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GUIDING DOCUMENT ON RESPONSIBLE INNOVATION REFLECTIONS on the LANCASTER WORKSHOP KARIM - ACTION 7 INTERNAL working-DOCUMENT


CONTEXT The project partnership consists of a diverse group of partners with complimentary capabilities and competencies who are all motivated to address innovation in a responsible manner during this project. Current understanding of what responsible innovation differs between individuals, organisations and regions. Action 7 aims to bring all of the project partners towards a shared understanding of responsible innovation and to the same commitment in implementing it throughout the project. The partnership needs a common language and shared vision in order to work towards effective and successful project outcomes. This document is an internal document targeted to the 8 partners in the KARIM project. It is the first step in setting up a guiding document on responsible innovation. This document will be transferred to an online guiding framework when the ICT platform is in place. It will help frame the next stages in Action 7.

AIMS and OBJECTIVES of the WORKSHOP The workshop in Lancaster aimed to get an initial understanding of the scope of responsible innovation and how it is linked to open innovation. The objectives of the workshop were: • To start from a personal understanding, as opposed to starting from an organisational or project understanding . • Create a common understanding by building on the diversity of the different understandings.


Briefing

Ice-Breaker

Opening

Exploring

Closing


METHODOLOGY Briefing The participants were briefed six days before the workshop by email as follow: “Can you think about stories or bring objects or photographs on what you consider as responsible innovation. Also we would like you to do the same for irresponsible innovation. These stories, objects or photographs can be humorous, personal, symbolic or metaphoric and don’t have to be limited to innovations from the last years. During the workshop, everyone will get 1 minute to explain responsible innovation and 1 minute to explain irresponsible innovation. This presentations don’t have to be formal and can be spontaneous and creative.” Ice-Breaker The workshop started off with an ice-breaker. The participants were asked to complete an exercise in a very short timeframe. This exercise aimed to make the participants aware that a task can be understood differently and collaboration and sharing of information is paramount. Opening This phase gave everyone the opportunity to explain their personal examples of responsible and irresponsible innovation. The EDC intern, illustrator made cartoons of these stories. Exploring The exploration phase focuses on understanding the different degrees of responsible innovation and to identify points of discussion and fundamental dilemmas. This phase was also an opportunity to reflect on how open innovation is linked with responsible innovation. Closing The closing phase focused on identifying gaps and next activities.


Personal stories on responsible AND IRRESPONSIBLE innovationS


KNIFE ------------

Dentist appointment ------------

It is a deadly object, but it’s not about the knife, it is about how I got the knife. I needed a knife for a picnic. I bought it for £2 in an open-air market. It was the only knife available.

The NHS does not have a proper system to make an appointment for a dentist. Instead I was given an emergency number. It is irresponsible not to innovate.

Micro fibre cloth ------------

Deodorant ------------

Local crisps ------------

I don’t know the technology behind the product, but it just absorbs all the grease and dust. you don’t need any cleaning liquids.

This deodorant is different, It doesn’t use a spray, so it doesn’t pollute the environment with greenhouse gases

Not a branded crisp but local produce. THese are Anglesey sea salted crisps. I bought them in a train station close to the area.

in car wheelchair -----------I see responsible innovation as all that is useful for people or what is valuable or beneficial. For example a CEO was in a parking lot and saw a disabled person in a wheelchair trying to get in car. From that, he started a company based on the idea that allowed the disabled person to be the driver and drive the wheelchair into the car.

Turn off light only -----------A new switch in prisons. This switch never switches on the light. It is a responsible innovation because it is not only saving a lot of power, it also leaves the responsibility to the user.

User dependent -----------I don’t really have a story for irresponsible innovation. You can categorise everything as responsible or irresponsible innovation. Building on the knife example. It is a perspective. Not all innovations can be useful by everybody.

Travel lodge breakfast pack ------------

This is my breakfast pack from the hotel. I have: drinks, cakes in package and 2 boxes… It is recyclable but I think in most cases, it’s not recycled. On the other hand, it creates more employment by creating more services. But it’s good value!


Liberty ships ------------

In the second world war there was a need for rapid transfer of troops across the North Atlantic. For mass production of ships, there was no technology available. In America there was a lot of technology around welding of steel plates. The navy was able to get a large number of ships, which were vital for the war effort. But the critical failure was that cold water caused cracks in the weldings that propagated very rapidly to failure.

Water bottle ------------

Life straw ------------

I am interested in food. responsibility for me is about packaging and reducing it. When we talk about water, we need it to live. When you go to places and don’t have access to tap water, you need to buy bottles.The Irresponsible side of it is we now consume loads of bottles.

Sterile packaging -----------This is a packaging that is responsible because there is a real need for it. It is a sterile packaging for a needle.

Anywhere you go you can drink water, even polluted water. You can consume the water Through the straw so you don’t need all the packaging.

Reed bed -----------This is an example of a case studentship. It was about reducing the size of reed beds. Reed beds take up a big amount of land.

MACBOOKAIR -----------Looking at this computer, it has to do with weight and lightness. It is beautiful and pleases my eyes. I Would like to have one!

Studentship -----------This other case studentship was about detecting people deliberately trying to contaminate drinking water supplies. This sounds responsible on the surface. But the person suggesting this was in his 90s. He got his own company to do it. Would it be fair to the student? And also I think the technology is developed before.

electric bikes ------------

I think responsible innovation is about small and lighter products. If you tell me you can make my computer or electric bike much lighter, but if it uses a toxic battery or even worse, a micro nuclear power plant to operate, I say no because its bad for the environment.


I am involved in a master thesis project for cars. Of course this has been discussed for 20-30 years at least. We have lots of innovations which make combustion engines much more energy efficient. But at the same time making them cheaper than the electrical car. My question is, what would be a responsible innovation? Should we skip all innovations in the combustion engine? Because we know this has a negative effect on the environment. So should we go for the electrical car in the first place, even though the Electric car is not attractive and the combustion engine is cheaper? Or should we make the combustion engine even more attractive to consumers and at the same time also have less pollution.

Ruler ------------

Disposable fork ------------

A plastic ruler made out of 7 recycled bending cups. Obviously this is sustainable because it’s not using virgin materials. This company also used to make street furniture out of waste carrier bags. They also branched out to start building a “third world house”. The house is made out of the recycled bags too. It is cheap and efficient housing and saves lives in third world countries.

I brought along a fork which is a product of today’s throw-away society. It is irresponsible because it’s thrown away rather than being re-used again and being sustainable.

Eden project ------------

TITANIC ------------

Different domes where they create different climates and exhibit different plants. I think it’s a responsible innovation because the philosophy is they used reclaimed land.

I think of the Titanic as an irresponsible innovation. At the time it was seen as an innovation. It was offering a luxurious type of lifestyle, a new way to travel and experience travel. Safety and testing wasn’t responsible.

It supports education and teaching about climate, how people live and food. It’s the whole concept of what they practise there.

Freitag bag ------------

Nuclear power ------------

I have a cradle to cradle example from two brothers called Freitag. Years ago they started to produce these fashionable bags.

Unfortunately another sector that has no CRADLE to Cradle approach, and I am surprised noone mentioned before, is nuclear power.

It is made of seatbelts and rubber from trucks. There is only one plastic component that has been added.

One single question open for future generations is the one of nuclear waste. It’s easy to hide for some years. But no country in the world has solved this problem.


Electric Rolls Royce ------------

out of season products ------------

Coming back to vehicles and transport. I think the new electric Rolls Royce is a responsible innovation. Apparently it’s as good as other Rolls Royce models.

One thing that really heads me off are supermarkets that insist on having out of season products on the shelves. They fly them in from all around the word. I have been brought up on the idea of what is in season is on your plate. The flipside however is that it provides local employment.

Why do I think it is responsible? I think If you can afford a Rolls Royce you can afford to drive one. This Rolls Royce is promoting efficiency to who can afford it.

nano -----------We can try to use nano tubes to desalinate sea water and we can do that by using solar energy. If you take the same technology for medicine, would it be responsible to try to cure someone without knowing the consequences? This is the caution principle. The same technology can be used differently.

There is a company that developed a diagnostics tool for developing regions where there are diseases caused by different parasites. We developed something that is adapted to resist high temperatures, is long living and made with responsible materials (recyclable). The technology and the way how they adapted it to the local needs is totally responsible. Moreover, the economic model is responsible. It is low cost for local people and there is another model for tourism in the region, which pays for the locals.

Paris metro -----------If I look around in Paris at the metro and public transport, it is totally irresponsible. It is excluding all people who are handicapped. This is a social exclusion because they don’t have access to different places by whatever means. For people with children it’s very difficult to get access to public transport.

Bananas ------------

iphone ------------

Most of the bananas grown in the world are thrown away rather than eaten. There is an issue there about western demand for bananas.

The quality of my life since I got an iPhone has decreased significantly because I am locked in work emails by having 24hour access.


My Dishwasher ------------

Nuclear power ------------

New Zealand lamb ------------

It uses a small amount of water and detergent. It enhances my quality of wellbeing, it gives me one less job to do. If it ever breaks I’d get it replaced in 24h.

Nuclear fuel reprocessing is a very responsible innovation. Now we are solving problems with waste from nuclear power.

Importing new zealand lamb is better than relying on local sources of lamb as it is a less carbon intensive farming system.

Grameen Bank ------------

Short Selling ------------

It is responsible because of the social impact and uses social innovation and networks to scale it up from a simple idea.

Short selling is a market instrument used by investors. You borrow shares in a company and sell them onto someone else in the hope the value of the shares will go down. then you buy back the shares and sell them back to the person you borrowed them from in the first place. I think it is an innovation because it is making value out of nothing. It’s partially responsible to the credit crisis. While its an innovation I think its irresponsible.

It’s a bank in India. It’s a simple idea of providing small loans to poor people to help them to establish businesses.

E-Tickets ------------

marketing ------------

I printed this ticket myself and I think it takes less paper.

All the flyers we get when we go on the underground. It’s a lot of waste.

Carbon building ------------

poor countries ------------

Intelligent Building that saves energy. It has an energy management system. The appliances are equipped with intelligent systems.

Taking raw material from poor countries to minimise cost and selling it in other countries for a profit is Irresponsible.


Mapping of the RESPONSIBLE

TASK During this phase of the workshop, the participants were asked to map out a selection of illustrated examples of innovation stories on a scale going from responsible (100% desirable) to irresponsible (0% desirable). A neutral median was indicated at the middle of the scale. During the workshop stories were selected according to available illustrations. Preliminary findings/discussion There is a potential for most examples to move towards becoming more responsible innovations. The discussion about the grey area in the middle can mainly be about the context a technology is applied in.


the stories IRRESPONSIBLE


analysis of


the stories


Is responsible innovation about

RESPONSIBLE

Carbon building ------------

My Dishwasher ------------

Intelligent Building that saves energy. It has an energy management system. The appliances are equipped with intelligent systems.

It uses a small amount of water and detergent. It enhances my quality of wellbeing, it gives me one less job to do. If it ever breaks I’d get it replaced in 24h.

Innovations can be beneficial for users by taking the burden of responsibility away

An innovation can make it more obvious to a user that he/ she is responsible for his/her own actions or use


about users’ responsibility?

IRRESPONSIBLE

Delegating responsibility to users requires clear strategies and good communication


Is responsible innovation

RESPONSIBLE

Nuclear power -----------Nuclear fuel reprocessing is a very responsible innovation. Now we are solving problems with waste from nuclear power.

Nuclear power and nanotechnologies are up for debate because of the potential negative applications or unintended consequences

Despite lack of understanding, users trust some technologies


innovation about technology?

IRRESPONSIBLE

Deodorant -----------This deodorant is different, It doesn’t use a spray, so it doesn’t pollute the environment with greenhouse gases

electric bikes ------------

I think responsible innovation is about small and lighter products. If you tell me you can make my computer or electric bike much lighter, but if it uses a toxic battery or even worse, a micro nuclear power plant to operate, I say no because its bad for the environment.

Alternative technologies can be a catalyst for responsible innovation Technologies can bring benefits but can also cause unintended consequences


responsible innovation

RESPONSIBLE

Innovations and lifestyles are closely linked


innovation and Society

IRRESPONSIBLE

marketing ------------

All the flyers we get when we go on the underground. It’s a lot of waste.

Inclusive innovations can force people into irresponsible lifestyles

Bananas -----------Most of the bananas grown in the world are thrown away rather than eaten. There is an issue there about western demand for bananas.

Exclusive innovations can prevent people accessing more responsible lifestyles


The responsible innovation-process

RESPONSIBLE

Reed bed -----------This is an example of a case studentship. It was about reducing the size of reed beds. Reed beds take up a big amount of land.

Environmental value

User dependent -----------I don’t really have a story for irresponsible innovation. You can categorise everything as responsible or irresponsible innovation. Building on the knife example. It is a perspective. Not all innovations can be useful by everybody.

Value to quality of and well-being

Value for mi groups

Value for the


process is about creating Value

f life g

inority s

e poor

IRRESPONSIBLE

poor countries ------------

Real economic value

Taking raw material from poor countries to minimise cost and selling it in other countries for a profit is Irresponsible.


The responsible innovation-process

RESPONSIBLE

The responsible

innovation-process

starts with simple ideas

Ideas can come from good observation

Scaling up the innovation requires appropriate economic models and appropriate markets Responsible innovation is about making products with smaller environmental impacts


process is about creating Value

IRRESPONSIBLE

Studentship -----------This other case studentship was about detecting people deliberately trying to contaminate drinking water supplies. This sounds responsible on the surface. But the person suggesting this was in his 90s. He got his own company to do it. Would it be fair to the student? And also I think the technology is developed before.

Funding an innovation process needs to be responsible


The responsible innovation

RESPONSIBLE

Life straw -----------Anywhere you go you can drink water, even polluted water. You can consume the water through the straw so you don’t need all the packaging.

Sterile packaging -----------This is a packaging that is responsible because there is a real need for it. It is a sterile packaging for a needle.

Needs are not the same for everyone

Needs for good health. e.g. food and drinks


innovation is about Needs

IRRESPONSIBLE

Dentist appointment ------------

Need for employment

Need for social inclusion

The NHS does not have a proper system to make an appointment for a dentist. Instead I was given an emergency number. It is irresponsible not to innovate.

Need for innovation Not about creating supply (and demand) for unnecessary needs


IS Open innovation related to responsible innovation? Following the mapping exercise, the participants were confronted with the following task: “Part of the proposal states that the network is about open innovation. I would like you to map out which stories you see as a result of ‘open innovation’ and which are about ‘closed innovation’.”

“Can you innovate with people outside your organisation?”

“How does it help not to add the question if the innovation is open or closed? If it is really closed, you’ll probably never get to know and than you can not assess if it is responsible or irresponsible.”

“Realistically responsible innovation and open innovation are closely inter-linked.”


Openness as opportunity for innovation Communities and networks can be used to make innovations happen and as a result, innovations can instigate social change. A lot of the literature is coming from large organisations where the question is “Can you innovate with people outside your organisation?”. In the context of an innovation system, SMEs are already collaborating with other institutions and partners. Openness can also be seen as other organisations being able or allowed to enter the innovation process. Openness as threat for innovation The relationship between customers and producers needs security. Technological knowledge can not openly be shared because of competition. SMEs survive because secrecy is their only protection. They can not submit patents because it is to expensive and it doesn’t work well. Is open innovation about sharing of knowledge? It is about co-development where ideas and technologies come together to a final technology. Open innovation happens upfront in the innovation process, at a certain point there is exclusion because you have a client. Why is open innovation important for responsible innovation? Some knowledge will be paramount to make responsible innovations happen. The KARIM network aims to accelerate knowledge and technology transfer between Universities and SMEs. Would it be responsible to slow down the process by withholding knowledge? Who owns knowledge in an open network?


Next Step, Workshop in Cardiff The aim of the workshop is, to build on to the previous workshop held in Lancaster, to bring more clarity on the aspects of responsible innovation. Could every KARIM partner select an example of a responsible innovation where they have a deeper understanding in. This understanding can come from: • Something your organisation participated in during the innovation process. • A strong case study from a sector you work in. • A responsible innovation that has a recognisable presence or profile in your home region.


Reflections on the Lancaster Workshop