fashion flats CHILDRENSWEAR
merrin stacey cameron
First published by Merrin Cameron 2015 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the author & illustrator Merrin Stacey Cameron. Copyright Merrin Stacey Cameron 2015
An ability to trade sketch garment ďŹ‚ats correctly is essential for a Fashion Design career. This book explains how garment technical drawings are a necessary process in linking apparel design, production and sales at wholesale level. Whether you are a beginner, or have fashion industry experience, I hope the information contained in the following pages will help you to improve your skills of observation, understanding of garment construction, patternmaking, design, sense of proportion & technical drawing accuracy, whether manually or electronically. After the success of my previous books - Fashion Flats: Womenswear & Fashion Flats: Menswear, I have been inspired to extend further into the world of technical drawing by developing a publication dedicated to Childrenswear. This publication also includes detailed steps in creating textile design artwork for childrenswear garments.
Fashion ﬂats Technical drawings, otherwise known as trade ﬂats, ﬂats, trades, trade sketches or tech drawings are used as a way of communicating technical information for two main purposes. Flats for Design/Selling, and Flats for Production. True trade ﬂats are drawn in black pen only (or printed in black ink), without the addition of colour, shading or pattern, so that they are clear and can be faxed or copied if necessary. Flats are a ﬂat, 2 dimensional representation of a garment with all technical information included.
Flats for Design & Sales The Designer will create rough developmental sketches to begin the design process. These sketches will develop into trade ﬂats or technical drawings as concepts and ideas are established. Technical drawings are used at the design development stage to illustrate and communicate ideas within a design/sales team prior to sample production and the development of a complete collection. These technical drawings must convey design concepts and technical garment detail in a format that can be easily communicated. Not only are these drawings used during the design development process, they are also used to relay information to a patternmaker/manufacturer (production process), & for illustration purposes in wholesale range books.
Flats for Production The second purpose of technical drawing is for use in speciﬁcation sheets as part of a technical pack. Technical drawings are annotated with important garment construction information to be followed by the apparel manufacturer. A technical pack or tech pack includes all the information that a factory requires for the production of sample garments and eventually production of apparel orders. Other information may include fabric suppliers, fabric requirements, testing, construction details, labelling requirements, sample garment, suppliers of notions and accessories, accessory details, thread or yarn weight/gauge, stitch lengths and machines, construction methods, printing details, packaging requirements, production and delivery dates, garment speciﬁcations (sizing measurements, garment dimensions and grade rules), tolerance, pricing, factory contact details and contracts. Drawings must be easily interpreted by the manufacturer (patternmaker, sample machinist, production manager, cutter etc.)
Above: Japanese cotton voile sleeveless wrap dress with side front tie and inverted pleat at back waist. Features bound neckline, armhole and french seamed internal seam detail.
FLATS FOR PRODUCTION
STYLE NUMBER: SS006 STYLE NAME: Oliver Grey
SEASON: Spring/Summer 16
MANUFACTURER: CP&R FABRIC : Pinstripe poly/cotton blend shirting DESIGNER: AJ
Edge stitch pocket with reinforced opening.
Cut away collar with edge stitch. Armhole topstitched 6mm in from seam.
Double row topstitch detail (twin needle).
Double pleat detail at sleeve cuff.
FIT DETAILS/DESCRIPTION: Mens casual fit business shirt with cut away collar & single breast pocket detail. FRONT VIEW
Double roll hem 6mm topstitch.
Placket to be edgestitched. Horn buttons 11mm 2 hole.
Topstitch 6mm in from seam (foots width). Side & sleeve seams to be french seamed.
Layout (Flats for Design/Selling) When creating a range board or range book it is important to plan the arrangement of the information required on each page. This is called your page layout design & it is integral that it remains consistent throughout your document. Consider the design elements (line, colour, texture, scale, shape) and principles of balance, harmony, repetition, focal point, dominance/subordinance, unity, positive/negative space and movement (how the eye reads the page) when designing your page layout. Rate information (graphic and written) in terms of its importance to work out page structures & where the most important information should be placed. Avoid overcrowding your pages with too much information. Draw a rough plan initially to brainstorm diﬀerent page arrangements, and to compare their viability. Once a layout design is selected set up a system of columns, grids & guidelines (template) to simplify this process for you, and to keep design components within a designated space. When arranging garment front and back views in a document your front view may overlap your back view only when design and construction details on the back view are still clearly visible. Alternatively front and back views can be kept completely separate, the front being arranged in the primary position, or sleeves can be folded back to minimise use of space. If technical drawings are quite complex, garment internals can be greyed out to diﬀerentiate between the garment front and back. When developing a Wholesale Range Book in hard copy format consider paper types, weights, transparencies and binding options, to produce a document that reﬂects the brands aesthetic. Keep type size other than headings 10 or 11 pts in size and choose fonts carefully. Simpler fonts tend to work more successfully when a lot of written information is required. To retain the reader’s attention a range book should demonstrate ﬂow, consistency and interest. Fashion illustrations or photographic images may be used to reinforce the mood of a particular collection, or to separate capsule ranges within a collection. Fashion Illustrations are generally highly stylised, evocative representations of garments on ﬁgures. Fabric swatches may be included in your range book, or on a separate header so that they can be felt easily (either way they must be cut and presented neatly – try using tape on the reverse side of your fabric and pinking shears to cut them a consistent size.) Range books should also include all relevant technical information relating to your garment designs.
Variation in garment layout for trade ďŹ‚at illustration: Garment front & back views may be illustrated independently, or overlapping to reduce space as shown above. Front views can also be stacked together when showing diďŹ€erent colourways available in a particular style.
1. Blush 2. Mint 3. Lemon
Garment description : Girlâ€™s wrap style dress with contrast bound neck and armhole, bow tie and box pleat back yoke. 100% Japanese cotton with spot print design.
Flats vs Floats Trade ﬂats or technical drawings are ﬂat, 2 dimensional representations of garment designs. Garments are illustrated as if they are ﬂat, lying on a ﬂat surface. If you refer to the process that you would go through to create a garment pattern you should not have any problems understanding how a ﬂat should be drawn, garment shape (silhouette), where dart values are manipulated to and where seam lines should exist. Consider garment construction when identifying locations of topstitch detail, ﬂatstitching/bluﬃng, blind hem, coverstitch, ﬂatlocking, twin needle stitch detail and overlocking. Garment ﬂoats are slightly more 3 dimensional in appearance than a garment ﬂat, as they demonstrate a sense of movement & drape around a body. Shading, creases and drag lines are often added to garment ﬂoats to add to the sense of a garment being alive. Fashion forecasting agencies like Stylesite use garment ﬂoats as a way of illustrating garment designs. All technical information is still included in the illustration, but the garment silhouette hangs as it would on a hanger or around a real body. Some designers will draw ﬂoats instead of ﬂats in their technical packs, as long as all relevant information is still communicated accurately. See examples and note the diﬀerences in drawing styles.
Fashion ﬂats are drawn for technical garment communication, as though the garment is lying ﬂat on a surface. A ﬂat is very 2 dimensional looking, as per your garment pattern. All technical garment and construction details must be included in your trade ﬂat drawing (topstitching, seam detail and openings.)
Fashion ďŹ‚oats include the technical information required for the construction of a garment, but display a sense of 3 dimensionality and movement, as though the garment is draped on a mannequin or hanger. Shading and drag lines can be utilised in your illustration.
Technique Trade ﬂats can be drawn either by hand (manually) or electronically (CAD vector program). Most trade sketching is now created electronically as it is far more accurate and less time consuming to draw, particularly once you have created templates of basic, repeated shapes. Files can also be edited easily, emailed and imported into diﬀerent programs. However it is a valuable skill to learn to hand draw manually and observe proportion. Before you start drawing using either method you must develop or ﬁnd a croqui (ﬁgure template) to use as a guide. The croqui included here has been used to create the trade ﬂats in this book, but the croqui you use must suit the product you are drawing. Remember not to take the croqui body shape too literally as you must ﬁrst of all consider the garment pattern shape and construction before you start drawing. A common mistake is that tight ﬁtting garments with some stretch are drawn around the croqui body shape adopting the curves of the elbow and knees, when in fact the garment pattern shape would be much straighter through the arms and legs. Also check that you have included all necessary seaming, front/back crutch seams in pants, armholes, zips and split into seams.
Drawing with the Children’s croqui When using the croqui as a guide to trade sketch childrenswear you will need to treat it diﬀerently to the way you would in womenswear. Childrenswear garments are not to be ﬁtted as closely to the body as with women, but rather a looser, more comfortable and casual ﬁt. Use the croqui as a guide only, and your own initiative to determine the shape of a garment by referring to existing samples. For more information on trade sketching by hand and the technical drawing of Womenswear refer to my previous publication “Fashion Flats – Womenswear” by Merrin Stacey Cameron. For more information on illustrating with Adobe Illustrator refer to “Fashion Flats - Menswear”. I have included diﬀerent sized children’s croquis depending on the age and size of the garment base size that you are illustrating. Remember that boys and girls garments are diﬀerent in the way that they wrap around the body: Girls/Women - right over left for buttoning & ﬂy fronts. Boys/Men - left over right for buttoning & ﬂy fronts.
This illustration indicates position of body parts that can be used as a guide when trade sketching garments, based on the 7-9 year ﬁgure: Figure 6 head lengths in height Hipline approximately half way down the body Knee halfway between hip and ankle Elbow matches waistline Finger tips reach to half way between hip and knee Shoulder 2 heads wide Hip 1.75 heads wide
In trying to understand the proportion of the human body illustrators measure by heads. The height of a child aged 1-3 years measures approximately 4 head lengths in height, whilst a 10-13 year old child will range from 6-7 head lengths in height. An adult will measure approximately 8-8.5 head lengths in height.
GIRL 10-13 yrs
As children mature boys and girls body shapes become quite diďŹ€erent. Boys become heavier set with wider shoulders, narrower hips and a more muscular physique, while girls develop a narrow waist, wider hips and bust shape.
CHILD 1-3 YEARS
Depending on the garment design that you are illustrating either the croqui with lowered arms or stretched out arms will need to be used as a template. Childrenâ€™s bodies at this age are quite tubular in shape.
CHILD 1-3 YEARS
CHILD 4-6 YEARS
CHILD 4-6 YEARS
CHILD 7-9 YEARS
CHILD 7-9 YEARS
GIRL 10-13 YEARS
GIRL 10-13 YEARS
BOY 10-13 YEARS
BOY 10-13 YEARS
Placement of basic garment shapes over croqui guide (7-9 year old).
1. Oversized ďŹ t T-shirt shape sits away from the body contours, being straight and boxy in shape. The croqui is used as a guide only, being hidden or erased in your ďŹ nal technical illustration.
2. Skinny leg or straight leg jean ďŹ ts the body but also reďŹ‚ects the shapes of the pattern pieces required to create the garment. Shade the inside of your garment to indicate its internal structure. Drag or crease lines may be added to create a sense of movement and 3 dimensionality.
Illustrating childrenswear When illustrating childrenswear your drawing style can be slightly more animated than when you illustrate mens or womenswear. It is also an opportunity to create characters rather than static fashion ďŹ gures, that exude a sense of fun and activity. The illustrations below have been created using Adobe Illustrator. Eye and mouth alterations can indicate changes in expression and character to reďŹ‚ect the mood of your illustration. You could even create a story around the theme of your collection.
1. Consider combining an illustrated background with photographic images to create marketing material for advertising. 2. & 3. Illustrations can be printed on postcards or swing tags to promote your product. Hand drawn artwork can be scanned into Adobe Photoshop and edited, adding background, colour and line. Overleaf - Rangeboard example.
Spring & Summer 2016 28
1. Girlâ€™s retro style baby doll dress in gingham & block colour, with short puďŹ€ sleeve, waist belting, peter pan collar with contrast bib and button detail. Also features patch pockets with lace trim detail. 2. Retro style pea coat in needle corduroy with peter pan collar, bias frill trim, oversized triple button opening and 3/4 sleeve. 3. Cotton/elastane tank with contrast bind and bib front. 4. Retro style fully lined bubble skirt in plain or gingham fabrication.
Garment components This chapter gives examples of common garment components, drawn as trade ﬂats. Garment components may be called diﬀerent names depending on the country that you work in. Many components also have multiple names (I have included some examples.) Check with the company that you work for what names/language they use to avoid issues with communication. Communication with your manufacturer is the key. Garment samples will generally need to be provided to your manufacturer, as well as a full technical pack. Technical packs will include base size measurements, grade rules and graded measurements for each size, notions/accessories required, trade ﬂat technical drawing in black and white only, fabric codes, care instructions, production schedule, construction details, delivery dates etc. In many cases CAD pattern ﬁles will also be emailed to the manufacturer.
RUNNING STITCH/TAILORS TACK
STITCH DETAIL DOUBLE TURNED TOPSTITCHED HEM WIDE
DOUBLE TURNED TOPSTITCHED HEM NARROW
ROLL HEM OR EDGE STITCH
TWIN NEEDLE COVERSTITCH
OVERLOCKED SINGLE TURN NARROW HEM
BLIND HEM OVERLOCKED
FLAT BED MACHINE SEAM WITH OVERLOCK (internal)
SAFETY STITCHED (internal)
TWIN NEEDLE OR WELTED/FLAT FELLED(JEANS)
DART MANIPULATION & NECKLINES BODICE BLOCK WITH DARTS FRONT VIEW
BODICE BLOCK BACK VIEW
DOUBLE DARTS & BOAT NECKLINE
WAIST DARTS & V NECKLINE
RUFFLE COLLAR WRAP BODICE
WINGED SEAMS / SWEETHEART NECKLINE FRONT VIEW
WINGED SEAMS BACK VIEW
NECKLINES STANDARD 2 PIECE COLLAR
PETER PAN COLLAR WITH BIB FRONT
NOTCHED OR TAILORED COLLAR (BOYS)
CREW OR ROUND NECK
POLO NECK (BOYS)
COLLAR WITH TIE
SLEEVE SHAPING SET IN SLEEVE
TWO PIECE SLEEVE
BATWING OR DOLMAN
GATHERED OR PUFF
SLEEVELESS (BOUND ARMHOLE)
FULLNESS INVERTED PLEAT
RUFFLE: GATHERED FRILL
RUFFLE: CIRCULAR FLARE
POCKETS JET POCKET
JET WITH POCKET FLAP
JET WITH EXPOSED ZIP DETAIL
CARGO STYLE POCKET WITH PLEAT (BELLOW) & FLAP
SIDE OR IN SEAM POCKET
CUT AWAY POCKET
CUT AWAY JEAN WITH COIN POCKET
ZIP DETAIL INVISIBLE ZIP
EXPOSED ZIP IN SEAM
EXPOSED ZIP STEPPED
FLY FRONT MEN/BOYS OR UNISEX STYLES (JEANS)
FLY FRONT WOMEN/GIRLS
JEANSWEAR/HARDWARE BAR TACK, BASIC & KEY HOLE BUTTONHOLES
STAINLESS STEEL STUD, RIVET & GROMET/EYELET
BUTTONS : 2 HOLE, 4 HOLE, SHANK
Designing childrenswear Considerations that you must make when designing children’s wear include: Comfort • • •
As children’s mobility changes their comfort needs change e.g. children that are crawling are generally more comfortable in short dresses or pants as long dress fabric would hinder their movement. Also consider waist ﬁnishes and openings. Waists are better partially elasticised at least, and openings must be easy for children and or caregivers depending on age, to navigate. Garments that are more loosely ﬁtted or with a small amount of stretch (elastane) in the fabric, are generally more comfortable for children, allowing ease of movement. When making clothing for nappy wearing babies and toddlers, clothing must be undone easily to facilitate this, and as children grow older, getting themselves dressed and toilet trained, they must be able to use fastenings and openings easily. Necklines should be large enough, or stretch to a point where children can comfortably get clothing over their head. The same needs to apply to sleeves and pant legs.
• • • • •
If wholesaling garments please refer to the Australian Standards (Children’s nightwear standard AS/NZS 1249:2003). Any garments sold as nightwear or garments that children could be expected to sleep in must be made of fabrics with low ﬂammability (you will notice Low Fire Danger labels on commercial garments). Straps and ties should be avoided where possible or kept to a length where they will not present any choking/strangulation risk. Buttons or fastenings should be stitched on extremely well and placed on a part of the garment that young children cannot reach. Small parts should not be removable e.g. zip pull, and plastic rather than metal zippers should be used where possible. Use common sense when assessing hazards and if in doubt don’t. Obviously as children get older they become more aware of their environment and their own safety, as well as becoming less interested in chewing parts of their clothing that may present a risk, so age appropriateness is also a consideration to make. Ensure that any pins or broken needles are removed from the garment during the sewing process.
Design • • • • •
Children’s clothing lends itself to creating a sense of fun and vitality. Don’t be afraid to use your creative intuition to design unique and interesting pieces. Make sure that the garments you design are suitable for and age appropriate to the target market you are designing for. Garment details that appeal to you in womenswear or menswear can also quite often be adapted to suit children’s wear, so keep a scrapbook or visual diary of all your ideas! Consider your use of the elements and principles of design. The elements being colour, line, scale, texture and shape or silhouette. The Principles including, unity, harmony, rhythm, movement, dominance, radiation, repetition, gradation, balance, imbalance, proportion. Use the croquie’s provided as a guide to drawing up your design ideas. Experiment with the design principles on paper.
BABY & TODDLER
Fabrication • • • • • •
Natural ﬁbres are generally used for producing children’s wear due to the breathability/absorbency, especially of cotton. Cotton is available in fabrics varying from denim to corduroy, velveteen to poplin, drill to voile, knit to woven. Cotton poplin is a beautiful, crisp fabric that is available widely, reasonably priced and with an extensive variety of print options, plains or yarn dyed checks. On the down side cotton fabric will need washing to pre-shrink prior to cutting, and the ﬁnished garment will require ironing. When blended with polyester and/or elastane fabrics become more durable and easy care. Cotton/elastane (3% or less) knit T-shirting is a wonderful fabric to use for any stretch top/dress requirements, and cotton/elastane stretch denim a comfortable choice for pants or dresses. Wool is also a wonderful fabric to use for children’s wear due mainly to its insulating properties (warmth in winter). Unfortunately wool can create a slightly allergic reaction in some children, and it may need dry cleaning, although I think as a lined jacket or coat it is a must for any winter wardrobe. Also consider investigating padded fabrics if you are requiring warmth in a garment. Silk if often used in children’s wear only for christening gowns and ﬂower girl dresses due to its expense and fragility, but please consider using this luxurious ﬁbre if you are producing a really special piece.
4. Toddler jumpsuit with press studded centre front and leg opening, feet and raglan long sleeve.
CHILD 7-9 YEARS
Technical drawing This chapter includes examples of full garments drawn as Trade Flats, relating to diﬀerent garment categories. I have included garment descriptions and fabric swatches to introduce the industry language used in a wholesale range book. Use this as a reference guide as you build up your own design library of shapes and styles. When designing refer to actual garments, previous designs and garment construction methods to illustrate garments correctly as technical drawings for sampling and production. When referring to a colour to be used to print or dye a textile use the internationally recognised Pantone Colour Matching system. TPX code refers to textiles. When using diﬀerent croquis to represent diﬀerent ages of children, adjust the proportion of your garments accordingly so that they appear in scale. I have included some illustrations on diﬀerent croquis for this reason, beginning with the toddlers, up to a 7-9 year old. R
STANDARD SIZING Industry sizing charts in Australia are often broken up into 3 categories. This is due to the fact that children of diﬀerent age groups grow at diﬀerent rates, and in diﬀerent areas of their body. The styling of clothing for the diﬀerent age brackets also alters. The categories being: 1. 2. 3.
Infants – 0000 (newborn), 000, 00, 0, 1 & 2(24 months.) Children – 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Teenagers – 8, 10, 12, 14, 16
Girl’s bodies especially can vary considerably as they reach puberty, and their fashion taste can become very speciﬁc. This can make designing for such an age group and creating garments to ﬁt extremely diﬃcult, as many teenage girls will begin to purchase womenswear.
1. Girls cotton, rib knit jersey singlet with bound neck and strap. 2. Boys cotton singlet with coverstitched hem, neck and armhole. 3. Girls cotton knickers with elastic waistband and elasticised leg opening. 4. Boys cotton jersey boxer shorts with elastic waistband. 5. Boys cotton/elastane jocks with front gusset and elastic waistband.
1. One piece girls swimsuit with binding detail around neck, armhole & leg, also featuring racer back. 2. Short sleeved unisex rashie with high neck in nylon elastane. 3. Two piece girls bathers with bound neck and armhole, frill detail and elasticised waistband in nylon/elastane lycra. 4. One piece girls swimsuit with halter neck, back clasp opening & empire line seam detail. Nylon/elastane lycra.
1. Long sleeve nylon/elastane rashie swimming top with plastisol screen print design and high neck. 2. Boyâ€™s neoprene wetsuit with multiple seam detailing and reinforced CB exposed zip opening. 3. Nylon board shorts with tie ďŹ‚y front opening, and left side pocket with grommets.
1. Raglan sleeve basic poly/cotton T-shirt with screen printed motif and contrast rib bind at neck and sleeve hem. 2. Knife pleated wrap netball skirt, 100% polyester gaberdine. 3. Nylon sports singlet with contrast rib bind at neck and armhole. 4. Nylon running short with contrast coloured side panels and elasticised waistband. 5. Cotton/elastane leggings with stretch, dropped waistband and contrast coloured side panelling.
1. Brushed cotton hooded windcheater with kangaroo pocket, rope tie, rib trim at wrist and waistband, contrast shoulder and back yoke detailing. 2. Nylon padded puďŹ€er style vest with brushed cotton lining, exposed zip opening at centre front and multiple pocket detail. 3. Polyester/cotton/elastane jogging pant with cut away side pockets, tie front elasticised waistband, tapered leg and rib trim detail at ankle.
SCHOOL UNIFORM GIRLS
1. Rugby knit polo neck sweater with button front tab opening and embroidered school motif. 2. Standard school dress in yarn dyed check with contrast one piece collar, tab and short sleeve cuďŹ€. 3. Polyester gaberdine skort with side zip opening, inverted pleat front detail and elasticised back waist.
SCHOOL UNIFORM BOYS
1. Standard tailored school shirt with 2 piece collar, long sleeve with cuďŹ€s, centre front buttoned placket opening and left chest patch pocket. Pleated through centre back yoke. 2. Basic short sleeved polo neck T-shirt in single knit jersey with side hem split detail. 3. Basic tailored school short with waistband, belt loops, ďŹ‚y front opening, cut away side pockets and back jet pockets.
GIRLS PARTY DRESSES
1. Cross over wrap dress in 100% cotton poplin with contrast neck/armhole bind, side bow tie and pleat at centre back yoke waist. 2. Pinafore style tunic dress with plain coloured yoke, contrast waist band and oversized buttons, ďŹ‚oral print gathered 3/4 length skirt in 100% cotton poplin.
1. Retro style wide wale corduroy pea coat with bias cut ruďŹ„e detail at yoke, peter pan collar and triple button centre front opening, fully lined in spot print cotton sateen. 2. Basic T-shape in cotton/elastane with puďŹ€ sleeve and contrast bind at neck and sleeve opening. Coverstitched hem. 3. Bib front singlet with pintuck, button and frill detail in cotton/elastane interlock. Contrast cotton bind at neck and armhole. 4. Fully lined cotton bubble skirt with ďŹ tted waistband and centre back invisible zip and button opening.
1. Wool melton, fully lined girls coat with peter pan collar, patch pockets and bias ruﬄe frill detail. Oversized double button centre front opening. 2. Sleeveless tunic top with bib front, ruﬄe, pintuck and button detail. 3. Box pleat knee length skirt with ﬁtted waistband, centre back invisible zip opening and bow feature.
1. Tailored suit jacket with full lining and jet/welt pocket detail in wool pinstripe suiting. 2. Basic long sleeved cotton shirt with two piece collar, patch pocket, shoulder yoke, cuﬀs and button front placket opening. 3. Microﬁbre dress pant with cut away side pockets, waistband with belt loops, ﬂy front opening and back faux jet pocket.
1. Fully fashioned knit cardigan, acrylic with embroidered ďŹ‚ower motif and centre front button detail. 2. Cotton/elastane 3/4 sleeve T-top with bound neckline and puďŹ€ sleeve. 3. Cotton/elastane legging with elasticised waist. 4. Denim party skirt with elasticised waist and bow trim detail.
1. Grime print T-shirt with ribbed neck and set in sleeve, oversized ﬁt. 2. Cargo pant in cotton gaberdine with bellow pockets and aluminiun stud detail. Ribbed trim at hem, ﬂy front and waistband with belt loops. 3. Cargo short in sandwashed cotton gaberdine with tucks at waistband, belt loops, ﬂy front and jet back pocket, knee length. 4. Long sleeved T-shirt with faux short oversleeve, patch chest pocket and rib neck trim.
1. Denim biker jacket with exposed metal zippers and contrast twin needle topstitch detail. 2. Cotton/elastane 2 tone basic T-shirt with patch pocket detail and rib neck. 3. Multipocket denim jean with ďŹ‚y front, waistband with belt loops and topstitch detail.
1. Boyâ€™s two piece pyjamas in 100% brushed cotton ďŹ‚annelette. Button through front long sleeve shirt with notched collar and piping. Fly front pant with elasticised waist and rope cord. 2. Girls cotton interlock stretch PJ top with embroidered heart design and frill sleeve. 3. Cotton PJ shorts with ribbon bow tie and elasticised waist. 4. Girls cotton interlock nightie with frill detail and heart embroidery design.
Textile design Many diďŹ€erent techniques can be used to embellish, treat or decorate a fabric. These include Applique, Embroidery, Beading, Printing, Pleating, Smocking, Bleaching, and Dyeing to name but a few. I have included more information regarding some common techniques in this chapter.
Applique To create a design that can be reproduced as an applique you will need to consider the number and shape of pieces that need to be cut. Laser cutting your pieces will produce the most accurate outcome. Industrial embroidery machines are now being produced with a laser cutter acting as a separate head, rather than a needle, operated by vector based computer software. The embroidery needles will stitch the designs components into position as it cuts, adding stitch details like satin, running or tatami stitches. As a designer you will need to consult your machine embroiderer for more detail in regard to digitising designs, cost and production constraints. Alternatively to produce a one oďŹ€ sample or prototype your design could be hand cut, fused and sewn with a domestic machine. An example of how your design could be divided into separate components is shown on the following page.
Q I L U P E P A
Applique can be a wonderful way of adding unique and adorable imagery to your garment designs, as seen on the basic T-shirt shape above. For best results keep applique designs simple and clean, without becoming fussy.
Step 1: Draw or collage the artwork for your applique design. Consider how fabrics and colours will be seperated. Trace oﬀ individual sections with tracing paper to create your pattern pieces.
Step 2: Work out the order that you will apply to arrange your pieces, with larger sections being applied to the base fabric ﬁrst.
Step 3: Cut pieces that require ﬁner detail and are layered on top of the main pieces. Double sided fusing mesh should be ironed on to secure your pieces before satin stitch or embroidery is applied.
Step 4: Embroider ﬁner detailing. Commercial embroidery machines can be digitised so that applique or reverse applique can be laser cut and embroidered accurately.
SCREEN PRINT DESIGN
Single colour screen print The simplest of screen print designs are those that are printed in a single colour with clear, clean outlines and dramatic use of contrast against the background textile. Designs can be handrawn and scanned into the computer for conversion to a black and white, high resolution raster image, or designed directly into Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator. A bromide of your design can then be created by printing onto acetate and transferring the design through a photographic process onto the nylon screen where areas are masked with an emulsion solution. When you are designing your artwork remember that the black positive area of your design will become a negative area on the screen. This negative area is the printable area of your design. Designs are printed by clipping or holding your screen ﬁrmly and ﬂat over the area of your textile that you wish to print, applying ink across the upper area of your screen and squeezing it through the design with a squeegee in a swiping motion. The screen must be carefully removed in an upward direction to avoid smudging. Printed designs should be dried with a drier before being moved, and will need to be heat set further using a heat press or iron, to avoid the print washing out when laundered. If using water basede inks your screen will need to be cleaned immediately with a high pressure hose the avoid clogging of the mesh. Commercially plastisol inks do not need to be washed out of screens immediately as they only dry under extreme heat. This also means that extreme heat needs to be used to set the printed designs.
Consider appliqueing fabrics onto your design, adding buttons or ribbons to create added surface interest. Also experiment with diﬀerent combinations of ink & textile colours. 60
Above: Single colour designs suitable for screen printing onto textiles - butterďŹ‚y, bow, heart and Kokeshi doll. All designs are relatively balanced and symmetrical, utilising the design principle of contrast.
MULTI COLOURED SCREEN PRINT
i h s e
One design showing diďŹ€erent applications in multicolour: 1. T-shirt - single placement print (garment pieces can be printed before of after the T-shirt has been constructed.) 2. Box pleat skirt - multiple placement prints become a border print (print fabric pieces before cutting.) Note that when creating multiple layer prints it would be advisable to employ a professional screen printer to ensure accurate registration of colours.
Registration markings are used to match up the seperate screens that are required to be printed to create a multiple colour design. Careful consideration must be given to the order in which you will print, as well as overlap of colours so that no gaps are visible. With this design I would print the skin colour ďŹ rst, the gold, red kimono and black detail. Depending on the ink that you use it is quite often diďŹƒcult to print light colours on top of dark colours, unless the inks are extremely opaque.
DIGITAL PRINT DESIGN
Print conﬁguration When creating designs for a digital repeat or yardage print, a pattern tile or repeat is ﬁrst designed. The set up of this pattern tile determines how your designs individual components are repeated - whether one way or in both directions (so that pattern pieces may be laid up and down), whether the repeat is a regular full drop or half drop, or whether the design displays a more random, tossed conﬁguration.
TEXTILE DESIGN TEXTILE DESIGN REPEAT PATTERNS
A: FULL DROP one way textile yardage (repeat) print.
B: HALF DROP one way textile yardage (repeat) print.
C: HALF DROP two way textile yardage (repeat) print.
D: TOSSED or SCATTERED 2 way repeat print.
DIGITAL ENGINEERED PRINT
Engineered prints Engineered prints are prints designed speciﬁcally to a garment design and pattern shape. The print shape is dictated by the pattern shape and the artwork is created to ﬁt this pattern piece. This process is normally done electronically with the use of digital print technology. Pattern pieces are printed onto a base cloth and then cut out individually, or stacked into alignment and then cut. This process allows the creation of a textile design that is unique to the garment design and shape. See example below of childrens legging design. The textile design is more tailored to purpose than a basic repeat pattern.
Above: Pre cut pattern lay with digital print (less ink wasteage occurs than an all over repeat textile print design), and right the ﬁnal ﬁnished garment.
INDEX INDEX OF GARMENT CATEGORIES
Activewear Hoodie sweater, jogger pant, puďŹ€er vest Baby/toddler Jumpsuit Casual day wear Cardigan, leggings, skirt, 3/4 sleeve T-top Formal wear - Boy Tailored jacket, shirt, dress pant Formal wear - Girl Coat, top, box pleat skirt Girls party dresses Pinafore dress, wrap dress Jeanswear Jeans, biker jacket, T-shirt Partywear Bubble skirt, pea coat, bib tank, puďŹ€ sleeve T School uniform (boys) Shirt, polo shirt, shorts School uniform (girls) Polo sweater, skort, school dress Sleepwear Pyjamas (boys and girls), nightie Sportswear Raglan T-shirt, pleat netball skirt, singlet running shorts, leggings Streetwear Cargo pant and short, T-shirt (long and short sleeve) Swimwear (boys) Rashie vest, boardshorts, wetsuit Swimwear (girls) Rashie, 1 piece bathers, 2 piece bathers Underwear Singlet, knickers, underpants
45 39 52 51 50 48 54 49 47 46 55 44 53 43 42 41
Merrin Stacey Cameron graduated from RMIT with a Bachelor of Arts (Fashion) in 1991, & since then has worked extensively within the Melbourne Fashion Industry as Designer, Patternmaker Textile/Graphic Designer and Product Developer (Menswear, Womenswear and Homewares). She has seen the Fashion industry evolve from a time when all trade sketching was created manually and speciﬁcation sheets faxed to factories in China, to a time when industry standards require that trades be created electronically and communicated via email.
Merrin also holds a Graduate Diploma of Education (Melbourne University) & in 2010 began lecturing at TAFE SA in both Design and Patternmaking as part of the Applied Fashion Design and Technology qualiﬁcations available (Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Bachelor with Flinders University). Her teaching experience has allowed her insight into the way students learn and this is the reasoning behind producing “Fashion Flats”, to provide relevant, accurate and current technical drawing information.