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Depreciation and Assets disposal - Principles Of Accounting

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and Asset disposal account Depreciation is the part of the cost of the fixed asset consumed during its period of use by the business. In other words, it is the gradual reduction in the value of the fixed asset due to several reasons. Like other business expenses, depreciation is also a business expense to be charged to the profit & loss account at the end of every year. Cases of depreciation a. Wear and tear: Because of the regular usage in the business, the fixed assets eventually wear out. b. Erosion, rust and decay: Erosion is subjected to asset like land, rust causes to the asset like plant & machinery and decay is a process which will also be present due to the elements of nature and the lack of proper attention. c. Obsolescence: This is the process of becoming out of date, then the value becomes less compared to the new and up-to-date equipment. d. Inadequacy: This arises when an asset is no longer used because of the growth and changes in the size of the firm.

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ e. The time factors: This is applicable in the case of assets taken on the basis of lease. When the years are finished the lease is worth nothing.

f. Depletion: This is applicable to the wasting assets like mines, quarries and oil wells.

According to the quantity of extraction of the raw material from the wasting asset, the value remaining will be less. Methods of calculating depreciation charges Straight line method: This method is also known as fixed instalment method or original cost method. Under this method, the cost of the asset (minus net residual value if any) is divided by the expected number of years of use of the asset. Thus under this method, depreciation is = Cost – estimated disposable value( residual value Number of expected years of use E.g.: A business bought a plant at a cost of $ 20 000, with an estimated life of 5 years and an estimated residual value of $ 2 000, the annual depreciation on this asset will be 20000 – 2000

=3600 (every year)

5 Reducing balance method: Under this method, a fixed percentage of reduced balance (cost less depreciation already charged )of the asset is calculated as depreciation at the end of every year. During the first year, the calculation will be made on the original cost of the asset E.g.: An asset was bought for $ 40 000 on 1-1-1988. It was decided to charge the depreciation on this asset @ 10% under reducing balance method. The depreciation on this asset will be: 31st Dec 1998 31st Dec

1999

31st Dec

2000

40000 = 4000 40000- 4000 = 3600 40000- 4000-3600= 3240

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Thus under this method, the yearly depreciation will be reducing year after year. But in

the case of fixed instalment method, the amount of depreciation will be fixed or same every year. Revaluation method: Under this method, the depreciation is calculated by comparing

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the opening and closing values of the asset. The difference between these values will be taken as the amount of depreciation during that year. This method is suitable for the assets like small tools, screwdrivers, spanners etc. Residual value: This is the value that the business will get from the sale of an asset at the end of its useful life time. It is also known as scrap value or salvage value Provision for depreciation This is the provision created to cover the expense of depreciation on fixed assets. Every year the amount of depreciation is credited to this account and debited to the profit & loss account. The depreciation amount will accumulate year after year. At the end of the life of the asset or at the time sale of the asset, the accumulated depreciation is transferred to the asset account or the asset disposal account. At the end of every year, the balance in the provision for depreciation is shown as a deduction from the cost price of the concerned asset.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ The double entry for creating the provision for depreciation is: Profit & loss account

Dr.

Provision for depreciation account Cr. Disposal of an asset When an asset is sold, the procedure will recorded in a separate account called asset disposal account. The following double entries are required for recording these transactions in the books of the business: 1. For transferring the cost price of the asset sold to the asset disposal account Asset disposal account

Dr

Asset account

Cr.

2. For transferring the provision for depreciation already charged on the asset sold from the provision for depreciation account to the asset disposal account: Provision for depreciation account Asset disposal account

Dr. Cr.

3. For recording the cash or cheque received from the sale of the asset:

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ Cash / Cheque

Dr.

Asset disposal account

Cr.

4. To record the profit on sale of the asset: Asset disposal account

Dr.

Profit & Loss account

Cr.

5. To record the loss on sale of the asset: Profit & loss account

Dr.

Asset disposal account

Cr

Key points 

Profit / loss on sale of asset = (Sale proceeds of assets + provision for depreciation to date) – Cost price of the asset sold.

(Positive figure is profit on sale of asset and negative figure is loss on sale of asset) 

Under straight line method, the value of asset will be reduced to zero or the scrap value at the end of its useful life.



Under the reducing balance method the amount of depreciation reduces year after year. Profit on sale of asset is credited to the profit & loss account

  

Loss on sale of asset is debited to the profit & loss account. In the balance sheet, the total depreciation charged on the asset to the date of balance sheet, is deducted from the concerned asset.

MCQ 1.

Under the fixed instalment method, the amount of depreciation will:

A. Decrease every year

B. Increase every year

C. Be the same every year

D. None of these

2.

What is more correct about depreciation from the following?

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ A. It is an income to be shown in the profit & loss account

B. It is an expense to be shown in the profit & loss account only C. It is the decrease in the amount of expense

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D. It is the expense to be shown in the profit & loss account and shown deduction from the concerned asset in the balance sheet

3. To calculate the depreciation the opening and closing balances are compared under which method? A. reducing balance method

B. fixed instalment method

C. original cost method

D. revaluation method

A Delivery van was purchased for $ 8 000 by cheque. The double entry to record this is:-

4.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ A. Debit bank account and credit delivery van account

B. Debit delivery van account and credit cash account

C. Debit cash account and credit delivery van account D. Debit delivery van account and credit bank account

The double entry to record the profit on sale of a fixed asset is:

5.

A. debit asset disposal account and credit profit & loss account B. debit asset account and credit cash account C. debit profit and loss account and credit asset disposal account D. debit profit and loss account and credit provision for depreciation account

6.

A plant costing $ 40 000 is depreciated by 20% p.a. on cost. What will be the value of the plant account to be shown in the balance sheet at the end of the third year?

A. $ 12 000

B. $ 16 000

C. $10 000

D. $ 8 000

7. A machinery was bought for $ 20 000. It was decided to depreciate this asset under the diminishing balance method @ 20% per annum. What is the amount of depreciation at the end of the second year?

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ A. $ 2 000

B. $ 4 000

C. $ 3 600

D. $ 3 200

A furniture is bought for $4 000. The estimated life of the asset is 5 years. The estimate scrap value of the asset at the end of 5th year is $ 1000. What is the yearly depreciation under the straight line method? 8.

A. $ 600

9.

B. $ 500

D. $ 1 000

Which of the following is not a fixed asset?

A. Goodwill

10.

C. $ 700

B. Plant & Machinery

C. Filing cabinet D. Repairs to furniture

The double entry for creating the provision for depreciation is to:-

A. Debit profit & loss account and credit provision for depreciation account B. Debit provision for depreciation account and credit profit & loss account C. Debit profit & loss account and credit asset account D. Debit profit & loss account and credit asset disposal account Assignment questions Q1

A machinery which was bought on 1-1-2001 at a cost of $15 000 and depreciated @ 10% p.a

under straight line method, sold for cash $ 6500 on 31st Dec 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st Dec each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the machinery.

Q2.

A plant which was bought on 1-1-2003 at a cost of $ 20 000 and depreciated @ 20% under

straight line method, sold by cash $ 10 000 on 31st December 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the plant.

Q3.

A piece of furniture was bought on 1-1-2002 at a cost of $ 12 000 and depreciated @ 12% p.a.

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under straight line method, sold by cash $ 5 000 on 30th June 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the furniture.

Q4.

A machine which was bought on 1-1-2001 at a cost of $ 25 000 and depreciated @ 20% p.a.

under straight line method, sold by cheque $ 7 500 on 30th September 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the machine.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Q5.

A plant which was bought on 1-1-2003 at a cost of $ 10 000 and depreciated @ 20% p.a. under

straight line method, sold for $ 7 000 by cheque on 30th June 2004.The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year.

Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the plant.

Q6.

A machine which was bought on 1-1-2002 at a cost of $ 8 000 and depreciated @ 10% p.a. under

reducing balance method, sold for cash $ 5 500 on 31st December 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the machine.

Q7.

A machine which was bought on 1-1-2003 at a cost of $ 10 000 and depreciated@ 10% p.a.

under written down value method, sold by cheque $ 8 200 on 31st December 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the machine.

Q8.

A plant which was bought on 1-1-2003 at a cost of $ 12 000 and depreciated @ 10% p.a. under

reducing balance method, sold by cheque $ 9 500 on 30th June 2004. The accounting year of the business ends on 31st December each year. Calculate the amount of profit or loss on sale of the plant.

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ Q9.

A plant which was bought on 1-1-2001 for $ 25 000 is depreciated @ 10% p.a. under reducing

balance method. The financial year of the company ends on 31st December each year. What is the value of the plant on 1-1-2005?

Q10 A company bought a machinery on 1-1-2002 for $ 20 000. It is the policy of the company to charge depreciation @ 10% p.a. on cost on the principle that “one month’s ownership needs one month’s depreciation”. Calculate the value of machinery on 1-1-2005. Q11. A business bought a computer for $ 5 000 on 30th June 2003. The business decided to charge depreciation on the computer @ 25% p.a. under fixed installment system. The financial year of the business ends on 31st December each year. What is the value of the computer on 31st December 2004? Q12. A business purchased a Machine at a cost of $ 40 000 on 1-11-2003. For the purchase of this asset, the business spends the following expenses also:Legal charges

$ 2 000

Carriage on asset Cost of installation

$ 1 500 $ 4 000

On 31-12-2003, what is the value of the Machine to be shown in the balance sheet Long questions Q1

The following information is relating to the business of Salvy:-

On 1-1-1998

Bought Plant costing $ 30000 by cheque

On 1-7-1998

Bought Plant costing $ 40000 by cash

On 1-1-1999

Bought Plant costing $ 50000 on credit from Simmons

On 1-10 1999

Bought Plant costing $ 20000 by cheque

On 1-1-2000

Bought Plant costing $ 50000 by cash

On 1-4-2000

Bought Plant costing $ 60000 by cheque

The financial year of the business ends on 31st Dec each year.

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The provision for depreciation is to be calculated @ 10% p.a. under straight line method on the principle that “one month’s ownership needs one month’s depreciation policy. Required to prepare for the three years ended 31st Dec 1998, 1999 and 2000:a. The plant account

b. The provision for depreciation account.

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Q 2.

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The following information is obtained for the books of a business for the three years :-

On 1-1-1998

Balance in the Machinery account

On 1-1-1998

Balance in the provision for depreciation account $ 5 000

$ 50 000

On 1-7-1998

Bought Machinery on credit from Sansui Co. Ltd $ 40 000

On 1-4-1999

Bought Machinery by cheque $ 20 000

On 1-1-2000

Bought Machinery by cash $ 10 000

On 1-10-2000

Bought Machinery by cheque $ 60 000

It is the policy of the business to depreciate its fixed assets @ 15% p.a. under straight line method for each month of ownership.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Required to prepare for the three years ended 31st Dec 1998,1999 and 2000:a. The machinery account

b. The provision for depreciation account.

Q 3.

A company maintains the provision for depreciation account and the asset account separately.

For the years ended 31st Dec 1998, 1999 and 2000, the following information is available from the books of the business relating to its Machinery :On

1-1- 1998

On

1-1-1998

the balance in the provision for depreciation account $ 12 000

On

1-7-1998

Bought Machinery costing $ 50 000 by cash

On 31-12-1998

the balance in the Machinery account $ 60 000

sold one of the machineries which was bought on 1-1-1996 at a cost

of $ 20 000, for a sum of $ 5 600. On

1-1- 1999

Bought Machinery costing $ 40 000 by cheque

On

1-10 1999

Bought Machinery costing $ 10 000 by cash.

It is the policy of the business to create the provision for depreciation @ 10% p.a. on cost for each month of ownership.

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ Required to prepare for the three years ended 31st Dec 1998, 1999 and 2000:a. The plant account

b. The provision for depreciation account c. The Plant disposal account d. The extracts from the profit & loss account e. The extracts from the balance sheet

Q 4.

A company depreciates its fixed assets @ 20% p.a. under straight line method for

each month of ownership. Its plant at a cost of $ 50 000 was bought on 1-7-1997. on 1-7-1997 there was a balance of $ 10 000 in the provision for depreciation account. On 31-12-1998,the company sold a part of the plant costing $ 30 000, for a sum of $ 7 000 and received cash. On the same day the company bought another plant costing $ 20 000 on credit from United furniture Ltd. On 1st Jan 1999, the company bought another plant at a cost of $ 40 000 by cheque. The financial year of the company ends on 30th June each year. Required to prepare:a. The plant account for the years ended 30th June 1998 and 1999 b. The provision for depreciation account for the years ended 30th June 1998 and 1999 c. The plant disposal account d. The extracts from the profit & loss account for the years ended 30th June 98 and 99 e. The extracts from the balance sheet for the years ended 30th June 1998 and 1999 Q 5.

The following information is relating to the Motor Van owned by a business:-

1992 Jan 1

Bought motor van by cash

$ 20 000

1992 July 1

Bought motor van by cheque

$ 10 000

1992 Oct 1

Bought motor van by cash

$ 15 000

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ 1993 April 1

Bought motor van from Samson & company $ 25 000

1993 Oct 31

Settled the account of Samson & company.

1994 July 1

Bought motor van by cash

1994 July 1

Sold for cash $ 4 400 the motor van which had been bought on 1st

$ 30 000

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July 1992, at a cost price of $ 10 000 The financial year of the business ends on 31st Dec each year. It is the policy of the business to depreciate the motor van @ 10% p.a. under straight line method for each month of ownership. From the above information, prepare: a. The motor van account for 3 years ended 31st Dec 1992, 1993 and 1994. b. The provision for depreciation account for 3 years ended 31st Dec 1992, 93& 94. c. The extracts from the balance sheet for 3 years ended 31st Dec 1992, 1993 & 1994 d. The motor van disposal account.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Q 6.

Alifulhu & Co. depreciates its fixed assets @ 5% on cost on the principle that “ one

month’s ownership needs one month’s depreciation”. The following information is relating to its plant account:1991 Jan 1 Balance in the plant account $ 15 000 ( bought on 1-1-1990 ) 1991 Jan 1 Balance in the provision for depreciation account $ 750 1991 July 1 Bought plant on credit from S.Sita, costing $ 10 000 1991 Oct 1 Bought plant for cash $ 20 000 1992 July 1 Bought plant by cheque $ 10 000 1992 Oct 1 Sold the plant for cash $ 7 250, which had been bought on 1-1-1990 at a cost of $ 15 000 1993 Jan 1 Bought plant costing $ 15 000 by cheque. 1993 Oct 1 Bought plant costing $ 5 000 by cash. The final accounts of the company are prepared on 31st December each year. From the above information, prepare:-

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ a. The plant account for 3 years.

b. The provision for depreciation account for three years. c. The plant disposal account.

d. The extracts from the profit & loss account for 3 years. e. The extracts from the balance sheet for 3 years , Q 7.

A business depreciates its Furniture @ 10% p.a. under straight line method for each

month of ownership. On 1-1-1998, bought furniture costing $ 50 000 by cash. On 31st December 1999, furniture costing $ 20 000 was sold for $ 7 500. On 1st Jan 2000 bought another furniture costing $ 40 000 by cheque. The financial year of the business ends on 31st Dec each year. Required to prepare: a. The furniture account for the years ended 31st Dec 1998, 1999 and 2000 b. The provision for depreciation account for the years ended 31st Dec 98, 99 & 2000 c. The Furniture disposal account d. The Extracts from the profit & loss accounts for the years ended 31st Dec 98, 99& 2000 e. The extracts from the balance sheets for the years ended 31st Dec 1998, 1999&2000 Q 8.

The following details were extracted from the books of a sole trader regarding his Motor car:1-1-2000

Balance B/D in the motor car account

Provision for depreciation on motor car B/D 1-7-2000

$

$ 60 000 9 000

Bought motor car by cheque from Jennifer car suppliers for $ 29 000

30-6-2001

Bought motor car by cash for

1-4-2002

Sold one old motor car for $ 22 000 to Neena on credit. This motor car was purchased

$ 36 000

on 1st January 1999 at a cost of $ 45 000.

The trader had a policy of depreciating the fixed assets @ 15% p.a using the principle that

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ “One month’s ownership needs one month’s depreciation”

Prepare for three years ending 31-12- 2000, 31-12-2001 & 31-12-2002:-

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1. Motor cars account 2. Provision for depreciation on motor cars account 3. Motor cars disposal account The following information relates to the motor vehicles owned by Surya who commenced business on 1st May 1998:-

Q9

1st May 1998

Bought motor vehicles $ 20 000 0n credit from M Khanna.

1st May 1998

Bought motor vehicles for $ 24 000 by cheque.

30th June 1998

Paid M Khanna by cheque $ 20 000

1st May 2000 suppliers.

Bought two motor vehicles on credit for $ 26 000 each form Balu motor vehicles

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ 30th April 2000

Settled Balu Motor Suppliers by cheque

30th April 2000

Sold for $ 10 000 cash the motor vehicles bought on 1st May 98 for 20 000 to Baby.

The financial year of Surya ends on 30th April 1999, 2000 and 2001. Surya used to depreciate the vehicles by 20% per annum on cost using “one month ownership needs one month depreciation” policy.

For the year ending 30th April 1999, 2000 and 2001, write up the following accounts as they would appear in the books of Surya. 1. Motor vehicles account 2. Provision for depreciation account 3. Motor vehicles disposal account 4. State two factors which are considered in calculation of depreciation on fixed assets.

Q 10 The following information relates to the motor vehicles owned by Boro Limited which commenced business on 1st May 2000. 1st 1st

May 2000 May 2000

30th June 2000 1st May 2002

Bought motor vehicles $ 10 000 on credit from Parkside Garage Bought motor vehicle $ 12 000 by cheque Paid Parkside Garage $ 10 000 by cheque Bought motor vehicles for $ 13 000 on credit from Parkside Garage Settled Parkside Garage’s account by cheque

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/ 31st May 2002 20th July 2002

Sold for $ 5 000 cash the motor vehicle which was bought on 1st May 2000, for $ 10 000

The financial year of Boro limited ends on 30th April each year. It is company policy to depreciate motor vehicles owned by 20% p.a. on cost, but no depreciation is charged on a motor vehicle in the year in which it is sold. Required 1. Why do firms depreciate fixed assets 2. Briefly explain the reducing balance method of depreciation 3. For the years ending 30thApril 2001,2002 & 2003 write up the following accounts as they would appear in the books of Boro Limited 1. The motor vehicle account 2. The provision for depreciation account Q. 11

On 1st January 1999, Shira, a business woman had the following balances in her books:-

Motor car (cost)

$ 90 000

Provision for depreciation on motor car $ 18 000 On 1st April 1999, she purchased two motor cars for $ 26 000 each by cheque. On 1st July 2000, she bought a new motor car for $ 30 000 on credit from Shemba motor car manufacturers. On 30th June 2001, she sold one motor car for $ 12 000 which was purchased on 1st January 1998 at a cost of $ 45 000.Shira depreciated the fixed assets @ 20% p.a. on cost using “one month’s ownership needs one months depreciation” policy Required to: 1. Prepare motor car account for three years ending 31st December 1999, 2000 & 2001. 2. Prepare provision for depreciation accounts for three years ending 31st December 1999, 2000 & 2001. 1. Prepare motor car disposal account. 2. Prepared balance sheets extracts for three years ended 31st December 1999, 2000 & 2001.

Q.12 ABC Company purchased three motor vehicles at $ 20 000 each by cheque on 1-1-1999. The estimated life of the three assets are five years. The company decided to depreciate

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these assets on fixed instalment method. The estimated scrap value of each asset is $ 2000.

At the end the third year, the company decide to sell all these three assets due to over consumption of fuel. The three motor vehicles were sold on the last day of the third year for cash as follows.

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Motor vehicle – 1 for $ 11 000 Motor vehicle – 2 for $ 9 000 Motor vehicle – 3 for $ 10 000 On the same day the company bought two new motor vehicles on credit from Heera Engineering Limited at $ 25 000 each. Required to:1. Prepare the motor vehicles accounts for the three years. 2. Prepare the provision for depreciation on motor vehicles accounts for 3 years. 3. Prepare the motor vehicle disposal account. Incoming search terms:

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provision for depreciation of motor vehicles



accounting for depreciation for motor vehicles disposal account extract

    

disposal account on final accounts disposals furniture account at cost how to calculate depreciation on profit and loss account reducing balance installments to depreciate accounting



Motorvan(at valuation)incomplete record in accounting profit or loss on disposal of fixed assets



provision fer depreciation account



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