fashion flats MENSWEAR
merrin stacey cameron
If you are interested in ordering a hard copy version of this publication go to: http://blur.by/17YWRsl or Amazon books. Also available by the same author: Fashion Flats - Womenswear (Educational) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a hernia Lavergnia (Children)
First published by Merrin Cameron 2015 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the author & illustrator Merrin Stacey Cameron. Copyright Merrin Stacey Cameron 2015
An ability to trade sketch garment ﬂats correctly is essential for a Fashion Design career. This book explains how garment technical drawings are a necessary process in linking apparel design, production and sales at wholesale level. Whether you are a beginner, or have fashion industry experience, I hope the information contained in the following pages will help you to improve your skills of observation, understanding of garment construction, patternmaking, design, sense of proportion & technical drawing accuracy, whether manually or electronically. After the success of my ﬁrst book “Fashion Flats - Womenswear”, I have been inspired to extend further into the world of technical drawing by developing a publication dedicated to Menswear. I have also included detailed steps in using Adobe Illustrator to create technically accurate trade ﬂats, as is current industry standard. Happy drawing - again!
Fashion ﬂats Technical drawings, otherwise known as trade ﬂats, ﬂats, trades, trade sketches or tech drawings are used as a way of communicating technical information for two main purposes. Flats for Design/Selling, and Flats for Production. True trade ﬂats are drawn in black pen only (or printed in black ink), without the addition of colour, shading or pattern, so that they are clear and can be faxed or copied if necessary. Flats are a ﬂat, 2 dimensional representation of a garment with all technical information included.
Flats for Design & Sales The Designer will create rough developmental sketches to begin the design process. These sketches will develop into trade ﬂats or technical drawings as concepts and ideas are established. Technical drawings are used at the design development stage to illustrate and communicate ideas within a design/sales team prior to sample production and the development of a complete collection. These technical drawings must convey design concepts and technical garment detail in a format that can be easily communicated. Not only are these drawings used during the design development process, they are also used to relay information to a patternmaker/manufacturer (production process), & for illustration purposes in wholesale range books.
Flats for Production The second purpose of technical drawing is for use in speciﬁcation sheets as part of a technical pack. Technical drawings are annotated with important garment construction information to be followed by the apparel manufacturer. A technical pack or tech pack includes all the information that a factory requires for the production of sample garments and eventually production of apparel orders. Other information may include fabric suppliers, fabric requirements, testing, construction details, labelling requirements, sample garment, suppliers of notions and accessories, accessory details, thread or yarn weight/gauge, stitch lengths and machines, construction methods, printing details, packaging requirements, production and delivery dates, garment speciﬁcations (sizing measurements, garment dimensions and grade rules), tolerance, pricing, factory contact details and contracts. Drawings must be easily interpreted by the manufacturer (patternmaker, sample machinist, production manager, cutter etc.)
ailmen men men men men
Style: SFJ14071 Description : Men’s 100% Cotton yarn dyed plaid casual jacket with matching plain coloured ﬂannel lining.
Style: SFJ14100 Description : Men’s 65% Wool/35% Viscose multipocket jacket with yarn dyed plaid, quilted lining, and stud front opening.
COLOURS AVAILABLE Colourway A: Indigo/plaid Colourway B: Forest/plaid Colourway C: Ecru/plaid with faux horn button
trailmen Style : SFJ914089 Description : Men’s casual Anorak jacket with hood in 70% Wool, 20% Acrylic, 10% Nylon plaid and ﬂannel lining.
FLATS FOR PRODUCTION
STYLE NUMBER: SS006 STYLE NAME: Oliver Grey
SEASON: Spring/Summer 16
MANUFACTURER: CP&R FABRIC : Pinstripe poly/cotton blend shirting DESIGNER: AJ
Edge stitch pocket with reinforced opening.
Cut away collar with edge stitch. Armhole topstitched 6mm in from seam.
Double row topstitch detail (twin needle).
Double pleat detail at sleeve cuff.
FIT DETAILS/DESCRIPTION: Mens casual fit business shirt with cut away collar & single breast pocket detail. FRONT VIEW
Double roll hem 6mm topstitch.
Placket to be edgestitched. Horn buttons 11mm 2 hole.
Topstitch 6mm in from seam (foots width). Side & sleeve seams to be french seamed.
FLATS VS FLOATS
Flats vs Floats Trade ﬂats or technical drawings are ﬂat, 2 dimensional representations of garment designs. Garments are illustrated as if they are ﬂat, lying on a ﬂat surface. If you refer to the process that you would go through to create a garment pattern you should not have any problems understanding how a ﬂat should be drawn, garment shape (silhouette), where dart values are manipulated to and where seam lines should exist. Consider garment construction when identifying locations of topstitch detail, ﬂatstitching/bluﬃng, blind hem, coverstitch, ﬂatlocking, twin needle stitch detail and overlocking. Garment ﬂoats are slightly more 3 dimensional in appearance than a garment ﬂat, as they demonstrate a sense of movement & drape around a body. Shading, creases and drag lines are often added to garment ﬂoats to add to the sense of a garment being alive. Fashion forecasting agencies like Stylesite use garment ﬂoats as a way of illustrating garment designs. All technical information is still included in the illustration, but the garment silhouette hangs as it would on a hanger or around a real body. Some designers will draw ﬂoats instead of ﬂats in their technical packs, as long as all relevant information is still communicated accurately. See examples and note the diﬀerences in drawing styles.
1. Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leather biker jacket with multipocket and zip detail. 2. Basic T-shirt shape with contrast yoke and pocket detail. 3. Straight leg 5 pocket denim jean with ďŹ&#x201A;y front and contrast topstitch feature.
Floats show a greater sense of 3 dimensionality and movement than technical ďŹ&#x201A;ats do, as shown in these examples. Add in crease lines and shading to indicate drape.
CHAPTER 2 Technique Trade ﬂats can be drawn either by hand (manually) or electronically (CAD vector program). Most trade sketching is now created electronically as it is far more accurate and less time consuming to draw, particularly once you have created templates of basic, repeated shapes. Files can also be edited easily, emailed and imported into diﬀerent programs. However it is a valuable skill to learn to hand draw manually and observe proportion. Before you start drawing using either method you must develop or ﬁnd a croqui (ﬁgure template) to use as a guide. The croqui included here has been used to create the trade ﬂats in this book, but the croqui you use must suit the product you are drawing. Remember not to take the croqui body shape too literally as you must ﬁrst of all consider the garment pattern shape and construction before you start drawing. A common mistake is that tight ﬁtting garments with some stretch are drawn around the croqui body shape adopting the curves of the elbow and knees, when in fact the garment pattern shape would be much straighter through the arms and legs. Also check that you have included all necessary seaming, front/back crutch seams in pants, armholes, zips and split into seams.
Drawing with the Men’s croqui When using the croqui as a guide to trade sketch menswear you will need to treat it diﬀerently to the women’s croqui. In womenswear garments are generally more closely ﬁtted to the body, whereas menswear is generally a looser, more comfortable, casual ﬁt. The other major diﬀerence is that pants (jeans or trousers) are not worn at a man’s natural waistline, but rather at a lower point across the hip bone or slightly above. Many women’s garments are waisted, meaning that they are ﬁtted to the natural waistline. Otherwise they are referred to as drop waisted or hipster. For more information on trade sketching by hand and the technical drawing of Womenswear refer to my previous publication “Fashion Flats – Womenswear” by Merrin Stacey Cameron. The design of menswear also diﬀers vastly to womenswear. Menswear design is often about subtle changes to basic garment shapes e.g. a small change in pocket shape, a slight alteration to the collar, an extra pocket on a pant. For this reason designing menswear needs to be approached with a diﬀerent attitude. Unfortunately menswear design and technical drawing is often ignored in fashion books, so I hope that this information will be of beneﬁt to you!
Computer aided illustration with Adobe Illustrator (Electronic/CAD) Adobe Illustrator allows you to draw technically accurate illustrations of garments for the purpose of apparel production, and is the most commonly used program within the fashion industry. It is a Vector based program rather than pixel based, meaning that artwork produced is clean and precise. Vectors are created via dot points on an invisible grid system (series of algorithms). Artwork can also be enlarged without any deterioration in resolution and clarity. Adobe Illustrator is a licensed product available as part of the Adobe suite (includes Photoshop, In Design, Dreamweaver etc.) The beauty of these products is that they are all compatible with each other, for example Illustrator native ﬁles or AI ﬁles can be opened directly into Photoshop and vice versa. When using Illustrator you will ﬁnd that there are many diﬀerent paths that you can take to achieve the same end result. As you become proﬁcient in using this valuable design tool you will ﬁnd which methods work best for you. 10 10
CROQUI FOR FLOATS
ELBOW WAIST HIGH HIP
JEANS WAISTLINE FULL LENGTH SLEEVE
MID THIGH SHORT
KNEE LENGTH SHORT
3/4 LENGTH PANT
FULL LENGTH PANT
CROQUI FOR FLATS
See page 26 for ďŹ t of menswear in relation to the croqui.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Adobe Illustrator workspace
Saving a document
The Adobe Illustrator workspace consists of a Command menu that opens drop down options across the top of your screen.
Make a habit of saving regularly to avoid losing your artwork. File > Save as > select location and ﬁle name. Also make a habit of saving your ﬁles in more than one location to back them up.
Down the left side of your screen is a tool bar. Clicking on an icon will select a diﬀerent tool. More tools are located under each icon. Fill colour and stroke can also be selected at the base of the tool bar.
Tutorial 1: Bezier Pen tool The Bezier pen tool allows you to draw lines with the mouse or stylus & tablet. Lines can be easily reshaped and edited by manipulating handles attached to the anchor points on curved lines. Anchor points can be added, deleted or converted to edit the line path. This is the main tool that you will need to master to create technically accurate trade drawings.
On the right side of your screen are the windows or panels. These can be torn oﬀ, closed or reconﬁgured. Each icon represents a tool that when clicked on opens a window or panel. Options are available within each panel. If you accidently close or lose a window reopen it by going to window on your command menu and selecting the required tool.
Pages in Illustrator are referred to as Art boards, and the space surrounding your Art board as the canvas. Any information stored on your canvas will be saved along with the Art board in your ﬁle.
Click with left side mouse button to begin line path. Continue to click points where you want your line path to continue.
As you open each new ﬁle you will be allowed to click between the ﬁles via the tabbed document window.
To begin a new line path you will need to Deselect the initial line path by going Ctrl + Shift + A or Select along command menu and drop down menu will give you the option to Deselect.
Note that shortcuts on Apple operating systems are slightly diﬀerent to Microsoft operating systems. Shortcuts are easily located in the drop down menus that feed oﬀ the top Command menu.
To undo your last step press Ctrl + Z or Edit (command menu) > undo. If you continue to press Ctrl + Z this will step you backward to the last time you saved.
Opening a new document To open a new document in Adobe Illustrator go to: •
File (Command menu) > New > Dialogue box will open – give your document a relevant title, then select number of pages or artboards required, their conﬁguration, and Portrait or Landscape orientation. Spacing between artboards and bleed for printing purposes can also be set here. Click on Advanced options. Select CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key/Black for oﬀset printing) or RGB (Red, Green, Blue analogue screen) option depending on what you are wanting to use your artwork for, and set Raster eﬀect at 300 PPI (pixels per inch) for any photographic images or scans that you place into your ﬁle. Click Ok.
Note that you are also able to access existing templates through this menu.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Curved lines To create a curved line path you will need to begin, once again by clicking your left side mouse button.
click, hold and dragging at a new anchor point location (this basically breaks the line path but keeps it as one continuous line). This method also allows you more control of the curved shapes that you create.
Move your cursor to the location that you wish to add another anchor point, simply click + hold and drag your mouse button and your line will curve accordingly. It may take some practice to master drawing curved lines, but your line path can be manipulated and reshaped with the handles attached to your anchor points. To move an anchor point simply drag it with the Direct selection tool (located left side tool bar).
Editing your line path Use your Direct selection tool to drag anchor points into new locations when editing. To reshape a curved line path simply click on the anchor point with your Direct selection tool and manipulate the handles that appear by moving them in and out or rotating them at diﬀerent angles.
Straight into curved line paths
If you zoom into your anchor point you will be able to move it in smaller increments and more accurately.
When trade drawing you will be required to draw many diﬀerent shapes to ﬁt the body, using curved and straight line paths.
If you draw a straight line, but want to continue the line path as a curve you can simply go from clicking your straight lines to click, hold and dragging your curves, but the curved line path will continue the original line path, meaning that curved lines cannot be turned back on themselves. To avoid this problem you need to convert anchor points as you go by clicking back on the last anchor point, then
Zoom in to see your artwork more clearly by selecting the zoom icon then clicking on your Artboard to zoom in, right click mouse and select to zoom out. Alternatively select a % on the bottom left tab of your workspace, or use Alt + mouse wheel/scroll.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator Deleting segments of your line path
Copying a line segment To copy part of a line select it by drawing a marquee over part of the line with your Direct selection tool, Ctrl + C >Ctrl + F (to copy and paste the line segment in front) > go to selection tool and drag selected/copied line segment into its new position.
To delete a section of your line work draw a marquee over a part of the line you wish to delete with your Direct selection tool to select it. Hit the delete button on your keyboard. You will notice that when you ﬁrst select the line segment, the whole object will appear selected but it is not, although if you continue to hit the delete button the whole object will be deleted.
This method is particularly useful when you are adding topstitching to a curved hem or other shaped area. Simply adjust the stroke weight and dash to your copied line.
Deselect your object by clicking on the screen away from the object.
The eyedropper tool can also be used to pick up the attributes of other dashed line work.
Deleting whole objects
Manipulate anchor points to reshape if required.
Use the selection tool to draw a marquee over part or the whole of the object. This will select the whole object. Press delete.
Adding, deleting and converting anchor points To edit a line path anchor points can be added, deleted, converted and moved. These options are available through your Bezier Pen tear oﬀ tool bar located under the Bezier Pen icon in your left side tool bar. Corners can be converted into curves and line paths reshaped for example.
Copying an object To copy an object draw a marquee over it with your selection tool and either: • • • • •
Edit (command menu) > copy , Edit > paste Alt + Drag Ctrl + C > Ctrl + V (copy) Ctrl + C > Ctrl + F (copy in front) Ctrl + C > Ctrl + B (copy behind)
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator Tutorial 2: Technical drawing Step 5:
To create technical drawings with Adobe Illustrator you will need to make yourself familiar with the Bezier Pen Tool, selecting stroke and ﬁll colours, opening and saving documents, as well as working with layers.
When trade sketching garments you draw one half of the garment ﬁrst from the centre line, and then reﬂect it. If the garment is asymmetrical simply reﬂect, then manipulate and delete to edit and create your garment construction detail.
Selection and Direct selection tools also need to be utilised during this process.
Using the Bezier Pen tool draw your garment half including all topstitching, design and construction detail.
Step 1: Open your A4 sized croqui ﬁle.
Topstitch line weight to be set at 0.25pt. Dash 2pt, gap 2pt.
Create a new layer and lock layer 1 by clicking on the padlock in the layer panel (croqui layer).
Use the line proﬁle drop down menu in Stroke window to alter a lines appearance.
Adjust the transparency (lighten) on the croqui layer if required.
Step 6: To move anchor points use the direct selection tool. Note that when you are drawing curved lines, it is much easier to edit a curved line by manipulating the handles once you have drawn your garment outline, rather than turning straight lines into curves as this requires the addition and conversion of anchor points.
Step 2: Rename your layers in the layer window by double clicking on each layer name i.e. croqui/ trade ﬂat. Step 3: Select an outline colour and NO FILL before selecting your Bezier Pen tool. Step 4: Tear oﬀ your Bezier Pen tool bar by right clicking on the icon, or dragging across the tool bar. Select line weight at 1pt in the Stroke panel.
HAND DRAWING STEPS DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator Step 7:
Using the selection tool draw a marquee over the garment half to select it.
Lines do not need to be joined to create a closed shape for the purpose of adding a colour ﬁll, although joining lines can create smoother shapes and cleaner lines.
Step 8: Right click mouse > transform > reﬂect > vertical > copy > ok (meaning that the artwork will be mirrored along a vertical axis).
If you are not planning to join lines at the centre front of your trade sketch, the anchor points must overlap to avoid gaps. Anchor points can be dragged into position with the direct selection tool.
Step 9: Do not De-select your object!
Topstitching lines must be joined at the garment centre front or centre back to create continuity in your dash and gap.
Holding your cursor over the reﬂected objects line path (not the marquee) begin dragging the copied object across into position. Hold shift down just after you start moving the object to keep it aligned with the original garment half.
Only 2 anchor points can be joined at any one time, by using the direct select tool to either draw a marquee over both anchor points or select with mouse click, then shift + mouse click select. To join Ctrl + J, or right click mouse > join.
Alternatively the keyboard increment can be set (Ctrl + K) with a small increment and the copied garment half can be tabbed across into position using the arrow keys.
Step 14: Check that the proportion and details of your garments are correct. If not, step backwards (Ctrl + Z) to your original garment half, alter, reﬂect and join again for accurate results. Hide your croqui by clicking on the eye icon in your layers panel.
Step 11: Once the copied object is in position it can be deselected (Ctrl + shift + A, or click arrow on screen away from object).
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
If only small changes are required use the keyboard increment tab when adjusting anchor points so that the same alterations can be made to both sides of the garment, or select multiple anchor points, drawing a marquee over them with the Direct selection tool, and adjust at the one time. Whenever you are moving anchor points and you want them to remain in line with their original position, hold shift down to keep aligned. Step 15: When you have completed your garment front view, select the whole object with your selection tool and copy (Alt + Drag). Alter your back view by adding, deleting or manipulating lines and anchor points. New garment components can be selected and mirrored within the garment, although for most accurate results the mirrored half of the garment should be deleted, alterations made, re-mirrored and joined.
Step 16: Select and group garment front view. Select and group garment back view. Hide croqui layer 1 by clicking on the eye icon in the layer panel. Step 17: Drag garment front and back view into position on your page/artboard. Step 18: If you want the back view to appear smaller than the front view, select the back view > right click mouse > tran sform > scale > change % select on scale strokes and ďŹ lls >ok. Following this process rather than dragging the garment smaller (holding shift down to keep perspective), ensures that line weights are scaled down accordingly with the object. Step 19: If you want the front view to overlap the back . view, you will need to apply a white ďŹ ll to your front view to hide or mask the back view overlap See Tutorial 3 to add colour ďŹ ll. Add shading and crease lines to create a more 3 dimensional illustration if required.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Tutorial 3: Adding a colour ﬁll There are several diﬀerent options available to you when using Adobe Illustrator to add a colour ﬁll: Method 1: Closed line paths •
Draw the garment line work as a closed shape silhouette with a coloured ﬁll, then add in garment detail. Anchor points must be joined to create closed shapes and use this method. The problem with using this method is that each area that requires a diﬀerent colour ﬁll must be re drawn as a closed shape and this can be quite time consuming.
One problem with this method is that when you apply the live paint > make option, any line work where line proﬁles have been changed, will revert back to their original line type. To avoid this simply make another copy of your illustration prior to applying your live paint. This copied version becomes your line work, whilst the original drawing can be coloured. The coloured version must be selected with the selection tool and stroke selected as none. Line work selected > right click mouse > arrange > bring to front > drag garment line work into position over coloured garment (zoom in for accuracy in placement). Group each version before you drag it into place so that either version can be easily moved into position - go to Command menu > object > group.
Method 3: Pathﬁnder The 3rd option is to use the Pathﬁnder tool. This is another method that isolates areas separated with a line. •
Method 2: Live paint •
• • • •
• • •
By using the paint bucket tool, areas of a garment divided or closed oﬀ by a line are seen as isolated areas for the purpose of dropping in a colour ﬁll with your paint bucket. Draw garment and details without a ﬁll. Line work does not need to be joined but must meet up or overlap to be read as a separate area. Select the object then go to command menu > object > live paint > make. By selecting colours from your swatch menu, select your paint bucket tool located under the shape builder icon on the right side toolbar of your workspace, and hover bucket over the area you wish to ﬁll. The selected area will be highlighted with a red outline. Mouse click to drop in colour. Select other colours and go through the same process to ﬁll object with multiple colours.
Draw overlapping shapes with the shape tool or Bezier pen tool. Use the selection tool to draw marquee over your whole object to select. Go to Window (command menu) > Pathﬁnder > Panel will open > select Pathﬁnder > Divide. Using Direct selection tool click on outline of designated shape > click on ﬁll to activate > select colour from swatch panel (shape will ﬁll with chosen colour). Repeat for other sections of your shape.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Tutorial 4: Creating Symbols Many symbols are available in the Adobe Illustrator symbol library, or online for download to be used in your technical drawings, but they are also relatively easy to create yourself.
Examples of some garment accessories that could be saved as symbols. If you have applied a pattern or gradient ﬁll, or text to your object you will need to go to Object > expand before saving.
Symbols are generally components of a garment that are often repeated in diﬀerent designs, for example buttons, zip pulls, toggles. As you produce more artwork in Illustrator you will develop a library of styles and components that you can refer to, copy and alter when producing new technical drawings. Symbols can be saved in a symbol folder and accessed through the symbols panel in any document. Follow these steps: • • • • •
Draw your garment component/accessory. Scale some diﬀerent common options. Click Symbol icon down right side tool bar to open symbol panel. Separately drag each object into your symbol panel. When an object is dragged to the symbol panel a dialogue box will appear. Name your symbol and save it as a graphic. Once all symbols have been dragged into the default symbol library, save your library to a designated folder by clicking on symbols library menu (bottom left corner of panel window) and selecting Save symbols. Access your symbol library through Other library under the symbols library menu. Symbols can then be dragged out from your library for use. Symbols are automatically grouped as objects. Any imported symbols can be saved and accessed through Other library. Access Adobe Illustrator symbol libraries through the drop down menu under symbols library menu icon.
When creating textile designs components of your design can also be saved as symbols & dragged back into your artwork. I often save diﬀerent versions of the one component i.e. diﬀerent sizes and diﬀerent colourways.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Tutorial 5: Creating swatches The Adobe Illustrator swatch library has a selection of colour schemes available for use, as well as vector pattern graphics. These designs can be dropped into your illustration with the paint bucket tool (refer to Tutorial 3). The pattern tile that appears in the library will repeat when you drop it into a larger area. To create a basic repeat pattern yourself you too need to work from this principle of creating a pattern tile. Follow these steps: • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
Select on the rectangle shape tool icon. Click once on your screen and a dialogue box will appear Type in the dimensions of the tile that you want to create e.g. 30mm x 30mm Select a colour ﬁll from your swatches or colour picker palette Select stroke as none Drag in the symbol that you have created for repeat and place it over the corner of your tile so that the centre of the symbol matches the corner of your square tile. As you hover over the corner your cursor will turn white to indicate that the symbol is placed in the correct position. Set keyboard increment (Ctrl + K) at 30 mm (or same dimension as tile) Use Alt key and directional arrows to click/copy symbol onto each corner of your tile. Set keyboard increment at half tile dimension (15mm) Tab across and up with arrow to centre of tile to copy. Deselect. Use the selection tool to click on tile only (not symbols). Ctrl + C > Ctrl + B > select ﬁll as none. Open swatch palette by selecting on icon at right side tool bar. Draw marquee over whole object and drag it into your swatch palette. To test that you have followed each step correctly draw a larger rectangle and select its ﬁll as the new pattern that you have created. The pattern should repeat without any white space. If it does not repeat successfully repeat the process. Save your swatches under the swatch library icon to a designated folder.
Editing swatches Adobe Illustrator swatch libraries can be accessed via the swatch library icon, bottom left of swatch window/panel. Under patterns there are swatches available with transparent or coloured backgrounds. Those swatches with transparent backgrounds can be dropped in over other solid colours. Coloured swatches can be edited by dropping them into an object, selecting the object > Edit (command menu) > Edit colours, select new colours and apply. To edit the artwork created for one of these Adobe swatches simply drag the swatch out from the active swatch panel onto your Artboard. Edit the tile by adding or deleting parts of the design, or edit the colour in the ﬁll option. Use the direct selection tool to draw a marquee over your edited tile and drag it back into the swatch panel. You have created a new swatch design. Photographic images can also be placed into your Artboard and dragged into the swatch palette to create a repeating pattern tile. The Clipping mask is another tool that can be used to drop a photographic image into a garment. Simply place the photograph into your artboard, drag your technical drawing over the photograph by arranging it to the front. Select both objects together with the selection tool > Object (command menu) > Clipping mask > Make.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator R
Tutorial 6: Creating Brushes Creating a Brush in Adobe Illustrator enables you to apply a brush or pattern to any line path. In the example below I have created a binding brush as a straight design, saved it, and then applied it to a curved line path. The brush design remains consistent without any distortion to the brush design. This method is far more accurate than trying to achieve consistency manually with separate line paths, particularly around curves.
Creating a complex brush (ruﬄe): • •
Creating a simple brush (bind): • • • • • • •
Use the Bezier pen tool to draw a straight section of your brush horizontally (1pt stroke weight). Select > Ctrl + C > Ctrl + F > Shift + drag copied line up or down into position. Select > Ctrl + C > Ctrl + F > Shift + drag line up or down slightly to create topstitch line. Select line weight as 0.25 from Stroke menu, 2pt dash and 2pt gap. Open Brush palette/window via the icon, left side tool bar. Select entire artwork and drag it into your active brush window. Dialogue box will appear > Select pattern brush>Pattern Brush options (name your pattern, select ﬂip along, approximate path and ok.) Draw a new line with your Bezier pen tool, and while still selected click on the brush that you have just created that appears in the Brush active window, this will apply the brush to your new line path. Save your brushes using the same method described to save patterns and symbols, but through your brush library.
• • • • •
Using the Bezier pen tool create a horizontal straight line (1pt line weight). Draw a slightly curved line beneath the straight line, ensuring that the anchor points are aligned to the previous line from end to end. Add anchor points to your curved line at regular increments. Using the Direct selection tool click on one of these new anchor points to select it, then manipulate the handles, rotating in a clockwise position. Go to the next anchor point, select and rotate in an anti-clockwise direction to create a ruﬄe eﬀect. Continue along the line path. Add in drag line as shown in the example, to indicate the folding and gathering of fabric. Apply diﬀerent line (stroke) proﬁles as required. Use a Wacom tablet and stylus to draw gathers with your pencil tool, or draw manually with the mouse. Copy and paste, reﬂect and distort gather, rather than redrawing multiple times. Once you have completed your ruﬄe design select the whole object, right click mouse > transform > reﬂect > horizontally > copy > drag + hold shift to drag copied section of ruﬄe into position. 1. 2. 6. 3.
To check continuity of design select whole design > right click mouse > transform > reﬂect > vertically > copy > drag + shift copied ruﬄe across leaving a small gap. Select and join lines. Manipulate if necessary. Select entire artwork and save as a Pattern brush, as per simple brush.
Note: Always keep the artwork you have designed to create your brush, symbol or pattern, as you may wish to go back and edit it or use it as a basis for a new design.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
1. Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grandpa style cardigan with triangular contrast knit detail. $139 Available in latte or indigo.
2. Multi pocket utility short with ďŹ&#x201A;y front detail.$89 Available in mustard, indigo, maroon.
3. Anchor print long sleeved shirt with two piece collar, patch pocket and horn button detail. $119 Available in indigo or mustard.
DRAWING with Adobe Illustrator
Colours in order: Indigo Maroon Tangerine Mustard Citrine Ivory Latte
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ned b y Ned
5. Skinny leg retro pant in cotton/elastane drill with cut away pockets, ďŹ&#x201A;y front and waistband detail. $129 Available in maroon, indigo citrine and latte.
Colourway A: Indigo
4. Basic 2 tone T-shirt with anchor print patch pocket detail. $59 Available in mustard/indigo or maroon/ivory.
Colourway B: Mustard
Illustrating Details (Flats for Production) When creating garment ﬂats to be used in a technical pack, garment details may need to be redrawn larger scale to communicate exact and precise information to garment manufacturers. Internal structures of garments may also need to be illustrated if they are unusual or particularly complicated. If you are not sending a sample garment or pattern to your manufacturer you will need to provide them with as much drawn detail as possible, clearly labelled and instructed. Some garments may also need to be drawn as if they are hanging and as they look totally ﬂat so that a patternmaker is able to understand the pattern shape required to achieve the relevant outcome. See example of a circle skirt.
Garment Descriptions & Annotations When describing a garment for the purposes of a speciﬁcation sheet or range book, keep information clear, concise, relevant and accurate. Annotating illustrations with garment construction information in technical packs requires the same level of detail. All of this information is included in your technical pack, the template of which you would have created in Microsoft Excel, as this allows you to add in formulas for calculating grade rules etc.
Illustrations above showing placement of garment technical drawings in relation to the croqui.
DRAWING DETAIL GARMENT CONSTRUCTION
STYLE NUMBER: AW006
STYLE NAME: Metro
FABRIC : Pinstripe wool suiting
SEASON: Autumn/Winter 2016 DESIGNER: AJ
DETAIL : POCKET DETAIL
FIT DETAILS/DESCRIPTION: Men’s tailored suit jacket with triple pocket detail & notched collar.
Angled wide welt breast pocket 16cm x 3cm, 2cm angle. Topstitch detail 2mm stitch length.
2 piece sleeve
Seam shaping to semi ﬁt jacket Dart shaping to jet pocket
23mm button at CF 27
Jet pocket detail 18cm long x 7mm (2)
Layout (Flats for Design/Selling) When creating a range board or range book it is important to plan the arrangement of the information required on each page. This is called your page layout design & it is integral that it remains consistent throughout your document. Consider the design elements (line, colour, texture, scale, shape) and principles of balance, harmony, repetition, focal point, dominance/subordinance, unity, positive/negative space and movement (how the eye reads the page) when designing your page layout. Rate information (graphic and written) in terms of its importance to work out page structures & where the most important information should be placed. Avoid overcrowding your pages with too much information. Draw a rough plan initially to brainstorm diﬀerent page arrangements, and to compare their viability. Once a layout design is selected set up a system of columns, grids & guidelines (template) to simplify this process for you, and to keep design components within a designated space. When arranging garment front and back views in a document your front view may overlap your back view only when design and construction details on the back view are still clearly visible. Alternatively front and back views can be kept completely separate, the front being arranged in the primary position, or sleeves can be folded back to minimise use of space. If technical drawings are quite complex, garment internals can be greyed out to diﬀerentiate between the garment front and back. When developing a Wholesale Range Book in hard copy format consider paper types, weights, transparencies and binding options, to produce a document that reﬂects the brands aesthetic. Keep type size other than headings 10 or 11 pts in size and choose fonts carefully. Simpler fonts tend to work more successfully when a lot of written information is required. To retain the reader’s attention a range book should demonstrate ﬂow, consistency and interest. Fashion illustrations or photographic images may be used to reinforce the mood of a particular collection, or to separate capsule ranges within a collection. Fashion Illustrations are generally highly stylised, evocative representations of garments on ﬁgures. Fabric swatches may be included in your range book, or on a separate header so that they can be felt easily (either way they must be cut and presented neatly – try using tape on the reverse side of your fabric and pinking shears to cut them a consistent size.) Range books should also include all relevant technical information relating to your garment designs.
Variation in garment layout for trade ďŹ&#x201A;at illustration: 1. Garment front & back views are shown totally separately so that all detail is easily visible. 2. Garment front view overlaps back view. All essential detail is still visible on one side of the back view. 3. To reduce the size of the technical drawing further the back view scale may be reduced. If adopting this technique make sure that all your front and back views are a consistent size. See following pages for examples of page layout & trade ďŹ&#x201A;ats for a Wholesale Range Book. Whichever method you use make sure that you apply it consistently in relation to scale and spacing. Take into consideration negative space to allow your layout design to breathe.
Note: Where sleeves are long they can be folded back at the elbow to reduce the amount of space they require.
1. Sky blue/white 2. Avocado/white 3. Lemon/charcoal marle
Garment description : Cotton/elastane casual fit menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sT-shirt with single patch pocket detail in yarn dyed check, rib crew neck and contrast front yoke.
Front views can be stacked together when showing diďŹ&#x20AC;erent colourways available in a particular style.
A i cotton
r handke chief
Designed by Ned & co. HC
t i H choi
made in australia
o ed & c N y b d e Design
When designing packaging ensure that your designs show a sense of consistency in applying the elements of design - colour, line, scale, shape & texture or pattern. Designs must relate to each other, as well as working as a successful branding tool. Also consider how much your design pops (what information is most dominant) and what kind of feeling it evokes. Does it reďŹ&#x201A;ect your product range.
swing tag design
style : .................. size : ....................... colour : .............. ....................................... description : ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... price : ..................
sew in labels
made in australia
A i wool
made in australia
Designed by Ned & co.
socks Designed by Ned & co. bear d s he en
ned b y Ned
Garment components This chapter gives examples of common garment components, drawn as trade ﬂats. Garment components may be called diﬀerent names depending on the country that you work in. Many components also have multiple names (I have included some examples.) Check with the company that you work for what names/language they use to avoid issues with communication. Communication with your manufacturer is the key. Garment samples will generally need to be provided to your manufacturer, as well as a full technical pack. Technical packs will include base size measurements, grade rules and graded measurements for each size, notions/accessories required, trade ﬂat technical drawing in black and white only, fabric codes, care instructions, production schedule, construction details, delivery dates etc. In many cases CAD pattern ﬁles will also be emailed to the manufacturer.
STITCH DETAIL PRICK STITCH
RUNNING STITCH/TAILORS TACK
STITCH DETAIL DOUBLE TURNED TOPSTITCHED HEM WIDE
DOUBLE TURNED TOPSTITCHED HEM NARROW
ROLL HEM OR EDGE STITCH
TWIN NEEDLE COVERSTITCH
OVERLOCKED SINGLE TURN NARROW HEM
BLIND HEM OVERLOCKED
FLAT BED MACHINE SEAM WITH OVERLOCK (internal)
SAFETY STITCHED (internal)
TWIN NEEDLE OR WELTED/FLAT FELLED(JEANS)
COLLARS STANDARD 2 PIECE POINTED COLLAR
CLUB, GOLF OR ROUNDED COLLAR
CUT AWAY OR SPREAD COLLAR
BAND, TAB OR STAND COLLAR
BUTTON DOWN COLLAR
WINGED OR WING TIP COLLAR
TAILORED OR NOTCHED COLLAR
HIGH STAND COLLAR
SLEEVES & NECKLINES SET IN SLEEVE
TWO PIECE SLEEVE
CREW OR ROUND NECK
COLLAR WITH TIE
POCKETS JET POCKET
JET WITH POCKET FLAP
JET WITH EXPOSED ZIP DETAIL
CARGO STYLE POCKET WITH PLEAT (BELLOW) & FLAP
CUT AWAY POCKET
CUT AWAY JEAN WITH COIN POCKET
ZIP DETAIL EXPOSED ZIP STEPPED
FLY FRONT MEN OR UNISEX STYLES (JEANS)
JEANSWEAR/HARDWARE BAR TACK, BASIC & KEY HOLE BUTTONHOLES
STAINLESS STEEL STUD, RIVET & GROMET/EYELET
BUTTONS : 2 HOLE, 4 HOLE, SHANK
TOGGLE & CORD
WIDE GAUGE STAINLESS STEEL ZIPPER WITH PULL
ZIPPER WITH RING PULL
CHAPTER 4 Technical drawing This chapter includes examples of full garments drawn as Trade Flats, relating to diﬀerent garment categories. I have included garment descriptions and fabric swatches to introduce the industry language used in a wholesale range book. Use this as a reference guide as you build up your own design library of shapes and styles. When designing refer to actual garments, previous designs and garment construction methods to illustrate garments correctly as technical drawings for sampling and production. When referring to a colour to be used to print or dye a textile use the internationally recognised Pantone Colour Matching system. TPX code refers to textiles. R
1. Rib knit cotton singlet with ﬂatlocked armhole and neckline, blind stitch hem. 2. Men’s boxer short with elasticised waist and front ﬂy. Plain weave or knit. 3. Y- front men’s jocks in cotton/elastane jersey with elastic waist band.
1. Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s traditional style pyjama set. Shirt features notched collar, button front opening & piped seams. Pant features elasticised waist & concealed button front ďŹ&#x201A;y opening.
1. Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nylon/elastane blend long sleeved rashie top with high collar and seam detailing. 2. Cotton/elastane single knit basic T-shirt with rib neck and coverstitched hem/sleeve detail. 3. Polyester/nylon boardshort with side pocket/grommet detail, velcro ďŹ&#x201A;y front & tie opening.
1. Hooded ďŹ&#x201A;eece sweater with kangaroo pocket & rope tie. 2. Screen printed oversized T-shirt with set in sleeve and rib trim. 3. Multi pocket boardshort with topstitch detail and cord tie front opening.
1. Neoprene wetsuit in two tone colour with plastic zippers at centre back opening, sleeve and side leg hem. Multiple seams are ďŹ&#x201A;atlocked to strengthen & guards sewn into place over the knee.
1. Cotton/elastane track pant with rib knit cuďŹ&#x20AC; and elastic waist with tie. Side back pocket. 2. Nylon running short with elasticised waistband and contrast ďŹ&#x201A;uro side panel. 3. Cycling jersey, 100% polyester with zip front opening & multi pocket detail. 4. Nylon sleeveless sports vest with bound neck & coverstitched armhole/hem.
1. Vintage style denim jacket with stud front opening, 2 piece sleeve, tabbed waistband and chest pocket/seam feature. 2. Classic 5 pocket jeans with straight leg and topstitch detail.
1. Calf skin leather biker jacket with exposed metal zippers, silver studs, belt & epaulette detail. 2. Western style shirt with pearl stud, centre front placket opening, long sleeve & contoured jet pocket with leather triangle re-inforcement.
1. Wool melton european style bomber jacket with concealed zip opening, centre front/double pocket stainless steel studs and full lining. 2. Raglan sleeve cotton/elastane T-shirt with rib neck and sleeve bind. 3. Sandwashed cotton multi pocket chino pant.
1. Short sleeved casual shirt with double button detailing on patch pockets. Cotton yarn dyed check. 2. Sandwashed ramie multi pocket short with belt loops, ďŹ&#x201A;y front and double pleat detail at waist. 3. Nylon/polyester wadding/cotton jersey, reversible puďŹ&#x20AC;er vest with centre front exposed zip detail, high stand collar and welt/ stud pockets.
FULLY FASHIONED KNITS
1. V-neck, fully fashioned knit sweater in ﬁne gauge merino wool. 2. Retro style mens button front cardigan in wool/acrylic blend, with rib knit trim at hem, cuﬀ and front neck opening.
FULLY FASHIONED KNITS
1. Polo neck sweater in ﬁne gauge angora wool with rib trim at cuﬀ and hem. 2. Cable knit, crew neck sweater with raglan sleeve.
1. Polo neck single knit cotton jersey shirt with short sleeve. 2. Waterproof nylon zip front gilet with multi pocket detail and high stand collar. 3. Cotton drill multi pocket pant with reinforced knees, ďŹ&#x201A;y front and contoured hem detail.
1. Casual ﬁt, polo neck safety shirt with ﬂuro yoke and reﬂective stripes in polyester/nylon jersey. 2. Basic 4 pocket, knee length multipurpose short in cotton drill. 3. Basic cotton gaberdine workshirt with single chest pocket, long sleeve and 2 piece collar.
1. Men’s tailored suit jacket with notched collar, jet pockets, welt breast pocket detail, 2 piece shaped sleeve with buttoned cuﬀ opening, side panels, double button front opening, shoulder padding, full lining and centre back hem vent. 2. Men’s tailored suit jacket with peaked collar, 2 piece sleeve, triple button front opening, jet pocket opening with pocket ﬂap.
1. Slim ﬁt men’s shirt with concealed centre front button opening, standard 2 piece collar and cuﬀ. 2. Men’s tailored pant with front pleat detail, cut away pockets, jet back pocket with button opening & ﬂy front.
INDEX OF GARMENT CATEGORIES
Activewear Sweat pants, cycling jersey, running shorts, sleeveless vest Casual day wear Bomber jacket, raglan T-shirt, chino pant, shirt, puďŹ&#x20AC;er vest, shorts Fully fashioned knits Sweater, cardigan, cable knit jumper, polo Jeanswear Denim jacket, jeans, biker jacket, western shirt Sleepwear Pyjamas Sportswear Polo T-shirt, gilet/vest, multi pocket pant Suiting Blazer, tailored jacket, slim ďŹ t shirt, pant Surfwear Hoodie, printed T-shirt, boardshorts, wetsuit Swimwear Bathers, rashie vest, T-shirt, boardshorts Workwear Safety shirt, shorts, long sleeved shirt Underwear Singlet, boxer shorts, Y-front jocks
45 48,49 50,51 46,47 41 52 54,55 42,43 42 53 40
Merrin Stacey Cameron graduated from RMIT with a Bachelor of Arts (Fashion) in 1991, & since then has worked extensively within the Melbourne Fashion Industry as Designer, Patternmaker Textile/Graphic Designer and Product Developer (Menswear, Womenswear and Homewares). She has seen the Fashion industry evolve from a time when all trade sketching was created manually and speciﬁcation sheets faxed to factories in China, to a time when industry standards require that trades be created electronically and communicated via email.
Merrin also holds a Graduate Diploma of Education (Melbourne University) & in 2010 began lecturing at TAFE SA in both Design and Patternmaking as part of the Applied Fashion Design and Technology qualiﬁcations available (Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Bachelor with Flinders University). Her teaching experience has allowed her insight into the way students learn and this is the reasoning behind producing “Fashion Flats”, to provide relevant, accurate and current technical drawing information.