamentals and sign. Meaning critical inquiry and heuristic investigation specialisation within the field respectively. Whereas if a through exploration of possible futures (Steenbergen programme aims for specification (in addition to spe- et. al., 2003: 24), research-by-design is already an es-

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tablished notion which is yet to receive enough interest from the planning schools. When we look at the major urban design programmes, we see that there is a real tendency for defining design studios as the main stage of research-by-design projects. Increased number of urban design labs or studios are entitled in alternative names like ‘community based design’, ‘Urban Places’, ‘Future Cities’, ‘Projective Cities’ or ‘The Why Factory’. This also indicates the current tendency to shift from the settled conception of urban design studio relying on ‘project making’ in conventional sense.

into that of design research project aiming the development of either a reproductive methodology or a new conceptualisation in/for design. To that aim, the conventional (linear) relationship between analysis and design has been deconstructed, and the two phases have been integrated into each other in accordance with the actual nature of (urban) design thinking (Çalışkan, 2012). To improve that approach, rigorous (integral) analysis should be balanced with personal impressions and insight as intrinsic within the qualitative nature of design (Schröder, 2016).

The enduring experience of METU MUD, in this regard, suggests a real opportunity to adopt the model of advanced design research program. Since the programme has directed students to conduct their thesis studies in continuation with the studio project of the year, there has been a working link consciously constructed between studio course and the thesis studies. (see: Acar, 2016 at this volume). Yet the point is that design and research, in that context, has remained discrete even in a consecutive manner. Though there have been lots of design analyses conducted on the main topics of the projects during the first twenty-year period of the studio, it is hard to claim that the design process itself has been conducted as the core mean and phase of research itself13. To transform the studio course into a creative research domain, the design methods and concepts should be regarded as the target rather that the particular design solutions suggested by the projects14. The universality of the method (tools and techniques) and the generosity of the concept (vocabulary), in this sense, are seen as the fundamentals of design knowledge to be utilized in practice.

Another step to the formation of ‘design research programme’ would be in the way of reformulating the settled conception of writing a MSc dissertation which mostly falls insufficient to involve design thinking in research. Due to the so-called concern of ‘scientification’, the graduate researches from many design schools in Turkey do exclude design issues from the scope of the studies. This mainly results from the fact that there is little perception regarding design as an instrument for research. To overcome the problem, we should integrate design into hardcode research within masters’ dissertations. Rather than conducting a review and adding a ‘case-study’ after that (mostly in the way of verification), the research issues should be derived from the in-depth design (re)search. By this way, delving into the subject matter by directly handling the phenomenon by design, the student could come up with actual problematic issues and relevant (design) hypotheses which could, in turn, be tested (again by design) in a genuinely scientific way (of falsification15).

To launch that tradition, METU MUD Studio has introduced an intensive programme (more concentrated then before) involving a series of workshops, lectures and seminars in the process for the last two years. While seminars worked for elaborating the subject matter by individual researches and collective discussions, design workshops focused on developing a holistic perspective via short and finite exercises built on one another. For further improvement of this approach, first the convectional notion of design project solving the particular problem(s) of a specific context has been transformed

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Starting up the process at the design studio under the initial supervision of the tutors would essentially enhance the design-led research method. Such a student-led/ design-oriented research method can definitely enable the alternative pedagogical models -i.e. information processing, situated learning or activity model- (Long, 2012: 441-44) to be experimented in the studio as alternative to the conventional behaviourist approach by which learning goals are prescribed at the outset, as well. The ontology of research by design needs more elaboration if it is to be settled properly. It should be, therefore, noted that design, which would lead research, should

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reflect either strategic or speculative (even fantastical) direction to broaden the scope of the research questions on the actual limitation and potentiality factors of the possible future. In this regard, form-exploration, conceptualization, design speculation and systematization are the fundamental performances to be addressed in design research. Simulation of the doomsday scenarios should be part of the design research as well. This is especially critical to direct the researches on risk management. In this sense, Instead of depicting the fixed and desired end-state (blueprint), the techniques of scenario planning and systems thinking should be activated within design research. Such a dynamic perspective is mainly needed to open up the path for actor-based researches in urbanism.

for international success. To that aim, locational specificity of Turkey as a Eurasian country should be taken as an advantage. The Balkans, Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Asia should be the primary locations to interact and collaborate at all level. This is principally compatible with the original (and somehow forgotten) mission of Middle East Technical University as well.

Introduction of new technologies are one of the most vital topic for the contemporary urban design education due to the real potentiality of transforming practice and pedagogy of the field radically in future (Palazzo, 2011: 48). In this regard, emerging design support systems like Geodesign or parametric design models are worth to be integrated within design research programmes. At that point, while METU MUD Program made a serious progConsidering the survey given above, the core of the pro- ress with the later for the last few years16, an effective gram should be devoted to the courses of the major de- integration of GIS into design decision processes is yet sign disciplines. Though this does not mean the exclusion to be done. of the theory and research of social, political and natuInvolvement of the outside professionals and academics ral sciences, urban design education requires a its own from different disciplines (i.e. sociology, politics, environmethodology due to the particular cognition of design mental science) in studio and juries should be pedagogiand design thinking in urbanism (Schön, 1983/1991; cally encouraged (Colman, 1988: 109). The open juries Rowe, 1987; Lawson, 1980/2010, Çalışkan, 2011, 2015). are the platforms to ensure rich intellectual debates supBy MUD programmes, professional competency of urban ported by different perspectives, and to open up new designers are settled and improved following the under- discussion topics in professional domain. grad educations. This is quite the question of skilling. Participation in national and international design compeBringing different professions and creating a common titions should be encouraged not only for its pedagogical skill-factor for all is the major pedagogic challenge of any merits, but also to test the current level of competence UD programme. In this context, not only the technical of the programme within the broader context of the expertise –i.e. graphic communication and visual reprecontemporary design community17. sentation- (Lang, 1994/2007: 469), but also the cognitive ones (i.e. three-dimensional/visual, relational and strate- Last but not least, in order to establish a unified progic thinking) should be given for the desired ‘mind-set’ gramme interrelating design studies of the MSc studio, of urban design (Kreiger, 2006: 28). master’s level researches and PhD studies, a Design Research Unit of FORM+SPACE should be founded in Design studios are getting more international due to the the body of the programme within a multi-disciplinary increased student and staff mobility at global scale (Palaframework. Consisting of both the researches on urban zzo, 2011: 44). Accordingly, the local design contexts space and morphology, the unit can conduct projectare diversified through their socio-cultural and political based investigations incorporating the research students dynamics (Cuthbert, 2001). For any programme acting and fellows from different design disciplines and from the competitive condition of global education, the range different levels with a series of publications presented to of the project locations and the themes selected for the the national international societies. contextual design research projects get more important

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Conclusion

Colman, J. (1988) ‘Urban design: A field in need of broad educational innovation’, Ekistics, 55 (328-30), The long-lasting discussions about the significance of urpp.106-109 ban design will continue, considering the fact that the significance of the urban has become the key reality in Cuthbert, A. (2001) ‘Going global: Reflexivity and Conthe world for all aspects due to the socio-political conditextualism in Urban Design Education’ Journal of tions. This, in turn, will affect and transform urban design Urban Design 6 (3), pp. 297-316. education as well. Furthermore, increasing interest to urCuthbert, A. (2007) ‘Urban Design: Requiem For An ban design both at the level of local and government(s) Era—Review and Critique of The Last 50 Years’, Urin Turkey along with an enduring search for formulatban Design International 12 (3), pp. 77-223. ing legal instruments for practice calls for a systemic and updated knowledge-basis on the field. This addresses a Dutton, T. A. (1987) ‘Design and Studio Pedagogy’, skilled research program on innovative urban design voJournal of Architectural Education, 41(1), pp. 16-25 cabulary and toolkit serving for an effective design pracForsyth, A. (2007) ‘Innovation in urban design: Does tice as experienced in many countries for the last few research help?’ Journal of Urban Design 12 (3), pp. decades18. Such a duty that could be accomplished by 461-73 advanced design research, first and foremost, belongs to academia. The ones (re)formatting their programme will Guner, M. (2011) ‘Commentary: Is Urban Design Still lead that prospective process successfully. Targeting the Urban Planning? An Exploration and Response’, Jourtop ranks in the international league in near future, for nal of Planning Education and Research 31(2), pp. sure, METU Master of Urban Design is expected to be one 184–195 of them in Turkey. Kreiger, A. (2006) ‘Territories of Urban Design’, in M. References: Moor and J. Rowland (eds.) Urban Design Futures, London: Routledge, pp. 18-29 Banerjee, T. (2011) ‘Response to “Commentary: Is Urban Design Still Urban Planning?”: Whither Urban De- Lang, J. (1994/2007) ‘Urban design as a discipline and sign? Inside or Outside Planning?’, Journal of Planas a profession’ in (ed. M. Larice and E. Macdonald) ning Education and Research 31(2), pp. 208–210 The Urban Design Reader, pp. 461-78, Routledge: London Childs, M. (2010) ‘Spectrum of Urban Design Roles’, Journal of Urban Design 15 (1), pp. 1-19. Lawson, B. (1980 [2010]) How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified, Architectural Press: Çalışkan, O. (2012) Design thinking in urbanism: Learning Oxford from the designers, Urban Design International 17, sf. 272-296 Long, J. G. (2012) ‘State of the Studio: Revisiting the Potential of Studio Pedagogy in U.S.-Based Planning Çalışkan, O. (2013) Pattern Formation In Urbanism: A Programs’, Journal of Planning Education and ReCritical Reflection On Urban Morphology, Planning search, 32(4), pp. 431–448 and Design, unpublished PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture: Delft Lynch, K. (1984) ‘The Immature Arts of City Design’, Places, 1(3), pp.10-21 Çalışkan, O. (2015) How urban designers perform: An International perspective on actual practice, METU Madanipour, A. (2006) ‘Roles and Challenges of Urban JFA 32(1), sf. 229-259 Design’, Journal of Urban Desig, 11 (2), pp. 173-193 Marshall, S. (2009) Cities, Design and Evolution, Routledge: London

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Marshall, S., Çalıskan, O. (2011) ‘A Joint Framework for Urban Morphology and Design, Built Environment 37(4), pp. 409-426

2. Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning

Marshall, S. (2015) ‘Refocusing Urban Design as the Art of Place’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Urban Design and Planning 168 (1), pp. 8–18. Palazzo, D. (2011) ‘Pedagogical Tradition’ in (eds. T. Banerjee and A.Loukaitou-Sideris) Companion to Urban Design, Routledge: London, pp. 41-52

3. This expression is also titled by Stephen Hawking in one of his books, ‘On the Shoulders of Giants’ (2002, Running Press: Philadelphia) in which the author compiles the seminal texts of the five physicists as the pioneers of modern science.

4. This was actually at the outset agenda when the programme was being established at METU Faculty of Architecture in the mid-1990s. For more information, see:, Rowe, P. G. (1987) Design Thinking, Cambridge, The MIT Acar, Y. The Omnipresent Urban Atlas: An Inquiry into Press: Massachusetts Intersubjective Knowledge of Urban Environments, unpublished PhD thesis, METU Graduate School of NatuSchurch, T. (1999) ‘Reconsidering Urban Design: ral and Applied Sciences, Ankara, forthcoming. Thoughts On Its Definition And Status As A Field Or Profession.’ Journal of Urban Design 4 (1), pp. 5-28. 5. Also see: Akkar Ercan and Barlas (2016) at this volume. Schön, D. A. (1983 [1991]) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action, Avebury: Alder6. This view essentially argues the insufficiency of classhot sical urban design theory and calls for a radical reconSchröder, I. (2016) ‘Representative Cities’, in the Sympo- struction of it based on the substantial theory of spatial sium of Contemporary Urban Design Education, 10 Feb- political economy (Cuthbert, 2001, 2007). ruary 2016, Architectural Association: London, http:// 7. J. L. Sert, E. Bacon, K. Lynch, C. Alexander, P. D. Sprewww.aaschool.ac.uk/VIDEO/lecture.php?ID=3372, aciregen, N. J. Habraken, J. Barnett, J. Lang, D. G. Shane cessed in July 2016b and B. Hillier can be considered the prominent ones in that genre. Steiner, F. (2011) ‘Commentary: Planning and DesignOil and Water or Bacon and Eggs?’, Journal of Plan8. For the systemic relation between urban morphology ning Education and Research 31(2), pp. 213–216 and design: see: Marshall and Çalışkan, 2011; Çalışkan, 2013. Steenbergen, C., Mihl, H., Reh, W. (2003) ‘Introduction: Design Research, Research by Design’ in (eds. C. 9. The term ‘ordering’ is originally coined by Marshall Steenbergen, H..Mihl, W. Reh, F. Aerts) Architectural (2009) and used it with the meaning of rule making and Design and Composition, THOTH Publishers: Bussum structuration of the broad spatial context in which various singular design operations take place. Talen, E. (2009) Urban Design Reclaimed: Tools, Techniques and Strategies for Planners, Washington: APA 10. The term ‘architecture’ connotes a general notion Press which encompasses landscape architecture as one of the primary discipline in urban design theory and pracTalen, E. (2011) ‘Response to “Commentary: Is Urban tice as well. Design Still Urban Planning?”’, Journal of Planning Education and Research 31(2), pp. 211-212 11. See: http://www.planetizen.com/ search-schools/?f[0]=sm_field_prog_ Notes degree%3AGraduate&f[1]=sm_field_prog_ 1. Assist Prof. Dr., METU Faculty of Architecture, Departdiscipline%3AUrban%20Design, accessed in August 2016. ment of City and Regional Planning

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12. It is critical to state that the courses in involved in analysis are the ones specifically opened by the graduate programmes in urban design rather than the elective courses given by external departments (i.e. planning and architecture departments) in cooperation with the programmes.

16. The elective course, UD755 Parametric Urban Design given by O. Caliskan and Y. B. Barut (with G. Ongun in 2015) at METU Faculty of Architecture aims to support the search for alternative methodologies in urban design research.

17. The tradition of participating in design competitions which was rather valid in the first ten years of METU MUD Studio was re-activated in the last year with two international competitions: Mars City Design International Design Competition and The International Architectural Competition for Science City 2016 see: http://www.marscitydesign.com, accessed in August 14. The project, ‘Parametric Design Coding’ experiment2016 and http://bibalex.org/sciencecity/ accessed in ed in 2014-2015 at METU MUD (see: page 176-183 at this August 2016. volume), in this regard, can be considered a successful 18. The works for an effective design control and guidattempt on this way. ance suggested by Urban Task Force in the UK and 15. For more information on ‘falsification’ as the criterithose by the New Urbanist groups in the States in close on of scientific inquiry, see: Popper, K.R. (1963) ‘Science coordination with the public authorities do actually repas Falsification’ in Conjectures and Refutations, http:// resent success-stories within their particular contexts. staff.washington.edu/lynnhank/Popper-1.pdf, accessed in August 2016 13. Being conducting the whole year project without any specific context (i.e. city, precinct etc.), the project, ‘Ruling the City’: Parametric Urban Design Coding in 2014-2015 academic year represents the first attempt for this approach at METU MUD.

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1996 - 2016 STUDIO PROJECTS CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

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1996 - 1997

Studio instructors:

Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Müge Akkar

Students: Volkan Akkoyunlu Neslihan Artar Duygu Borazancı Alptekin Çağlar Tolga Levent Orçun Obalar Sertan Okan Serdar Özbay Hilal Özcan Sinem Şiranlı Umut Toker Mesure Tüzün Fariha Amjad Ubaid Tolga Ünlü Fikret Zorlu

City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU Architect, National College of Arts, Pakistan City planner, METU City planner, METU

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METU TECHNOPARK Planning & Design Project Tolga Ünlü*, Fikret Zorlu**, Tolga Levent**

Although its campus was developed through an urban design project, METU grew in an incremental way without a holistic and strategic perspective in the last two decades of the twentieth century. The result, in that context, was a scattered settlement, dispersed throughout vacant lands around the main campus area. The first studio of METU Urban Design Program studied METU Technopark Project to be located within the campus area. The main aim of the project was to place Technopark to the most appropriate location within the campus area, and to develop strategies, principles and rules for shaping its future form and structure. To this aim, establishing a close spatial relationship with the existing program areas (including the newly developed METU Science and Technology Museum) in the campus was the primary design concern of the project.

of research and development (R&D) organisations within industrial firms, and innovations in software technology development as the main branch in emerging R&D sectors. Then, accordingly, the planning and design approach was defined to support flexible development strategies for future. The studio developed a typological design approach, which eventually produced four basic plan-units. As the first type, ‘research and development unit’ was consisting of the modules accommodating research activities or innovative solutions on production processes. The ‘production unit’, on the other hand, was the development unit in which limited production of prototype as a result of research is planned to be located. As the third plan-unit, ‘software unit’ was considered to be the place for software production. Finally, the civic centre having administrative and cultural facilities was the last development unit supporting the others. Each typological unit also corresponds to its special zone, formulated as Software Park, R&D Park, and Prototype Production Zone, and Civic Center.

Baykan Günay, the founder of the Urban Design Program, directed the project team. The studio was consisting of 15 students, 11 of whom were city planners while others were architects. Adnan Barlas and Müge Akkar Ercan supported the studio as the members of the Department of City and Regional Planning, as well. Building blocks in the design area were designed to compose different types of plan-units together in the same During the studio work, planners and architects were context. Only, the building blocks of production units encouraged to compose mixed designing groups to were separated from the others. A typical building block produce alternative design solutions for the technopark included buildings of R&D-unit, as well as those of the development to take place on the area of 600,000 m2 software unit. The most critical issue was to formulate land in the campus. All groups discussed four alternatheir composition in the same block. Therefore, a kind tives and reached a conclusion on a strategic plan, showof coding technique visualized through the 3D graphic ing structure of technopark, and compositional order of representation of guideline was developed. plan-units. * Assoc. Prof. Dr., Mersin University, Faculty of Architecture,

In 1996, the concept of technopark was quite new for Department of City and Regional Planning Turkey, so the project was regarded as a model for similar ** Asst. Prof. Dr., Mersin University, Faculty of Architecture, design projects for future. In this regard, a comprehen- Department of City and Regional Planning sive research was conducted to understand the nature

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Alternative plan-layouts for the future development of METU Technopark.

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Final plan-layout of METU Technopark developed from the initial alternative schemes.

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Technopark development integrated into the fabric of existing METU campus in 1997.

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3D-composition of the Technopark development.

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Final layout of the first-phase development of METU Technopark. Aerial view of the design area with the finalized composition of the central administrative units.

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1997 - 1998

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas Students: Banu Aksel Nesrin Artar Sinan Burat Cansu Canaran Mert Çubukçu Ebru Demirayak Seda Evis Dilek İnce Can Koyunpınar Ruhan Köse Serkan Mertyürek Nalân Özkadif Çelen Paşalar Öykü Renklidağ Bozkurt Yurdakul

City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU

52 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Atatürk Forest Farm Urban Design Project Sinan Burat*, Banu Aksel Gürün**

Atatürk Forest Farm (AFF) in Ankara was chosen by METU The final design scheme aimed to; Urban Design Studio as the study area for the 1996-1997 • keep the farm lands open and an integrated part of Academic Term. In 1925, AFF was established by Mustafa the city’s green-belt, Kemal Atatürk as a model farm to develop the techniques • develop two extending corridors composed of social, of modern agriculture and to provide healthy agricultural cultural and scientific facilities, products for the new nation. This essentially made the • sustain agricultural production in the short term on original project unique in the history of modernization. the lands and keep those lands for possible (re)develThe farm, which covers 10000 hectares of land, was opment as a nature park in the long term, granted to the Treasury by Atatürk in 1937. After then, it • transform the farmlands into a city park providing st was entitled as the 1 degree natural and historical constructured and unstructured recreational opportuniservation site and included in the green belt of the city in ties to maintain fauna in it and to provide a sense of following development plans. solitude in natural environment, The reasons why AFF was chosen as the study area in the • aid, protect and develop the steppe flora and fauna design studio were twofold: First, the overall coverage by setting up a program to accomplish that aim. of the farm was dramatically diminishing as in the 1997 The students involved in the studio project consisted of figures. The transformed land was being used mostly planners, architects and a landscape architect. Both the by public institutions and the new programs were not instructors and students engaged in various scholarly compatible with the initial principles within the estabdiscussions during the studio process. This truly enlishment. The second reason was that the Farm was behanced the depth of thoughts developed on the differcoming stagnant and underutilized even with its existing ent aspects of the given design problems. Having kept functional areas serving for the original purpose. the working environment continuously active during The work carried out in the studio aimed to discuss the days and nights, the student group did actually turn the future of AFF, the location and quality of its lands in and studio into a place of reciprocal learning together with around the city and how the Farm would be integrated the instructors. into the development plans. In this regard, the initial purpose of the studio was envisioning some new devel- Moreover, an effective knowledge exchange occurred opment scenarios for the future of AFF. Development among the students having different professional backof alternative strategies considered quite critical due to grounds. In this intellectual context, while architects the everlasting loss of land because of the new functions learned from planners to evaluate the piece as a part of adapted through ignoring the agricultural character of the whole built up through vital relationships, planners the site. Thus the resultant strategy aimed at protecting learned from architects how to comprehend and generand sustaining the unique cultural characteristics making ate the spatial composition within the third-dimension. the Farm an ideal model. To that end, a structure plan * Asst. Prof. Dr., Mersin University Faculty of Architecture, was made to designate the main character areas in the Department of City and Regional Planning Forest Farm, and to develop key policies for these sub- ** Dr., urban designer/planner, B.C DESIGN Co. Ltd. areas along with a management framework suggested Architecture & Urban Design, Ankara for the whole area for future. CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

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Strategic plan for Ataturk Forest Farm (AOÇ) designating the major zones of design interventions.

Designed botanic corridor within the site 54 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Structural formation of the new functional programs adapted by design

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Design structure suggested for one of the facility zones in AOÇ.

Design drawings of the internal structure of the design composition.

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Structural composition of the design-form ensuring minimum touch upon the land.

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1998 - 1999

Studio instructors:

Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Umut Toker

Students: Resmiye Alpar Sandro Capadona H. Burcu Çıngı Devrim Çimen Onur Ergen Sertaç Erten Zeynep Genç Emre Gönlügür Atanur Osmançavuşoğlu Özkan Karababa Meltem Şenol Ayşe Deniz Temiz Serdar Uçar Hande Uluğ

Architect, Eastern Mediterranean University Architect, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University

58 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Barrier-free METU Urban Design Project Meltem Şenol Balaban*

Designing the barrier-free METU campus was the theme of the urban design studio in the academic period 19981999. ‘Barrier-free METU’ which was designed as a comprehensive master plan for the whole campus site was composed of a series of project areas. Each design area was in responsibility of certain groups comprising architects and planners. At the time of the project, Middle East Technical University was in a good reputation of having a pedestrian friendly campus among the other campus universities in Turkey. It was designed with a very basic principle which is the pure segregation of vehicular traffic and pedestrian circulation. However, one of the disadvantages of such principle is having limited accessibility options when there is a need for emergency access. Since there are topographical variations on the terrain of campus area, stairs used to offer necessary connection between vehicular traffic and pedestrian circulation. Besides, along the main pedestrian alley that connects most of the departments and common places such as the registration office, main cafeteria building and the library, the steep slopes acting as natural barrier against easy-access was again solved solely by stairs without any ramps for bikes, stroller and wheelchairs. The major aim of the project was specified as re-organizing the campus pedestrian circulation to provide easy movement for the people having the disabilities of walking, blindness or low vision, by design. The critical point is that while designing such spaces the new form of space was considered to ensure the principles of universal/ inclusive design approach, which would also equally increase the comfort standards of the wide array of users not having any disability.

CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

The studio group had many meetings with some officers from Presidency of Disability Affairs (Başbakanlık Özürlüler İdaresi Başkanlığı) about their urban design projects and policies for public spaces that would be used by people with disabilities. Such meetings were also organized to get insight about the disabled students and their intrinsic way of spatial perception at the campus. By such experimental analyses, the study groups tended to comprehend, for example, how a blind person could find his/ her way by sensing the physical elements of urban space, how his/her perception changes when the 3D quality of the space (i.e. frontality and enclosure) differs, how he/ she feels when the aquatics of space diversified by additional factors like sound of the waterflow in a public space and so on. It is worth to note that multidisciplinary composition of the design groups positively influenced the efficiency of the group-work and the overall quality of the projects as well. Three-dimensional imagination of space, proposed perceptions by users, perspective drawings of hard and soft surfaces such as appropriate landscape elements were the major issues taken into consideration through the design processes during the studio work. The students offered design solutions for accessibility problems at various spatial scales with special guidance of Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas and who taught the group to think realistically as if the solutions could be eventually implemented. * Asst. Prof. Dr. METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning

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Strategic plan specifying the design interventions for the transformation of the existing public spaces in METU Campus.

Specific design solutions suggested for the specified problematic spaces in the campus. 60 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Design layout ensuring the barrier-free space formation in METU Campus.

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Micro-design interventions for the proposed transformation of space in accordance with universal design approach.

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Typical section-drawings of the paved-surface for the comfortable use of people with disabilities

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1999 - 2000

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Adnan Barlas, Serdar Özbay Students: Cenk Atun Banu Bedel Selim Çobanoğlu Eser Dilmen A. Pınar Gedikli Z. Ulaş Gökhan Metehan Gültaşlı Ebru Gürler Tuncay Kaya N. Deniz Kılıçarslan Filiz Kırsakal Enver Kolaç Bige Şimşek Umut Yılmaz

Architect, Eastern Mediterranean University Architect, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University Architect, METU Architect, Gazi University City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU

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Gölyaka Post-Earthquake Urban Design Project Ebru Gürler*

In the 1999-2000 Academic Year, the theme of Urban Design Studio project was post-earthquake urban redevelopment. The studio, in this framework, concentrated on designing earthquake-resistant sustainable urban regeneration processes. The town of Gölyaka, as the project area, has grown as a traditional village on the western Black Sea region of Turkey. It was established at the intersection of the provinces of Bolu and Düzce, and shaped in accordance with the surrounding natural thresholds. The town, known also as ‘lake-side historical settlement’, become a postearthquake region at the turn of the new century. Düzce Earthquake, which occurred on November 12, 1999 with a magnitude fluctuating between 7.4RS and 7.8RS, and caused a massive loss in the region. Both earthquakes called for developing an action plan with an emergency agenda for reconstruction of the devastated urban areas. The new planning approach was to involve risk-reduction strategies, regulatory frameworks and reconstruction program supported by earthquake-resistant architectural and urban (morphological) typologies, safe (risk-free) gathering places, and a regional strategy for the new urban character (i.e. legibility in urban identity to resolve the settled contradiction between the urban and the rural, and finally, conservation of local architectural characteristics and natural heritage. Therefore, an integrated urban planning approach via regional structure plan and masterplan defining strategic project areas, and an inter-disciplinary holistic vision by sustainable urban planning and design principles for post-earthquake recovery were utilized as the basis for the design methods in the main design approach in the studies of the UD studio.

CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

The design process in the studio proceeded in five phases: (1) brainstorming for developing multi-disciplinary vision formed through technical seminars, inter-disciplinary concepts and research-driven ideas, (2) three-tier evaluation by defining the set of status-problem-remark on planning and design issues, (3) systematic analysis via site visits, meetings with local government, interviews with local people, and technical studies on either regional or urban and architectural scale, (4) strategic feedbacks via technical visits to the site, reconsideration of creative solutions during the studio workshops critiques and exchange of ideas at “happy hours”, (5) holistic synthesis via planning and design workshops. Devising multiscale planning and design stages creating a robust system of urban structure, legible urban pattern, a clear hierarchy of urban spaces, and a unified diversity in architectural and urban pattern were the main objective of the design process. The multidisciplinary teamwork was achieved by (1) collaborative group studies organised in certain tasks (i.e. masterplan; design guideline for the city centre and the residential areas), and (2) proactive individual studies as the strategic parts of the studio project (i.e. urban regeneration of building blocks by the planning and development law, urban design codes for projects areas) were integrated as an urban design guideline through a holistic vision. The UD studio project for the national post-disaster recovery was a collaborative design exploration that aimed to provide a strategic framework for sustainable urban regeneration programs and methods for post-earthquake recovery sites. * Dr. (PhD in URP/ITU; MCP in UD/METU; BFA in LAUD/Bilkent), student (BBA/Anadolu Unv.)

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Macro-structure of the town and the project areas designated on the character areas within the fabric.

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Design of urban park along the river.

Low-density, low-rise development on the periphery of the town. 67


Design layouts of the proposed residential area

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Residential-street as the new typology of Gรถlyaka urban form

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Plans and elevations of the designed residential districts.

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Plans and elevations of the designed residential districts.

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2000

Design team: Cenk Atun Adnan Barlas Eser Dilmen Metehan Gültaşlı Baykan Günay Ebru Gürler Enver Kolaç Serdar Özbay

Architect, Eastern Mediterranean University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU City planner, METU 72

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International Urban Planning and Architectural Design Competition: Ostrava, Karolina, the Czech Republic Ebru Gürler*

In the summer of 2000, UD Studio participated in the international design competition organized by International Union of Architects (UIA). The competition was held for the city of Ostrava, the Czech Republic with a special focus on post-industrial site and its sustainable future development within an integrated urban regeneration process**. Ostrava is located in the Karolina Region on northeast the Czech Republic. As understood its settles reputation, ‘the city of coal and iron’ and ‘the steel heart of the republic’, the city used to be an industrial city since the 19th century, and transformed into a post-industrial heritage region since the beginning of the 2000s. The competition was based on a design brief for an area covering about three hectare urban land that is asked to accommodate a diverse programme including various urban complexes (business centre, housing, regional commercial complex, cultural complex, supermarkets, community administrative centre) and some recreational facilities (amusement park; green area and winter garden). The main design task specified by the brief was to design an innovative system of relations, transportation, and communication between the Karolina district, the city centre, and the historic district. Accordingly strategically comprehensive, systematically integrated and functionally flexible design frameworks were to be developed by the participants.

five phases: (1) brainstorming for strategic vision and generating design solutions through group meetings, (2) collective evaluation of the alternatives based on the project requirements, (3) design analysis on both urban and architectural scale (i.e. structural analysis via orthographic maps; urban character analysis by aerial photographs, (4) critical feedbacks via group meetings on the issues like light-rail transportation system as the spine of city centre, continuity of urban spaces by the courtyard system of interconnected passageways, clear hierarchy of urban spaces from public to private, revitalization of industrial heritage sites), (5) holistic synthesis via planning and design studies for the final project, Technical drawings and free-hand sketches by the members of the team were amalgamated into the CAD drawings as the final presentation set by Serdar Özbay, the research assistant of the studio, urban architectural solutions by Erhan Acar, and the supporting planning perspectives suggested by Dr. Özcan Esmer, instructor of the studio. The design project for the international competition project can be considered as an original interpretation of the EU-Lisbon Strategy (2000) and the UN-Millennium Development Goals (2000) declared for economic restructuring and large-scale brownfield redevelopment in post-industrial heritage sites in Europe. * Dr. (PhD in URP/ITU; MCP in UD/METU; BFA in LAUD/Bilkent), student (BBA/Anadolu Unv.)

The UD competition team had a multi-disciplinary compo- ** Official website of the competition: http://www.uia.archi/en/s-informer/concours/8942#.VwhTzMsition. The design process pursued by the team involved Jf1Yc.

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Final scheme: composed urban fabric of the design area, Ostrava, Karolina

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Perspective drawings from the area. CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

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2000 - 2001

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Özcan Esmer, Adnan Barlas, Türel Saranlı, Serdar Özbay Students: Zeynep Aktuna Ebru Aras Funda Baş Yener Baş Aybike Ceylan Ervin Dojce Sevgi Hekimoğlu Volkan Kepoğlu Mustafa Kızıltaş Abdulkadir Yazgan Derya Yıldırım

City planner, METU Architect, Gazi University Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 76

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METU Northern Cyprus Campus Planning and Design Project Yener Baş*, Aybike Ceylan Kızıltaş**, Funda Baş Bütüner***

In 2000, UD Studio was commissioned for designing Northern Cyprus Campus of Middle East Technical University (METU NCC). The project, which was eventually to be implemented, initially raised to two motivating questions: ‘spatial organization of the program-based education’ and ‘urban coding as a tool for flexible and multiactor planning and design process’.

services provided by both the village and the shopping area that will be developed in the future just outside the university gate. The hot and dry climate of the region dictated architecture and open space organization of the campus. An integrated open space system covering METU Square, North and South Plaza, Recreation Valley and North Valley Promenade, the alley and courtyards for education blocks and student accommodation areas The new education system in the campus was considwere suggested to provide a continuous pedestrian cirered to bring various fields of science together and alculation and public spaces. low for strong interdisciplinary ties within a composed ‘programs’ rather than a faculty/department system, For To clarify plan and design strategies, the master plan the new campus, TRNC Government allocated approxi- was supported with a detailed project report covering mately 300 hectares of land near the village of Kalkanlı preliminary studies, plan development principles, conin Güzelyurt. struction program, and codes/guidelines referring to mass-space relationships, architecture, landscaping and Studio design team had a one-week excursion to North open space typologies. The report, in this regard, beCyprus to analyse and document the particularities of came an important tool in the design and development the campus site and its surrounding settlements, Güof the internal projects via architectural, landscape and zelyurt and Kalkanlı. The long-narrow triangular shape urban design competitions. Since, the implementation and the distinctive topographic features of the site -a and construction process of the METU NCC is an ongoing flat ridge, south facing valley and the slopes descending process through the contributions of different actors, to the west- presented unique opportunities and chalthe Master Plan and report still serve as the main referlenges in the allocation of spatial program. Regarding the ence for the architectural design and spatial organisation program-based education concept, the studio team proof the campus****. duced three alternative schemes: (1) The development scheme located on the flat ridge near the village; (2) The * Asst.Prof. Dr., Mersin University, Faculty of Architecture, alternative development positioning on the south fac- Department of City and Regional Planning ing valley; (3) The remote alternative locating away from ** Dr., research assistant, Gazi University, Faculty of the village to the western slopes. After discussions, the Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning master plan was developed as a synthesis of these three *** Dr., instructor, METU, Faculty of Architecture, Department alternatives, in the form of a compact campus scheme of City and Regional Planning to respect climatic conditions and to ease pedestrian access. Proximity of student accommodation areas to **** For more information about the actual design and the other parts of the campus, especially the faculties, construction process of METU NCC Campus project, please see: Baykan Günay, “ODTÜ-KKTC Yerleşkesinin Mekânsal Oluşum was favoured in order to facilitate pedestrian access Süreci”. “ODTÜ Mimari Projeler 1, Yarışma Projeleri 00 – 08”, and comfort. The faculty housing located between the (2008), s.42-56. center and the Kalkanlı gate is within easy reach of the CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

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Alternative plan-layouts and the final scheme for the future development of Northern Cyprus Campus of Middle East Technical University (METU NCC).

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Solid model of the eventual design layout of the new university campus.

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Site plan, floor-plans and the elevation drawings of the student accommodations in the campus, METU NCC.


Master plan of the campus development, METU NCC

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Aerial view of the existing situation of the Northern Cyprus Campus of Middle East Technical University (METU NCC) developed in accordance with the master plan designed by METU Urban Design Studio in 2001. (Source: Google Earth, 2016)

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2001 - 2002

Studio instructors:

Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Özcan Esmer, Adnan Barlas, Özgehan Özen, Serdar Özbay

Students: Mert Akit Özgür Almaç Deniz Altay Ebru Aras Miroğlu Yavuz Selim Barbaros M. Erkin Baykan Aslı Çakan Olgu Çalışkan Bora Er İrem Erdem Almaç Adelina Greca Feray Koca Hayal Memik Banu Özberk Metin Topçu Mehmet Onur Yılmaz Tugay Yaraş Serkan Zengin

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, Gazi University Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, Dokuz Eylül University City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU 84 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Bozburun Urban Project Feray Koca*, İrem Erdem Almaç**

Bozburun Peninsula is a gorgeous geography with its coastal settlements, villages and agricultural fields that exposes various problems along with the development of the tourism sector for the last decades. As a rural settlement where everyday life and its spaces have been shaped by the integrated and peaceful relationship with the sea, Bozburun exposes unique characteristics of a spontaneous development rather being the product of a systemic planning process. However, since the planning legislation obligates ‘an approved development plan’ for any urban settlement, Bozburun had to face some problems caused by the conflict between the planning codes and the peculiarities of the town. The existing planning legislation for the coastal settlements, in fact, did not allow a sustainable growth pattern within a settled harmonious relationship between sea and the settlement while respecting the semi-rural character of the area. Moreover, the majority of the existing building stock would be entitled as ‘illegal’ if the planning legislation was implemented.

was proposed as ‘the gate of the town’. The proposed new housing and hostels area, town park and commercial center was in harmony with the existing settlement pattern and topography, and aimed to promote functional diversity, spatial variation and structural continuity. The main priority of the project was to reserve the whole coastline uninterruptedly open for public. In the first term of the year, the studio collected data and defined the main problematique of the town, and analyzed the context to provide key inputs for design. In the second term, the design group defined visions and the main design objectives for an ecological and humanscale coastal development. As the synthesis of the four options provided, the final project suggested a new harbor development in close relationship with the existing agricultural allocation of land in addition to a delicate infill process suggested for the existing fabric in accordance with the townscape principles.

In the whole studio process, each student had a chance to work in cooperation with the students from other Within this context, UD Studio took these actual planning disciplines (city planners, architects and landscape archiproblems as the major challenge of the design project tects) and produced alternative solutions accordingly. and put some alternative solutions for them. In one-year intensive course period of the program, the design studio During the study, Baykan Günay and Adnan Barlas guided proposed four alternative schemes for the future coastal us in every stage of the project especially while impledevelopment in Bozburun. The conservation of the exist- menting design techniques and generating alternative ing pattern by design and designing a new harbor that is solutions. Erhan Acar supported the design process with integrated with the town had been the main objectives architectural design techniques and Özcan Esmer put of the project. To that aim, the design groups developed some precious advices related to regional analyses. We urban design principles defining the new coastal zone by would like to thank to all for their guidance, advices, critiintegrating the rural pattern, which was free from per- cisms, encouragements and patience. functory rules of the Coastal Law, with the new urban * Asst. Prof. Dr., Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of fabric to be developed by design. Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning Within the proposed development scheme, a marina as- ** City planner, Housing Development Administration of Turkey sociated with the town center and tourism development (TOKI), Ankara

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Future development of Bozburun within its ‘rurban’ regional context strengthen by design.

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Initial proposal for the inner formation of the town.

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Master plan of Bozburun consolidating the internal fabric by infills and controlling the future development in extensions on the waterfront.

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Site plan for the marina-based touristic development in the rural coastal area near Bozburun. The semi-urban waterfront which is subject to the legal restriction for new developments is transformed by creating a new watersurface area within the inner land as a conscious design tactic.

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2002 - 2003

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Özcan Esmer, Adnan Barlas, Özgehan Özen, Serdar Özbay Students: Mesut Akbaş Eda Akçadağ Açalya Alpan Şebnem Arbak Erdem Ceren Ayata Ebru Bingöl Umut Cırık Pınar Çubuk Doğan Dursun Cem Ekiz Ozan Erdoğan Adelina Greca Eylem Gülcemal Levent Karagöl Oğuz Karakadılar Valbona Koci Aslıhan Özaslan Ufuk Seyhan Burcu Yiğit Onur Yumuş

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University Architect, Gazi University City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU 90 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Pogradec Urban Project Açalya Alpan*

At the time of the studio project, Albania, as any other post-socialist country in transition, was facing with the difficulties of controlling urban space with unsatisfactory legislative tools for transformation. In such context, UD Studio in 2002 specified the main theme of the year project as ‘designing in a post-socialist urban landscape’. Pogradec, as a city and municipality in central Albania, situated on the shores of Ohrid Lake, was suffering problems caused by land privatization, uncontrolled building construction, migration and insufficient infrastructure and unsatisfactory living environment. Within this context, the studio project included some supplementary design themes like lakefront redevelopment, integrity of the historic part of the city, transformation of the existing town center, development of a new town center and a new residential area for the growing population.

Pogradec’s urban identity, were detected. Then, urban design policies were proposed to ensure the integrity of these elements and values with each other and within the wider urban landscape. The historic part of the city was divided into four main character and several sub-character areas specified by morphological analyses. Then, the main means of intervention for each character area were defined (i.e. rehabilitation, redevelopment) and different models were proposed for the rehabilitation of those areas by design coding. In the coastal zone, the area was analyzed resulting in the designation of different zones and then for each zone a different urban design concept was defined. In the existing town center, following a detailed morphologically analysis, different design strategies were developed for its transformation into a commercial area. For developing a new center, the former industrial area of the city was selected due to the transportation opportunities offered by its location. Design guidelines based on certain themes such as relocation articulation, façade design, street furnishing and parking, were prepared for each zone.

Despite the city’s very weak integration to regional transportation systems. Pogradec had a great potential for future development and growth. The city was under the influence of Adriatic Corridor 8, one of the transportation corridors defined in the scope of new communication networks of EU. Therefore, the future development Due to the interdisciplinary and international nature of of Pogradec needed to be considered with regard to its the Studio, the students could enjoy a multi-contextual future spatial context within the region and in Europe. and holistic approach in design from urban to building scale. The instructors of the Studio, Baykan Günay, Erhan In this framework, bearing the opportunities offered by Acar, Özcan Esmer and Adnan Barlas provided a holistic its new locational advantage in mind, field surveys were perspective on model-formulation regarding different made to depict the land use configuration of the city, problems and contexts, which might be called strategic to understand the basic forces that produced its urban urban design. That was, producing different design alterform to depict the characteristic parts of the fabric and natives for solving the problem in urban space, dependto define the major problem areas. On the large scale, a ing on the related context. coastal pedestrian spine was proposed as the major element to connect the different development and trans- * Dr., part-time instructor, Gazi University Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning formation spots of the city. In the historic part of the city, firstly the elements and values of the city’s townscape, which might represent

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Alternative spatial vision and strategy proposals for the future development of Pogradec within transforming the Eastern European regional context.

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Development and transformation plan scheme for the historical district of Pogradec.

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Development plan for the new city center of Pogradec.

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Strategic plan scheme for the transformation of the city’s existing waterfront and the design proposal linking all the spatial segments along the shoreline.

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Creation of shared spaces (‘privately owned public space’) by (re)coding the utilization of backyards within the existing traditional fabric. 96 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Rearrangement of the plot layout by subdivision codes in order to transform the fragmented urban block formation in a coherent manner.

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2003 - 2004

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Özcan Esmer, Adnan Barlas, Özgehan Özen, Serdar Özbay Students: Özgül Acar Burcu Bakırcıoğlu Özlem Balkan Esra Bayar Tümay Çin Seda Duzcu Deniz Ertek Duygu Kaçar İlker Otman Yücel Can Severcan Eda Ünver Serkan Yaşdağ Başak Yılmaz

City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU Architect, IYTE City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University Architect, Gazi University Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 98 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Doha Corniche Urban Design Project Yücel Can Severcan*

The theme of 2003-2004 METU UD Studio was coastal area design. In 2003, the Government of Qatar attempted to transform Doha Corniche into an international center of arts and culture in the Gulf region. The process was initiated by an international design competition that was open to six renowned architects invited for their entries. The faculty members of the Studio involved in this process by preparing an urban design inventory for the competitors. Based on this inventory and sample design projects, which in turn utilized for the competition brief, students were asked to come up with alternative design approaches for the coastal area. The Corniche is composed of a narrow pedestrian strip, extending 7.5 km along Doha Bay from an iconic hotel building at the North to another one at the South, old Dhow harbor and the Doha Port facilities. A dual carriageway runs parallel to the pedestrian strip. Prestigious administrative, cultural and commercial facilities and parks locate along this road as well. The regeneration process intended to enhance the quality of urban life along the Corniche and to provide an international culture and arts identity through innovative, culturally appropriate and environmentally sensitive urban planning and landscaping, highlighted selected landmark projects of international significance. How to create such a strong cultural and visual identity and environmentally sensitive realm were some of the main design problems. Another point which was elaborately discussed by the students was how to integrate the newly design coastal area with the rest of the city.

CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016

In this context, students were divided into groups of three to four. Each team researched a different component of design: ‘museum park’, ‘desert vegetation’ etc., and share their findings with poster presentations. Next, student groups defined a vision statement and a ‘design concept’ for the Corniche. A conceptual plan was proposed for the city, showing the functional relations between the Corniche and the other parts of Doha. Students visualized their proposals by using computer-aided drafting and editing and free-hand sketching techniques. Finally, each team came up with a design proposal for the Corniche. Detailed plan and section drawings were prepared for different sections of the Corniche. Each team was composed of two or three city planners and an architect or landscape architect. While students who were coming from a city planning background took a more active role in seeking the systemic relationships between parts and the whole, architecture and landscape architecture students took a greater role in the design of the details. Two faculty members Baykan Gunay and Adnan Barlas, and Serdar Ozbay, the teaching assistant, led the studio work during the year. B. Gunay contributed to the design process mainly by guiding the students in enhancing the compositional quality and visual identity of the products. A. Barlas drew students’ attention to the details of the projects and the quality of life that would exist in the spaces between buildings. * Asst. Prof. Dr., METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning

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Alternative design proposals for the spatial transformation of Doha Corniche.

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New harbor facilities generating the transformation of the public waterfront.

Computer rendered aerial perspectives showing the new image of the urban waterfront by design.

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Redevelopment of the Corniche in relation to the major infrastructure and the future growth direction of the city.


2004

Design team: Özgül Acar Özlem Balkan Adnan Barlas Seda Duzcu Baykan Günay İlker Otman Yücel Can Severcan Serdar Özbay

City planner, Gazi University Architect, IYTE City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 104 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Pananos Beach Urban Design and Landscape Project Competition Özgül Acar Özler*

In 2004 semester break, under the supervision of Baykan Günay, a group of students at Urban Design Studio proposed a project for ‘Pananos Beach Urban Design and Landscape Competition’. At the south of Izmir, Pananos beach was approximately 65 kilometers in length, and closely located to the major touristic districts such as Efes, Selçuk. The project area had unique physical characteristics. As a part of greater wetland system, the waterlogged soils were the primary issue effecting the environment and the associated plant and animal life. As the initiator of the competition, Selçuk Municipality had planned this region as a public park with green areas and recreational and touristic facilities. This indicated a tension between preservation and development. In the project proposed by METU UD Studio, protection of nature was the precondition for sustainable coastal development in order to strike a balance between demands for development and the critical natural assets.

To specify the design objective and elements, the design group did not only produce a master plan depicting the overall physical form, but also the diagrams and graphics supplemented by illustrations. Especially the pedestrian network around a linear activity spine and canopy system was programmed by a series of schematic drawings. In accordance with the already settled convention of METU UD Studio, the students had a chance to work in cooperation with students from different backgrounds. Therefore the project was the outcome of a collaborative effort. The students who had a background in city planning addressed the concept plan and the macro scale proposals. Whereas architects and landscape architects dealt with the design of individual buildings, and the details of design elements. They also concentrated on the open spaces and natural areas. In every stage of the project, the students’ works were guided by Baykan Günay and Adnan Barlas, the directors of the studio. They stimulated us to develop a common language within the framework of basic design principles. Under the supervision of them we acquired additional skills and qualifications. All we were very lucky that we practiced the applied and theoretical field knowledge developed in METU Urban Design Studio, which was, in turn, to be utilized in future professional life.

The project primarily questioned to reinvigorate the underused marshy land, natural environment as a public focal point. The aim was to design a new urban park that complemented the qualities of the existing physical context and provide a place where people explored different leisure activities. In this regard, two critical design elements were suggested to link the natural environment * Instructor, Gebze Technical University Faculty of and newly urban spaces. While linear pedestrian spine Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning were to connect the seashore and inner water surfaces with activity spaces, a canopy system compromisingly flowed along the seashore was offered as the direct link with the surrounding natural environment.

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Conceptual diagrams for the generation of new design structure on the competition site.

Diagram showing the main thematic zones within the overall design area.

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The aerial view showing the proposed landscape structure for Pananos Beach.

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2004 - 2005

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Adnan Barlas, Serdar Özbay, Cansu Canaran Students: Elif Demirbaş Zeynep Eraydın Emre Kabal Onat Öktem Miray Özkan Özay Özkan Murat Yazıcı Utku Serkan Zengin

Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 108 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Gallipoli National Park and Eceabat Urban Project Miray Özkan*

The project was about the redevelopment and expansion of Eceabat, which is a coastal town located in the northern side of the Dardanelles, just across the city of Çanakkale. The town is located in the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, which was an important battlefield in the First World War. The National Park is a protection zone, which includes memorials and museums performing as an international commemoration place where thousands of people come and visit each year. Within that context, as the largest settlement in the Gallipoli National Park, Eceabat is the center of service and tourism sectors.

proposing a small marina that would introduce the sea into the city via extending the stream mouth. This would make the town more attractive and pleasurable for its citizens and visitors. The integration of the marina with surrounding new development and the historical tissue was the major design challenge of the project. Therefore, the team proposed a main street connecting different parts of the city and diffusing into the town through branching pedestrian routes.

The project team used various types of representation techniques. While some design groups worked with the 3D-modeling programs to illustrate the port area and The town is situated on a flat land surrounded by hills. new housing estates, some of them made hand drawWithin the overall fabric, one to two-storey traditional ings and sketches to illustrate the site plans of housing houses surrounds the archeological hill on an ‘organic’ clusters and street sections. street pattern. While four to five-storey apartment buildProject team was composed of urban planners, archiings locate along the coast, a gridiron patterned new tects and a landscape architect. The landscape architect development covers a vast land of expansion. There is worked on the integration of urban and rural areas. Aran urban square which has an opening to the sea at the chitects were mostly focused on the inner configuration town center, connected with the fishing port, ferry dock of the new development areas, and together with urban and the promenade along the seashore. planners, they worked on building styles and clusters. In this spatial context, the macro-perspective of the projErhan Acar was quite interested in the rural design and ect was constructed on the aimed integration between provided strong support for the design of low-density urban and rural areas. For this purpose, the project team quarters. Baykan Günay gave a clear insight about the atproposed re-organization of the land to form ecological traction of water and the human scale design to provide tourism zones, vineyards and olive groves. A war simulaa lively urban environment. Adnan Barlas motivated the tion center and an exhibition center for visitors of Galliteam to build up a planning perspective, which provided poli National Park were proposed by the project. The aim a rational basis for urban infrastructure and regulation of was to integrate these centers with the town, by prothe ownership pattern on urban land. posing pedestrian routes passing through the traditional settlements and archeological site and reaching to the * City planner, Kartal Urban Development Association, Istanbul town center and marina. Additionally, stronger relationship between the water and the city was suggested by

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Structural diagram showing the proposed links and nodes within the fabric of the city.

Master plan of Eceabat guiding the individual design interventions in a holistic framework.

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Aerial view of the designed public space on the new waterfront.

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The new waterfront integrating marina with the existing fabric


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Perspective views of the new housing estate locating in the port area.


Illustrations of the promenade designed as an outdoor exhibition area.

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2005 - 2006

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Adnan Barlas, Cansu Canaran Students: Melda Açmaz İçbay D. Çağrı Çifteler Yasemin E. Gültekin G. Deniz Güneri Umut Yaşar Kelek Semih Kelleci Eser Köken Neslihan Kulözü Sezer Kumru Meltem Şentürk Ebru Uğuz Ahmet Ünver

Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU 114 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Alaçatı Urban Project Meltem Şentürk*

İzmir Alaçatı was chosen as the project site for 20052006 METU UD Studio. Alaçatı is a small town located on Çeşme peninsula of İzmir. The town has very unique residential character with typical stone houses located in the old town center and peculiar street view comprising numerous elements of townscape. The residential area is recognized with its historical stone houses and windmills. Alaçatı has a windy weather condition that is far above average windy days of Turkey in general. This area is one of the most popular destinations consisting of the 700 km² of urban land hosting many hotels and entertainment venues. Alaçatı has a highly accessible position at the heart of the peninsula and the direct access from the motorway connecting Çeşme to İzmir and to the other cities in the region. The students at UD Studio were consisting of planners, architects and landscape architects. Each working group has at least one of these professions so as to produce multidirectional ideas within multidisciplinary teams and particularly to define design elements/structures/means/ functions in strong relation with the identity of the town.

The main focus of Alaçatı Urban Project was first decoding urban identity of Alaçatı, and then encoding a new system by bringing out new elements and to generate new ideas regarding the recognized identities of the areas. To that aim, the studio members visited Alaçatı and documented the intrinsic characteristics of buildings and streets. Each study group analyzed the urban typology of the street pattern, architectural typology of the traditional houses and individual urban elements. Following the systemic analysis, final design works was classified in three types of projects: University as a new relational pattern and an integrated part of old town, the integration project providing a stronger connection between coast and old town center, and finally the infill project for the undefined areas as the critical points on the new connection line within designed network. While one of the critical architectural elements was the bazaar structure consolidated with social space and sport areas, the other one was a hotel and one structure of wall was designed to describe wind mills as a gate of Alaçatı. In addition to the critical architectural projects (i.e. bazaar structure, hotel) on urban scale, the morphological relationships between the building blocks were reconfigured to generate one strong urban spine to be perceived as a clear connection with the coast, which was already blocked by the elevated motorway structure.

The major problematic issue about that peculiar urban context was described as the lack of integration between the young residents and the old ones from a sociological perspective. Another issue was seen as weak visual and physical connection between the town center and the coastal area of Alaçatı due to the elevated roads and the * Urban designer/landscape architect, BÜTÜNER Architecture, long distance. Therefore, the main aim of the studio is to Ankara. identify characteristic features of structures and streets, which also determine the basic framework for the components of the new urban identity to be compatible with the specified character and the needs of the settlement.

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Developing a regional perspective for the design strategies on Alaçatı. 116 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Design proposal for the formation of a new central area near Port Alaçatı.

A new local commercial center and residential district locating at the foothill, North Hill.

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Aerial view of a multi-functional urban ensemble in Alaçatı.

A mixed-use development unit illustrated with its design layout and massing

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Perspective and aerial views of a proposed development in Alaçatı: a modern interpretation of Mediterranean urbanism. Form explorations for a new (urban) architectural language within further (re)developments in the town.

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2006 - 2007

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Adnan Barlas, Cansu Canaran Students: M. Ozan Atak Zafer Batmaz Serhat Celep Çiğdem Hacıoğlu Çetin Haşar Fuat Karagüney Salih Karatepe Berk Kesim Özge Kırmızı Semra Köse Hüseyin Özdemir Erdem Satılmış Vildan Seçkiner Melda Tanrıkulu Duygu Toprak Elnaz Torabi Onur Yıldız

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, IAU, Iran Architect, METU 120 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Bodrum Peninsula Urban Project & Başakşehir Urban Design Competition Berk Kesim*, Serhat Celep**

The theme of the METU UD studio project in the year of 2006-2007 was ‘utopian and dystopian approaches in urban design’. The basic assumption (and manifestation) of the studio was that any planning problem could be solved with a design-based approach independently from the limitation of the scale factor. From this perspective, the studio developed a number of thematic projects that differ from each other through their perspectives to the future of Bodrum Peninsula, the project area of the year.

life in the peninsula. Naturban (nature + urban), from this perspective, was the key concept developed by the group. Ecologist approach, on the other hand, contributed to the design research by envisioning the future of Bodrum though environmental forces characterizing the natural character of the area. This approach basically pursued the principles of sustainable urban development. Nevertheless, all the projects were much aware of the assets of the sea and the natural land of the peninsula. In this regard, ‘hugging the sea’ was the shared motto As one of the prominent tourism areas attracting both accepted by each design group in the studio. national and international tourists in each and every year, the peninsula has been facing the ongoing problem of The major design challenge within the studio project was uncotrolled secondary housing development which es- whether the priority was to be given to public interest sentially prevent the area to develop an eco-friendly ur- or the private property rights taken for granted. While ban character. In this context, the key design concept of the natural and historical heritage of Bodrum was to be the every alternative projects was ‘spatial control’ of the preserved for the defense of public interest(s), private rapid development on the peninsula. property rights which were the underlying driving force of uncontrolled development was to be kept since it is In this framework, there were four types of urbanistic guaranteed by the social contract. approaches developed by the different design groups in the studio: culturalist approach, megastructural ap- In the second semester, the studio participated to the proach, structuralist approach, and ecologist approach. National Urban Design Competition of Başakşehir***. The design approach pursued in the competition of Through the different ideological standpoints in design, Başakşehir was based on the design tactics developed culturalist approach contributed to the studio discussion for Bodrum during the previous term. There were iniby suggesting the so-called 5P-design tactics: perceive tially three alternatives suggested in accordance with the the history + play the moment + plug the city, profour main approaches. At the end of the period, the fiduce the future and preserve (local) identity. In this nal scheme was formulated as the synthesis of the two regard, the culturalist perspective supported the idea of distinct alternatives, the ‘big architecture’ of the megafuture development with a sensitive harmony of what structuralist approach and the conservative perspective exist. Whereas megastructural approach tended to imof the culturalist approach. pose somehow a dystopia of central mega-structure that was taking the control of the whole peninsula. It was, in * Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, City and fact, the simulation of a bad scenario of ‘big architecture’ Regional Planning to be realized in Bodrum. The structuralist approach, on ** City planner, Yenimahalle Municipality, Ankara the one hand, contributed to the study by discussing the *** ‘Başakşehir Kent Merkezi II Kademeli Ulusal Kentsel Tasarım relationship between man-made and natural elements of Proje Yarışması’ (2007). CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016 121


Envisioning the future development of Bodrum within its regional and environmental context.

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Structuralist growth scenario for Bodrum that envisages the total form of a linear development.

Urban structure and composition of the planned linear formation.

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Design speculation for a megastructural formation of the future urban development on Bodrum Peninsula.

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Compositional image of the megastructural(ist) approach to the urban future of the peninsula.

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126 Design layout of the competition area in BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir


The diagram showing the character areas projected by different design compositions (left) and the conceptual diagram for (re)structuring the overall area by design.

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2007 - 2008

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Cansu Canaran Students: Selin Çavdar Buket Akay Züleyha Sara Aydın Seda Çapraz Tuğçe Eken Emin Çetin Haşar Özüm İtez Loa Dalh İversen Begüm Kalafat Emel Karakaya Semra Köse Belkıs Kubilay Hüseyin Gürel Kutlular Hale Mahzeminli Özge Özgür Ender Peker Bilge Serin Hatice Toramanlı Uğur Uyanık Onur Yıldız Başak Zeka

Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University Architect, Erasmus Exchange Student City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, Çukurova University Architect, Anadolu University Architect, METU City planner, METU 128 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Urban Project for the Historical National Park of Troy and the Environs Ender Peker*, Bilge Serin**

UD Studio took Troy Historic National Park and surrounding settlements as the design project site in the 20072008 academic period. An integrated development scheme was aimed to revive historical heritage while encouraging the experience of visiting the natural and cultural assets of the territory of ancient Troy. Troy, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, embodies rich layers of history, myth and culture in a unique location by the Dardanelles. The unique characteristics of the place attract a large number of visitors from various countries. This intensive interest calls for a holistic approach which considers the co-existence of Historical National Park and the surrounding urban settlements, rather than solely focusing on the archaeological site of Troy itself. Having followed this holistic approach, UD 2007 Studio produced a proposal for Historical National Park introducing various functions for different segments of the extensive area of Troy heritage site. The designated segments include (1) an activity park, (2) an urban settlement and (3) rural settlements with their peripheries. The activity park proposal, in this context, supports the holistic approach via exploring the area through a continuous journey of the Troy Archaeological Museum, archaeological site and the archaeopark. To support this journey, town of Kumkale, the only urban settlement, was designed as the administrative centre of the Historical National Park. Kumkale Town is also re-programmed to provide diverse accommodation facilities while continuing its residential function for local citizens. While the activity park were to animate the history and myth of the territory, surrounding rural settlements were designed to support this holistic scheme with their contemporary rural life and production pattern.

The activity park suggested a new definition of ‘museum park’ concept in the peculiar context of Troy Historical National Park. Accordingly, an integrated design approach was developed to accommodate activity places and routes, natural and recreational areas as well as resting and eating facilities. The proposed park was visualized through 3D representation techniques. In addition, the techniques of design guidance were applied for the development of urban and rural settlements. For this purpose, a set of design codes was produced for future development of the residential neighbourhoods as well as the main spine of the urban settlement, Kumkale. The collective project was produced by a multi-disciplinary group of students including architects, urban planners and landscape architects. This enhanced the development of the holistic approach which requires certain elaboration of details on various scales from various disciplinary perspectives. The studio team was coordinated by Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, and assisted by Cansu Canaran. While B. Günay guided the studio process with his overarching perspective on design and planning, E. Acar supported the studio with his experience and expertise in urban architectural design. The unique contribution of the teaching staff was generating a reflexive approach which links the history and mythological aspects of Troy with the contemporary realities of life. * Dr., independent researcher ** PhD Researcher, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, the UK

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Developing a spatial vision in the regional context: centering the archeological site in close connection with the programmatic clusters within the Historical National Park of Troy.

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The proposed layout of the Archeological Park of Troy.

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Aerial views of the proposed museum park in Troy.

Perspective views of the proposed museum park in Troy.

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Design codes for Kumkale, the administrative center of Historical National Park of Troy.

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2008 - 2009

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Adnan Barlas, Cansu Canaran Students: Yiğit Acar Hanaw Amin Göktuğ Baysal Can Efe Ertem H. Murat Karamustafa Merve Karatepe Gökçe Oylum Yonca Pehlivanoğlu Erdem Pekpak Ahmet Polat Özlem Yalçınkaya Aslıhan Yılmaz Başak Yılmaztürk

Architect, METU Architect, University of Sulaimani Architect, METU City planner, Gazi University Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, Mimar Sinan University City planner, METU 134 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


METU Kosovo Campus Design Project Yiğit Acar*

In the Academic Year of 2008-2009, METU UD Studio worked on a campus project in Kosovo. The project came into agenda as a result of the success of the Northern Cyprus Campus of Middle East Technical University (METU NCC) initiated in the early 2000s. The project site had small settlements on all sides. Among those small settlements, the villages of Krajiste and Ribare have been the main concern in design since the two villages was to be in close proximity with the new campus. Additionally, since the designated area for the campus was located on a mountainous terrain with many high slopes and small valleys, topography has been the major input in design process. The development of architectural and urban program has been the major work within the design process. The discussions on the programs developed insights on the academic strengths of METU as well as those of the contemporary practices. Operating upon the existing knowhow on campus design that the Studio gained with the METU NCC Project in 2000, the studio made rather an easy start since the design methodologies were already developed. In the beginning, the studies focused on the spatial characteristics of Kosovo and the positive peculiarities of METU that would contribute to the making of the new campus. After an in-depth design-research, the idea of shared uses and facilities for different academic programs instead of individual buildings for each program was adapted as it provided great flexibility and potentiality for future growth. In the second phase, four development alternatives were suggested based on the two major models: compact and linear formations. At the end of the year, six different projects were produced for METU Kosovo Campus.

In both semesters, the students worked in groups. While in fall semester, three design groups composed by architect, planners and landscape architects worked separately, in the second semester, the groups were merged into two based on the assignment. The groups of which the multi-disciplinary composition was well-balanced and worked harmoniously due to the clearly defined specific responsibilities of each member. In both stages, Baykan Günay’s professional experience on the issue has been invaluable. Both the definition of design problem and the main approaches for solutions were framed with reference to his theoretical and professional expertise in the field. Adnan Barlas was present in the studio with his motivation and knowledge. When we got stuck with a technical problem, he immediately laid hands on with the design groups. Erhan Acar always added a lighthearted look into the architectural practice by always giving references to the quality of public space generated by architectural design. Cansu Canaran was sharing his own professional experiences in the field. He mainly formulated the group dynamics and the workflow for each project, thus enabled the studio to operate fluidly. Overall the studio has been a very fruitful experience since designing a university campus provided a rich basis for many discussions on architecture, planning, landscape design, culture, science, education, local and global politics and so on. Exposing multifaceted features in design problem is a benchmark quality of any urban design study. Kosovo Studio achieved this quality quite successfully. * Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture

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Alternative development schemes of METU Kosovo Campus.

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The final design layout of METU Kosovo Campus.

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The proposed development form of the campus locating on the natural terrain of the selected site.

The plan and section drawings of the central pedestrian axis.

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2009 - 2010

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Müge Akkar Ercan, Cansu Canaran Students: Görsev Argın Leyla Mirjam Erol Gülnar Bayramoğlu Emre Bal Talat Çakıroğlu Özge Engür Meltem Gülcan Ahmet Berkay Ilgaz Gizem Kılıç Deniz Kimyon Nihan Oya Memlük Selen Sarıkulak Nazli Songülen Betül Şahin Aslan Eslami Taheri Eda Uçak Deniz Üstoğlu Atılım Yılmaz Hülya Yorulmaz Samet Zeydan

City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University Architect, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 140 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Northern Cyprus Coastal Planning and Design Project Nihan Oya Memlük1, Nazli Songülen2, Deniz Kimyon3, Görsev Argın4, Selen Sarıkulak5

In the 20009-2010 METU UD Studio, the design theme of the year was coastal planning. The main aim of the studio project was suggesting a new urban design perspective for the development of Girne (Kyrenia), the northern coast of Cyprus. As a historic port city on the politically divided island, Girne was a unique case in terms of its peculiar nature locating between Beşparmak Mountains and the untouched coastal areas lying parallel to the mountains. Due to its specific location, the ill-defined boundaries between urban and rural areas around the city, the future development of Girne falls uncertain. That was actually the main problematique and the point of discussion to be dealt by design in the studio. The peculiar characteristic of Girne coast was that, even if the recent developments have been concentrated on the shoreline, many earlier urban developments were located rather on the hills of Beşparmak Mountains, which resulted in utilization of the coast as a ‘waterfront mansion’ (yalı) area. The coastal development of Girne is regulated by a specific type of a local legislation called White Region Emirname, which was originated from the common law in the history of Cyprus. The main design problem, in that context, was an extensive second-home development on the coast, which caused urban sprawl in Girne. Therefore re-utilization of the traditional building typology of ‘yalı’ was specified as the main objective of the new design proposals. Prior to the design process, analytical reports on specific subjects were prepared (including tourism, second-homes, relationship between the town and the university, recreational areas, coastal design, etc.) after the field trip. Based on the selected issues, each group made an integrated coastal plan for the whole catchment area of the waterfront. Accordingly, some architectural models were produced on special project areas. During this process, new concepts were

developed by the groups, such as vital city, uni-ville, agro-ville, in order to cope with the above-mentioned spatial problems. Each group prepared detailed urban codes for the proposed development area with reference to those concepts. Working in a multidisciplinary design studio composed of architects, urban planners and landscape architects was completely a new experience for the students. Communicating through different scales, in this sense, did actually enable us to develop new skills in in design and group-work. Working in a distinct national context on an island was a first-time experience for most of the students, as well. In this regard, Baykan Günay and Erhan Acar, who were familiar with the selected region due to their early experience of new METU campus design in Cyprus, guided the studio with their valuable suggestions and comments during the whole studio work. The comprehensive discussions on coastal planning and design that took place in the studio together with Baykan Günay, Erhan Acar, Müge Akkar Ercan and Cansu Canaran enabled us to gain new insights about the given subject matter. The studio conceived the spatiality of urban coast not as a single line, but as an area having particular depth and threedimensional characteristics. 1. Research assistant, Gazi University Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Planning. 2. Researcher, European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy. 3. Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Planning. 4. Research assistant, ITU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Planning. 5. Architect, Tepe Tesan JV, Ankara.

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Girne in regional context and the new visions for the city.

Indicative strategic plan for Girne and its environs: the designated sections indicate the areas of strategic design projects

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Design coding for the new developments in Girne.

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The spine’: designing a new urban corridor in Girne.

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Aerial view of the proposed waterfront development in in Girne.

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The final proposal of city form and structure: residential and retail development and infills in Girne.

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Computer-rendered elevation and bird-eye-view of the model showing the design compositions of the proposed development.

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2010 - 2011

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Cansu Canaran Students: Hazal Atak Duygu Cihanger Can Gölgelioğlu Işıl Gülkök Deniz Kimyon Ali Uğur Mucukgil Aslıhan Oktay Sıla Özdemir Mustafa Raşit Şahin Soghra Rashidi Özge Uysal Burçin Yorulmaz

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, Azad University of Urmia, Iran City planner, METU City planner, METU 148 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Kızılay Urban Design Project: Reproduction of Kızılay As A ‘Central Business and Art District’ Duygu Cihanger*

In the academic term of 2010-2011, Kızılay district, the - DIAGNOSIS center of Ankara was the main study area to discuss the - Analyzing Kızılay: boulevards and arcades, townscape concept of ‘Central Business District’ and the differing analysis, examining the concept of CBD, climate senmeanings of urban transformation. The studio projects sitive urban design, service activity distribution analymade during the year not only focused on a specific scale sis, planning and design, history of Kızılay or a space, but tried to grasp diverse urban problems af- REMEDY fecting the city center. Survey: revealing the activity and morphological patAs the heart of Ankara, Kızılay was suffering from the loss terns of Kızılay, perceiving Kızılay as a modern cenof its public, historical and functional identity. The loss of tral business and art district, projecting the macrocultural places and activities, the excessive accumulation transformation, understanding the transformation of of urban transportation nodes, vanishing spatial quality central uses and physical patterns. and the diminishing activity pattern in public space were - TREATMENT the main reasons behind the inevitable urban decay obDesign: art core of Kızılay, multi-nodal corridor of served. Those problems made Kızılay to scream for the Kızılay, high-speed train station building and district help to change its course of recent urban history. In the design, restitution of government quarter, transforcontext of METU UD Studio, this help was to be provided mation of Atatürk Boulevard. by (re)consideration of already established concepts of urban planning and design and (re)construction of his- The studio was composed of ten city planners and one torical and unique social and physical qualities of Kızılay. architect. The contribution of the architect was signifiThe aim in (re) consideration and (re)construction of the cant in designing the High Speed Train Station Building city center was to transform the district into; since it was one of the most critical interventions within the overall design idea to transform Kızılay into a modern - A LOCUS as the city center providing spaces for vital city business and art district. social and urban life At the end of the second semester, the studio works - A FOCUS with an accessible and diverse urban value. were exhibited in the public event on Kızılay -“Benim de To help healing the city center and to provide a remedy Kalbim Var (I also have a heart)”- which was hosted by for Kızılay by design, the studio has approached to the Çankaya Municipality. In the following year, the projects problem as if the urban center was a heart which was were presented in a panel discussion and exhibited by an about to malfunction. After initiating the design research event of UCTEA Chamber of City Planners-Ankara Branch, by this analogy, the next steps were named as diagno- under the title of ‘The Transformation of the City Censis for analysis, remedy for survey and treatment for the ter of Ankara: Past, Today, Future.’ design proposals. For that purpose, the project followed * Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department following steps: of City and Regional Planning

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Illustrations showing the major factors of increasing degradation observed in Kızılay, the main center of Ankara.


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Spatial analysis of KÄązÄąlay: the main activity nodes and morphological connections.


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The proposed programmatic structure of Kızılay district and the new block formation suggested.


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The proposed spatial transformation of the Government Quarter and (re)formation of the central urban tissue along Yüksel Street, one of the major pedestrian routes in Kızılay.


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Proposal for a new urban block typology generating new public spaces that potentially enrich the existing activity patterns in Kızılay.


155 Design proposals for Saraçoğlu Neighborhood in Kızılay: converting a cultural heritage site into a vital and accessible art district.


2011 - 2012

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Cansu Canaran, Deniz Altay Kaya Students: Aygün Albayrak Beste Dilara Aksoy Burak Başçı Merve Başak Seçkin Çopur Zeynep Eliş Ebru Eren Samira H. Ghoshouni Gözde Güzelipek Sinem Kaya Erkan Kerti Kayhan Köken Itır Özinanır Sina Rangraz Melike Yıldız

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU Architect, Azad University of Urmia, Iran City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, Azad University of Urmia, Iran City planner, METU 156 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Urban Morphology and Design Explorations in Batıkent Erkan Kerti*, Itır Özinanır**

In 2011 METU UD Studio initiated the design study on Batıkent district, one of the earliest planned peripheral developments in Ankara. Since Batıkent has a very rich and diverse internal morphology, the studio first concentrated on the theoretical framework of urban morphology along with its special set of concepts and methodology. This work eventually provided a solid basis for the thesis researches of the participant students in the studio. To that end, the students were expected to search, discuss and re-interpret the each subtopics of urban morphology which are originated from the major schools in the field. The concepts and themes involved in the preliminary research, such as macro-micro form, Gestalt, figure-ground, landscape morphology, linkage, block structure, property pattern, aesthetics and space theory were discussed to utilize them in problem definition and solution in design.

design solutions were devised around the idea of ‘centrality’. In the first stage of the design project, each design group were asked to interact and share ideas to reach a consensus on a design synthesis in a specified larger framework. In the second stage, each individual designer were expected to detail the final design schemes in accordance with the ‘urban design guidelines’ formulated for each character area.

In the second semester of the year, the design groups elaborated their design solutions in detail especially with the theoretical background gained in the first semester. The examined concepts did profoundly enable the students to generate diverse design morphologies while creating new conceptualizations by design. For instance, one of the projects employed the original conceptualization of quantum theory from physics and the so-called ‘third space theory’, which considers every living body as After the theoretical research on urban morphology, an actor or context acting in a hybrid system, then came the urban design project constructed in a multidisci- up with a design approach for the generation of urban plinary framework gathering students having different form based on the idea of ‘error’ in spatial formation. professional background. In this context, city planners, Therefore generation of new concepts was the main architects and landscape architects studied together focus of the 2011-2012 Urban Design Studio. Multidisand learned from each other during the studio course. ciplinary environment of the studio, in this sense, supMultidisciplinary work provided a better understanding ported the re-conceptualization of urban morphology while working on different scales. Communication skills in different levels and details of design while developing specific to the certain disciplines apparently developed creative morphological perspectives for design and transmitted to the others from the beginning of the studio work. In the second phase of the studio, an area in * Lead designer, T2 Software, Ankara Batıkent near the metro-line was specified as the site of ** Landscape architect, Çankaya Municipality, Ankara urban design project due to its potentiality to be transformed into the center of the district. In this regard, all

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Alternative development schemes for the new district center in Batıkent, Ankara.

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Systemic construction of the designed morphology by integrated layers of urban structure.

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160 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBANcodes DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016 Generic for designing characteristic urban block typologies.


161 Alternative compositions for a new urban fabric: design layouts and massing.


‘Spaceerror’: Conceptualization by design through generating new 162 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016 (architectural) form and (urban) space typologies from the compositional ‘errors’ involved in development plans.


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Design drawings for an alternative building typology of high-rise office development in BatÄąkent, Ankara.


2012 - 2013

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Cansu Canaran Students: Enkela Alimadhi Celalettin Apak Tuba Arslan Gizem Aydın Şule Demirel F. Gülhun Duran Saeideh Farnian Sema Fırat Hadi Javani Zeynep Murat Nihan Özdöver Emre Sevim Hakan Şanlı Solmaz Zare

Architect, Epoka University, Albania Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, Tabriz University, Iran Architect, Anadolu University Architect, IAU, Iran City planner, Gazi University Landscape architect, Ankara University City planner, METU Architect, YTU Architect, IAU, Iran 164 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Urban Transformation and Design Explorations Along Ankara Railway Hakan Şanlı*, Şule Demirel**, Emre Sevim***

Ankara Railway, which is located on the east-west oriented section of the city, and the areas which are under the influence of the railway were designated as the main study areas at the METU UD Studio in 2012. In this framework, at the beginning of the first semester, urban transformation types were discussed in the studio. Some specified topics for the collective discussions were industrial and urban archaeology, urban redevelopment and renewal, revitalization and landscape restoration. After defining and analyzing different transformation types in detail, the students were composed of four design groups comprising planners, architects and landscape architects. Each group made analyses and generated some ideas about the relationship between the city and the railway in order to define urban design projects based on the studied types of urban transformation. The first semester projects took the whole city into consideration with a special focus on Ankara railway. In the second semester, students worked individually and each student came up with his/her design project in consideration of the macro urban structure collectivity designed beforehand. In this context, the design project called ‘green diffusion’ was one of the projects suggested for the general transformation of the railway corridor. While aiming to create a new image of the city in coherent relation with the nature, the project tended to simulate the development of a smart production system employing skilledlabor that would reproduce the old industries, and rediscover the new economic potentialities of Ankara. Within the project, isolation of the railway and the lack of relationship between the city and its environs were specified as the main design problem. Likewise, in addition to the diminishing role of the old central districts such as Ulus and Kızılay, the industrial sites were not utilized enough despite their real potential in the way of transformation

in accordance with the principles of industrial archaeology. Thereof, the green areas located around the railway were identified as the ‘new quality corridor’ in addition to the ‘technology corridor’ of Eskişehir Road on which the universities and R&D campuses locate. Then the vision of the project was ‘connecting new corridors with the distribution of green areas’ in an integrated and coherent manner. Atatürk Forest Farm was taken as one of the design study areas in the studio as well. Covering a vast area of land locating between the two main development corridors, the forest farm was established in early republican period of Turkey. Since creating a new agricultural research and development center to strengthen the relationship between industry and agriculture suggesting a new social infrastructure for the new nation was originally a revolutionist idea, another design project in the studio tended to reconsider the area the ‘heart’ of Ankara, which would facilitate a lifted industrial zone enabling agricultural production below. The designed industrial structure, in this context, was suggested to accommodate universities, R&D centers, heavy and light industry on itself. It was also supposed to be connected to the residential areas of the city. Thus, working class, which is used to be marginalized with the conventional location choices of the industrial zones, would be integrated into the new productive area of the city. In conclusion, the Ankara railway was envisioned as the spine for the revitalization of the city. The main objective of all the projects was to integrate the railway into the city, as an activator rather than acting as a spatial barrier. * Architect, MOTTO Architects Inc., Ankara. ** PhD researcher, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning. *** City planner, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ankara

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Spatial analysis of the ‘red line’ and the ‘patches’ along the line: specification of the critical nodes and the areas of strategic design interventions along Ankara Railway.

Structure plan for the ‘diffusion of green areas’ along the route of the railway.

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Aerial view of the proposed transformation of an old airfield located along the route of the railway.

Design scheme suggesting a ‘revolutionist’ re-programming in Atatürk Forest Farm (AOÇ): research and development, education and application. 167


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‘Landscape restoration’ on a derelict land on the route of Ankara Railway.

Plan layout of the proposed mixed-use development in one of the renewal areas along the route.


Aerial perspective of one of the renewal areas: urban composition and landscaping.

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2013 - 2014

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Cansu Canaran Students: Umut Arslanoğlu İrem Bahçelioğlu Duygu Başoğlu Atıf Emre Bayındır Cansu Demir Gülce Demir Gözde Güldal Tayfur Gürel Damla Işıklılar Ender İplikci Damla Karagöz Emre Kaygusuz Pınar Kesim Aslı Ceren Mavikurt Mehri Renani Melody Safarkhani Orxan Şekiliyev Ayaz Zamaov

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect/city planner, ITU City planner, YTU Architect, Najafabad University of Applied Science and Technology, Iran Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University City planner, METU Architect, METU 170 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Urban Interface & Design Explorations in Ayvalık Pınar Kesim Aktaş*, Gozde Güldal**

Under the title of ‘urban interface’, the main aim of the Urban Design Studio in 2013-2014 Fall Semester was to define new interrelations between form and functions by design. Defining interfaces in urban context did actually bring out a series of design issues such as timelessness, privacy and publicness, space and place, linearity and nodality, and so on. The problematique of interface in the sense of transitional state of being in spatial setting was discussed with a series of brainstorming sessions in the studio. In this context, layers of urban form creating interfaces, generative morphology of urban interface, typologies of urban interface and their formation, gradual nature of experiencing urban interface and its sensation were the major issues came to foreground in the collective studio process. The design theme of the studio was elaborated in a real context within the studio work. For this purpose, Ayvalık was selected as the site in which various forms of interfaces was examined and redesigned. As a coastal town in the northern-Aegean region, Ayvalık is a multi-layered city in which the ‘old city’ reflects the very features of the organic traditional fabric somehow revealing slum characteristics, while the ‘new city’ is composed of modern high-rise buildings. The continuous waterfront on which the derelict old factory buildings also locate does actually connect these two parts of Ayvalık.

and commercial uses, residential uses, educational facilities and health facilities were the main topics discussed with reference to the overarching design problem, urban interface. All the topics were discussed from a design perspective via cartographic, photographic and diagrammatic analyses pursued by the groups. Composition of the working groups for analysis and design ensured the principle of multi-disciplinary nature of urban design. Accordingly, each group consisted of at least one architect with one (or two) planner and/or landscape architect. Therefore various discussions and multiple design operations on different scales were enabled within the design studio. Both the second year studio of the Department of City and Regional Planning and MSc Urban Design Studio conducted their own studio works on the same context, Ayvalık. This provided an opportunity to share information and analytical findings, which, in turn, stipulated an efficient process in group-works.

Through the design studies in the studio, Adnan Barlas led the major theoretical discussions on the major design theme and supervised on the alternative design approaches to the issue. Baykan Günay provided a deep and critical insight on the design problem, while Cansu Canaran’s desk critiques supported the design process regarding the different modes of design intervention In order to examine the conceptual design issues on site, and representation. the studio made a field survey. Throughout the survey, the major problem areas were detected. Waterfront de- * Architect, Cap Studio, Istanbul velopment, transportation, administrative uses, industrial ** City planner, Chamber of City Planners, Ankara uses, sites and structures of historical heritage, central

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Designing a new space structure for the consolidation of the core urban fabric having diverse public interfaces.


Designing the fabric through the main axes, landmarks and interfaces structurally defined within the conceptual diagrams

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Design sketch showing the proposed transformation of the coastal fabric of AyvalÄąk into a central seaport district.


Design sketch for the formation of urban passage as a type of public interface within the dense fabric of the town. Â

Public waterfront as a vital and accessible spatial interface between sea and the city. 174 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


Plan layouts and perspective drawing of the proposed waterfront design in Cunda, Ayvalık.

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2014 - 2015

Studio instructors:

Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Olgu Çalışkan, Cansu Canaran, Ezgi Balkanay

Students: Deniz Akman Merve Başak Juan Diaz Damla Karagöz Kayhan Köken Ilgın Kurum Burcu Uysal Elif E. Uzunoğulları

Landscape architect, Ankara University Landscape architect, Ankara University Architect, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU Architect, METU 176 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


‘Ruling the City’: Parametric Urban Design Coding Deniz Akman1, Burcu Uysal2, Ilgın Kurum3, Elif Uzunoğulları4, Merve Başak5

METU UD Studio held in 2014-2015 academic year conducted a design research on urban coding. The study mainly focused on morphological urban design rules to generate complex urban fabrics. The issue, which had already been discussed in the literature, was reconsidered within the specific context of the intrinsic relationship between ‘coding’ and ‘designing’ in the control and generation of urban form.

was conducted as the study of ‘form exploration’. In parallel to the digital form generation techniques utilized in the course, UD755 Parametric Urban Design, alternative form-compositions were generated via the analog techniques yet still in an algorithmic way of thinking. In that way, various forms of block structure were designed through discussing the resulted performances enabled by the combination of different design codes. Therefore the idea of code-based design has been opSince the studio work was defined as a ‘design research’ rather erationalized in the course of studio work. than a ‘project’, the overall study was not based on a specific urban context. Though some sites were utilized to test the The overall term of the studio project was quite a collaborative design methodology, they were not taken as a conventional and multi-disciplinary process. Different design aspects were ‘project site’ for which a conclusive plan scheme is suggested discussed and elaborated by different professions in all secin the form of a blueprint. In this regard, the first semester tions of the study. Having varied professional backgrounds and started with a series of seminar discussions on the ideas of diverse interest within a small design group did actually make codes and coding, and the control of urban form. To test the the design research fruitful and efficient. operational relationship between the code and the design proBaykan Günay participated to the studio when providing a cess, several hypothetical modeling studies were made within general idea about design coding in urbanism. Adnan Barlas consecutive workshops called ‘design by code’ and ‘coding by worked on improving the framework and finding ways to fordesign’. Following the initial formulation of design codes, it mulate interrelation between planning and design by coding. was recognized that the use of codes in urban design requires Having a PhD on the issue, Olgu Çalışkan provided the overa more systemic definition in morphological terms. all framework. While Cansu Canaran was really helpful with his For that purpose, a ‘code index’ constituting the parametric critical remarks and feedbacks, Ezgi Balkanay had a crucial role components of the basic elements of urban form was defined. in defining the relationship between architecture and urban The index provided the necessary vocabulary for the formula- coding. tion of urban codes that require the reciprocal relationship be- 1. MSc researcher, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City tween the morphological elements of urban form. This called and Regional Planning for definition of a matrix correlating the different elements on a performative basis. The main performative aspects, in that 2. MSc researcher, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City context, included visual and physical accessibility, composi- and Regional Planning tional variety, passive heating, comfort and safety conditions 3. MSc researcher, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning in space and functional diversity. In the second semester, the use of codes was tested in a real 4. MSc researcher, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department of City context in Istanbul, Turkey by selecting some typical urban and Regional Planning blocks which are subject to be transformed on a multiple- 5. MSc Urban Design, independent researcher property ownership pattern. At this stage, the design research

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Parametric definition of the basic elements of urban form: a fragment of ‘urban code index’ showing the parametric attributes of a generic urban block.


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Parametric characterization of an urban block on its constitutional elements of building and plot: parametric definitions enable the designer to control design formation by codes.


Explorations in design by coding: the given urban block is transformed by specific codes through the subtle parametric variations.

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Advanced design research on form generation by coding: using a series of building codes, the design group came up with a complex block typology ensuring certain performative qualities of space.

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182 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016 Parametric design operations on the selected urban blocks from Istanbul, Turkey.


Plot-based formation of an urban block: irregular construction process on various plots within a single urban block is controlled by the local design codes enabling responsive co-positioning of the individual acts of building.

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2015 - 2016

Studio instructors: Baykan Günay, Adnan Barlas, Müge Akkar Ercan, Olgu Çalışkan, Cansu Canaran, Duygu Cihanger Students: Eren Efeoğlu Volkan Er Onur Erden Ecesu Esmen Müge Erkılıç Astera Galali Çiğdem Güven Begüm Sakar Ebru Şevik Hatice Taş Onur Tümtürk Irmak Yavuz Mert Can Yılmaz

City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, Gazi University Architect, METU Architect, METU Landscape architect/urban designer, Bilkent University Architect, YTU City planner, Gazi University City planner, METU Architect, Graz University of Technology, Austria City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU 184 CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016


‘Envisioning the City’: Design Explorations of the Future Urban Forms and Spaces Onur Tümtürk*

In the current condition of the mainstream theory and practice, design thinking in urbanism is too limited with the restorative search with partial solutions and chasing the existing trends and tendencies in planning. Imagining new life forms and patterns of urban societies and their reflections in urban space is not a primary issue as before. In this regard, 2015-2016 UD Studio revisited the idea of envisioning the future city forms and structures in the context of utopian and avant-garde school of thought. In the first semester, the studio course was conducted by a series of workshops. In each design workshop, students were given a specific design question within a limited time period. Following a warm-up exercise on the speculative forms of human habitation in 2115, the students were asked to visualize the verbal descriptions of the fictional spaces given in the selected utopian writings. In another workshop, the cinematic descriptions of the fictional spaces in selected movies were visualized to depict the possible forms of the new urban life. Besides, a series of seminars were held to develop the background knowledge and intellectual framework for future design studies. Utopian thinking, avant-garde in architecture and urbanism, futurology and future studies were the prominent issues discussed in those seminars. Eventually, as the final project of the term, the composed groups of students were asked to synthesize what they discuss so far within a design project, a utopian design for future. Main concern of the final project was designing a fictional spatial complex, which includes all the major aspects of human environment.

was the focus-theme in the context of avant-garde. In this sense, developing a city-region was conceptualized from the perspective of design. Design explorations, within this context, involved not only new forms and patterns, but also new artistic expressions of the ideas by alternative representation techniques differing from the ordinary styles in conventional large-scale planning. Throughout the whole year, the studio challenged the settled design thinking by manipulating the current conditions in a creative way, thinking alternative future solutions for urban societies and space, and representing the design proposals within unconventional artistic expressions. Especially in the final project of the first semester, working in multi-disciplinary cooperation ensured a strong comprehensive perspective for the futuristic forms and spaces.

The founder of the UD Studio, Baykan Günay’s motivation for taking Ankara into consideration in a futuristic way helped us to translate utopian thinking into a visionary context. Adnan Barlas guided us in every stage of the project especially by challenging our imagination with his seminal utopian perspective. Again, Olgu Çalışkan’s high effort, exemplary excitement and motivation for every stage of the project helped us to overcome all the problems in design process. We really appreciate his valuable guidance and criticisms last hours even in the late into the night. Müge Akkar Ercan’s precious advices related with the smart city systems and design approaches; and Cansu Canaran’s morphological perspective to elaborate our projects with all their structural components were The Spring Term studio project was devoted to concret- really valuable for us. Last but not least, we cannot forize the idea of developing a new city-region in Anatolia get the genuine design suggestions and representation by re-centralizing Ankara in a visionary and innovative fu- techniques provided by Duygu Cihanger. ture scenario. While developing a macro scale regional * Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department schemes for Anatolia and designing the future macro of City and Regional Planning form of the Ankara, the concept of ‘designing the big’ CATALOGUE.01 METU MSc URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996-2016 185


Year: 2115. Harsh conditions of climate change on Earth made societies build underground settlements via smart drill systems.

The future settlement is built upon the existing fabric via so-called ‘air space-parcels’ in which every individuals can built their own living-unit. When the old and heavy fabric collapses in time, the light structure of the new collective environment endures.

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Against the unadaptive and bulky systems of conventional building techniques, ‘The Cloud’ manifests a dynamic spatial system of future collectivity via a mobile habitation complex composed of interlocking layers that are responsive to the internal and external environment.

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Year 2050: The new transportation system called ‘hyperloop’ revolutionizes the old mobility patterns as well as the settled spatial hierarchies at the national level and conventional core-compact settlement typologies. Ankara is recentralized in Turkey again, while its new speed-based formation spreads through the whole region.

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Anatolia is one of the ancient homelands of urban grid. It used to challenge all the geomorphic thresholds in history. Accordingly, the future form of human habitation in Ankara will be based on a smart generative-grid system reproducing the given geomorphology by its artificial topography: ‘The Geomorphicity’.

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‘Imagineering’ the future form of Ankara: The Infracity (above), The Morphogenecity (middle) and The Hypercity (below).

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2016

Design team: Y. Baver Barut Olgu Çalışkan (supervisor) Eren Efeoğlu Serdar Özbay Ebru Şevik Onur Tümtürk Irmak Yavuz Mert Can Yılmaz

Architect, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU City planner, METU

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Mars City Design: International Design Competition Onur Tümtürk1, Eren Efeoğlu2, Ebru Şevik3 Since METU UD Studio determined ‘futuristic urbanism’ as the major theme of the 2015-2016 academic year program, a group of student found the idea of participating in Mars City Design International Design Competition fascinating. Just at the end of the first semester in which futuristic urbanism was investigated in the context of utopian thinking, the team carried out an intensive design research on the design possibilities of colonizing Mars for future planetary habitation.

living environment. In this sense, the settlements were assumed to host a complex and dynamic life pattern in itself.

The generation and growth of the Collectives were in the form of self-organized systems. The process of self-organization was to be controlled by the generative design approach based on a rule-system to be devised by the smart computational algorithms. From this perspective, parametric design modeling was utilized to simulate the Mars City Design was a design innovation platform in Cali- numerous form variations of the future settlement. This fornia, the States which defines its mission as “to design provided us a very flexible basis for the collective producthe blueprint for sustainable cities on Mars”4. As a part tion of the settlement. of this mission, Mars City Design organized an internaAfter the jury assessment, the design proposal of the tional design competition inviting broad range of design team was ranked in top-20 announced as one of the ideas for the categories of agriculture, infrastructure, insemi-finalist groups5, which were invited to the summer novation, human health and human environment. workshop, Mars City Design PowerLab Workshop hosted In accordance with the profession of the group, METU UD by University of Southern California, USC in September, Studio decided to join the competition in the category of 2016. human environment and presented a future scenario of Throughout the whole process of design, the participant developing human settlements on Mars within the 110students harmoniously worked with Y. Baver Barut and year projected period of time. The project called Dasein Serdar Özbay while developing a futuristic system and suggested a colonization process composed of seven view of the Mars city design. Besides, it was a very fruitphases (i.e. anchoring, seeding, techno development, ful experience to combine the perspective of the studio extraction, production, socialization and civilization) already developed in the term projects with the related requiring different time limits. In each phase, the piodesign competition project. The design team apprecineering teams and task forces were to act as the generaated all the supports and encouragements provided by tors of the settlement. For each stage of the developthe members of METU UD Studio as well. ment, a specific spatial program was written along with the certain design parameters for modeling the forma- 1. Research assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, tion of the Martian settlements. The settlements called Department of City and Regional Planning the collectives were considered responsive to the harsh 2. Project assistant, METU Faculty of Architecture, Department conditions of the Red Planet in the way of adapting its of City and Regional Planning formation in a gradual manner. 3. MSc student, METU MUD, Ankara

The Collectives were located in accordance with the existing pattern of the craters. The reason behind this is that craters provided the proper condition for passive protection from intense radiation and sandstorms on the surface of the planet. Each collective was projected for about 60.000 people. Moreover, it was aimed that the collectives were to combine production facilities with

4. Mars City Design program website: http://www.marscitydesign.com, accessed in August 2016 5. For the official announcement of the competition result, see: http://www.marscitydesign.com/#!2016/t9ay3, accessed in August 2016

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Successive trans-formation of the Mars City: From habitation-units to cluster, from clusters to the quarters and larger habitations called the collectives.

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Generative design by parametric modeling: Each phase of the future development is simulated based on the spatial parameters involved.

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The computer generated images of the Mars City fabric.

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Prospective view of the Martian cities locating on the equatorial latitudes of the red planet.

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Despite having reflected the general characteristics of its term (within conceptualisation, representation and control), the twenty-year experience of METU MUD reveals its own peculiarities and identity due to the particular interpretation of urban and design within the continuous experimentation at the studio. The term ‘experiment’, in this sense, is quite a key notion in consideration of the programme. As observed even after a quick look at the works presented by years, one could recognize that in each and every term, there are different concepts, frames and definitions suggested in an implicit search for the new and novel in practice. As the compilation of fifty (individual and/or group) projects introduced by 43 authors, the ex-grad students of the studio, CATALOGUE.01 involves six opening papers reflecting on both the experience of METU MUD in particular and the contemporary urban design education in general. This suggests the readers and researchers of urban design not only a retrospective view on the issue, but also a projective perspective for future. METU

mf 9 789754 293593

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METU

ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi 2016 / METU Faculty of Architecture 2016

CATALOGUE.01

METU MASTER OF URBAN DESIGN

1996 - 2016

Taken in this way, though it might be considered quite a late attempt, publication of the selected studio works of METU Master of Urban Design Program (METU MUD) at its 20th anniversary of foundation does actually provide an opportunity to have a holistic view on the general profile of both the programme and the contemporary urban design education from the mid-1990s. By this catalogue commemorating the twenty-year experience of the studio, it is possible to review the changes and continuities in the disciplinary tradition originally established by Baykan Günay and his colleagues.

CATALOGUE.01 METU MASTER OF URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 1996 - 2016

The current studio catalogue represents the works of a generation of ‘urban designers’ taught in the last twenty years at Middle East Technical University (METU), Turkey. Sharing similar values, priorities, expectancies and ideologies with their young colleagues from other parts of the world, they have pursued their creativity in the way that the collective experience would eventually represent a certain period in the disciplinary history of urban design as well.

Edited by Olgu Çalışkan