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Geography

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Tuesday, February 26, 2013


U.S. Geography Trivia

Where would you be if...... Question 1: WherewouldyoubeifyouweretouringthebattlefieldoftheBattlesofFirst andSecondBullRun? A.Richmond,VA B.Hagerstown,MD C:Durham,NC D.Manassas,VA Question 2: WhatlakedoesOhioborder? A.LakeMichigan B.LakeErie C.LakeSuperior D.LakeErieANDLakeMichigan Question 3: WhatfourstatesintheWestcome together,formingaperfectcrossshape whereyoucanstandinallfourstatesat once? A.Utah,Arizona,CaliforniaandNevada B.Kansas,Colorado,OklahomaandNewMexico C.Arizona,Utah,ColoradoandNewMexico D.Iowa,Missouri,KansasandNebraska Question 4: Inwhatstatewouldyoufindmostof YellowstoneNationalPark? A.Utah B.SouthDakota C.Colorado D.Wyoming Question 5: Whatisthelargeststateinthe UnitedStates? A.California B.Alaska C.Texas D.Montana

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Question 6: WhereisLakeOkeechobeelocated? A.Florida B.Minnesota C.Georgia D.Indiana Question 7: Wherewouldyoubeifyouwereinthe AdirondackMountains? A.Vermont B.NewJersey C.NewYork D.Connecticut Question 8: WhatstateistheOzarkPlateauin? A.Tennessee B.Pennsylvania C.WestVirginia D.Missouri Question 9: What’sthestatecapitalofPennsylvania? A.Philadelphia B.Pittsburgh C.Harrisburg D.Noneoftheabove Question 10: WhichofthefollowingstatesdoesNOT borderCanada A.Idaho B.Minnesota C.Vermont D.Massachusetts

Answers on page 55

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Alabama ✘ Montgomery

The State Bird Yellowhammer

AlAbAmA wasthe22ndstateadmittedtotheUnion, andithasfourgeographicareas:GulfCoastalPlain, plateaus,mountains,andvalleysandridges. The Appalachian Mountains, which begin in the northeastcornerofthestateontheGeorgiaborder, bring three geographic features to Alabama: The Cumberland Plateau, Piedmont Plateau, and ridges andvalleys. The Cumberland Plateau is located on the western sideofthemountains The Piedmont Plateau is on the eastern side of the mountain. TheGulfCoastalPlaindominatesmorethan65percentofAlabama.

Southeastern Alabama is serviced and watered by two rivers, the Chattahoochee and the Perdido.The Chattahoochee forms part of the border with Georgia,andthePerdidoformsthewesternpanhandleborderwithFloridainwhatiscalledtheheelof Alabama. In the center of the state, starting at the Mississippi border, is a banana-shaped band of land known as theBlackBelt. Alabama is known as “The Heart of Dixie State” whichdatesfromitspast.TheConfederateconstitution was written here. Montgomery was the first Confederate capital city and Jefferson Davis was sworninthereaspresidentoftheConfederateStates.

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Alaska The State Bird Willow Ptarmigan

Juneau ✘

AlASKA was the 49th state admitted to the Union. Alsothelargeststate,ithasfourgeographicregions: The Pacific Mountains System, Central Upland and Lowlands, Rocky Mountains and the Arctic Coastal Plain. The Pacific Mountains Systems includes the south central part of Alaska, the Aleutian Islands and the 400-milepanhandlecoastline. Juneau,thestatecapital,islocatedinthepanhandle region. Mt. Wrangell, an active volcano, is part of the WrangellMountainsintheeasternsection. The Alaska Range is in the central region, and it includes the highest point in North America, Mt. McKinley,elevation20,320.

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Arizona ✘

The State Bird Cactus Wren

Phoenix

ARIZONA wasthe48thstateadmittedtotheUnion, and it has two geographic regions: The Colorado PlateauplustheBasinRangeRegion. Thefederalgovernmentowns70percentoftheland in Arizona, 27 percent of which includes Indian homelands.Oftheremainingland,16percentisprivately owned and 14 percent is state owned. The ColoradoPlateaumakesup40percentofthenorthernpartofthestate. TheNavahoandHopiIndianhomelandsarelocated inthenortheastcornerofthestate.Adominantfeature of the region is the Grand Canyon of the ColoradoRiver. FurtherdownstreamontheColoradoisHooverDam and Lake Mead, which provide water service for

Arizona,NevadaandsouthernCalifornia. The basin and range region is in the southern and westernpartofthestate. TheGila,MayatgalandSierreAnchaMountainsare thedominantrangesinthisregion. TheColoradoRiversystemdrains90percentofthe state, and it provides the irrigation waters for the desertregionofArizona. Phoenix,thestatecapital,islocatedinabasinofthis region. Arizona’s nickname, “Grand Canyon State”, speaks foritself.

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Arkansas ✘ LittleRock

The State Bird Mockingbird ARKANSAS wasthe25thstatetobeadmittedtothe Union. It has five geographical features: a plateau, valleys, mountains, alluvial plain and the Gulf CoastalPlain. TheOzarkPlateauissharedwithfourotherstates.It has rugged hills, deep valleys and swift moving streams-theWhiteRiverandBlackRiverintheeast, BuffaloRiverinthecentralarea,plusWarEagleand MulbernRiversinthewest.Fayettevillehomeofthe UniversityofArkansas,“Razorbacks”islocatedinthe westernpartoftheregion. The Arkansas River Valley lies between the Ozark PlateauandtheQuachitaMountains.Theriversrun westtoeastacrossthestate,pastthestatecapitalof LittleRock. The Arkansas Delta, a 20+ region along the Mississippi River culturally unique to the rest of the state. The Ouachita Mountains extend into central

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Arkansasfromthewest.Thesemountainsarefullof parallelridgesandvalleysaserosionhasmadethese differentpatterns. Blue Mountain, elevation 2,623 feet dominates this region.The man-made Ouachita Lake is formed in thisregionbytheOuachitaRiver.LakeChicotisthe largest natural lake in the southeastern part of Arkansas. ThewesternGulfCoastPlaincoversthecornerofthe statenearTexasandLouisiana.Ithasthelowestelevationinthestate,55feet.PineBluffisinthisregion. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain occupies the area in eastern Arkansas from Missouri in the north to Louisiana in the south. A local geographic feature, Crowleys Ridge, has deposits of gravel or yellowish mineralsthroughouttheregion. Arkansas’s nickname is “The Natural State”, which thestatehastoofferindividualsinitsfactories,farms andwithitsnaturalresources.

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California ✘ Sacramento

CAlIFORNIA wasthe31ststatetobeadmittedtothe Union,andithasthreegeographicareas:mountains, CentralValleyandridgesandbasins. TheKlamathMountainsspilloverfromOregonand areinthenorthwestcornerofthestate. TheCoastalRangeisbelowtheKlamathMountains andextendsdownthecoasttonearSantaBarbara. The San Diego Range is at the southwestern tip of CaliforniaandextendsintoMexico’sBajaCalifornia Peninsula. The Los Angeles Range is a traverse range which extendswesttoeastacrossthestate. TheSierraNevadaMountainsare400milesofmassiverocksontheNevadaborderinaband40to70 mileswide.

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The State Bird California Valley Quail

TheYosemiteValley andYosemite National Park are inthisregion. The CentralValley lies between the Coastal Range andtheSierraNevadaMountainsandisservicedby tworivers,theSacramentoandtheSanJoaquin.The statecapital,Sacramento,andthecityofFresnoare inthisregion. Thebasinandridgeregionispartofalargerregion whichextendsintoNevadaandOregon. The coastline of California has two major harbors, SanFranciscoBayandSanDiegoBay. The nickname for California is “The Golden State”, whichcamefromthe1848goldstrikeatSutter’sMill.

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Colorado ✘

Denver

The State Bird Lark Bunting

COlORADO was the 38th state admitted to the Union,andithasfourgeographicregions:Colorado Plateau, Intermontane Basin, Rocky Mountains and theGreatPlains. TheColoradoPlateauislocatedonthewesternborder and it makes up 20 percent of the state. It has highhills,deepvalleysandmesas. The Rocky Mountains make up 40 percent of the stateandarelocatedinthenorthwestcornerandin centralColorado.Thereareseveralrangeswithinthe stateincludingtheFrontRangewhichcontainsPike’s Peak, Park Range and Sawatch Range plus two rangesthatextendintoNewMexico-theSanJuan MountainsandtheSangredeCristoMountains. The Intermontane Basin is located between the

mountains. The basin is surrounded by the Rocky Mountainsonthewestandeast. TheGreatPlains,ontheeasternborder,makesup40 percentofColoradoasitextendsfromWyomingand FortCollinsinthenorthtoNewMexicointhesouth. Denver,the“MileHighCity”,isthestatecapitaland islocatedatthecenteroftheregion. Colorado is nicknamed “The Centennial State” becauseitwasadmittedtotheUnionin1876,duringtheUnitedStatesCentennial.

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Connecticut ✘

Hartford

The State Bird Robin CONNECTICUT, which was originally part of Massachusetts, is the third smallest state in the nation.ItwasthefifthstatetoratifytheConstitution. The Connecticut River divides the state into two regions of uplands, east and west.The Connecticut RiverValleyprovidestheonlygoodfarmlandforthe state. The Connecticut River is navigable to Hartford, the state capital.The northwestern part of the state has the highest elevation of 2,380 feet, which is on the plateauofMt.FrissellinMassachusetts. TheTaconicMountainsareinthisruggednorthwest corner of the state. This area is drained by the Housatonic River, which flows into Long Island Sound. The Naugatuck River also provides water and drainageforwesternConnecticut.LakeCandlewood

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and Barkhamsted Reservoir are large man-made lakeswhichservethestate. Largeamountsofsandandclaycanbefoundinthis area. The Thames River and its surrounding tributaries, the Williamantic, Natchaug, Shetucket and QuinebaugRivers,dominatethewatersystemofthis easternregion. Thecoastalplainisflatandnarrowwith85percent of its beaches and waterfront area being privately owned. Connecticut is officially the “Constitution State”, because it was Connecticut which proposed the compromisethatmadethedocumentacceptableto all.However,theunofficialnicknameisthe“Nutmeg State”.

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Delaware ✘ Dover The State Bird Blue Hen Chicken

DElAWARE isthesecond-smalleststateinthenation andwasthefirststatetoratifytheConstitution. The land was originally settled by Swedes and Pennsylvania was given the territory by the King of England in his land grant. William Penn agreed to allowhisthreelowercountiestobecometheseparatecolonyofDelaware,whichishowthearcborderofDelawarecameintobeing. Delaware is located on the Delmarva (Delaware, Maryland,Virginia)Peninsulaandhastwogeographicalfeatures:apiedmontandacoastalplain. The piedmont region spills over into Pennsylvania andhasanelevationof400feetatitshighestpoint. Delaware’slargestcity,Wilmington,islocatedinthis region.

TheAtlanticCoastalPlainmakesupthemajorityof thegeographyofDelaware.However,thedominant geographic feature of the state is the river which bears its name. The Delaware River empties into DelawareBayintheeasternborderofthestate. Dover,thestatecapital,islocatedinthisregion.The NanticokeRiverflowsintoMarylandonitswestern border,anditeventuallyflowsintoChesapeakeBay. TheIndianRiverendsatRehobothBayontheeast. Rehoboth,whichfrontsontheAtlanticOcean,isthe major tourist attraction for the state because of its sandybeaches. Delaware’snicknameisthe“FirstState”,asitsetthe patternforotherstatestofollowforratifyingtheconstitution.

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Florida ✘

Tallahassee

The State Bird Mockingbird

FlORIDA, the 27th state admitted to the Union, boastsofa300-milecoastlinewithexcellentlagoons andbays. It has six geographic areas: The Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains, Western Highlands, Mariana Lowlands,TallahasseeHills,centralridgeandlakes, andthecoastallowlands. The Atlantic Coastal Plain extends 30 to 60 miles inland,andtheGulfCoastalPlainextends10to40 milesinland. TheKeysareanextensionoftheseplains.TheKeys arebuiltonalimestoneandcoralrockbase. TheSt.JohnsRiverflowsfor200milesupthecoastlinebeforeitenterstheoceanatJacksonville. The western highlands make up the panhandle of FloridaalongtheAlabamaborder.

TheMarianaLowlandsarethenorthernFloridaeast of the Apalachicola River. The state capital, Tallahassee,isinthisarea. GainesvilleisthecenteroftheTallahasseeHillsand islocatedsouthoftheGeorgiabordertothecoastal plain. Thecentralridgeandlakeareaextendsfromcentral Florida to Lake Okeechobee in the south. Walt DisneyWorldisapartofthisarea. TheCoastalLowlandsinsouthernFloridaarepoorly drainedandtheriversfeedtheEvergladeswetlands andswamps. ThenicknameofFloridaisthe“SunshineState”and ithasgrowninpopularityasaretirementareaasa result.

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Georgia ✘

Atlanta

The State Bird Brown Thrasher

GEORGIA, the southernmost of the original 13 colonies, was the fourth state to ratify the Constitution. Thestatehasfourgeographicareas:mountains,piedmont,FallLineHillsandcoastalplain. TheAppalachianMountainsbegininGeorgia,which includes theAppalachian Ridge andValley Region, plustheBlueRidgeMountainsinwesternGeorgia. The piedmont is a plateau region with descending elevation and is a continuation of the area from Virginia,NorthCarolinaandSouthCarolina. Georgia’smajorcitiesarelocatedinthisregion:the state capital of Atlanta, Macon, Columbus and Augusta, home of the world famous Masters Golf Tournament. TheFallLineHillsprovidedthestatewithswiftrunning streams, which provided Georgia’s mills with waterpowerduringtheearlyindustrialdays.

The coastal plain is shared by the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Gulf Coastal Plain. The 120-mile GeorgiacoastlineisintheAtlanticPlain. TheSavannahRiverformsmostofGeorgia’sborder withSouthCarolina. LakeSidneyLanierisamajorlakeformedfromthe ChattahoocheeRiver. Other man-made lakes can be found on the South CarolinaandAlabamaborders. The Sea Islands protect the main coastline area, much like the Outer Banks protect North Carolina fromtheAtlanticOcean. Georgia is nicknamed the “Empire State of the South”becauseitprovidesindustrialandeconomic leadership in the South like NewYork does in the North.“ThePeachState”and“GooberPeaState”are othernicknamesforGeorgia. New & Improved on-line Banking & Bill Pay

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Hawaii The State Bird Hawaiian Goose

Kauai

Oahu ✘ Honolulu

Molokai Maui

Hawaii

HAWAII wasthe50thstateadmittedtotheUnion.It hasthreegeographicalfeatures-mountains,valleys andplainsalongwithvariousfeaturesfoundontropicalislands. Hawaii has 132 islands which extend across 1,523 miles, the distance between New York City and Denver. There are three islands groups: The eight main islands in the eastern section, islets of rock island in the central region and coral and sand islandsinthenorthwest. Hawaii is the largest island - 4,038 square miles. Hiloisthelargestcityandtheislandhasfiveactive volcanoes. MaunaLea,elevation13,796feet,isthebestknown oftheactivevolcanoes. Maui is theValley Island and has two active volcanoes. Kahoolaweisthesmallestisland.Itisdryandwindsweptandhasnoinhabitants.

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Molokaiiscalledthe“FriendlyIsland”.Ithasabroad dryplainandruggedmountainsandcanyons. Oahuiscalledthe“GatheringPlace”as80percent ofHawaii’spopulationlivesonthisisland.Thestate capital,Honolulu,isalsothere. Lanaiiscalledthe“PineappleIsland”. Kauai is called the “Garden Island” because of its rich,thicksoilwhichproducesbeautifulgreenvegetables. Niihau is the “Forbidden Island”. It was bought in 1864byafamilyfor$10,000andtheyhaveowned theislandeversince. Hawaiiisnicknamedthe“AlohaState”.Alohainthe Hawaiianlanguagemeanslove.

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Idaho The State Bird Mountain Bluebird ✘ Boise

IDAHO, the43rdstatetojointheUnion,hasthree geographic characteristics: The Rocky Mountains, ColumbiaPlateau,andtherangeandbasinregion. The Rocky Mountains cover almost all of the Idaho panhandleandthecentralpartofthestate. Theareahassomeofthemostruggedterraininthe nation. People can enter these primitive areas on foot,horsebackorbyboat. Theregionhasmanytallranges:theBitteroot,Seven Devils, Clearwater and Salmon River Mountain ranges. Thereare50peaksinthisregionthataremorethan 10,000feetinelevation. TheColumbiaPlateaufollowstheSnakeRiverfrom easttowestandupacorridorinthepanhandleon

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theOregonborder. Thebasinandrangeregionisinthesoutheastcorner ofIdahoneartheUtahborder. The Snake River on the Oregon border has carved Hells Canyon, which is deeper than the Grand CanyonofArizona. The Columbia River has three tributaries: The Kootenai, Pend Oreille - which forms the 148square-mile Pend Oreille Lake - and the Spokane Rivers. Idahohasthenicknameof“TheGemState”,which tellsofthemineralwealthtakenfromitsmines.

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Illinois

The State Bird Cardinal

✘ Springfield

IllINOIS wasthe21ststateadmittedtotheUnion. It has three geographic regions:The Central Plains, ShawneeHillsandGulfCoastalPlain. TheCentralPlainsisacombinationoftwoareas-the GreatLakesandtheTillPlains. The plains around Lake Michigan are made up of smallhills,marshesandlakes. The city of Chicago, the third largest city in the nation,isamajorrailwayandlakeportcenterforthis region. TheTillPlains,locatedinthecenterofthestate,are partoftheCornBeltwhichextendsfromNebraska toOhio. The state capital, Springfield, is the burial site of

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Abraham Lincoln, the 16th U.S. President, and is locatedintheheartofthisregion. TheShawneeHills(IllinoisOzarks)coveranareaof some 70 miles, ranging from a width of five to 40 miles,andanelevationof30to1,065feet.theGulf Coastal Plain covers the southern tip of the state wheretheOhioandMississippiRiversmeet. TheOhioandMississippiRiversmeetatCairo,Ill. ThenicknameofIllinoisis“ThePrairieState”asthe plainscovermostofthestate.

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Indiana ✘ Indianapolis

The State Bird Cardinal

INDIANA wasthe19thstateadmittedtotheUnion. Ithasthreegeographicalregions:GreatLakesPlain, TillPlainandthesouthernhillandlowlands.Plains makeup90percentofthestate. TheGreatLakesPlainsinnorthernIndianaarepart ofthefertileareawhichborderstheGreatLakes. LakeMichiganmakesuppartofthenorthernborder andtheOhioRivermakesupthesouthernborderfor Indiana. TheTillPlainispartofthemidwestCornBeltarea, featuring low hills and shallow valleys. This area makesupthelargecentralportionofthestate,which includesthestatecapital,Indianapolis,wellknown foritsIndy500autorace.

The southern hills and lowlands extend from the IndianapolisareatotheOhioRiver. TheWabashRiverwithitstributary,theTippecanoe River, and the White River drain 65 percent of Indiana. TheKankakeeRiver,whichbeginsnearSouthBend, homeoftheNotreDameUniversity“FightingIrish” and the Whitewater River drain westward into the OhioRiver. Indiana is called “The Hoosier State”, which is believed to come from an Indiana phrase, “who’s here”-“hoosier”.

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Iowa ✘ Des Moines

The State Bird Eastern Goldfinch

IOWA, the 29th state admitted to the Union, has threegeographicalregions:TheDissectedTillPlains, YoungDriftPlainsandtheDriftlessarea. TheDissectedTillPlainsarelocatedinthesoutheastern section of Iowa near the Mississippi, Missouri andBigSiouxRiversareas. Thegreatglaciercoveredthistillplainregion,leavinglayersofsoilandrocksbehind. TheYoungDriftPlainsareinthenorthernandcentral areasofthestate. The Driftless area runs parallel to the Mississippi River in the northeast corner. Pine trees cover the ruggedhillsandcliffsofthisregion,whichservesas

apopularrecreationarea.ThecityofDubuqueisin thisarea. TheDesMoinesRivercoversalmost500mileswithinthestateasitflowsfromthenorthwestcornerto the southeast into the Mississippi. Iowa also has manynaturallakes,includingtheClear,Okobojiand Spirit.Man-madelakes,likeCoralvilleandRedRock Reservoir,alsodottheregion. Iowahasanicknameas“TheHawkeyeState”,which honors Chief Black Hawk, the Indian leader of the 1832BlackHawkWar.

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Kansas ✘ Topeka

The State Bird Western Meadow Lark

KANSAS was the 34th state admitted to the Union. Kansas has three geographic regions:The Dissected TillPlains,SoutheasternPlainsandtheGreatPlains. TheDissectedTillPlainsmakeupthenortheastcornerofKansas. TheSoutheasternPlainsmakeupabout35percentof the state in the eastern section, south to the Oklahomaborder. The area is divided into two sections: The Osage PlainsandtheFlintHills. The Osage Plains are in the eastern half and show signsoferodedlimestoneandshale. TheFlintHillsaremadeupofflintylimestone,which resistserosion. The Great Plains make up more than 60 percent of Kansas and it is a great wheat growing region. Mt. Sunflower,elevation4,039feet,isthehighestpoint

inKansas,neartheColoradoborder. Thisareaispartof“TornadoAlley”,asectionofthe WestandMidwestwheresuchstormsarefrequent. DodgeCity,homeofMattDillon,MissKittyandthe LongBranchSaloon,islocatedonthesouthernportionofthisplain. TheCimarronRiverinthesouthwesternsectionflows intoOklahoma. Kansas is known as “The Sunflower State”, a name which comes from the bright yellow prairie flower. “The Jayhawker State” is another nickname and comesfromthepre-CivilWarperiodofconflictover whetherKansaswouldbeaslaveorafreestate.

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Kentucky The State Bird Cardinal

✘ Frankfort

KENTUCKY, the 15th state admitted to the Union, has five geographic regions: the Bluegrass, Knobs, CumberlandPlateau,Pennyroyal-MississippiPlateau andtheEasternGulfPlain.DanielBoonehasaheritage line to both Kentucky and Pennsylvania, two stateswithsimilargeographicmake-up. The Bluegrass Region is in North Central Kentucky, centeringinLexingtonandmovingnortheastwardto the Ohio River.The Lexington and Cynthiana limestone belt is the most fertile area in the bluegrass county. AshaleareaseparatesthisregionfromtheMayville and Richmond limestone region, which has deep, richsoil.ToKentuckians,bluegrassisasynonymfor thoroughbredracehorsesandthefarmswherethey areraised. TheKentuckyRiverflowsintothisareapastFrankfort, the state capital, on its way to the Ohio River at Carrollton.

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TheKnobbsregion,southandwestofthebluegrass area,isa2,200squaremileareawhichextendsfrom VanceburgontheOhioRivertoWestPoint.Thisarea also is south of Louisville, the largest city in Kentucky, the home of Churchill Downs and the KentuckyDerby. The Cumberland Plateau is located in the northeast ontheWestVirginiaborder,covering25percentof thestate. The Licking River rises and provides access for the region to the Ohio River at Covington. The Pennyroyal-Mississippi Plateau is south of the KnobbsandwestoftheCumberlandPlateau.Itisan agriculturalregionnotedforitslimestonecaves,particularlythefamousMammothCave. Kentuckyisnicknamedthe“BlueGrassState”,which tells of this natural wonder and reminds people of thoroughbredhorses.

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Louisiana The State Bird Pelican

✘ Baton Rouge

lOUISIANA wasthe18thstateadmittedtothe Union and has one geographic feature, the GulfCoastalPlain. Theplainisdividedintofourregions:thehilly uplands, alluvial flood plain, prairie and coastalmarshlands. The uplands and rolling pine hills cover two areasofthestate.Oneareaislocatedbetween the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers and north of Lake Pontchartrain to the parallel border with Mississippi. Thesecondareaisthewesternpartofthestate between the Sabine and Red Rivers, which includes the city of Shreveport. Driskill Mountain,thestate’shighestpointwitha435footelevation,isintheregion. Thealluvialfloodplaincoversabouthalfofthe state,fromthecentralpartofthestatenorthof the capital, Baton Rouge. Three Rivers - the Red,QuachitaandMississippi-providethesilt forrightfarmlands. The city of New Orleans, also known as the “Cradle of Jazz”, is located at the end of the

Mississippi River just before the start of the river’sdeltaarea. Swamps and marshes stretch the length of the Gulf of Mexico coast and the area is dotted withsmallislands. The Mississippi River dominates the state, but other rivers like the Pearl on the Mississippi border,theSabineontheTexasborder,theRed inthenorthwestandtheQuachitainthenorth central area all make contributions to the state’swell-being. Lake Pontchartrain on the north and Lake Maurepas,southeastofBatonRouge,arenatural lakes. The largest man-made lake is the ToledoBendReservoirontheTexasborder. Louisiana is called “The Pelican State”, named for the bird, but it also is called “The Bayou State”becauseoftheslow-movingwateratthe inletsandoutletsofitsriversandlakes.

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Maine The State Bird Chickadee ✘ Augusta

mAINE isthelargestoftheNewEnglandstates,but ithasonly9percentofthepopulationinthisregion. Mainewasthe23rdstatetojointheUnionaspartof the1820MissouriCompromise. LocatedinthenortheastcorneroftheUnitedStates, Mainesharesacommonborderwithonlyoneother state, New Hampshire.Two rivers, the St. John and the St. Francis, help to form borders with the CanadianprovincesofnewBrunswickandQuebec. Mainehasfourgeographicregionswithinitsborders: a coastal low land, piedmont, mountains and the upland. Maine has the third largest coastline of any state, afterAlaskaandFlorida.Twotownsonthislowland are Portland in the south and Belfast, which was namedbysomeScotsfromNorthernIreland,inthe

north. Thepiedmontregionofrollinghillsmovesalongthe mountainchainfromthesouthwest,whereitissome 30-mileswide,tothenortheastwhereitbecomes80mileswide.ThecityofBangor,thestatecapital,isin thisregion. The Appalachian Mountain Chain, which ends in Maine, features the Longfellow Range that has nine peaks of more than 4,000 feet in elevation and the White Mountains, which spill over from New Hampshire. The mountains are some 50-miles wide across the state.Mt.Katahdinisthehighestpointinthestateat an elevation of 5,267 feet. Presque Isle is a major communityinthenortheasternsectionofthemountains. Maine is called the “PineTree State” because of its vastsoftwoodforests.

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Maryland Annapolis ✘

The State Bird Baltimore Oriole

mARYlAND, one of the original 13 colonies, was theseventhstatetoratifytheConstitution. The state has three geographic regions: Tidewater, PiedmontPlateauandtheAppalachianMountains. TheTidewaterstretchesthelengthandwidthofthe Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the nation, whichdominatesthelifeofthestate.Thebayisatthe mouthoftheSusquehannaRiverandisenrichedby seatidesfromtheAtlanticOcean. ThecityofBaltimoreisintheeasternshoreregion. FrancisScottKeywrote“TheStarSpangledBanner”, atnearbyFortMcHenry.Annapolis,thestatecapital, isalsolocatedinthisarea. TheGreatFallsofthePotomacRiverisonly15miles northwestofWashington,D.C.

Western Maryland and its panhandle make up the Appalachian Mountain landmass of the state. The BlueRidge,CatoctinandAlleghenyarerangesinthe Appalachianchain. Antietamwasthesiteofthebloodiestone-daybattle of the Civil War, with more than 4,800 killed and almost19,000soldierswounded. ThenicknameofMarylandisthe“OldLineState”,a name taken from George Washington’s comments aboutthedependabilityofMarylandtroops“onthe line”duringtheRevolutionaryWar.

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Massachusetts Boston ✘

The State Bird Chickadee mASSACHUSETTS is a rectangular-shaped state roughly50milesby130mileswiththe60-milelong CapCodshoreline.

above sea level. Near the New Hampshire border, Mt.Wachusett,elevation2,006,isthehighestpoint intheregion.

The sixth state to join the Union, Massachusetts is ranked45thinsizeamongtheUnitedStates.

The coastal plain in the north is somewhat rugged aroundCapeAnn,butitbecomesmorelevelasthe CharlesRiverflowstothestatecapitalofBostonand around Lexington and Concord where  “the shot heard around the world” was fired. The Revolutionary War for America’s independence beganonthecoastalplainsofMassachusetts.

Massachusettshasfourgeographicregionswithinits borders:mountains,plateau,piedmontandacoastal plain. The mountains are in the western part of the state, wheretheTaconicMountainscanbefoundnearthe NewYorkborder.Mt.Everettisthehighestpointin thesouthwestwithanelevationof2,624feet. The central plateau region is divided by the Connecticut River and the valley the river created. The Connecticut Valley is three-miles wide in the northand20-mileswideinthesouth.TheBasketball HallofFameislocatedinSpringfieldinthisvalley.

Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket and Elizabeth Islands dominate the plain area in the south, with sandy beaches left over from the great glacier. Massachusetts is called the “Bay State” becauseoftheCapeCodcoastlinewhichdominates thestate’sgeography.

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Michigan The State Bird Robin

✘Lansing

mICHIGAN was the 26th state admitted to the Union, and it has two geographic regions: The SuperiorUplandsandtheGreatLakesPlain.

rivers.TheDetroitRiverconnectsLakeErietotheSt. Clair River, which is connected to Lake Huron.The St.Mary’sRiverconnectsLakesHuronandSuperior.

TheSuperiorUplandsislocatedontheupperpeninsula,whichisanextensionofWisconsin.

In an unusual map location, Detroit lies north and westofCanada.

The upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan are connected by the five-mile long Mackinac Bridge overtheMackinacBridgeovertheMackinacStraits.

Michiganhasmanyimportantislandsinthelakes.

The Great Lakes Plain makes up the entire lower peninsula. Thecapital,Lansing,islocatedatthedivisionofthe upperandlowerhalf.

SomeofthelargeonesareIsleRoyale,2,120square milesinLakeSuperior;BeaverinLakeMichigan;and BoisBlancIslandinLakeHuron. The Michigan nickname is “The Wolverine State”, whichdatesbacktofurtrapperdays.Thisareaprovidedmanyfinewolverinepeltsfortrading.

TouchingfourofthefiveGreatLakes,Michiganhas morethan3,288milesofshoreline,themostofany inland state. Important to these lakes are some key

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Minnesota The State Bird Common Loon

St. Paul

mINNESOTA, knownasthe“GopherState”,wasthe 32nd state admitted to the Union. It has four geographicalregions:TheSuperiorUpland,YoungDrift Plains,DissectedTillPlainsandtheDriftlessArea. The Superior Upland is at the southern tip of the Canadianshieldinthe“arrowhead”partofthestate in the northeast. It juts into Lake Superior like a peninsula.InthemiddleofthestateontheCanadian borderisInternationalFalls,whichisoftenthecoldestspotinthenationinthewinter. The Young Drift Plains once contained the glacial AgassizLake,whichmeasured700by200miles.The greatglacierreducedittoLakeWinnepegandLake Manitoba.

-Minneapolis,homeoftheUniversityofMinnesota “Golden Gophers” football team, and St. Paul, the statecapital. TheDriftlessareaissituatedalongthewestbankof the Mississippi River in the southeastern part of the state. Minnesota has 10,000 lakes which can be found throughout the state. The many rivers like the St. Croix,VermilionandtheRedservicethestatewell. The state has many waterfalls like Minnehaha Falls, namedforMinnehahafromthepoem“TheSongof Hiawatha”, and the High Falls, which tumbles 133 feet in Cook County near the Ontario, Canada border.

The Minnesota River, with its tributaries of the CottonwoodandPommedeTerre,servicesthisarea untilitjoinstheMississippiRiveratthe“TwinCities”

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Mississippi The State Bird Mockingbird

✘ Jackson

mISSISSIPPI was the 20th state admitted to the Unionandithastwobasicgeographicregions:the MississippiAlluvial Plain and the Gulf Coast Plain. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain covers some 35,000 squaremilesalongtheMississippiRiveronthewesternborderofthestate. TheGulfCoastPlaincoversthecentralandsouthern partofthestate.Jackson,thecapital,islocatedinthe centralpartofthisregion. TheTennesseeRiverHills,inthenortheastcornerof the state, provide Mississippi with its highest point, WoodallMountain,elevation806feet. Mississippihas44milesofcoastlineontheGulfof Mexico. The Pascagoula River, fed by the Chickasawhay River, drains the southeastern part of

the state and it enters Mississippi Sound at Pascagoula. Furtherwest,thesmallBiloxiRiverenterstheSound of Biloxi, which along with Gulfport, provides the statewithseaportfacilitiesontheGulfofMexico. MississippiSoundprovidessomeprotectionfromthe gulfforthethreebaysalongtheMississippicoastline: St.LewisBay,BiloxiBay,andPascagoulaBay. Mississippiisknownas“TheMagnoliaState”,asthe stateiscoveredwithmagnoliatrees. Everyspringtheirfragrantblossomscanbeenjoyed throughoutthestate.

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Missouri ✘ Jefferson City

mISSOURI wasthe24thstatetobeadmittedtothe Union, in 1821. It has four geographic regions: DissectedTillPlain,OsagePlain,OzarkPlateauand theAlluvialPlain.TheDissectedTillPlainisinnorthernMissouri.Thispartofthestatewascoveredbythe Great Glacier, which left deep deposits of rich soil behind. Three rivers provide water to this area - the Grand, Chariton and the Platte. Kansas City and Independence, home of President Harry S.Truman, arealsointhisregion. The Osage Plain is in western Missouri, which is prairiecountry. Thestatecapital,JeffersonCity,theman-madeHarry S.Truman Reservoir and Pomme deTerre Lake are locatedinthisregion.

The State Bird Bluebird

The Ozark Plateau is the largest region and has an elevationrangeof500to1,700feet. The Land of the Ozarks, a man-made lake in this region,covers65,000acresandisoneofthelargest suchlakesintheworld. In the “boot heel” of Missouri is the Mississippi AlluvialPlain. TheMissouriRiver,whichcutsdiagonallyacrossthe state,isthemostimportantriverinthestate. Missouriiscalled“TheShowMeState”,anameitgot afterCongressmanWillardDuncanVandiuermadea speech in which he said, “I’m from Missouri, you’ll havetoshowme!”

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Montana ✘ Helena

The State Bird Western Meadow Lark

mONTANA wasthe41ststatetojointheUnion:It has two geographical regions:The Great Plain and theRockyMountains. The Great Plain in Montana is part of the plain whichextendsfromCanadatoMexicoanditcovers 60percentofthestate. TheMissouriRiverhasaregioncalledtheMissouri Breaks, which extends into North Dakota. The MissouriRiver,withitstributaries-theMilk,Teton, Musselshell and Yellowstone Rivers - provides Montana with excellent water resources. Fort Peck Lakeinthisregionisthelargestearth-filleddamin thenation. In the southeast corner of the region are the badlands,onwhichwaterandwinderosionhasleftbarrengullieswithred,yellow,brownandwhiterocks.

TheRockyMountainscoverabout40percentofthe land in western Montana. Between the mountains are flat, grassy valleys that flow in a southwesterly pattern,someofwhichare30to40mileslong. Thereare50mountainrangesinMontana. Helena,thestatecapital,islocatedinthecenterof thisregion. ThreeForks,inthisregionsoutheastofButte,isatthe headwatersoftheMissouriRiver. Montanaisnicknamed“TheTreasureState”because of the gold and silver which its mountains have yielded.“The Land of the Shining Mountains” is sometimesusedasanicknamebecauseofthereflectionofthesunfromthesnow-cappedmountains.

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Nebraska Lincoln

The State Bird Western Meadow Lark

NEbRASKA, the 34th state admitted to the Union, has two geographic regions: The Dissected Plains andtheGreatPlains. TheDissectedPlainsmakeuptheeastern20percent ofthestate,andareparalleltotheMissouriRiver. TheGreatPlainscomprisetheremaining80percent ofthestate,extendingintoWyomingandColorado. ThestatecapitalofLincolnislocatedinthesoutheast sectionofthisregion.Furtherwestintheregion,the cityofNorthPlatteislocatedatthejunctureofthe NorthPlatteandPlatterivers. The North Platte River comes from Wyoming, and the South Platte River comes from Colorado. North and west of the Sandy Hills are the 12,000 square milesofhighplains.Thisareagetslittlerainanddry farmingmethodshavetobeused. Theregionismorethanamilehighinelevationand

KimballCountycontainsthehighpointforNebraska at5,426feet. The northwest corner contains the Badlands of Nebraska.TheNiobraraRiverrisesinthenorthwest cornerofthestatenearWyoming,anditmovesalong the northern border, where it forms the man-made LakeLewisandClarkbeforeitmovesontojointhe MissouriRiver. Nebraska is nicknamed “The Cornhusker State”, which denotes the leading crop the state produces, corn. Nebraskausedtoholdcornhuskingbeesonaregularbasis.

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Nevada The State Bird Mountain Bluebird

NEVADA wasthe36thstatetojointheUnion,andit has three geographic areas: the Columbia Plateau, Sierra Nevada Mountains and a basin and range region. The Columbia Plateau covers the northeast border withIdaho.Adeeplavabedrockunderliesthesoil. TheSierraNevadaMountainsarearuggedrangeon thebendoftheCaliforniaborder. Thebasinandridgesregionmakesup95percentof Nevada. There are 30 broken uplaid mountain rangesinnorthtosouthgroupings. Theelevationoftheregionrangesfromalowof500 feettomorethan13,000feethigh. The rivers of Nevada are few, and the small ones

Carson City ✘

flowonlyduringthewetseason.TheColoradoRiver touches the state’s border in the southeast where HooverDamprovideswaterforLasVegas,Nevada’s best-knowncity. Thestate’scapitalisCarsonCity. Nevada has the nickname of “The Silver State”, whichdatesbacktotheminingdaysof1859when the Comstock Lode was struck. Old mining ghost towns can still be seen aroundVirginia City. “The Sagebrush State” is another nickname for Nevada becauseofthebrushthatisfoundinabundance.

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New Hampshire The State Bird Purple Finch

✘ Concord

NEW HAmPSHIRE, the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, ranks 44th in size among the United States. Ithasthreegeographicfeatures:mountains,uplands andlowlands.Thereisalsoa13-milecoastlinealong theAtlanticOcean. The Appalachian Mountain Chain extends into the northern part of this state with the high White Mountains, which get their name from the greyishwhite color.The highest peak in New England, Mt. Washington, elevation 6,288 feet, is part of the PresidentialRange,aseriesofmountainsnamedfor formerpresidents. ThefamousMt.WashingtonCogRailwayprovidesa scenic view of the mountains for tourists, a major

industryforNewHampshire. Author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote “the Great Stoneface”, which deals with the “old man of the mountain”folklorefromtheWhiteMountains. The Pemigewasset River in the center region feeds into the Merrimack River to provide a major valley andwatersystemforNewHampshire.Concord,the state capital, is located in the Merrimack Valley. Manchester,thestate’slargestcitywithapopulation approaching100,000isalsolocatedthere. NewHampshireiscalledthe“GraniteState”.Quality graniteisfoundinabundanceandisamajorexport forthestate.

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New Jersey ✘ Trenton

The State Bird Eastern Goldfinch

NEW JERSEY wasoneoftheoriginal13coloniesand itwasthethirdstatetoratifytheConstitution. The state is divided into four geographic regions: Ridge and valley, highlands, plateau and coastal plain. More than 100 Revolutionary War battles were fought in the state because of its location, coastalplainandpiedmontareas. Lessthan10percentofNewJerseyismadeupofthe Appalachian Ridge andValley System. High Point, with an elevation of 1,801 feet, the highest in the state,islocatedintheKittatinnyMountains. ItwasthesameDelawareRiverthatGeneralGeorge Washington’s army crossed in 1776 to defeat the Hessians at Trenton and Princeton to save the Revolution. TheareaparallelstheKittatinnyMountainsandithas deep, narrow valleys. This feature comprises some 10percentofthestate.Some20percentofthestate

ismadeupofthePiedmontPlateau. From Sandy Hook to Cape May, the fertile coastal plain makes up 60 percent of the New Jersey geographicscene. The entire southern part of the state is within this coastalplain. TheHudsonRiverandtheDelawareRiverareimportantpartsoftheNewJerseynaturalwatersystem.The state capital, Trenton, is located on the Delaware River in the central portion of the state. The nicknameofNewJerseyisthe“GardenState”becauseit providesfarmproducetothelargepopulationareas ofPhiladelphiaandNewYorkCity.

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New Mexico ✘ Santa Fe

NEW mEXICO, the 47th state to be admitted to the Union,hasfourgeographicareas:GreatPlains,Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau and a basin and range region. The Great Plains, which extend from Canada to Mexico,covertheeastern30percentofthestate. The Rocky Mountains are located in north central NewMexico.TheRioGrandeRiverhasitsoriginsin thesemountains. SantaFe,thestatecapital,islocatedattheedgeofthis regionbetweentheRioGrandeRiverandtheoriginof thePecosRiver. TheColoradoPlateauisawidevalleyandplainarea withdeepcanyonsandsteepcliffs.Mesas,flat-topped hills, can be found in this region. The Continental

The State Bird Road Runner

Dividerunsthroughthisregion. Thebasinandrangeregionsmakesupabout30percentofthestate. The Guadalupe, Mogollan, Organ, Sacramento and SanAndreasRangesaredominant. CarlsbadCavernsareeastoftheGuadalupeRange. The city of Albuquerque, which hosts the annual International Balloon Fiesta, is located on the Rio GrandeRiverinthecenterofthisregion. The nickname for New Mexico is “The Land of Enchantment”, which denotes its scenic beauty and variedhistory.

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New York The State Bird Bluebird

Albany

NEW YORK wasthe11thstatetoratifytheconstitutionanditisthelargestofthemiddlestates. NewYorkhasthreegeographiccharacteristics:mountains,plateau,plusbothcoastalandlakeplains. TheAppalachianMountainsdominatethelandscape ofthestatewiththreeranges:theAdirondack,Catskill andTaconic,whichenterthestatefromNewEngland. Mt.Marcy,elevation5,344feet,isthehighestmountain in NewYork.TheAdirondack Mountains border LakeChamplainonthenorth,theMohawkRiveron theeastandLakeOntariointhewest.NewYorkhas twocommonborderswithCanada. TheplateauisborderedbytheCatskillMountainson thesouthandtheHudsonRiverontheeastandnorth. InthisregiontheBaseballHallofFamecanbefound inthesoutherntiercommunityofCooperstown. ThesoilofLongIsland,whichis118milesinlength, showstheremainsofthegreatglacierasitssoilisthin

withlargedepositsofsandandgravelinthispartof thecoastalplain. The water features of New York are abundant. The greatHudsonRiver,whichendsatthelargestcityin thenation,NewYorkCity;theMohawkRiver,which carved out the path for the famous Erie Canal; the Finger Lake, the sources for the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers; plus the Genesse and Oswego riversareallapartofNewYork’swatersystem. The spectacular Niagara Falls, which is located betweenitstwoGreatLakes,ErieandOntario,isina classbyitselfasawaterfeature.Buffalo,alakeportin thewestandAlbany,thestatecapital,intheeaston the Hudson River, have a major influence in their regionsasNewYorkCitydoesinthesouth. NewYork is called the “Empire State” because of its influence on then national economy, politics and socialtrends.

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North Carolina ✘ Raleigh

The State Bird Cardinal

NORTH CAROlINA, oneoftheoriginal13colonies, wasthe12thstatetoratifytheConstitution. Itisthethird-largeststateeastoftheMississippiRiver, withanarea187milesby503milesinsize.Itwas thelargeststateintheOldSouth. North Carolina has three geographic regions: the AtlanticCoastalPlain,thePiedmontandthemountains. Thecoastalplainmakesup40percentoftheNorth Carolinaterrain.Theareaisfeaturedwithfertilesoil, beaches,islands,swampsandforestdunes. AseriesofislandscalledtheOuterBanksstretchfor morethan100miles,includingKnottsIslandinthe north,KittyHawkonAlbermarleSoundandEmerald Isleinthesouth. The plain has five sounds and three capes. The soundsare:CurrituckAlbermarle,Pamlico,Coreand Bogue. The capes are Lookout; Hatteras, which is called the graveyard of ships; and Cape Fear at the mouthoftheFearRiveratWilmington.ThePeeDee RiverstartsnearWinston-SalemandflowsintoSouth Carolina.

width with rolling hills and a red clay soil. Hard woodtreeswithanabundanceofpinetreescanbe found in the Piedmont. Important cities such as Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro and Raleigh, the statecapital,arelocatedinthisarea. The Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia extend into NorthCarolinainthewest. The Great Smokey Mountains can be found on the Tennesseeborder. NorthCarolinaiscalledthe“TarHeelState”.Some peoplesaythetermdatesbacktotheCivilWardays, when Confederate leaders threatened soldiers with havingtheirheelstarredsotheywouldhavetostay to defend the state alongside the North Carolina Militia.Othersbelievethenicknamecomesfromthe state’s early days of building wooden sailing ships, whenbarefootworkerswereconstantlysteppinginto tarusedtowaterproofthewoodjoints.

ThePiedmontregionisanareaofsome200milesin

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North Dakota ✘

Bismark

The State Bird Westerm Meadow Lark NORTH DAKOTA, the 39th state admitted to the Union, has three geographical features - the young DriftPlain,RedRiverValleyandtheGreatPlains. TheRedRiverValleyisaflatareaontheMinnesota border,anditwaspartoftheglacialLakeAgassiz. TheYouthDriftPlainextendsfromtheRiverDesLacs onthenorthtotheJamesRiverinthesoutheast. TheTurtleMountainsbordertheregiononthenorth. TheGreatPlainsoccupythesouthandwesternportionsofthestate.TheplainsextendfromCanadato southernTexas.Theregionbeginswitha300-to-400footescarpmentabovetheDriftPlains,whichisan escarpmentabovetheRedRiverValley. Buttes,flat-tophillsseveralhundredfeethigh,break uptheplains.Bismarck,thestatecapital,iscentrally locatedintheseplainswheretheHeartRivermeets theMissouriRiver.

TheBadlandsofsouthwesternNorthDakotastretch for190milesandaresix-to20-mileswide.Inaddition, wind and water erosion has left behind many odd-shapedbuttesandhills. White Butte, North Dakota’s highest point, has an elevationof3,506feetandislocatedinthesebadlands. The nickname of North Dakota is “The Flickertail State”, which refers to the Flickertail squirrel in the centralpartofthestate.“TheSiouxState”isanother nickname, as Dakota means friend or ally in the Siouxlanguage.

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Ohio The State Bird Cardinal

✘ Columbus

OHIO, the17thstateadmittedtotheUnionwasalso the first state to be admitted from the Northwest Territory. Ohiohasfourgeographicalfeatures:TheGreatLakes Plains,Appalachian Plateau,Till Plains and the Blue Grassarea. TheGreatLakesPlainsisanareafrom5to10miles wideatthePennsylvaniaborderto50mileswideat thePortofToledo,whichislocatedonMaumeeBay alongLakeErie. TheAppalachian Plateau dominates the eastern half ofOhio. This plateau extends into Pennsylvania and West Virginia.Thenorthern35percentoftheplateauwas covered by a great glacier which left behind rolling hills,valleysandrichfarmland.Thelower65percent of this plateau is rugged, has steep cliffs and a thin

soil,astheglacierdidnotreachthisarea. TheTillPlainscoverthewesternhalfofOhio,andare part of the great midwestern plain which is better knownasthecornbelt. TheBlueGrassarealeapsacrosstheOhioRiverasan extensionofthefamousBlueGrassareaofKentucky. TheOhioRiverdrains70percentofthestatefromit tributaries of the Miami, Little Miami, Scioto and MuskingumRivers. Ohio has more than 100 lakes, but the largest - the Grand,Berlin,IndianMosquitoCreekandSenecaville Lakes-areman-made. Ohio’snicknameis“TheBuckeyeState”asthebuckeyetreedominatedthelandscapewhenthestatewas first settled. Settlers used the buckeye to make their logcabins.

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Oklahoma ✘

Oklahoma City

The State Bird Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

OKlAHOmA was the 46th state admitted to the Union, and it has four geographic regions: mountains,hills,plainsandtheOzarkPlateau. The mountain region is located in the southeastern andsouthernpartofOklahoma. TheArbuckleMountainscoverabouta1,000-squaremile area in the south central region.These mountainswereoncehigh,buterosionhasreducedthem toelevationsof600to700feet. The Ozark Plateau is shared with Missouri and Arkansas.Liketheregioninthosestates,swiftmoving streams cutting through this hilly terrain resulted in steep-sidedhillswithflatvalleys.

OuachitaMountainsasitnearstheArkansasborder. The Prairie Plains are south and west of the Ozark Plateau,whichisfarmandcattlecountry.Oklahoma City, the state capital, and Norman, home of the CowboyHallofFame,areonthisplain. The High Plains are located in the panhandle of Oklahoma, which is 34 miles wide and 166 miles long. Oklahoma has the nickname “The Sooner State”, as thesettlerswhocameforthegovernmentopenrange landrushclaimedsomeland“sooner”thantheywere supposedto.

The Arkansas River separates the plateau from the

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Oregon ✘ Salem

The State Bird Western Meadow Lark

OREGON was admitted to the Union as the 33rd state in 1859. Lewis and Clark, and their guide Sacajawea explored this state for PresidentThomas Jefferson. OregonwasthedestinationformanysettlerswhofollowedthefamousOregonTrailwestwardtobegina newlife. ThegeographyofOregonisdominatedbymountains andvalleys. TheCoastRangeismorethan150mileslong,andit parallelstheruggedPacificCoastline. TheCascadeRangemakesup65percentoftheeastern border of Oregon. Mt. Hood, elevation 11,255 feet,isthehighestpeakinthestate. The Blue Mountains, Wallawu Mountains and the

Deschutes Plateau make up the geographic features ofnortheasternOregon. The Columbia River makes up most of the state’s northern border, and is fed by the Williamette, DeschutesandJohnDayRivers. The mountains provide natural lakes like Lake HarneyandLakeMalheur.CraterLakeislocatedin whatremainsofanextinctvolcano,Mt.Maszama. WildlifeinthemountainsgaveOregonitsnickname ofthe“BeaverState”,fromitsearlytrappingandtradingpostheritage.

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Pennsylvania The State Bird Ruffed Grouse

Harrisburg ✘

PENNSYlVANIA, one of the original 13 colonies, wasthesecondstatetoratifytheConstitution. Geographically, the state is made up of seven regions:theAtlanticCoastalPlain,thePiedmont,the BlueRidge,NewEnglandUpland,theAppalachian Ridge and Valleys, Appalachian Pleateau and the GreatLakePlain. TheAtlanticCoastalPlainisinthesoutheastcorner of the state on the Delaware River. This area surrounds Philadelphia, the state’s largest city. The Schuylkill River joins the Delaware River at Philadelphia. The Piedmont contains some of the richest, bestmaintainedfarmlandintheworld.Thisareaextends about100mileswestwardtoincludethestatecapitalofHarrisburg. GermanimmigrantsandthePennsylvaniaDutchsettledinthisregion. The Blue Ridge in the south central region and the AppalachianRidgeinthenortheastregionbeganas apartofPennsylvania’sAppalachianMountains.Mt. Davis,elevation3,312feet,isthehighestpointinthe

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state. The Appalachian Plateau covers some eastern regions like the Pocono Mountains and the entire westernhalfofPennsylvania. This region has three major rivers and valleys, the Monogahela,theOhioandtheAllegheny. The Beaver River flows into the Ohio River. Pittsburghisatthehubofthiswatersystem. TheGreatLakePlainisinthenorthwestcornerofthe state along Lake Erie. The city of Erie is Pennsylvania’s lake port. Pennsylvania’s largest naturallake,Conneaut,isinthisregion,butitissmallerthantheman-madePymatuningReservoir,which covers17,200acres. Pennsylvania is nicknamed the “Keystone State”, a namefromthedaysofColonialAmericabecauseof its geographic location in relation to the other colonies.

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Rhode Island The State Bird Rhode Island Red

Providence

RHODE ISlAND isnotonlythesmallestoftheNew England states, but it also is the smallest of the 50 states. Once a part of Massachusetts, Rhode Island got its own royal charter in 1663 under the leadershipofRogerWilliams.RhodeIslandwasthelastof the original 13 states to ratify the constitution.The state’sgeographyisdominatedbyNarragansettBasin andNarragansettBay. Thelowlandsprovidesandybeaches,fertilelandfor farming, plus marshes and ponds for wildlife. NarragansettBayhas35smallislands,includingthe cityofNewport,whichbeganthefamousAmerica’s CupYachtRaceCompetition.TheUnitedStateswon the first 132 years of the races. The state capital, Providence,islocatedinthisregion. BlockIslandisanotherimportantpartoftheRhode

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Island landscape, and it is located in Block Island Sound. Theuplandshaveastatehighelevationof812feetat Jerimoth Hill. The uplands have rolling hills and smallvalleys.Themajorriversystemsofthestateare found in this region and include the Blackstone Woonasquatucket,WoodandPonaganset. The Ponaganset River feeds the Scituate Reservoir, whichisthelargestlakeinRhodeIsland. The state has two official nicknames: the “Ocean State”and“LittleRhody”.Thefirstnamecomesfrom thelocationofthestateontheAtlanticOcean.The secondnamecomesfromitssizewhencomparedto otherstates,whichgaverisetothesong“PoorLittle RhodeIsland”.

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South Carolina The State Bird Carolina Wren ✘

SOUTH CAROlINA, oneoftheoriginal13colonies, wastheeighthstatetoratifytheConstitution. John Rutledge led the state delegation to the ConstitutionalConventionashehaddoneearlierin 1776. South Carolina has three geographic areas: mountains,thePiedmontandtheAtlanticCoastalPlain. The Blue Ridge Mountains are in the northwestern partofthestateandrangeinelevationfrom1,200to 3,500 feet.They are a continuation of theVirginia Range. Sassafras Mountain, elevation 3,560 feet, is thehighestpointinthestate. The Piedmont region gradually descends from the mountainstotheFallLine,100mileswidelocatedin thecenterofthestate.Columbia,thestatecapital,is locatedinthisregion. AninterestingfeatureofthisareaistheSandyHills,

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which are 5 to 30 miles wide and stretch from Cheraw on the North Carolina border to Aiken on theGeorgiaborder. The coastal plain makes up 65 percent of the state andvariesinwidthfrom10to40miles. ThePeeDeeRiverdrainspartofthenorthernsection ofthestateandenterstheseaatGeorgetown.Myrtle BeachislocatednorthofthePeeDeeRiverregion. SouthCarolina’snicknameisthe“PalmettoState”,a name it got from a Revolutionary War sea captain whosaidthesmokefromaburningBritishwarship lookedlikeapalmettotreeasthesmokecircledinto thesky.

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South Dakota ✘ Pierre

The State Bird Ringed-necked Pheasant SOUTH DAKOTA, the 40th state admitted to the Union, has four geographic features, Young Drift Plains,DissectedTillPlains,theGreatPlainsandthe BlackHills. The Young Drift Plains Region starts on the North DakotaborderandextendssouthneartheJamesRiver ontheSouthDakotaborder. TheDissectedTillPlainsmakeupthesoutheastcornerofthestate. ThecityofSiouxFallsisontheedgeoftheregionon theMissouriRiver. TheGreatPlainsmakeupmorethan60percentofthe state. The Missouri River has tributaries of the Grand, Moreau, Cheyenne andWhite Rivers. Lake Oahe, a man-made lake, runs 250 miles along the Missouri River.

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Pierre,thestatecapital,isinthecenterofthisregion. Somebadlandshavedevelopedonthesouthwestern portion of the region over the years from wind and watererosion,resultinginsteephillsanddeepgullies. TheBlackHillsarealow,isolatedgroupofmountains referredtobysomeastheMissouriHills.ThemagnificenttributetofourU.S.Presidents,Mt.Rushmore,is inthesehills. MedicineLakeproducesanoddityforthestate.Itisa lakewhichhasasaltfactorof4percent.Theoceans haveasaltfactorof3.5percent. The nickname for South Dakota is “The Sunshine State” because of the great amount of sunshine and clearskiesthestategetsregularly.

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Tennessee ✘

Nashville

The State Bird Mockingbird TENNESSEE was the 16th state admitted to the Union, following Kentucky, its neighbor. It has six geographic areas: mountains, ridges and valleys, CumberlandPlateau,HighlandRim,NashvilleBasin andtheGulfCoastPlain. The Tennessee Mountains are part of the Appalachian Chain which include the Unaka Mountains, the Cumberland Mountains, the Great SmokeyMountainsandClingmansDome,elevation 6,643feet,thehighestpointinTennessee. The ridge and valley areas are part of the region whichstartsinnorthwestGeorgiaandextendsnortheast to West Virginia. This area is 35 to 55 miles wide, and it includes part of the well-known Blue Ridge. The Cumberland Plateau begins at Walden Ridge and extends eastward to the GreatValley, which is some1,000feetinelevation. The Highland Rim encircles the middle part of Tennessee, which includes the state capital of Nashville. TheGulfCoastalPlaintakesinthesouthwestcorner

ofTennessee,whichisalongstateinshape.Thestate is115mileswideand480mileslongatitsfarthest point.Memphisislocatedinthisregion. TheriversofTennesseeforthemostpartdonotstay within the boundaries of the state. The Tennessee Riverstartsintheeasternmountains,leavesthestate and goes intoAlabama to the south, then re-enters Tennesseeinthewesternpartofthestate. The Cumberland River starts in Kentucky, enters Tennessee,thenreturnstoKentucky. ThewildflowingTennesseeRiverwasatargetofthe FranklinRooseveltadministrationtocreatedamsto prevent erosion and flood damage, as well as provide a source of hydroelectric power for this rural area. ThenicknameofTennesseeisthe“VolunteerState”, whichshowsthereadinessforthepeopletodefend theirfreedomwhenithasbeenthreatened.

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Texas The State Bird Mockingbird

TEXAS, formerlyarepublic,wasthe28thstateadmittedtotheUnion.Ithasfourgeographicregions:West GulfCoastalPlain,NorthCentralPlains,GreatPlains andthebasinandrangeregion.TheWestGulfCoast regionisanarea150-by-350milesinsize.Itselevationascendsfromsealevelto300feet. Part of the area has a subtropical climate, like Houston, and it has a 367-mile coastline with 13 deep-waterports,plus15bargeandsmallboatports. ThecapitalofTexasisAustin.ThecitiesofDallasand Fort Worth are located in the western part of this region. TheNorthCentralPlainshavethebestfarmlandsin thestate.

Austin

The Great Plains are in north central and western Texas,extendingtothepanhandle. High dry spurs, which are extensions of the Rocky Mountains, are there, as well as Guadalupe Peak, elevation8,751,thehighestpointinTexas. Texasisalsoknownas“TheLoneStarState”,which datesbacktoTexasbeingarepublic. TheTexasflagbothasarepublicandnowasastate hasonlyonestaronit,thustheterm“LoneStar”.

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Utah ✘

Salt Lake City

The State Bird California Gull

UTAH wasthe45thstatetojointheUnion,andithas three geographical regions: Rocky Mountains, ColoradoPlateauplusabasinandrangesregion. TheRockyMountainsareinthenortheastcornerof thestateandcontaintheUintaandWasatchRanges. TheUintaRangeextendsfromColoradoonthenorth to outside Salt Lake City, the state’s capital, on the south,anditrunsinawesttoeastdirection. Between the mountains are flatbottomed canyons andglaciallakes. Thewestsideofthemountainsareslopesof6,000to 8,000feetabovethevalleys. TheSnakeRiverdrainsthisregionandmovesoninto Idaho. The Colorado Plateau occupies the eastern half of Utah below the Rocky Mountains. This plateau extendsintoArizona,ColoradoandNewMexico.

The Colorado and the Green Rivers provides water fortheregion,andtheColoradohasmountainsboth eastandwestofitspath. Thebasinandrangeregionisinthewestandcentral areas.The Great Salt Lake Desert, which has a surface as hard as concrete, covers 4,000 acres. The GreatSaltLakehasasaltcontentfourtoseventimes greater than the oceans because salt is left behind afterthewaterevaporatesintheheat. Utah is nicknamed “The Beehive State”, after the MormondescriptionDeseret,aplaceforhard-workingandindustriouspeople.

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Vermont ✘ Montpelier

The State Bird Hermit Thrush

VERmONT, the 14th state to join the Union, is the least populated of the states east of the Mississippi River. The state’s geography takes two forms, mountains andrivervalleys.TheConnecticutRiverformspartof itseasternborderwithNewHampshire. Theriverisoneoftwowateraccessroutesthestate hastothesea. The Green Mountains literally are the backbone of Vermont.Theydominatethestate.Thatbackboneis brokenintwoareas,therebyallowingforpopulation andeconomicgrowth. ThefirstisalongtheWinoskiRiverinthenorthand western parts of the state. The state capital of Montpelierisintheregion. TheotherbrokenareafollowsthepathoftheWhite

River and lies in the center of the state near Granville. Otter Creek, approximately 90-miles long, is the largestriverwhollycontainedinthestate. Lake Memphremagog near Newport is the largest lake inVermont, but only 60 square miles of it are actuallyinthestate.Seventy-fivepercentofthelake isinQuebec,Canada. Lake Bomeseen, eight square miles in size, is the largestlakewhollywithinVermont.SterlingPondat Stowe is the highest body of water in the state at 3,200feet. Vermont is known as the “Green Mountain” state. Vermontmeans“greenmountain”inFrench.

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Virginia

The State Bird Cardinal

Richmond

VIRGINIA was established as the first successful Englishcolonyin1607.itwasthe10thstatetoratify the constitution for which its native son, James Madison,wastheprincipalauthor.

Themountainandvalleyareafeaturestwomountain ranges:TheBlueRidgeandtheAppalachianRidge, whichextendstotheWestVirginiaborder.

Virginia has three geographical areas: tidewater, piedmontandmountainandvalley.

TheBlueRidgeMountainsarenortheastandsoutheastinlocation.

The tidewater area is found along the shores of the ChesapeakeBay,whichisborderedbytheDelmarva Peninsulaontheeastandthemaincoastalareaon the western side of the bay. Virginia shares with MarylandtheestuaryregionoftheChesapeakeBay.

Roanoke and Lynchburg are located at the foothills oftheBlueRidgeMountains.

Fourrivers,thePotomac,Appomattox,Rapahannock and James are important to the tidewater area.The land rises steadily as you move westward from the coastandwhen300feetofelevationisreached,the FallLinebegins.TheGreatFallsofthePotomacisjust 20milesfromAlexandria,theRappahannockfallsat Fredericksburg, and the James, joined by the York River,fallsatRichmond,thestatecapital.Jamestown andWilliamsburgarelocatedinthisarea.

Mountains.

In between these ridges is the GreatValley, but in Virginia this is better known as the Shenandoah Valley.TheGreatValleyissome360-mileslong,and rangesfrom35to100milesinwidth. Virginiaisnicknamedthe“OldDominionState”,as KingCharlesIInamedthefirstcolonyadominion,a self-governingterritory.

The Piedmont Plateau ascends from the Fall Line 1,000 feet to the beginning of the Blue Ridge

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Washington The State Bird Willow Goldfinch

✘ Olympia

WASHINGTON, the 42nd state to join the Union, has three geographic features: mountains, Puget SoundLowlandsandtheColumbianaPlateau. The Rocky Mountains, sometimes referred to as the Columbia Mountains, are located in the northeast cornerofWashington,andtheyareaspilloverfrom Montana.

Mt.Rainier,adormantvolcano,hasanelevationof 410 feet and is the highest point in the state. The Coast Range is in the southwestern corner of Washington and it extends into Oregon and the PacificOcean. The Columbia Plateau is in the central and southeasternregionofthestate.

TheOlympiaMountainsareinthenorthwestcorner of the state, and they’re surrounded by the Puget SoundLowlands,thePacificOceanandtheStraitsof SanJuan.

The Puget Sound Lowlands encompass most of the central part of the state, and the lowlands almost enclose Puget Sound and its 3,026 miles of tidal shoreline.

The Cascade Range is in centralWashington and it extends into Canada and Oregon. Mt. St. Helens, whicheruptedin1980,isinthesouthwesternpartof theregion.

Washingtoniscalled“TheEvergreenState”because itsmanymountainslopesarecoveredwithfir,hemlockandpinetrees.

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West Virginia ✘

Charleston The State Bird Cardinal

WEST VIRGINIA became a state in 1863 when the western counties ofVirginia refused to secede from theUnionduringtheCivilWar. Two geographic features highlight the state: the AppalachianPlateauandtheAppalachianRidgeand Valley. The plateau has an average elevation of 1,500 feet andhaslargedepositsofsoftcoalfoldedbetweenits layersofrock.One-halfofthestatehascoaldeposits. SpruceKnob,inthemountainsection,hasanelevation of 4,863 feet, and is the highest point in the state.HarpersFerry,elevation240feet,isthelowest. TheOhioRiver,whichforms275milesofitswestern border, dominates the life and commerce of West Virginia. The largest cities, Wheeling, Weirton, Parkersburg,HuntingtonandCharleston,thecapital, arealllocatedonthisriver. In the state’s rugged terrain, the rivers and streams ranuncheckedforyears.TheCheat,TygartandWest

FordRiversdrainintotheMonongahela,whichstarts highintheWestVirginiaMountainsandflowsnorth intoPennsylvania.TheMonogahelaisoneofthefew rivers in the northern hemisphere to flow in that direction. The Shenandoah, North Branch and South Branch Rivers are feeders for the Potomac River. West Virginia has no natural lakes, but man-made lakes likeSummervillehavebeencreated.However,mineral springs have made White Sulphur Springs and BerkeleySpringspopularhealthsparesortareas. WestVirginia is called the “Panhandle State”. One lookatthemapshowswhy:twopanhandlesborder PennsylvaniaandMaryland.

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Wisconsin The State Bird Robin ✘ Madison WISCONSIN wasthe30thstatetobeadmittedtothe Union, and it has five geographic regions: Lake SuperiorLowlands,SuperiorUplands,CentralPlains, WesternUplandsandGreatLakesPlain. The Lake Superior Lowlands, formerly part of the lakebed,makeupafive-to-20-milewidestriponthe northern border of Wisconsin, but the area ends sharplywithsteepcliffsaboutit. TheSuperiorUplandsareaflatarea,whichismade up of most northernWisconsin, and it extends into theupperpeninsulaofMichigan. TheCentralPlainswereglaciercoveredintheeasternandnorthwesternsections;thesouthernpartwas leftuntouched.

milesofshorelineonLakeMichigan. The Western Uplands make up an area of steep, windingridges,withlimestoneandsandstonebluffs that provide a stunningly beautiful view of the MississippiRiver. TheWisconsin River with its tributary, the Baraboo River,drainthelargestportionofthestate. Wisconsiniscalled“TheBadgerState”,whichcomes from a name for some early miners. Lead miners usedtodigoutcavesinthehillsidesinwhichtolive, andpeoplewhosawthemsaidthecaveslookedlike badgers burrowed holes, thus the name “badger” stuck.

TheGreatPlainstretchesfromGreenBayinthenorth totheIllinoisborderinthesouth,andhassome381

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Wyoming Cheyenne

The State Bird Meadow Lark WYOmING wasthe44thstatetojointheUnion.It has three geographical features: The Great Plains, RockyMountainsandIntermontoneBasins. TheGreatPlainstakeupalmostalltheeasterncorridor of Wyoming, except for the northeast corner, which contains some of the Black Hills. Devil’s Tower National Monument is also in this northeast corner.Theplainsgetverylittlerainanddryfarming methodsandwaterirrigationmakeagriculturepossible. Cheyenne, the state capital, is tucked away in the southeastcornerofthisregion. The Rocky Mountains are in the northwest corner andthewesterncorridorofWyoming. YellowstoneNationalPark,thefirstnationalpark,is

locatedinthesenorthwesternRockies.Inadditionto its well-known geysers,Yellowstone has the Lower Falls, which is twice as high as Niagara Falls.The GrandTetonMountainsarealsohere.Thesouthern partoftheRockyMountainsinWyomingrunparalleltotheGreatPlains. theIntermontoneBasinRegionhastwomajorbasins inthenorth-BighornandPowderRiver-andonein thecentralregion-theWindRiver. Wyoming is nicknamed “The Equality State”. Women were first given the right to vote, to hold publicofficeandtoserveonjuriesinWyoming.

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GlOSSARY BlackBelt Blowouts Butte Confluence Drumlins Escarpment Estuary FallLine

Region in Alabama and Mississippi withabandofdarkclayandsandy mixtureofsoil. Areaswherewinderosionoccursin overgrazedlandinNebraskaandthe West. Loanstandinghillsinaflatareawith steepsideswhicharesmallerthana mesa. Thejoiningtogetherormergeroftwo riversorstreams. Oval shaped hills found in Connecticut. High cliffs which separate two level landsurfacesbyhundredsoffeet. A water passage where the ocean tide meets a river current at the mouthofariver. A line that marks the point where a river falls suddenly from an upland areatoalowerareaofelevation.

Intermontone Basins High-walled lowlands that are surroundedbymountains. Knobs Small,roundedisolatedhills. Loess Wind-blown particles which settle andenrichthesoilinSouthDakota. Moraines Deposits of stone and soil left by glacierafteritmelts. Palisades Alineofhighcliffsthatriseabovea plain,ofteninarivervalleysuchas alongtheHudson. Permafrost A permanently frozen layer of soil belowthelandsurfaceinfrigidareas suchastheArcticCircle. Piedmont An area lying or formed at the base ofamountain. Tidewater Waterfromanoceanthatisaffected bytheebbandflowoftides,usually inlowcoastalareas.

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UNITED STATES GEOGRAPHY QUIZ ANSWERS Question1: Question2: Question3:

manassas, VA lake Erie Arizona, Utah, Colorado & New mexico

Question4: Question5: Question6: Question7: Question8: Question9: Question10:

Wyoming Alaska Florida New York missouri Harrisburg massachusetts

SomesourcesofinformationandgraphicsforthisspecialeditionincludeEverydayGeography (GuildAmericaBooks,1993),AnInstantGuidetoBirdsbyMikeLambertandAlanPearson,The WorldBookEncyclopediaandwww.funtrivia.com

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Our Schools Our Community Our Pride

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Discover Fort Dodge Community Schools • Riverside Early Learning Center • 4 Community Oriented Elementary Schools • New 5-8 Middle School Opening Fall 2013 with Grade Level Learning Communities Designed for Projects, Computers and Collaboration • Fort Dodge Senior High Offers Over 200 Classes and 30 Iowa Central Community College Courses Onsite • More than 25 Activities and 21 Athletic Teams at Fort Dodge Senior High

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Geography Book  

A fun book for children about all of the states. Published by The Messenger in Fort Dodge, Iowa.

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