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METROPOLITAN DESIGN CENTER OVERCOMING CRIME TRANSFORMING the Physical Design and Character of

PEAVEY PARK “Cities are, by their very nature, under continuous cycles of urban transformations. Yet, there are a few instances in the history of a city that the drive producing these transformations is accelerated by a cultural momentum that can become tremendously innovative. Such occurrences often signal a new period of civic consciousness contributing toward the creation of a better quality of urban living.”

Image credit: flickr

COLLEGE OF DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA


TABLE OF CONTENTS UNDERSTANDING THE PHENOMENA OF CRIME IN PUBLIC PARKS

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A Criminal’s Perception of Risk Factors Impacting Crime in Parks Success, Decline, and Rehabilitation: The Lifecycle of Parks

UNFOLDING THE GEOGRAPHY OF CRIME AT PEAVEY PARK

09

Types of Crimes Who is Committing Crimes? When are Crimes being Committed?

ON THE ANATOMY OF PUBLIC PARKS: DESIGN PRINCIPLES

13

Scale of Consideration Edge Treatment Open Field Park Access Movement Paths Themes & Habitats Materials

CLAIMING THE SITE: BRINGING THE BACKGROUND INTO THE FOREGROUND

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Extrapolated Context The Cosmic Garden Asking the Kids: What Can the Park Be? Translating Dreams into Reality: Playground and Water Case Typologies and Case Studies

FROM SPACE TO PLACE: TRANSFORMING THE NARRATIVE OF PEAVEY PARK

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A Kit of Parts Design Approach Using a Native Planting Palette Reciprocal Influences: Modifying Franklin Avenue

TAKING PART: APPROACHES FOR DEVELOPING COMMUNITY PARKS PARTNERSHIPS

02

43


INTRODUCTION ABOUT PEAVEY PARK On warm summer evenings, Peavey Park is a busy place in spite of its unkempt appearance. Neighborhood boys play soccer on a threadbare field and small children scramble over tired play equipment while their mothers stand by. But some nights, the games are short-lived, as a violent altercation or shots fired into the park cause the children to scatter abruptly. Criminal activity in the area surrounding the park is so prevalent that some neighborhood parents prohibit their children from using the park at all. This seven-acre open space is located in the heart of the Ventura Village Neighborhood, a complex mix of multi-family housing, social services, and a commercial corridor landlocked from Minneapolis downtown and the Lake District uptown by surrounding interstate highways. The park currently offers limited opportunities for community gathering and recreation, curtailed by the frequency of crimes committed and reducing the safety and usability of Peavey Park as a lively community place.

METROPOLITAN DESIGN CENTER INVOLVEMENT In August of 2010, the Ventura Village Neighborhood Association and the Hope Community contacted the Metropolitan Design Center (MDC) requesting support from the MDC to provide urban design assistance and meet with the community and the Minneapolis Police Department in the hope of transforming the current condition of Peavey Park. Direct contact with the Minneapolis Police Department provided the necessary crime statistics to understand the complex nature of the crime in and around the park. This led to a broad investigation of similar prominent cases in the country known for having altered the direction of crime and transforming the entire civic and economic climate of the neighborhood. To this aim, a Community Advisory Board was assembled involving public agencies, the Minneapolis Park Board, community leaders, business owners, and a group of dedicated residents. From this initial interaction a framework of critical questions guided the MDC’s work that included:

Understanding the Phenomena of Crime in Public Parks

Unfolding the Geography of Crime at Peavey Park

On the Anatomy of Public Parks: Design Principles

Claiming the Site: Bringing the Background into the Foreground

From Space to Place: Transforming the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park

Taking Part: Approaches for Developing Community Parks Partnerships

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04


UNDERSTANDING THE PHENOMENA OF CRIME IN PUBLIC PARKS

“Sustainability is always talked about in terms of the environment, but it applies equally to human ecology and the sense of involvement in open space. People are what keeps places alive and they’re what keeps them safe”.

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UNDERSTANDING THE PHENOMENA OF CRIME IN PUBLIC PARKS A CRIMINAL’S PERCEPTION OF RISK People who commit crimes take a variety of perceived physical risks and social factors into account. The relative risks and rewards of various criminal activities are weighed when deciding whether or not to commit a crime, where and when to commit it, and whom or what should be the target. Offenders select an area to commit a crime based on a cognitive image of the neighborhood, which may include the physical environment, the neighborhood demographic characteristics, resident behavior patterns, policing alertness, the offender’s social knowledge of locale, and the disposition of the individual offender. The ease of entrance, exit, and internal circulation within the park and neighborhood can indicate the level of risk of detection and apprehension. However, it does appear that socio-demographic composition of the neighborhood has more to do with crime levels than the physical environment. Crime in parks is part of a cycle of disorder that begins with a physical decline of the park. The park may be perceived as “unsafe” deterring visitors and leading to a decrease in use by local residents. The resulting appearance of abandonment communicates to potential criminals that the risk of crime has decreased because there is no community control of the space. Offenders feel increasingly comfortable in the space, and the cues of disorder advertise the area as a “free zone” for crime.

Crime Activity

Crime Activity Community Involvement

Physical Quality of the Park

Crime Activity

Community Involvement

Community Involvement

Physical Quality of the Park

Physical Quality of the Park

“If signs of disorder go unchecked, they become visual cues that there is no control in the park and that the space is unsafe, deterring law-abiding users from these areas, while potential offenders feel increasingly comfortable escalating their criminal activities.”

FACTORS IMPACTING CRIME IN PARKS From the body of research literature on crime written by organizations involved in the revitalization of parks with crime activity, it is evident that a community’s involvement or lack of involvement is a serious factor influencing the crime equation. “Community involvement” has a variety of definitions. In general it means that the park is cared for in a way that creates a meaningful space for use in a variety of ways by a variety of people. A park with high community involvement shows an appearance of care by all members involved in the park’s

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maintenance. It needs to be patrolled to avert crime, either by a volunteer crime patrol, an individual (the “Park’s Mayor”), local police officers, or private security. A park with high community involvement is used for a variety of events and gatherings by many different groups of people, anything from high-profile cultural performances to family picnics. Regardless of the specific type of activities, parks with high community involvement are “a place to be and visit,” and provides for a “sense of place” that translates into a well-used and well-loved place.

The diagrams shown illustrate the relationship between crime activity, community involvement, and the physical quality of the park. Physical design changes in a park are not enough to prevent crime; community ownership and commitment must also have a strong presence in a neighborhood.


High

SUCCESS, DECLINE AND REHABILITATION: THE LIFECYCLE OF PARKS

Bryant Park, New York City

SUCCESSFULNESS

Late 1990s: Visitors in park during lunchtime frequently reach 4,000

1988 - 1992: Park renovations and repairs (Designed by Hanna/Olin) 1884: Reservoir Square named Bryant Park 1871: Reservoir Square renovated

1980 - 1988: Park maintained and public events planned (crime reduced 92%, visitors doubled)

1 1934: Ne ew Deal New Redesign of park by architect Lusby Simpson Mid-20th century: Decline of park

1920s: Park torn up during subway tunnel construction

1970s: Park overrun by drug dealers, prostitution, homeless

Low 1840

1880

1910

1930

1980: Bryant Park Restoration Corporation: Management transferred to private entity

1950

1970

1990

2000

2010

TIME High

Meridian Hill Park,

SUCCESSFULNESS

Washington DC

2003 - 2 2010: Park renovations crime reduced by 98%, number of visitors have quintupled

1914 - 1936: Meridian Hill Park designed g byy George Burnap and constructed

1994: Park designated a National Historic Landmark

1910: US government purchases land on former college campus

1960s: Park falls into disuse and disrepair

1990: Murder of local teenager prompts formation of Friends of Meridian Hill 1980s: Park overrun by drug dealing and crime

Low 1840

1880

1910

1930

1950

1970

1990

2000

2010

TIME High

Pershing Square,

SUCCESSFULNESS

Los Angeles

2005: Park reported as a popular place for events, protests, and daytime use; continued issues with homeless loitering and disuse

1918: Renamed Pershing Square 1910: Redesigned by John Parkinson 1890s: Renamed Central Park, considered somewhat unsafe at night 1886: Park renamed 6th Street Park and designed by Frederick Eaton

1952: Parking ramp built below park

1866: Land designated as public park

Low 1840

1880

1910

1930

1994: Legorreta and Olin’s design implemented

Post-WWII: Decline of park and surrounding commercial area

1950

1970

1986: Center City Management Association organizes international design competition 1980s: Park reported to be used for homeless camps and drug dealing

1990

2000

2010

TIME

IN ESSENCE •

Have an Involved, Attentive, and Dedicated Community.

Form a Community Entity that is Focused on Revitalizing the Park.

Organize to Procure Funding Sources. Involve the Whole Community.

Develop a Program of Events Committee.

Redesign the Park to Encourage Regular Use By All Citizens.

Ensure Long-term Maintenance.

Consider Having Police Presence.

Be Patient. Important Changes in a Park Use Takes Time.

Strategic case studies of parks with a history of crime reveal that parks often have a lifecycle of success, neglect, decline, reconstruction, and revitalization, depending on a variety of factors. Bryant Park in New York City has experienced many cycles during its 150+ years as a park and is currently a very successful civic space due to its revitalization in the 1980s. Meridian Hill Park was considered to be the most dangerous park in Washington D.C. in the 1990s until local residents led the transformation of the park into a cultural treasure. Pershing Square in downtown Los Angeles, a drug market and homeless camp in the 1970s, was recovered by local business owners and redesigned as a public art and event space. Beginning in the 1950s, as the booming population began relocating further from the urban core, urban parks lost their foundation of regular local users. This migration also reduced the tax base that once bolstered these parks, meaning less revenue for park maintenance and programming. During its most recent period of decline, Bryant Park was known as “Needle Park” due to the prevalence of drug use and drug selling in the park. A 1980 evaluation of Pershing Square noted rampant drug dealing and homeless squatting. To change directions, local residents often begin by forming a neighborhood organization dedicated to the revitalization of the park. For instance, the Friends of Meridian Hill was organized by concerned residents taking immediate action in the park to address crime and physical deterioration. These groups will also often partner with public agencies and local organizations to assist in planning programs or addressing crime. The rebirth of Meridian Hill Park was a collaborative effort between the Friends group, the police, and community organizations. Local businesses may also form a group to partner with government agencies or to seek outside design assistance. The Bryant Park Restoration Corporation, a private management organization, took over the park’s renovation with the city’s permission. Bringing more people to the park appears to be the most important action that contributes to the revitalization of a park. Planning for specific events is a key method of attracting people to parks. Pershing Square provides space for cultural celebrations, music performances, and community events. Organized recreational activities, such as ice-skating or tai chi, are provided seasonally by Bryant Park. The revitalization of a park appears to be a conscientious sequence of decisions that are impacted by a complex interaction of factors. Through a savvy business plan, a carefully managed maintenance and funding system, most public parks can be transformed into a successful urban space that can attract lunchtime crowds as well as community residents.

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08


UNFOLDING THE GEOGRAPHY OF CRIME AT PEAVEY PARK

“A busy park is a safe park.”

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UNFOLDING THE GEOGRAPHY OF CRIME AT PEAVEY PARK TYPES OF CRIMES

CRIME “HOT SPOTS”, 2009 - 2010

The statistics for Ventura Village showed that while crimes overall have decreased between 2007 and 2009, crime is still very high at this location. Of all the Part 1 Crimes committed in 2008 and 2009, 57.4% were property crimes and 42.6% were violent crimes. Of the property crimes committed, 60% were larceny, 21% were burglary, and 16% were auto theft. Of violent crimes, 53% were robbery, 37% were aggravated assaults, and 10% were rapes. Narcotics and simple assault were the highest categories of crimes committed within Part 2 Crimes.

Interstate 35W/94

19th Ave E

Interstate 35W

Franklin Ave E

Peavey Park 22nd Ave E

PART 1 PROPERTY CRIMES, 2007 - 2009

TOTAL PART 1 CRIMES

400

Property Crimes, 2008 - 2009

Burglary: Entry or forcible entry of a structure to commit a felony or larceny

Larceny 60%

Arson 3%

NUMBER OF CRIMES

350

Auto theft 16%

300 LARCENY

250 200 150 100

AUTO THEFT BURGLARY

0

Willful burning of a structure, land, or other property

ARSON

2007

2008 YEAR

2009

Violent Crimes 42.6%

Rape 10%

NUMBER OF CRIMES

200

Homicide: Includes murder, manslaughter, and death by negligence Rape:

150 AGGRAVATED ASSAULT ROBBERY

100

50 RAPE

Aggravated assaults 37%

HOMICIDE

0 2007 Robbery 53%

2008 YEAR

Includes rape and attempted rape/assault

Robbery: Forcible taking of another’s property; includes armed robbery with weapons and Aggrausing strong-arm tactics vated assaults: Violence to another person; includes assaults with gun, knife, other dangerous weapons, as well as fists, etc.

2009

PART 2 SELECTED CRIMES, 2007 - 2009 Simple Assault:

NUMBER OF CRIMES

200

150 NARCOTICS SIMPLE ASSAULT

100

50 PROSTITUTION WEAPONS

0 2007

010

Arson:

PART 1 VIOLENT CRIMES, 2007 - 2009

Total Part 1 Crimes, 2008 - 2009

Violent Crimes, 2008 - 2009

Larceny: Taking of property of another; includes pocket-picking, pursesnatching, shoplifting, theft of property, etc. Auto theft: Theft and attempt of theft

50

Burglary 21%

Property Crimes 57.4%

11th Ave S

10th Ave S

Elliot Ave S

Chicago Ave S

Park Ave S

Portland Ave S

24th Ave E

2008 YEAR

2009

All assaults and attempted assaults which are simple or minor in nature

Weapons: Violation of weapon laws such as the manufacture, sale, or possession of deadly weapons ProstituCommercialized sex offences tion: such as prostitution, keeping bawdy or disorderly house, procuring or detaining women for immoral purposes Narcotics: Violation of ordinances retaining to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, manufacturing and making of narcotic drugs


AGE OF ARRESTED OFFENDERS IN PEAVEY PARK AREA, 2008 - 2009 100

Investigating the age of arrested offenders in the area between 2008 and 2009 finds that while the highest number of arrested offenders were 25 years old, the overall crime spectrum was fairly evenly distributed between the ages of 15 and 55.

80 NUMBER OF ARRESTS

WHO IS COMMITTING CRIMES?

60

40

20

15

20

25

30

40

35

45

50

55

60

65

70

AGE OF OFFENDER

WHEN ARE CRIMES BEING COMMITTED?

CRIMES IN PEAVEY PARK AREA BY SEASON, 2008 - 2009 Winter: December, January, February Spring: March, April, May Summer: June, July, August Fall: September, October, November

Property Crimes

Violent Crimes Winter 16% Winter 20%

Fall 29%

Fall 32%

Spring 20%

Spring 25%

Summer 26%

Summer 32%

An exploration of crimes and time of year found that 22.7% of crimes occurred in the spring months, 28.9% in the summer, 28.7% in the fall, and 18.7% in the winter, indicating that any time of the year is a good time to commit a crime at Peavey Park. Property crime and violent crime were analyzed separately. Slightly more violent crime than property crime occurred in the fall and summer months. Analysis on the time of day crime occurs revealed a difference between property crime and violent crime. 52.7% of property crime occurred during the workday hours (7:00am - 6:00pm), whereas 48.6% of violent crime occurred during the evening and early morning hours (7:00pm - 4:00am).

Property Crimes

Property Crimes

5 10 15 NUMBER OF CRIMES

20 15 10

Arson Auto Theft Larceny Burglary

1AM 2AM 3AM 4AM 5AM 6AM 7AM 8AM 9AM 10AM 11AM 12PM 1PM 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM 10PM 11PM 12PM

DEC.

OCT.

NOV.

NUMBER OF CRIMES

Aggravated Assault Robbery Rape Homicide

1AM 2AM 3AM 4AM 5AM 6AM 7AM 8AM 9AM 10AM 11AM 12PM 1PM 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM 10PM 11PM 12PM

DEC.

NOV.

OCT.

SEPT.

JULY

AUG.

MAY

JUNE

MAR.

APRIL

JAN.

FEB.

5

5

10

15

20

Aggravated Assault Robbery Rape Homicide

20

Violent Crimes

Violent Crimes

10 15 NUMBER OF CRIMES

SEPT.

JULY

AUG.

MAY

JUNE

MAR.

APRIL

JAN.

FEB.

5

NUMBER OF CRIMES

Arson Auto Theft Larceny Burglary

20

CRIMES IN PEAVEY PARK AREA BY TIME OF DAY, 2008 - 2009

25

CRIMES IN PEAVEY PARK AREA BY MONTH, 2008 - 2009

011


012


ON THE ANATOMY OF PUBLIC PARKS: Design Principles

“The quality of open space in an urban setting may be the single most defining design element in city building and far more important to livability than is generally understood.�

013


ON THE ANATOMY OF PUBLIC PARKS: KS: Design Principles Partly because of their small size, community parks are often competing for providing a multiplicity of functions to a diverse audience. While large-scale sports facilities are not always possible, there are a numbers of flexible approaches that can make the programmatic selection of activities much easier. Today, community

Street

Intimate

Transition

SCALE OF CONSIDERATION Scale is a critical factor and has the greatest impact on type of park use. The size of activity spaces within a park will dictate the type of use; intimate or enclosed spaces will attract small groups or individuals, whereas wide-open spaces can be used by larger groups of people. Parks that provide attractions in all seasons will be used year-round. Spaces can be designed for a fixed use, such as a specific sport or activity, or they can be more flexible, meaning that they can be quickly adapted for a variety of uses.

parks must provide for a variety of social functions and diverse experiences to individuals of all ages and be a place for lively community gatherings as well as places for enjoying some degree of private seclusion, book reading, or exercising. While most community parks are indeed of relative small size, there are always

Public Open Field

opportunities for thinking in regards to the larger environmental values that community parks bring to the community. To help in the transformative design process of Peavey Park, the MDC offered eight design principles that are common to most park designs.

Transition

Intimate

Street

Multiple sizes of spaces for multiple usage

Multiple atmospheres

Seasons Fixed and flexible usage

Natural lights

Different times of the day

EDGE TREATMENT The treatment of park edges is a critical component framing the perception and use of a Park. Edges define space for various informal or civic uses and provide a level of transparency into the interior of the park. Edges communicate to people about how the space is used and cared for within the community. Through a variety of factors, such as lighting and seating, park edges can welcome visitors and encourage gathering and use. Bryant Park, NY (Design and Photo credit: Laurie Olin)

OPEN FIELD Open fields are often found in the interior of parks. These flexible spaces can be adapted for multiple types of uses, such as sun-bathing, picnicking, or playing sports. An open space that is defined by a clear edge will allow users to orient themselves within the park.

Bryant Park, NY (Photo & design credit: Laurie Olin)

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PARK ACCESS Access defines the relationship of the park with the surrounding urban context. Uninhibited access allows visitors to enter and exit the park from anywhere, meaning there is no particular degree of hierarchy between the park and the surrounding context. Hierarchy encourages the use of one or more entrances over the others, infusing a particular area of the park with a heightened significance. Controlled access limits where and how visitors enter and exit. Picadilly Gardens, Manchester (Photo credit: EDAW)

From everywhere

Controlled access

Hierarchy

MOVEMENT In the larger context, a sense of movement through the park along primary and secondary paths is part of the park’s experience. Symmetrical movement contributes to a formal understanding of the space, whereas a naturalistic system of movement may feel more flexible and natural. A combination of movement systems may allow for a greater degree of choices and intimacy.

Eyre Square, Galway, Ireland (Design credit: Mitchell + Associates)

Symmetry

Asymmetry

Naturalistic

PATHS

PATH OF DISCOVERY

Paths provide an experience of the landscape as a visitor moves through the park. Paths determine views, provide levels of enclosure, and offer physical and sensory opportunities.

Nagasaki Seaside Park, Japan (Design credit: Ryoko Ueyama)

Saitama Plaza, Saitama, Japan (Design credit: Peter Walker and Partners)

MULTIPLE PATHS

Nasher Foundation Sculpture Garden, Dallas, TX (Design credit: Peter Walker and Partners)

Miller Garden, Columbus, IN (Design credit: Dan Kiley)

015


ON THE ANATOMY OF PUBLIC PARKS: KS: Design Principles THEMES AND HABITATS

WONDER OF NATURE

Parks often have themes, which relate to the experiential opportunities within the park created by the physical characteristics of the space and the activities that take place at each specific place. Themes are what allow a visitor to experience a transformation of self into a larger context of reality. Common themes can include gardens, natural habitats, art, culture, play, water, seasons, or topography. The wonder of an ever-changing landscape may be recalled in the specific selection of plants to be enjoyed in all seasons. A particularly exciting play area or ecological habitat can inspire a theme of learning and growing.

Butterfly garden Artis, Amsterdam, Netherlands (Design credit: Landlab, OC Graphics)

LIGHTS TO SHINE

The Red Ribbon - Tanghe River Park, Qinhuangdao, China (Design credit: Kongjian Yu / Turenscape, Beijing)

RHYTHM OF TOPOGRAPHY

Fold, Carmarthen, UK (Design credit: Kathy De Witt)

Safe Zone, Quebec, Canada (Design credit: Yvan Maltais )

Nagasaki Seaside Park, Nagasaki, Japan (Design credit: Ryoko Ueyama)

PLAY TO LEARN AND GROW

The Gates exhibit at Central Park, NY (Photo credit: identity crisis and stuff via Flickr)

Spielplatz “Töne Des Dschungels”, Berlin, Germany (Design credit: Büro K. Baumgart, Karina Tischer)

CELEBRATION OF SEASONS

Charleston Park, Mountain View, California (Design credit: SWA)

016

Park Solidarity, Barcelona, Spain (Photo credit: Joan Argelés)

EXPLORATION OF WATER

HISTORY, ART & CULTURE

Stanford Medical School: Narrative Art Project, Pal Alto, CA (Design credit: Tom Leader Studio)

Parque Acuático, Pilar, Argentina (Photo credit: Maria & Roberto Mulieri)

Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, UK (Design credit: Gustafson Porter)

Cookson Park, Sheffield, UK (Design credit: Kinnear Landscape Architects)

(Design credit: Piet Oudolf)


MATERIALS The material of which a park is constructed is of great importance in giving identity to the park. Materials influence the park visitor’s acquaintance of place by offering a pleasant sensory experience. Materials can indicate the intended use of a space or the community’s attitude toward the park. Materials can be hardscape, such as concrete or gravel, softer materials, such as mulch or sand, or living material, such as flowers or grasses. Charleston Waterfront Park, Charleston, SC (Design credit: Sasaki Associates)

The MDC encourages the use of materials that offer an opportunity to mitigate ecological issues, create beauty, and promote learning. Such materials can reduce urban heat island effect, improve water quality, reduce natural resource consumption, support local biodiversity, minimize exposure of pollutants to humans and the environment, and promote a closed cycle of reusing and recycling.

Westminster Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, MN (Design credit: Coen + Partners)

Mesa Arts Center, Mesa, AZ (Design credit: Martha Schwartz Partners)

Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, Mexico (Design credit: Grupo De Diseño Urbano)

South Boston Maritime Park, Boston, MA (Halvorson Design Partnership, Inc)

Laurie Garden, Chicago, IL (Photo credit: Flickr)

Westminster Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, MN (Design credit: Coen + Partners)

Portland Art Museum (Design credit: Andrea Cochran)

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018


CLAIMING THE SITE: Bringing the Background into the Foreground

“Inspiring people to believe in their dreams for parks, especially in unjustly forgotten communities, may begin with simple steps that transform the way they are perceived. Children can lead the way.�

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CLAIMING THE SITE: Bringing the Background into the Foreground EXTRAPOLATED CONTEXT Viewing the park’s location from a larger context, one sees that while Peavey Park sits in a centrally located geographic position within the city, the altered urban fabric around it has isolated the park and neighborhood from the surrounding neighborhoods and landmarks. Ventura Village is adjacent to downtown Minneapolis and within just a few miles of the Mississippi River and the commercial center of Uptown. This would be considered a prime location for access to the rest of the city, but the vast trenches created by Highways 94 and 35W geographically cuts off the greater Ventura Village district from the rest of the city.

parks incorporate native plants or gardens and only one has a natural water feature. Size and a great degree of standardized homogeneity seem to be the principal factor among the parks.

Despite this geographic isolation, the park is fairly well connected by public transportation and bike routes to multiple sites of interest around the city. Peavey Park’s context within the neighborhood can be understood by a study of the district’s park system. An inventory of the nine parks in the area reveals a striking similarity in terms of physical characteristics and amenities. Some of the parks contain buildings, some have playgrounds, but in general, the parks are of a greatly similar character. Perhaps the most striking similarity is the predominance of turf grass; none of the

This revealing study of context strongly suggests taking a significantly different design approach for Peavey Park. What program of activities and experiences are not being met by any in the Park’s district system? What can Peavey Park offer that will differentiate it from the rest of the parks in the district, making it a true destination or “place” and not just a “space”?

LR T

URBAN CONTEXT Powderhorn Park

Pioneers & Soldiers Cemetery

go

e Av

35 W

Midtown Global Market wn G reenw ay

a ic Ch

te

t.

Midto

ta

Lake S

Stewart Field

In

Access to Mississippi River

te rs

Corcoran Park

Bike Ro

Abbot Hospital

East Phillips Park

ute

Lake St.

Cedar Field

Peavey Park

LR

T

Fra

nkli

Bi

ke

Access to Uptown

e ut Ro

nA ve

Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Whittier Park

Franklin Bridge

Possible Inhabited Bridge Connection

Washburn-Fair Oaks Park

Elliot Park Stevens Square

Fra

e Av

ut

e

rs ta te

Ro

nA ve

te

Bi

ke

n kli

35 W

ca

In

i Ch

go

Convention Center

Interstate

94

Access to Chain of Lakes

Access to Downtown Minneapolis

DISTRICT PARKS & AMENITIES Powderhorn Park

Washburn-Fair Oaks Park • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Corcoran Park • • • • • • • •

020

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

Bandstand Basketball Court Fishing Dock Garden Picnic Area Soccer Field Tennis Court Volleyball Court Baseball Field Football Field Ice Rink Restroom Softball Field Playground Wading Pool Water Pump

Cedar Avenue Field • • • • • • • •

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

Elliot Park

• Volleyball Court

East Phillips Park

• • • • • • •

Baseball Field Softball Field Playground Basketball Court Picnic Area Tennis Court Wading Pool

• • • • • • • •

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

• • • • • • • •

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

Stewart Field • • • • • • • •

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

• • • • • • • •

Baseball Field Craft Room Picnic Area Softball Field Wading Pool Basketball Court Restrooms Playground

Stevens Square Park

Whittier Park


THE COSMIC GARDEN

WIND SPEED & DIRECTION June

September N

Park ark Avenue A

Chicago hicag Avenue

Park ark Avenue

PEAVEY Y PARK

W

E

22nd Street

PEAVEY Y PARK

W

22nd Street

S

Franklin Avenue

E

Park ark Avenue

E

Peavey Park’s geographical location results in certain climatological and astronomical advantages. When perceived as a whole, Minnesota’s latitude and seasonal variations can transform the park into a vibrant cosmic garden. As the sun path changes position throughout the year, the summer solar trajectory brings a reliable clear sunny sky and clear atmosphere, a condition that persists for the most part during the cold winter season. Stars and constellations circle the sky in patterns that can be tracked and read like an open book. At Minneapolis’ latitude, the winter and spring winds come out of the northwest the largest percentage of time. In spring and summer, the winds most often come from the south or southeast. These dynamic seasonal variations not only inform site design decisions, but also provide opportunities for exciting discoveries year-round for kids and adults alike.

N

Franklin Avenue F

Chicago hica Avenue

PEAVEY Y PARK

W

N

Franklin Avenue F

PEAVEY Y PARK

W

Chicago hica Avenue

Franklin Avenue

E

Chicago ago Avenue

N

December

Park Avenue Pa

March

22nd Street

22nd Street

S

S

S

SHADOWS ON PEAVEY PARK Summer Solstice (June 21st) 4:00 P.M.

Summer Solstice (June 21st) 9:00 A.M.

PEAVEY PARK

Winter Solstice (Dec. 21st) 9:00 A.M

PEAVEY PARK

Winter Solstice (Dec. 21st) 4:00 P.M.

PEAVEY PARK

PE PE PEAV EY PARK

0’

100’ 200’

400’

N

PEAVEY PARK MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA /DWLWXGH /RQJLWXGH MI LK Y

W AY

S SERPE NS S AQUIL Q LA

DELPHINUS DELPH INUS HERCU E LES

SUMMER SOLSTICE (JUNE 21st) SUNSET: 9:03 PM

N

SUMMER SOLSTICE (JUNE 21st) SUNRISE: 5:26 AM

LIR LIRA CORONA CORONA BOREALIS BOREA LIS C GN S CYGNU

VIRGO

DRACO BOOTES BOOTE S CEPHEUS CEPHE U

LACERTA LACER TA

35° 35°

PEGASUS URSA MINOR U S MAJOR URSA Polaris CASSIOPEIA CASSI OPEIA PE A

EQUINOX (MARCH 20th & SEPT. 23rd) SUNSET: 7:09 PM

SU MM ER

6

W

EQUINOX (MARCH 20th & SEPT. 23rd) SUNRISE: 7:01 AM

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PEAK ALTITUDE: ÛDW30 3

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PEAK ALTITUDE: ÛDW30

WINTER SOLSTICE (DECEMBER 21st) SUNSET: 4:34 PM

WINTER SOLSTICE (DECEMBER 21st) SUNRISE: 7:48 AM

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AVERAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE

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CLAIMING THE SITE: Bringing the Background into the Foreground FINDINGS FROM THE CHILDREN’S WORKSHOP

LESSON 1. KIDS LIKE TO PLAY IN SEQUENCES UENCES

As a “taking part exercise” the MDC worked with a group of Hope Academy students to tell their own story about their favorite day in a park or to imagine a futuristic park. The kids’ highly imaginative visions inspired the Center to find examples of play spaces that push the boundary of adventure and excitement.

Climbing structure

Rollercoaster

LESSON 2. KIDS ENJOY TESTING THEIR PHYSICAL SKILLS Skateboarding

Bungee jumping

Snowboarding

LESSON 3. KIDS NEED PLACES THAT CHALLENGE THEIR IMAGINATION

Spaceship

Musical water fountain

Leaning tower

Treehouse

LESSON 4. KIDS WANT OPPORTUNITIES TO DISCOVER & OBSERVE

Boating on the lake

Forest

The world of plants and animals

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TRANSLATING DREAMS INTO REALITY: PLAYGROUND AND WATER FEATURE TYPOLOGIES & CASE STUDIES WATER FEATURE TYPOLOGY 1: LINEAR WATERWAY + SPLASH PAD

Children are encouraged to explore and enjoy many types of water play. CASE STUDY:

Wilsonville Memorial Park: Murase Plaza Wilsonville, OR

PLAZA

Water flows down shallow canal

50’

Water gushes out of rock walls onto flat pads

6’

Image credit: www.flickr.com/Teresa_Grant

160’ Splash pad

Open green space

250’ Total area = 40,000 sq. ft. (0.92 acres)

Image credit: www.pdxfamilyadventures.com

WATER FEATURE TYPOLOGY 2: CIRCUITOUS WATERWAY

People of all ages can experience both the exciting and calming qualities of moving water. CASE STUDY:

Princess Diana Memorial Fountain Hyde Park, London, UK

20’

Water collects in calm pool

Smooth water movement Turbulent water movement

260’ Image credit: www.flickr.com/Loz FLowers

6’

Water flows in both directions

165’ Image credit: www.flickr.com/jiformales

Total area = 42,900 sq. ft. (about 1 acre)

WATER FEATURE TYPOLOGY 3: MIST/SPRAY FOUNTAIN

Fountains can become water play feature, public art, and gateway, all in one. Misting gateway sculpture

Adams-Sangamon Park, Chicago, IL (Image credit: Joseph Askins, www.yochicago.com)

Misting play sculpture

Misting fountain

McEnery Park, San Jose, CA (Image credit: www.rhorii.com)

Discovery Green, Houston, TX (Image credit: www.flickr.com/JWSherman)

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CLAIMING THE SITE: Bringing the Background into the Foreground PLAYGROUND TYPOLOGY 1: A NETWORK OF DISCOVERY

Play areas are located on a network of pathways or waterways, which connects activities but does not define movement. CASE STUDY: Garden City Play Environment Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

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180’

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Native plantings at Garden City Play Environment (Image credit: www.space2place.com)

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300’ Total area = 54,000 sq. ft. (1.2 acres)

FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Concrete sculptures with sand 7. Water fountain/play feature 8. Meandering water feature 9. Swings with sand 10. Amphitheater

Tower with slide and climbing net Water play feature Slide Tree climbing sculptures with sand Sand and water play area

Garden City Park sand play area, Richmond, BC, Canada (Design credit: space2place)

PLAYGROUND TYPOLOGY 2: ISLANDS OF CHALLENGES

Independent activity areas are arranged around a central feature without a defining path of movement. CASE STUDY: Wilsonville Memorial Park Wilsonville, OR

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140’ 2

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Climbing tower at Oerliker Park, Zurich, Switzerland (Image credit: Christoph Busse)

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140’

FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Total area = 19,600 sq. ft. (0.45 acres)

Volcano-shaped climbing mound with slide Sand play area with rocks Climbing structure Climbing walls Sand play area Swings Sand and water play area

Kompan climbing structure (Photo and design credit: Kompan, Inc.)


PLAYGROUND TYPOLOGY 3: A CONNECTED CLUSTER OF SEQUENCES

Play areas are densely clustered and linked together as a large play structure. CASE STUDY: Nelson A. Rockefeller Playground New York City, NY

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225’

Playground, Germany (Image credit: www.flickr.com/vauvau)

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75’ Total area = 16,875 sq. ft. (0.38 acres)

FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Picnic area 7. Two-story climbing structure 8. Toddler sand box 9. Toddler climbing structure 10. Fountain with sculptures and seating

Infant/toddler area 7-10 year-old area Sand and water play area Bike-powered carousel Sand table

Kompan climbing structure (Photo and design credit: Kompan, Inc.)

PLAYGROUND TYPOLOGY 4: PATHWAY TO IMAGINARY PLACES

Play areas are located along a defined path to create an experience of discovery. CASE STUDY: Valbyparken Copenhagen, Denmark 2

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BUGA Park, Germany (Image credit:www.playgrounddesigns.blogspot.com)

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370’ Total area = 125,800 sq. ft. (2.88 acres)

FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Circuitous elevated boardwalk Tower of Light Tower of Water Tower of Wind The Green Tower Tower of the Birds Tower of Change Forest Wooden boats

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

“Green islands” Willow huts Tree climbing sculptures Lookout hill with winding path Storytelling fire pit Tree bridge Pavement for games Grassy climbing hills

Monash Adventure Playground, Australia (Image credit: Harlot Takes Pictures on flickr.com)

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026


FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park

“Small parks play crucially important roles in metropolitan areas, but their design rarely reflects all that is now known about people, ecology, and cultural vitality.�

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FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park A KIT OF PARTS Like many other multifaceted projects, public parks must respond to a diversity of needs and wants and to a different range of age groups and activities, all of which must work and harmonize as a complete entity. Unlike the materiality of buildings for instance, parks are primarily made of living elements that grow and change seasonally over many years. This factor by itself is what makes the didactic design of a park a unique and edifying experience. In the earlier stages of design development the MDC was interested in understanding the different types of activities (program) and how the program can function in a manner that optimizes space as well as provides for a flexible use of activities. As such, the MDC originally designed a “kit of parts” approach with the distribution of activities at different positions in the park space until the advantages of each permutation became reasonably clear. In the successive stages of design, selecting and coordinating the most appropriate location for those activities under a different set of preferences became critical. The resulting design approach contains six specific flexible program elements that includes the buffer edge, children’s playground activities, the flexible green located on a rotation axis 23° west of north, the building complex, the running and exercise paths, and a system of gardens including the orchard garden as a framework of experiential activities.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EDGE The edge of the park was identified as a critical space for Peavey Park. Edges are needed to buffer the park from traffic noise, as well as offer a definition between the street and the central park activities. Additionally, the edge can serve in making the park a safe and vibrant destination in the surrounding community. Edges of any space are the most socially active places. Encouraging active occupation and positive activity, the edge of the park also serves to deter undesirable activities and

crime by creating a perimeter of “eyes” on the park. But of course, they can also provide a commercial function of space for street vendors to set up carts or booths to sell anything from ice cream to flowers. Case studies of other park edges found that a buffer of fifty feet provides enough space for sitting and chatting, as well as a dedicated path for exercising. A buffer of seventy-five feet allows for even more activity on the buffer: an exercise path, space for vendors, and plenty of seating.

PLAUSIBLE EDGE PROFILES Planter / Steps

Common Space

Planter

Running Path

Water Wall

50’

Steps

Planter

Exercise

Planter / Vendor Kiosk

75’

028

Common Space

Planter / Stairs / Seating


FLEXIBLE GREEN

RECREATIONAL SPACE SIZE COMPARISON

Skateboard Park (Size Varies 1/2 to 5 acres)

Softball Field (1 acre)

Peavey Park Total 7.7 Acres

Basketball Court

BUILDINGS / STRUCTURES Soccer Field (minimum 1.48 acres)

Volleyball Cross-country ski (minimum 3 miles and 8 to 10 ft wide depending on demands)

Tennis Court

Frisbee Golf (minimum 4 acres)

American Football (1.46 acres)

Ice Skating Rink (0.3 acres or more)

SHARED FLEXIBLE GREEN

Several programming needs identified by the community would require a multipurpose structure. This structure can be surrounded by community gardens, space for lecture events, children’s programs, and safety programs. A simple building structure could provide flexible space for year-round uses, such as workshops, lectures, and community meetings. The building could also feature other important park amenities, such as rest rooms and a small police station.

GARDENS: DESIGNING WITH MINNESOTA’S NATURAL HERITAGE

Ice Hockey / Skating Rink (0.3 acres) Picnic / Tai Chi

Football (1.46 acres)

Youth Soccer (1.48 acres)

A NATIVE PALETTE Prairie

A flexible green space roughly the size of a soccer field was determined to be the right size to accommodate the recreational needs identified by the community. Multiple types of passive and active recreation could take place here, from field sports and exercise groups, to picnics and stargazing. The space is also large enough to accommodate outdoor public performances and events.

Oak Savannah

Minnesota has a rich ecological heritage, incorporating a vast diversity of plant and animal life in a variety of habitats. The Twin Cities metropolitan area is situated within the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province, an ecological zone that functions as a transitional zone, or ecotone, between semi-arid portions of the state that were historically prairie, and semi-humid, mixed conifer-deciduous forests in the Northeast. The variety of plant communities contained within this province provides an immense palette from which to draw inspiration for our parks and gardens, from the delicate grasses of the Upland Prairie to the shady groves of the Oak Savannah. As is being discovered around the country, parks can foster the reintroduction of native plant and animal communities into urban life. Vibrant native landscapes can bring a diversity of natural experiences back into the city, while also reducing maintenance costs and upkeep of our urban parks. Woodland

Design credit: Piet Oudolf

Image credit: Funton County, OH website

Image credit: Unknown

Image credit: flickr/dmills727

Image credit: flickr/eXtension

Image credit: Unknown

029


FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park A NEW PEAVEY PARK The MDC used this “kit of parts” to create a plausible design concept that not only fits the needs identified by the community, but also provides a unique and beautiful urban oasis that will attract visitors throughout the metropolitan region.

Exercise paths

In this design the park is surrounded by a wide edge that acts as a buffer and transitional space into the park. This tree-lined corridor is the perfect spot for stopping for a bite to eat from a vendor, chatting with a neighbor, strolling along the shady path, or just sitting and watching the activity on the street and in the park. The flexible green space in the interior of the park is angled on a rotation axis 23° west of north, or toward the southeast entrance, to take advantage of the views of downtown and to present a wide promenade along the length of the park

Children’s playground Water features Multi-use building structure for workshops, lectures, and community meetings. Orchard and Picnicking Grounds Commemorative Flowering garden

Flexible gathering space for public presentations Flexible green for recreational activities, public performances, and cultural events. Native Prairie Garden / Rain gardens Buffer / Edge

03 030 30


to the main entrance on Franklin Avenue. In this sunny open space, kids organize a game of soccer, or seniors join a morning exercise class. On summer evenings, neighbors gather together on the lawn for movies in the park or music concerts. In winter, the lawn is flooded for ice skating or hockey and snow from the walkways is mounded up into a hill for sledding. The new playground is the hub of activity for all the neighborhood children. The elaborate sequence of play activities and water features spans the length of Chicago Avenue. Younger children have their own space to play, separate from a space for older children. The multi-purpose building is capable of housing a diversity of programs and activities including educational programs, community events, and lectures. The structure is simple but attractive, perhaps made of prefabricated elements such as reused shipping containers, arranged around an interior courtyard that can be used for outdoor gathering and activities. In winter, a portion of the structure becomes a warming house for any coldweather recreation in the park. Adjacent to the building is an outdoor lecture space with seating. A series of distinct gardens invite visitors to experience the natural world in all the seasons. A colorful “Orchard Garden� filled with blossoming trees becomes picnic grounds. Flowering plantings are incorporated into the existing art plaza on the corner of Franklin Avenue and Chicago Avenue. Swaths of colorful native prairie plants become edge gardens along the perimeter of the park, providing color and texture through all seasons. Near the multi-use building are display gardens for seasonal plantings and native plants, as well as containers for growing food. Here children and adults alike can learn to cultivate plants in gardens beds.

PARK ELEMENT LAYERS

A. Buffer / Edge

B. Exercise Paths

C. Flexible Green

D. Building / Community Space

Around the perimeter of the park are walking paths and running courses, separated for the different levels of activity. Open exercise areas are created where the path loops overlap.

E. Children’s Playground / Water Feature / Gardens

F. Street Edge

031


FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park MULTIPURPOSE BUILDING: A COMMUNITY GATHERING SPACE

Exterior View of Building and Community Garden

Interior View of Courtyard Space

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Franklin

Chicago

Park 22nd

Prairie Landscape Edge

Native Plants Display Flexible Green

Buffer Edge Lectures and Public Events

Start of Children’s Playgrounds

Walking Course Multipurpose Courtyard Building

Exercise Area

Running Course

Meeting Rooms

Flexible Community Space for Public Presentations

033


FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park THE DISCOVERY ZONE: ORCHARD AND KIDS’ PLAY AREA

Children’s Play Area

Street Buffer / Edge The Orchard Garden and Picnic Area Central Movement Axis Walking Course

Children’s Challenge Play Area

Flexible Green Space Start of Children’s Play Area

Water Play Area

Running Course

Relaxing Green South Entrance

The Children’s Playground Sequence

034


Franklin

Chicago

Park 22nd

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FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park Franklin

EDGE Chicago

Park 22nd

FLEXIBLE GREEN: COMMUNITY EVE

Street lighting

LED Uplight

LED Uplight

Pole lighting

Floor lighting

LED Uplight

Open Field lighting

Pole lighting

Floor lighting

Step lighting

Recessed lighting

75’

Edge Lighting Alternatives

Community Festival

036


Chicago

Park

ENTS AND RECREATION

Franklin

22nd

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FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park PLANT PALETTE OPTIONS FORMAL EDGE The concept for the formal edge is an open but sheltered space with pleasant views into Peavey Park and out to the nearby streetscape, with places to gather and relax, and landscape interest throughout the year. Trees were chosen to provide dappled light and dramatic fall color. Groundcovers showcase flowers, berries, and leaf color throughout the seasons.

Tree Species

Gingko Tree Gingko biloba

Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos

Kentucky Coffee Tree Gymnocladus dioicus

Highbush Cranberry Viburnum trilobum

Blue False Indigo Baptisia australis

Black Chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa

Dwarf Bush Honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera

Gro-low Fragrant Sumac Rhus aromatica ‘gro-low’

Hackberry Celtis occidentalis

Paper birch Betula papyrifera

Tall Shrub Species

Short Shrub Species

Groundcovers

Dwarf Crested Iris Iris cristata

Foamflower Tiarella cordifolia

Creeping dogwood Cornus canadensis

Wild Ginger Asarum canadense

Creeping Phlox Phlox stolonifera

Three-toothed Cinquefoil Potentilla tridentata

Fragrant sumac Rhus aromatica

Allegheny Spurge Pachysandra procumbens

Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Larinem Park Stonecrop Sedum ternatum

Wild Geranium Geranium maculatum

Daffodils & other spring bulbs

OAK SAVANNAH EDGE The form of the oak savanna edge demonstrates the dichotomy of staggered oak trees and expanses of flowing grasses that would have defined historical oak savannas in Minnesota. The strongly contrasting structure of this native plant community has appealed to humans over time, providing a sense of both prospect and refuge. Additionally, native grasses provide seasonal color, playful textures, and wildlife habitat.

Tree Species

Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa

Bitternut Hickory Carya cordiformis

Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

White Oak Quercus alba

Grass Species

Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium

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Side Oats Grama Bouteloua curtipendula

Prairie Dropseed Sporobolus heterolepis

Canada Wild Rye Elymus canadensis

June Grass Koeleria cristata

Blue Grama Bouteloua gracilis


PRAIRIE EDGE The concept for the prairie edge is a highly diverse, native garden to translate the gorgeous colors, textures, smells, and structures of a group of plants often passed over in urban design. Selected native plants function on many levels, building soil fertility, providing wildlife habitat, offering seasonal appeal, acting as an education device, filtering stormwater, and so on. The end product is a tantalizing visual display!

Forb Species (Dry Soils)

‘Blue Fortune’ Hyssop Agastache x hybrid

Blanket Flower Gaillardia aristata

Moonbeam Coreopsis Coreopsis verticillata

Nodding Onion Allium cernuum

Hoary Vervain Verbena stricta

White Coneflower Echinacea

Pale Coneflower Echinacea pallida

Dense Blazingstar Liatris spicata

Pasque Flower Anemone patens

Butterflyweed Asclepias tuberosa

Moonshine Yarrow Achillea

New England Aster Aster novae-anglea

Rattlesnake Master Eryngium yuccifolium

Lg. Flowered Beardtongue Penstemon grandiflorus

Purple Prairie Clover Dalea purpurea

Heath Aster Aster ericoides

Wild Petunia Ruellia humilis

Lily Flowering Tulips Tulipa

Rose Turtlehead Chelone obliqua

Fox Sedge Carex vulpinoidea

Blue Flag Iris Iris versicolor

Black Eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida

Culver’s Root Veronicastrum virginicum

‘Little Joe’ Pye Weed Eupatorium dubium

Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale

Prairie Blazingstar Liatris pycnostachya

Marsh Milkweed Asclepias incarnata

Karl Foerster Grass Calamagrostis acutiflora

Scarlet Beebalm Monarda didyma

Blue Lobelia Lobelia siphilitica

Switchgrass Panicum virgatum

June Grass Koeleria macrantha

Needle Grass Stipa comata

Little Blustem Schizachyrium scoparium

Prairie Dropseed Quercus macrocarpa

Perennial Species For Stormwater Management

Grass Species

ORCHARD Many recall memories of visiting orchards while growing up, on a family outing, or with a local school or organization. The orchard concept is meant to rekindle a sense of community, and encourage informal small group gathering for a picnic or just to lie in the grass and smell the flowers! In addition, many of the orchard trees provide edible fruit, creating opportunities for local food consumption and education.

Tree Species

Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis

Cornelian Cherry Tree Cornus mas

Red Splendor Crabapple Malus ‘Red Splendor’

Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli ‘inermis’

Domestic Apple Tree Varieties Malus domestica

Dolgo Crabapple Tree Malus ‘Dolgo’

Centurion Crabapple Tree Malus ‘Centurion’

American Plum Prunus americana

039


FROM SPACE TO PLACE: Transforming ng the Physical Narrative of Peavey Park RECIPROCAL INFLUENCES: MODIFYING FRANKLIN AVENUE Access to the park, as well as the park’s presence on the street, is an important consideration in creating a safe neighborhood park. Franklin Avenue along Peavey Park currently provides a narrow sidewalk immediately adjacent to the travel lanes of the street, with no buffer for the sidewalk. This creates a dangerous and uncomfortable situation for pedestrians. A simple solution is to enhance crosswalks at intersections and park entrances, slow traffic as it approaches these areas, and provide a more attractive pedestrian space on the sidewalk. These changes have the additional benefit of creating a visible identity for the area, attracting visitors to the park, and encouraging pedestrian movement on the street. The MDC developed two alternative streetscapes that illustrate how the Franklin Avenue streetscape can reinforce the positive changes made in Peavey Park.

Franklin

Avenue New Park Entrance Design on Franklin Avenue

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STREET SECTION 1

STREET SECTION 2

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TAKING PART: Approaches for Developing Community Parks Partnerships

“Parks partnerships are successfully combining the assets of the public and private sectors in novel ways to create new and refurbished parks, greenways, trails, and other community assets in our cities—often in the face of municipal budget constraints.”

043


TAKING PART: Approaches for ps Developing Community Parks Partnerships WHY PARTNERSHIPS?

TYPES OF NON-PROFIT PARTNERSHIP ROLES

Under the current economic cycles occurring in most cities and with the current positive interest in revitalizing inner city neighborhoods and public parks, the opportunities for publicprivate partnerships for parks are being spread throughout the country in many new ways and in many instances with significant success. Some of the most frequent reasons cited include:

Assistance Provider: These non-profits offer additional support to parks departments, helping them manage parks by organizing volunteers, raising additional funds, and planning programs. Staffed by volunteers and working with small budgets, they are often called “Friends of” groups. They function as public interest groups, advocating for the needs of the surrounding community.

Catalyst: These groups are known to generate a vision and then work to initiate and advocate for the project by raising funds for implementation and assisting in the design and construction process. They tend to be flexible, redefining their role in the project and the partnership once the project is completed.

Co-Manager: Working in collaboration with the parks department, some non-profits act as co-managers. Collaboration can be manifested either through a position that is jointly shared by both entities or through a non-profit staff that works closely with the public agency to share responsibilities.

Sole Manager: In the less-common sole manager role, a non-profit is given permission from the city to assume full responsibility for the management, policy-making, and maintenance of the park. This type of organization functions as an independent entity, requiring little involvement from the city.

City Wide Partner: Operating on a larger scale, these nonprofits advocate for quality parks throughout a city. The groups work with other non-profits and agencies to raise funds, train neighborhood groups, and initiate city-wide programs for parks.

Fluctuating and unreliable state budgets have prompted cities to pursue financial independence through alternative sources of funding.

Many services traditionally provided by the government, such as utilities and delivery of services, are being privatized or partially privatized with contract-based arrangements to encourage competition and lower costs.

Cities are competing with each other to attract investment. Quality public space is seen as an important part of creating an attractive and livable city.

Higher demand for quality public parks mean governments need to find new ways to manage and finance their public spaces - in other words, they need to be flexible and resourceful in ways that are generally difficult for large bureaucracies.

Partnerships between public agencies and non-profits may be able to work around government bureaucracy to “successfully combine the assets of the public and private sectors to build, renovate, maintain, and program parks more effectively”.

WHAT NON-PROFITS CAN DO FOR PARKS •

Fundraising

Organize and Mobilize Volunteers

Design, Plan, & Construction of New Activities

Programming

Advocacy

Remedial Maintenance

Routine Maintenance

Marketing and Outreach

Security

PARTNERSHIPS ASSETS AND LIABILITIES In successful partnerships, the assets of one partner will offset the liabilities of the other.

CRITICAL QUESTIONS ABOUT PARTNERSHIPS •

Can the characteristics of public space be maintained in a public-private management partnership?

Can private management of public parks ensure the safety, openness, accessibility, and control of public space?

How effective are public-private partnerships at producing quality public space?

How will the public be involved in decision-making?

Can the rights of those not involved in the decision-making be ensured?

How will conflicts about the park regarding use, maintenance, finances, and control be addressed?

ASSETS

LIABILITIES

Well-developed organizational infrastructure with stable staff and functions

Chronic under-funding as management responsibilities expand over time

Bureaucracy leads to inability to innovate, move quickly, or respond to citizens adequately

Difficulty procuring private funding due to the public’s belief that funding public parks is “the government’s job”

Lack of outreach to nontraditional constituents, such as education and environmental groups

PUBLIC SECTOR

PRIVATE SECTOR

Stable funding from municipal budgets

Flexible funding found from a variety of sources that are often unavailable to the public sector

Unpredictable funding from lack of long-term funding commitments

Organizational flexibility can take advantage of opportunities or respond quickly to project difficulties

Inadequate staffing or mismanagement can lead to a lack of follow-through

Support and credibility from the community

Connections with a broad range of constituencies, such as cultural institutions and special interest groups

Unrealistic expectations may be raised within the community by the nonprofit, which cannot then be met

Shallow support from groups with limited interest in parks

044

Approval from the public

A wide variety of natural constituencies, such as neighborhood families and program users that support the park’s activities and can be mobilized for support


MILLENNIUM PARK INC. Chicago, IL

City of Chicago

Mayor’s Office

Private Donors & Patrons

Department of Cultural Affairs

Millenium Park Inc.

• Operation • Programing • Ownership

• Fundraising • Marketing • Managing endowments

MB Realty Inc. • Maintenance • Cleaning • Operation

Millennium Park, once a surface parking lot, was transformed into a one-of-a-kind cultural center, featuring venues for performance arts, interactive sculptures, and world-class architecture. Millennium Park Inc is a private non-profit that worked with local philanthropists to build Millennium Park. Their partnership with the City of Chicago financed and shaped the vision for the park, and continues in the sharing of park operations.

LESSONS •

Belief in innovation by the patrons allowed designers to “test, redesign, and test again” until the works were fully realized.

Establish a clear contractual separation from city. The creation of a non profit organization allowed the project to be designed through private donor decisions, encouraging donor participation.

Facilitate a bold vision.

Have a strong partnership. The project’s “Three Legged Stool” strategy, made up of the Mayor’s political leadership, the nonprofit’s strong vision, and project manager’s “skillful oversight”, formed a core team that closely coordinated their activities.

WASHINGTON PARKS & PEOPLE Washington D.C.

National Park Service • Maintenance • Ownership

Private Donors & Patrons

Meridian Hill Park, once the most dangerous park in the city, is now the heart of a diverse community, providing cultural, educational, and environmental events and activities year-round. The Friends of Meridian Hill, a neighborhood group, worked closely with the National Park Service and the police to plan programming to bring people to the park. The group eventually merged with other community parks organizations to form the city-wide nonprofit Washington Parks & People, which uses the strategies from Meridian Hill Park to assist other communities in revitalizing their parks.

LESSONS

Washingon Parks & People • • • •

Other Limited Partner Organizations

Fundraising Marketing Programing Organizing volunteers

Organize activities across cultural boundaries by encouraging a variety of celebrations in the park.

Encourage local community organizations and groups to use the park as an extension of their facilities.

Ask the community for help. Recruit long-time users of the park to be leaders in the revitalization process.

Work with the police to create a prevention-oriented partnership.

Reach out to a broad range of agencies, institutions, and organizations to develop programming.

Physically reconnect the park to the wider community through events, such as races and tours.

Advertise the park through the media to encourage visitors and change the perception of the park.

BRYANT PARK CORPORATION New York City, NY

City of New York Private Donors & Patrons

Parks Department • Ownership

Business Improvement District

Bryant Park Corporation • • • • •

Fundraising Marketing Operation Programing Maintenance

Bryant Park is considered to be one of the most popular parks in New York City, thanks to new programming and a physical renovation. The City Parks Department handed over sole management responsibilities to the Bryant Park Corporation, including funding, programming, and operations. Funding is provided by Business Improvement District assessments, private donors, park restaurant and rental fees, and park concessions.

LESSONS •

Attack all the park’s problems simultaneously.

Establish a business improvement district (BID) to provide regular funding to the park and surrounding business area.

Make the park as accessible and unthreatening as possible.

Provide facilities and events that will “draw people to the park and generate the revenue to sustain it”.

Bryant Park Corporation’s Executive Director suggests 10 factors that “control the success of urban parks”: security, sanitation, concessions, restrooms, chairs and tables, lighting, horticulture, programming, design, and management.

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COMMUNITY WORKSHOPS

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047


ADVISORY BOARD D. Fred McCormick, Minneapolis Park Police

Ventura Village Neighborhood Association

Steve Zimmer, Recreation Supervisor Mary Watson, Administrative Secretary

Geu Xiong, Recreation Supervisor

Bob Albee, Chair

Metro Transit Police

Thor Adam, Board Member Jim Cook, Board Member

Michael LaVine, Captain

Janet Graham, Vice-chair Jim Graham, Board Member

City of Minneapolis

Ray Peterson, Chair Nimco Ahmed, Policy Aid, Ward 6

Jon Benson, Resident

Jodi Furness, Assistant City Attorney, 3rd Precinct

Anna Bell, Resident

Paul Mogush, Principal Planner

Ian McNamara, Board Member Bill Kingsbury, Board Member

Hennepin County West Phillips Neighborhood Association

Gail Baez, Senior Attorney

Crystal Trutnau, Executive Director Jake Rock, Board Member

Residents of the Phillips Neighborhood

Del Lundeen, Board Chair

Shirley Heyer, Midtown Phillips Neighborhood David Boehnke, Ventura Village Neighborhood

Hope Community

METROPOLITAN DESIGN CENTER

Mary Keefe, Executive Director Chaka Mkali, Director of Organizing and Community Building Jake Virden, SPEAC Member

Ignacio San Martin, Dayton Hudson Professor, Chair of Urban Design and Director of the Metropolitan Design Center

Tia Williams, SPEAC Member

Michelle Barness, MLA, Research Assistant

David Riley, Intern

Adrienne Bockheim, MLA, Research Fellow, DDA Program Coordinator

Hana Worku, Intern, SPEAC Member

Peter Crandall, MArch, Research Assistant Satoko Muratake, MLA, Research Fellow

Hope Academy

A SPECIAL THANKS

Russ Gregg, Executive Director Tracy Brandon, Teacher

Funding for this Direct Design Assistance project is provided, in part, through generous support from the McKnight Foundation, the Ventura Village Neighborhood Association, and the Dayton Hudson Endowment.

Local Businesses Susie Carlson, Carlson Printing

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ryan Kirk, Kaleidoscope

The Geography of Crime

Cecil Smith, Cornerstone Property Professionals, Ventura Village Board Member

Colman, Steve. “The Invisible Park: Revitalizing the Ten Invisible Landscapes” Parks and People’s publication Places: A Forum of Environmental Design, 2003.

Crowe, Timothy. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts. National Crime Prevention Institute, 1991.

Hilborn, Jim. “Dealing with Crime and Disorder in Urban Parks” Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guides Series, No. 9, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, May 2009.

Pendleton, Michael, and Thompson, Heather. “The Criminal Career of Park and Recreational Hotspots”, Parks and Recreation, 35 (7), July 2000.

“Shared Wisdom: Stone Soup”. Landscape Architecture, June 2005.

Taylor, Ralph, and Gottfredson, Stephen. “Environmental Design, Crime, and Prevention: An Examination of Community Dynamics”, Crime and Justice, v. 388, 1986.

Lucy Gerold, Inspector, 3rd Precinct

Thompson, J. William. The Rebirth of New York City’s Bryant Park. Spacemaker Press, 1997.

Catherine Johnson, Lieutenant, 3rd Precinct

Whyte, William. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. The Conservation Foundation, 1980.

Mark Orfield, Best Apartments, Ventura Village Board Member Jeri Nelson, Director, Center for Changing Lives Gina Ciganik, Vice President, Aeon Bill Vanderwall, Vanderwall Associates

City of Minneapolis Police Department Rick Duncan, Former 3rd Precinct Lieutenant, Minneapolis Police Department

Public-Private Partnerships

Ryan Hughes, Crime Analyst Dave Garman, Officer

Project for Public Spaces, Inc. Public Parks, Private Partners, 2000.

Walker, Chris. “Partnerships for Parks: Lessons from the Lila Wallace-Reader’s Digest Urban Parks Program”. The Urban Institute, 1999.

De Magalhaes, Claudio. “Public Space and the Contracting-out of Publicness: A Framework for Analysis.” Journal of Urban Design, 15:4 November 2010.

Madden, David J. “Revisiting the End of Public Space: Assembling the Public in an Urban Park”. City & Community, 9:2 June 2010.

Carla Nielson, Crime Prevention Specialist James Menter, Intern

Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board

The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, disability, public assistance status, veteran status, or sexual orientation.

Scott Vreeland, Commissioner District 3 Al Bangoura, Recreation Supervisor

This publication/material is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact Ignacio San Martin, 612-625-9000.

Lonnie Nichols, District Planner

© 2011 University of Minnesota, Metropolitan Design Center, College of Design Printed on 100 percent post-consumer fiber, processed chlorine free, FSC recycled certified, and manufactured using biogas energy.

Cordell “Corky” Wiseman, Assistant Superintendent of Recreation

For additional information contact METROPOLITAN DESIGN CENTER COLLEGE OF DESIGN University of Minnesota 1 Ralph Rapson Hall, 89 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455

smartin@umn.edu

048

Overcoming Crime: Transforming the Physical Design and Character of Peavey Park  

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