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Revolutions 1710 - 1991

Tallinn capitulates - 10.10.1710 After the Great Northern War, Pernau (Parnu) capitulated in August, Estonian nobility and Reval (Tallinn) on 10 October 1710. With the Treaty of Nystad on August 30, 1721 the whole country went under the power of Russia. Russia largely confirmed local law and privileges, especially the Protestant church order, thus granting administrative, economical, social and cultural anatomy. The confirmation of local law and administration resulted in many Swedish laws and decrees remaining in effect under Russian rule. Estonia retained its special status within the Russian empire until tsar Nicholas I started to implement Russification policies in the 1840s.

Europe in 1748

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and the northern part of Latvia (Livonia at that time) under the power and jurisdiction of Russia. Link: ia/commons/d/d3/ Europe_17481766.png

The 1789 French Revolution in Paris.

The French Revolution is an important period of French history . It is important because it was the end of the absolute monarchy which was replaced by a constitutional monarchy and finally by the first republic. That revolution has left “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen“ to France. But that revolution was quite bloody and linked to a civil war.

1) The Procope Café

This café is still located in the Latin Quarter in Paris. But at the time of the Revolution, people did not drink tea or coffee - they only drank wine and beer. The Procope was a café where intellectuals and artists came together to talk about philosophy, politics and revolution. It was in this café that people first talked about overthrowing the monarchy.

2)The oath of the « Jeu de Paume »

The Oath of the “Jeu de Paume“ (also known as the Tennis Court Oath) was a commitment to union. It was taken on June 20th, 1789 in the Room of the "Jeu de Paume", in Versailles, by 578 members of the Third Estate. Versailles used to be the seat of absolute monarchy from Louis XIV onwards. The deputies swore to stay united until they wrote a constitution. Some time after the oath was taken, feudalism ended.

3)The Bastille Fortress

The Bastille or Bastille Saint-Antoine is an important place for Paris and an important event for the revolution. The Bastille was a fortress and also a big prison. On the 14th of July, 1789 , it was stormed by the people of Paris to negotiate with the governor. The governor was killed in the attack. On this day the Bastille building was completely destroyed. It triggered the abolition of noblemen’s privileges. Today the Bastille fortress doesn’t exist any more. It's now the Place of The Bastille.

Personal Photo (Kevin Machet)

personal Photo (Kevin Machet)

4)Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

It is the original text of the French Revolution which established the natural rights for the French people. The value of this statement was recognized by the Constitutional Council. The rights were written on the 26th of August 1789. Nowadays, the French Constitution still refers to that declaration.

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4) The Tuileries

http://commons.wikimedia.or g/wiki/File:Paris_moderne._L es_Tuileries,_le_Louvre,_et_l a_rue_de_Rivoli,_vue_prise_d u_Jardin_des_Tuileries_2.jpg

Personal Photo (Kevin Machet)

The Tuileries are located in the first district of Paris. They were once a neighborhood of Paris. This palace was called the Tuileries because, beforehand, it was a tile factory site. After the fall of the Bastille , on August 10, 1792, the Tuileries Palace became the seat of the first Constituent Assembly. It was the first step towards a democratic representative system. Today the Tuileries Garden is a very important public park in the heart of Paris, between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde.

The beginning of The Kościuszko Uprising 24 March on the Krakow Main Square Kościuszko swore for nation

Link: e:Smuglewicz_Kosciuszko_2.jpg

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http://pl.wikipedia. org/wiki/Plik:Rac g

What was Kościuszko Uprising? The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794. It was a failed attempt to liberate Poland and Lithuania from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland (1793).

Battle of Racławice – 04. 04.1794 To destroy the still weak opposition, Russian Empress Catherine the Great ordered the corps of Major General Fiodor Denisov to attack Kraków. On 4 April both armies met near the village of Racławice.

Battle of Maciejowice – 10.10.1794

Despite Kościuszko's plans, both Russian units entered the combat simultaneously and won the battle. Kościuszko himself was wounded in the battle and was captured by the Russians, who sent him to Saint Petersburg.

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Link: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/File:Maci ejowice.JPG

The End of the Uprising After the failure of the Kościuszko Uprising, the country ceased to exist for 123 years and all of its institutions were gradually banned by the partitioning powers. However, the uprising also marked the start of modern political thought in Poland and Central Europe. Also, Prussia had much of its forces tied up in Poland and could not field enough forces to suppress the French Revolution, which added to its success and briefly restored a Polish state.

Our film about this:

March Revolution – 1848

Why did the revolution start? After the February revolution in France leading citizens and students urged more freedom of expression and political participation. They were increasingly confident. They wanted political freedom (the Constitution), as well as the National Unity (nation-State).Because Germany currently consisted of many individual states, the revolution was in several revolutions in the individual states and capitals (Baden, Frankfurt, Vienna, etc).

On the Schlossplatz The revolution reached its peak in Berlin on March 18. About 10,000 people from Berlin demonstrated in front of the castle of the Prussian King. They demanded changes, such as freedom of press and the arming of people. However, while still a declaration by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. was expected, soldiers surrounded the demonstrators who should clean the place. There was unrest among those attendant crowd, which demand thedrawal of the military. But the force still followed the instructions of the King, the unrest did not tore off, two shots were fired, which were however not intended and hurt anyone. But the crowd felt betrayed. Barricades on the roads to the Castle were built in a very short time. Â

Barricades in the Breite StraĂ&#x;e It came to street fighting. Workers, tradesmen and citizens fought bloody street battles in the evening and the following night with the regular troops, in which however the revolutionaries usually won. In the Breite StraĂ&#x;e barricade men under the machine manufacturer Karl Siegrist defended themselves several times against attacks and artillery of the Guard troops on March 18. After the barricade, ten campaigners were shot dead in the nearby Chamber of Councillors.

The following day, the King had to bow down in front of the over 200 fallen revolutionaries in the courtyard and on March 21, he rode with a black-red golden bandage (colors of the Revolution) through Berlin.

Link: Breite StraĂ&#x;e 1848 http:// Â

The May 22, 1848 in Berlin Prussian National Assembly remained however largely unsuccessful in their constitutional deliberations. The King himself, meanwhile, veers in his opinion again and now tended to undo the achievements of citizens. Standing under the influence of his noble consultants, he appointed on General Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Brandenburg to the Prime Minister November 2. and already on November 10, his troops returned to Berlin. After the monarch had even resolved the Prussian Parliament, he forbade the Liberal Constitution, and so restored step by step the royal power. As well, it happened in the other German States.

November Revolution 1918

Reichstag (Private photo)

At the end of September 1918 the government and then also military leadership saw World War One lost for the Royal Germany. The war led to hunger and deprivation in Germany. Together with the disappointment about the military defeat democratic and socialist endeavors increased. Sailors of the navy mutinied in Kiel and Wilhelmshafen against the senseless war.

Workers of the largescale enterprises followed. The revolt spread quickly in Germany. The danger that workers being on strike and mutinying soldiers could storm the government sector in Berlin grew on the highlight of the revolutionary atmosphere, on November 9th, 1918. To calm the situation and avoid a civil war, the German Chancellor Prince Max von Baden announced the abdication of the emperor Wilhelm II.

The throne renunciation of the emperor and the proclamation of the republic on 9th of November complied with the political wishes of many Germans. Despite all efforts around checking of further revolutionary endeavors, the almost peaceful revolution took a radical and bloody turn. The January fights in 1919 („Spartakusaufstand“) forced a socialist council dictatorship after the example of the Russian October Revolution. However, supporters of a parliamentary democracy decided the power struggle for themselves until spring 1919. Different political, economic crises and the fact that the Germans are not used living in a democracy („A democracy without any democratically thinking folk“) took responsible that the first democracy in Germany failed. Link: wiki/ File:Ausrufung_Republik_ Scheidemann.jpg

January 1919 in the newspaper district in front of the Mosse House ( where the “Daily Paper� (Tageblatt) was printed. Assenmacher, Berlin-Mitte_Mossehaus.jpg


On July 18th, 1936, when the Spanish Civil War broke out, there was a coup of right-wing Spanish groups starting in Morocco. The news generated a mass mobilisation in Málaga and a period of armed conflict across Spain. Everything led to a state of civil war, which precisely finished in Malaga on February 8th when the city was taken by the rightwing soldiers.


SPANISH CIVIL WAR MALAGA-ALMERIA ROAD MASSACRE The Málaga-Almería road massacre was a dreadful attack against the republican-dominated city of Málaga on February 8th, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. The city was invaded by Spanish right-wing troops led by fascist General Franco, as well as other authoritarian military support from Italy and Germany. Approximately 5,000 -15,000 civilians tried to escape through the present N-340 coastal highway connecting Malaga and the city of Almería. Around 3,000 - 5,000 citizens of Málaga were killed.

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Paris during the Second World War The Second World War began September 1st 1939 . In May 1940, Paris was invaded by the German and was no longer the capital but became the seat of the German military.,_Paris,_Parade_deutscher_Soldaten.jpg,_Paris,_deutsche_Parole_am_Bourbon-Palast.jpg

On 18 June 1940, Adolf Hitler visited Paris for the first time, he visited places like Opera, Concorde, L'Arc de Triomphe, Trocadero.

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The persecution of the Jews in Paris began in October 1940 . Theodor Dannecker a German representative in Paris ordered many anti-Jewish measures.

From 1940 to 1941, the Germans arrested 10 000 Jews in Paris.

In 1942, the Germans began the systematic deportation of Jews to the extermination camps.

In May 1942, the Jews of Paris had to wear the yellow star to identify them better.

The 16 and 17 July 1942, the French police concentrated 13000 Jews in the Velodrome D'hiver a stadium in the 15 district of Paris .


Jews were detained for many days with no food and no drink.

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the Ritz is a hotel in Paris which was taken during the Second World War over by the occupying Germans as the local headquarters of the Luftwaffe.


the Meurice is a hotel in Paris which was requisitioned between September 1940 and August 1944 by the German authorities. It became the headquarters of the military governor of Paris.

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The Vichy Regime was the political regime led by the marshal Philippe Pétain in France during the Second World War.

This Regime collaborated with Nazi Regime, France was divided into two zones, the south was the 'free area' and the north was occupied.

The French administration stayed then under the authority of the Vichy government.

From 1942, all the territory was occupied by Germany.


Charles de Gaulle was the leader of the Free France and of the French Committee of National Liberation during the Second World War. He took refuge in London and created the Free French Forces.


he became the President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 and President of the French Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1959. He became also the 18th President of the French Republic of 8 January 1959 to 28 April 1969 . In conclusion, he was the first man to occupy the highest office in the Fifth Republic. %C3%A9ration_de_Paris

The liberation of Paris Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944. The same day, General de Gaulle went to the Hotel de ville where he made a speech in which he emphasized the essential role played by the French for their own liberation. Lib %C3%A9ration_de_Paris


Forte Bravetta

On September the 8th 1943 King Vittorio Emanuele III escaped from Rome in order not to be captured by German soldiers. On September the 10th the Italian army fought against German soldiers who wanted to enter Rome through Porta San Paolo. 600 people died during this fight.

Forte Bravetta was used as a place for death penalties executions by German command. 66 soldiers and Partisans, all members of Roman Resistance, were executed. Today the area is a garden called «Parco dei martiri di Forte Bravetta» and there is a monument which remembers their death. Among the victims there is Don Giuseppe Morosini: his story is narrated in the Rossellini’s movie «Roma città aperta».

Via Rasella

Via Rasella today

Fosse Ardeatine

It was action undertaken by Italian partisan groups on March the 23, 1944 against the German police regiment ÂŤBozenÂť right in the centre of Rome. An Italian student, Rosario Bentivoglia, triggered a bomb when the regiment was approaching. 42 German soldiers and two Italian civilians died.

The German reprisal consisted in the Ardeatine Massacre. On March the 24, 1944 (the day after the attack of Via Rasella) 335 people were gathered by German soldiers. The hostages were brought to some pozzolana Caves and there they were shot. Their bodies were hidden by the Germans, who blasted the caves. Now the place is a shrine-national monument.


Personal Photos

Quadraro was the area where a search was carried out in 1944 in which 947 men were brought to concentration camps in Germany and in Poland. On 17 April, around 4 a.m., troups surrounded the neighborhood, blocking any way out. They searched every house, taking away about 2000 men between nineteen and fifty. After a few days the selected men were moved to their final destinations. Only half of them survived after the Liberation.

The Operation Whale was held after the killing of three soldiers by the Quarticciolo Hunchbacked's troop to eliminate as many opponents to the regime as they could. It was disguised as an act aimed to the enrolment of manpower for the Wehrmacht. On 17th April 2004 the neighborhood was honored with the Gold Civilian Merit Badge. A park in that area was named “Park 17th April 1944� and enriched with a monument, in memory of the event.

Fernando Montelli’s Story Fernando was born in Rome in 1922 and he lived at the Quadraro district. He got engaged to Graziella, who wrote to him as a war godmother. On 17 April 1944 he was at home at Quadraro district when the roundup started. 1500 men were taken to the Cinema Quadraro.They were redirected to other places in Italy. Fernando managed to escape and got on a train that was hijacked to Germany by the Nazi. When he arrived he was taken to a labour camp where he worked in ammunition manufactoring. Fernando was young and good-looking . A young German woman, Evelyn, helped him and they started a relationship. In 1945 the Allies freed the camp. Fernando escaped.

Happy ending He arranged to meet Evelyn to escape together. When he arrived the Allies had just bombed the place and Evelyn was not there. Fernando believed she had died during the attack. He went on foot to Italy, walking for a month. When he arrived in Rome he looked for Graziella and told her everything about his imprisonment. Graziella understood and after some months they got married and went back to the Quadraro. In the ’80s a letter written in German arrived. They discovered that Evelyn was not dead and Fernando had a 40 year-old daughter in Germany. Fernando’s family understood and welcomed the “German daughter”. They still keep in touch even after Fernando’s death, in 1999. In May 2013 Graziella turned 90 and Evelyn’s daughter came to Rome to celebrate.

Personal Photos

Personal Photos

Women in the resistance Women were an important part of the resistance. They left their role as mothers and wives, and they started fighting for freedom and justice. They passed from inside jobs, helping ill people, to working as partisan's messengers. They worked instead of men, sometimes in war or in the resistance itself. They also collected money in order to help relatives of arrested people. Messengers were young women between sixteen and eighteen years old. They had no weapons and they sometimes escorted rebels.

Teresa Gullace One symbol’s of the resistance was Teresa Gullace. She was an Italian partisan whose husband was arrested by SS. Teresa tried to stand near him but a soldier shot her with a gun. She died taking with her their sixth son, who was in her womb. Teresa Gullace’s story was the inspiration of Roberto Rossellini for the movie "Roma città aperta". In that film Anna Magnani plays the role of Pina, who died in the same way as Teresa. "Roma città aperta" is a film of 1945.

‘ROMA CITTA’ APERTA’ It was a movie directed by Roberto Rossellini in 1945. The most famous actor and actress were Aldo Fabrizi as Don Morosini and Alda Magnani as Pina, a working class woman . (

He was a priest and an italian partisan. He was accused of giving weapons and food to partisans .He was brutally tortured by th German forces because they want he declared the names of his partners.He tried to accuse himself for everything. He was shot in Forte Bravetta in 1944.

The swedish welfare During the second world war 1945, Sweden managed to stay neutral. As a result of staying out of the war; our industry remained unharmed, we had an advantage in industry. The economic increase became very high and the power of the socialist party resulted in a welfare state which lasted for almost 30 years. The welfare state enouraged that everyone should have employment and, according to the socialist party, an equal economic distribution between the people.

Per Albin Hansson, the leader of the party rorelsen-1.html

The party symbol

The peoples home The welfare state introduced a very special cultural era in Sweden, known to the Swedes as “the people’s home”. This was revolutionary for the Swedes and it has affected their way of living until today. The welfare allowed us to introduce new fashion and trends to the entire Swedish society. Everyone was supposed to dress the same way, drive the same cars and live in an apartment that was typical for its time. cinfusion/10287891465/sizes/l/in/p hotolist-gF78H4-e5QpFv-e5QohFe5Qsi2-e5W7wh-e5QnNze5W4eY-e5Qq9n-e5W24We5QnCk-e5QqWV-e5W5yse5W3Rm-e5Qq4R-e5Qoe4e5Qp1D-e5QpKn-e5W6m5e5QpqB-e5Qoyn-e5QnFPehwGJw-dZdhA3-ehwEYAdZ7yFe-ehqXTB-dZ7zTaehwFaU-dZ7yCH-dZ7yLk-dZdijNehwFUq-e5W2uy-e5QqiFe5W3vw-e5W5r3-e5W4Xme5W291-e5QrUH-e5W5vfb34R1p-dZdhMq-e5W8jYe5W5FJ-dZdiGE-e5W8eC-fBYzBjdZdiWm-8CEJxC-cpWwQU5bqGM6/

However, the culture of the welfare state came to an end during the 70’s. The Swedes opened their eyes towards the world and the sufferings of other nations, and soon we understood that every country was not as perfect as our own. In 1976 the social party lost their political power to the liberal party in the years election and the people’s home began to fall.

Demonstrations in Sweden


Many different economical reforms transformed Sweden into a more economically liberal country. You can still find influences from the socialist parties reforms in the Swedish society such as free schools and health care. And students from 16 and upwards get paid for studying by the government.

Graduation in Sweden Healthcare in Sweden http://

The Singing Revolution - 1988 The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991, which culminated in 1988, that led to the restoration of independence Estonia on August 20, 1991. The Singing Revolution was a non-violent revolution, meaning no blood was spilled. It showed the Moscow Central Power that using direct force would be very risky because on an international level, attacking hundreds of thousands of people who are just singing would be very risky. It should be mentioned that Estonians celebrate two different days of independence: February 24 and one on August 20. The term was coined by an Estonian activist and artist, Heinz Valk, in an article in 1988, after spontaneus mass night-singing demonstrations at the Tallinn Song Festival grounds.


The Peaceful revolution The 13 of August in 1961 a wall about 107 km devided Berlin into east and west. The GDR Head of State Walter Ulbrichts built up the wall. His goal was that the people who lived in the GDR should not be able to move to West-Germany. Because of the better living conditions more and more people had moved to West Germany. Anybody who wanted to escape the GDR had to cross the wall but had to count losing their lives. About 137 people lost their life between 1961 and 1989 at the wall.

The Berlin wall fell because the people in East Germany were unsatisfied with the government and the missed civil liberty as well as the possibility to go where they wanted to go. The starting point was in summer 1989 when Hungary opened its borders to Austria for the Eastern Block countries. People from East Germany who had spent their holidays in Hungary were able to flee through Austria to the West. A short time later Czechoslovakia followed. The words got around in the people and a mass exoduses to west Germany began. After a lot of protests in Leipzig and Berlin during the autumn of 1989 the member of the Politburo leadership of the GDR state party (SED) Schabowski informed the public during a TV-interview on the 9th of November about the opportunity to leave the country.

Because of this news a thousands of people went to the wall and „took it down“. This change of the political system is called “Peaceful Revolution” because it took place without any blood.

We are in protest against arresting of members and material of the “Environment Library”

Personal Photo

Alexanderplatz On the 4th of November 1989 about 1 million people were waiting for 5 hours for a manifestation from the GDR Authors Unions of the “New Forum“ ( civil movement). The demonstrators shouted „We are the people!“ “We are the nation!

Zionskirche The Zions church which named in German: Zionskirche was a central place of the Revolution in the autumn of 1989. In the cellar of the pastor house there were propagated leaflets from the environment library and 1000 copies of the leaflets were spread across land. In 1987 the police of the state (Stasi) of East Germany arrested members of the opposition organized in the church institution. The name was ““Environment Library” (“Umweltbibliothek”)

http ://commons.wikimedia.


Estonia regains independence - 1991 On 20 August 1991, Estonia regained its independence from the Soviet Union. A handful of radio operators risked their lives in the Tallinn TV Tower to protect the free media of the reborn Republic of Estonia and to communicate with the outside world in case a war broke out. On June 28, 1992, Estonian voters approved the constitutional assembly's draft constitution and implementation act, which established a parliamentary government with a president as chief of state and with a government headed by a prime minister. After 3 years of negotiations, on August 21, 1994, the armed forces of Russia withdrew from Estonia. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. Estonia opened accession negotiations with the European Union in 1998 and joined in 2004, shortly after becoming a member of NATO.

Clip: Independence Day of Estonia on February 24, 2013 in Tallinn.

Stenbock House

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House, the seat of the Goverment of Estonia on Toompea Hill. The Government of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) or the executive branch is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament. http://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/ a/ae/Stenbocki_maja_To ompeal.jpg


The seat of the Parliament of Estonia (Estonian: Riigikogu) in Toompea Castle. The Riigikogu elects and appoints several high officials of the state, including the President of the Republic.


http://upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/ 1/18/Estonian_parliame nt_building.jpg

Estonian parliament building

Revolutions (2) with corrections  
Revolutions (2) with corrections