RTG Electrification of Rubber Tyred Gantries
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Harness the Beneﬁts of the Maritime Single Window
The day will soon be upon us when a Single Window for data exchange will be mandatory – speciﬁcally, 1 January 2024.
The Maritime Single Window is intended to have a positive impact on port operations, increasing port eﬃciency, reducing vessel time in port, optimising processes, cutting emissions and boosting the overall safety of vessel calls. The fundamental key to this is data transmission, receipt and response via electronic data exchange providing all the information required for the arrival, stay and departure of a vessel and its cargo to a port.
The amendments to the FAL Convention, announced by IMO last year, and setting the mandatory date for the adoption of a Maritime Single Window, can be seen as a positive initiative - one that harnesses the powers of digitalisation with huge potential to achieve major advances in a fundamental area of port operations. It is a step closely aligned with the highly beneﬁcial transformation of trade facilitation by new technology and at the top level one which can be achieved complementing wider trade facilitation eﬀorts. In Singapore, for instance, the Government, in partnership with the IMO, has launched a Single Window for Facilitation of Trade that is aligned with the WTO TFA and the IMO FAL Convention recommendations on the electronic exchange of data.
Not all countries, however, have the level of resource available to Singapore to pursue such a development direction and in general IMO for one acknowledges that there can be signiﬁcant barriers to overcome in adopting a Maritime Single Window. IMO ﬂags up port feedback that identiﬁes the legal framework in their respective countries that can be a barrier to implementation. Similarly, lack of human resources and of a willingness to collaborate between public and private entities. Technology, as IMO conﬁrms, is not a problem. “The technology is there and ready to go,” a fact readily elaborated by BIMCO, the representative body for shipowners, charterers, shipbrokers and agents.
There is also guidance on how best to harness the relevant technology – as exempliﬁed by the European Maritime Safety Agency which has gone to some lengths to spell out the key speciﬁcations associated with a Maritime Single Window.
Experience so far with Maritime Single Window development tells us that there is no one single deﬁnitive template – there are strong bespoke elements in the directions pursued to-date. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of experience and know-how that can be tapped into ‘to ease the journey.’ Collaboration is the key – a message that ﬂowed strongly out of the recent Maritime Single Window 2024 – A Window of Opportunities event, organised by IMO with the support of BIMCO, the International Association of Ports & Harbors and the International Port Community Systems Association – see also p28 and p30.
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There is a growing body of experience on how to harness the beneﬁts of a Maritime Single Window. The clock is ticking on the mandatory introduction of this system and the technology is ready. There are diﬃculties yes, but none in the eyes of learned industry bodies that are insurmountable
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THAILAND TO INVEST BILLIONS IN PORT SECTOR BRIEFS
NSW Ports has unveiled plans for a large-scale port facility at Port Kembla’s Outer Harbour, in the Illawarra, to support oﬀshore wind development projects. NSW Ports holds the long-term leases for Port Kembla and Port Botany. Marika Calfas, CEO, Port Kembla, notes the project is to support the State’s growing renewable energy demand and will capitalise on the port’s favourable location.
Mace ABP Wins
The consultancy arm of Mace has secured a number of new contracts with Associated British Ports (ABP). Mace will provide a range of professional port services across the ABP portfolio, including project management and support, cost advisory and site supervision covering the ports of Immingham, Southampton, Lowestoft and Plymouth, as well as a further project in Newport in Wales.
Singapore & Vietnam Ties
The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) and the Vietnam Maritime Administration (Vinamarine) have conﬁrmed the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to enhance maritime and port cooperation between Singapore and Vietnam. The MPA notes that the deal will explore areas of collaboration and exchange views covering diverse subjects including maritime digitalisation, port state control inspection, the training of personnel and green shipping initiatives, and generally promoting safe, secure, clean and eﬃcient shipping.
The Government of Thailand has announced it will spend US$15bn on transport infrastructure in a bid to boost national economic growth.
Approximately US$3bn has been allocated to upgrade Laem Chabang port, with the aim of increasing the country’s import and export cargo handling capacity. Part of the initiative is to turn the port into a smart port with seamless intermodal and rail links.
Presently, approximately 88 per cent of transport with the port is via the road system and 9.5 per cent by rail. The freight rail hub within the planned expansion works, called the single rail transfer operator (SRTO), aims to increase the handling capacity of rail transport from 500,000TEU to two million TEU per year. It is estimated that this will lift the proportion of container traﬃc moved by rail to around 30 per cent of volume.
Around 70 per cent of Laem Chabang container port volumes involve the Intra-Asian trades.
There is also a plan to construct an automated container terminal at the Port of Bangkok’s West Quay and to develop 29 public terminals on the Chao Phraya River.
“The Thai government is currently promoting several large-scale water transport projects, including an industrial port development project in the
Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) district,” the Prime Minister’s oﬃce conﬁrmed in an oﬃcial statement, explaining that developing Thailand’s waterway transportation network will help boost international trade with Southeast Asian locations.
PORTSMOUTH PILOTS A NEW SMART ENERGY SYSTEM
Portsmouth International Port is piloting a new smart energy system as part of its strategy to signiﬁcantly decarbonise operations at the port and further aﬁeld.
The port, located on the south Coast of England, is working with Swanbarton, ESC and MSE International on an initiative that has been dubbed the Port Energy Systems Optimisation (PESO) project.It employs smart grid technology and energy storage to reduce the adverse impact of ports on air quality.
The PESO system involves using a dual chemistry battery and a multi-level control system that utilises AI-based capabilities. The control system learns from historic energy consumption proﬁles to ensure that the battery can deliver as much stored energy as possible when demand is high. A predictive ‘digital twin’ model boosts the storage
capacity of the battery to fully use energy generated by on-site renewable generation procured from the power grid when prices are lower.
This project is co-funded by Innovate UK, an agency that works to show how port infrastructure can meet the UK Government’s ‘Clean Maritime Plan.’
The partners in the project maintain that most ports will contract with a third party provider to build and operate the PESO system, with the ﬁrst locations expected to be where ships are obligated to utilise shore-based power to comply with policy developments in air quality and carbon emissions.
“Terminals and recharging sites will be required and PESO has a critical role to play in minimising costly impacts on the local grid. It will do this by smoothing the power demand of the recharging sites and by prioritising as much
power draw as possible at times of excess capacity in the grid (e.g. at night). The energy stored in PESO can then be made available to vessels when needed,” explains Portsmouth International Port, adding that the consortium partners are expecting to advance the commercial deployment of the PESO concept during 2023.
Mike Sellers, Port Director, Portsmouth International Port, highlights the port’s objectives in more detail: “Our aim is to turn the port into a living laboratory of green technology. We were delighted to collaborate with partners on the PESO project, which has so much potential for the wider ports and shipping industry. Combined with other sustainability initiatives, the ﬁndings from the PESO project will help us achieve our ambition of reaching net-carbon zero by 2030, and becoming one of the UK’s ﬁrst zero emission ports by 2050,”
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US$50 BILLION EXPENDITURE FORECAST ON GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
The ﬁndings of a survey recently conducted by the American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) indicate investment in the order of US$50bn in green facilities including shore power, clean fuel handling equipment, electric grid infrastructure and hydrogen energy infrastructure over the next decade.
Fifty eight per cent of respondents noted that they have initiated projects to provide vessels with alternative fuels including hydrogen, ammonia and LNG. Sixty three per cent of respondents reported completing investments aimed at providing electric-powered cargo handling equipment and support vehicles.
Interestingly, 83 per cent of port authorities reported that they faced problems in sourcing equipment and other materials needed to develop green facilities. It is not made clear if this is seen as a short-term or
South Africa’s state-owned Transnet has taken the decision to reduce its freight rail network by around 35 per cent. The 12,247 mile rail network will be cut by 4000 miles as the company implements an overall restructuring of Transnet Freight Rail. The decision to scale down the network has also been taken against a background of the ongoing theft of cables utilised to run its electric trains and a scarcity of locomotive parts.
Last month saw the launch of the UK Government’s GBP77 million Zero Emission Vessels and Infrastructure competition. The British Ports Association has formally welcomed the initiative identifying it as a source of funding to facilitate the installation of shore power. BPA underlines the point that, “no shore power project anywhere in the world has gone ahead without government funding.”
The Grimaldi Group has acquired new terminal assets in the Amerikahaven region of the Port of Amsterdam. The 20-year concession deal was struck by Grimaldi’s subsidiary, Amsterdam Multipurpose Terminal (AMT), and covers 200,000m2 of facilities comprising storage spaces, adjacent warehousing and supporting logistics areas, plus two cargo quays. Neapolitan Grimaldi Group owns 80 per cent of AMT.
8 The survey indicates growing demand for electric-powered equipment – seen here one of two electric Top Picks recently placed in service in the port of Oakland long-term problem. There is known to currently be very strong demand for clean fuel powered cargo handling equipment but as evidenced in the Terminal Tractor sector review, featured further on in this issue, eﬀorts are now underway by key manufacturers to boost North America-based supply capacity..
AAPA further notes that provision has been made for funding to help the transition to green port infrastructure and superstructure. The Inﬂation Reduction Act provides funding for ports by making available Grants to Reduce Air Pollution at Ports. This is aimed at facilitating the purchase of zero-emission equipment and technology in general.
8 Following CMA Terminals and J M Baxi Ports and Logistics Limited securing the concession for the formerly public sector operated container terminal in Jawaharial Nehru Port, moves are underway to achieve a comprehensive upgrade of the terminal.’ Now renamed as the Nhava Sheva Freeport Terminal Private Ltd, a US$131 million ﬁnancing package has been secured from the Asian Development Bank to upgrade berths, refurbish yard areas and install electric equipment.
Contecon Manzanillo S.A. de C.V., an ICTSI terminal operating unit, is the ﬁrst entity in Mexico’s port sector to be independently certiﬁed as carbon neutral. TUV Rheinland awarded the certiﬁcation which conﬁrmed Contecon Manzanillo’s positive eﬀorts to oﬀset greenhouse gas emissions through reduction and compensation measures. In 2021, the company’s direct and indirect CO2e emissions amounted to 25,368.67 tons while total oﬀset emissions comprised 25,369 tons.
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Against a background of the Port of Melbourne Pty Ltd planning for the expansion of container capacity, International Container Terminal Services inc. (ICTSI) has submitted its own proposal of how to achieve necessary expansion, based on the enlargement of its Victoria International Container Terminal (VICT) located in Webb Dock, the designated expansion area.
Some might see such a move as audacious but is it or is it just a sign of the times, an initiative which we can expect to see more of in the future?
Going back in time, the priority coupled with new container terminal development in Australia was to introduce a ‘third force’ into container handling. This is now in place with Hutchison establishing alongside the two existing incumbents, DP World and Patricks, terminals in Brisbane and Botany Bay, and VICT oﬀering a fully automated solution in Melbourne, opening for business in 2017.
Not surprisingly, however, since this era the world has changed. New priorities are the order of the day, with the need to respond to a major upscaling in vessel size and to capture the economies of scale that go with this central to today’s challenges. Scale to deliver more competitive shipping and, in turn, lower pricing for importers and exporters.
In the 10 years since Maersk Line introduced its E class vessels, with a nominal capacity of just over 13,000TEU, containership capacity has experienced a decade of the strongest growth advancing today to over the 24,000TEU mark, as evidenced by Evergreen’s Ever Alot, introduced into service in mid-2022 with a capacity of 24,004TEU and featuring an LOA of 400m. In the rapid pursuit of bigger and bigger capacity vessels, the path to achieving this moved on from expanding vessel beam to extending LOA . To put it in context the Ever Alot is 20m short of being the length of four football pitches. At the same time, the host of new higher capacity vessels being introduced, with this trend never more pronounced than today, has accelerated the cascading of larger capacity vessels into secondary trade lanes where complementary port facilities have enabled this.
It is not just draught that has been a consideration here but equally important length of quay line and in particular the ability to simultaneously accommodate more than one vessel with a long LOA. Since 2020 Australian east coast container trade has seen the call of
SIGN OF THE TIMES
8 The proposed phased development of VICT,
vessels in the 10,500 – 13,000TEU range with a length of up to 300+m, and it is clear that there is a desire among key lines to introduce the next generation of 15,000TEU to 18,000TEU vessels with LOAs in the range 360m to 400m. Herein lies one of the inherent strengths of the ICTSI proposal – the phased development of VICT incorporating a continuous quay line that will ultimately oﬀer four container berths able to service vessels of up to 367m in length with an overall capacity of 14,000TEU.
This is one of the main inﬂuential factors – the maximisation of terminal capacity incorporating a continuous quay line – upon which ICTSI has built and delivered a highly competitive proposal for consideration by the Port of Melbourne Pty Ltd and State Government of Victoria. It is a proposal that, ICTSI underlines, oﬀers the lowest cost per TEU, provides for increased throughput across the quay from 3.3mTEU to 3.7mTEU, reduces environmental risk and has diverse operational beneﬁts including for interfacing transport service providers.
Cost parameters are another major attraction. ICTSI has engaged multiple global
ﬁrms to assess the merits of its proposal in comparison to current expansion designs for the Port of Melbourne. Jacobs Engineering undertook a detailed technical assessment, including estimates of construction costs, while Boston Consulting Group focused on market and economic assessments.
The external reports conclude that ICTSI’s proposal can deliver cost savings of more than AUD240 million (USD165 million) and spread the timing of spend over a longer time period while introducing signiﬁcant capacity into the market sooner.
The timing of the ICTSI submission can be seen to be appropriate in a wider context. The last decade has seen a rationalisation of the container terminal sector – the absorption of smaller entities as the preference for larger operating platforms has emerged. Similarly, the development of new larger container terminal facilities, including along secondary trade lanes, is rapidly becoming the established norm. A prime example today is in the port of Santos, Brazil where ANTAQ, Brazil’s national waterway and maritime transport authority, is preparing to oﬀer a new concession – STS 10 –for a 46-hectare container facility with a 1200m berthing line and a design capacity to handle a volume of 1.9mTEU/year.
The ICTSI proposal eﬀectively concurs with today’s development norms and aligned with this the requirements of independent industry bodies such as Australia’s Freight & Trade Alliance which continually voices the need for more cost competitive shipping systems to be introduced in Australia. Furthermore, the approach itself – an unsolicited bid – is not so unusual in that while this is for a larger than usual slice of new terminal capacity, terminal expansion is regularly achieved by agreement with the host port authority which in any case always has the opportunity to market test any such proposals.
ICTSI has taken the initiative and submitted its own detailed proposal of how to achieve the enlargement of container terminal capacity in Melbourne, a step in keeping with the timesunlocking broad-based cost and operational eﬃciencies including the big advantage of a 1.6km continuous quay
Boston Consulting concludes that today 99 per cent of vessels can be handled by both VICT and the two Swanson Dock terminals, and 67 per cent by 2050
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TIANJIN PORT AND HUAWEI TO COLLABORATE ON DIGITAL TWIN DEVELOPMENT
Chinese information and communications technical (ICT) service provider, Huawei, and Tianjin Port Group, are increasing their collaboration by developing a digital twin of the major Chinese port.
The project will see the construction of new automated terminals, updates to existing facilities and the digital transformation of the port, according to Tianjin Port Group.
Huawei’s Smart Road, Waterway & Port business unit has outlined that the planned terminal upgrades will combine next-generation digital technologies of 5G and AI to help support the process further.
The Section C Terminal at the Port of Tianjin’s Beijing Port Area commenced largescale commercial operations in October 2021 and uses 5G and L4 autonomous driving technology to maximise safety and eﬃciency.
The container cranes operate
Egypt’s ﬁrst inland dry port, the October Dry Port (ODP), near Cairo, has selected the TOPS Expert system to be its main Terminal Operating System (TOS).
The TOPS Expert system, designed by RBS, will ensure that ODP is able to optimise and monitor all aspects of port operations in a seamless process. This includes integration with all gate activities and processes that utilise internal and standard EDI, through use of the TOPX and TOPO modules, which along with
The two port authorities of Hamburg and Halifax have signed a memorandum of understanding to establish a new, joint, maritime innovation network platform. As a result, the PIER (a centre specialising in port innovation, planning and strategy in Halifax, Canada) and homePORT (an innovation campus at Hamburg) are developing an “Open Innovation Platform” in order to exchange diverse information.
automatically by lifting loaded containers from the ship to a horizontal transportation system via intelligent robots. Then, supported by the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, these robots are guided to automatic locking/unlocking
stations to unlock containers, before onward movement to the container yard via optimal driving routes calculated in real-time. The planned project will see similar processes developed throughout the port, which is already one of the largest
volume facilities in China, handling in excess of 21 million TEU in 2022.
EGYPT’S OCTOBER DRY PORT SELECTS TOPS EXPERT SYSTEM FOR ITS TOS
the TOPS BI component of the system, control equipment and administer loading processes.
The TOPS Expert billing module will also be used, which automatically records any activity that results in a charge being incurred with invoices generated automatically.
Tamer Kosber, General
Ashdod and Maersk
Maersk North America Maersk North America and Ashdod Port Co are collaborating on logistics and supply chain innovation.
The new deal sees Israeli based start-up companies participating in Ashdod Port’s Blue Ocean for Startups technology incubator, become eligible for participation in for pilot projects in North America testing proposed new technologies in landside operations. The agreement was signed at the Manifest conference in Las Vegas.
Manager, ODP, notes: “At ODP, we have created a very complex environment with highperformance rail handling and many additional services for our customers. RBS EMEA has succeeded in implementing these processes at the TOS.”
The ODP facility is targeting a long-term role as the central
JLT 5G Ready
JLT Mobile Computers, a leading developer of computing solutions for use in challenging environments including maritime terminals, has upgraded its versatile JLT6012 rugged vehicle-mounted terminals (VMTs). The new JLT6012 VMT product comes equipped with WWAN/4G, and is WWAN/5G ready for users that do not have access to Wi-Fi wireless networks such as when deployed in large and/or remote port yards.
distribution point for freight forwarders, Egyptian importers and exporters, and shipping lines in the country. An annual throughput of up to 450,000TEU is projected, with the 400,000m2 Customs bonded area likely to be in strong demand.
Partnership Global Shipping Business Network (GSBN) and Kaleris, parent of Navis, have announced a new partnership arrangement. By connecting GSBN to the Kaleris Execution & Visibility Platform, a cloud-based logistics solution that streamlines the movement of goods, then cargo terminals using the Navis Terminal Operating Systems (TOS) can utilise a preconﬁgured point of integration to support applications on top of GSBN’s infrastructure.
STRONG DEMAND FOR STS CRANES
Strong demand for container cranes continues on a global basis. Table 1 highlights recent sector developments spanning recent deliveries and orders placed. The following represents a summary of developments:
6 Eurogate Container Terminal Wilhelmshaven, a JV of Eurogate (70 per cent) and Hapag-Lloyd (30 per cent), has ordered two STS gantry cranes with an outreach of twenty-six boxes, increasing the total number of cranes it operates to 10. Orders for a further six units are planned.
6 Medcenter Container Terminal, in Gioia Tauro, has taken delivery of three units, with an outreach of 25 boxes, as part of a US$58 million investment that commenced in 2021 when Terminal Investment
Limited (TIL) acquired the 50 per cent in the facility held by Eurogate.
6 A smaller gantry unit, with an outreach of 19 container rows has been delivered to the Co. Na.Te.Co. facility in Naples, owned by Marinvest, a
subsidiary of Mediterranean Shipping Co. (MSC).
6 Congo Terminal at Pointe Noire, operated by Bolloré Africa Logistics, another MSC subsidiary, has received two cranes with an outreach of 23 boxes, taking the total cranes to
SHORESIDE POWER MOMENTUM
Further interest in shoreside power being provided at ports has been conﬁrmed and on a wide geographic basis.
In the US, Port Everglades (FL) has completed a study assessing the capacity of the existing electrical grid and the required upgrades to deliver shore power to eight cruise terminals.
The plan recommended by the port will see delivery of up to 16 MW of electricity being provided simultaneously to each of the eight locations. If fully implemented, this shore power and electriﬁcation initiative will remove 11,366 metric tons of CO2 while also reducing NOx by 75 per cent and SO2 emissions by 51 per cent – or
Fundación Valenciaport, (MSC terminal), and representatives of the Valencia dockers, have visited the Hyster-Yale Group facilities in Weeze (Germany) to test the hydrogen reach stacker that Hyster is developing under the European H2PORTS project framework. Once the new unit arrives in Valencia, it will be tested for two years, working in conjunction with the port’s mobile Hydrogen Refuelling Station, developed by CNH2.
equivalent to taking 2470 cars oﬀ the road annually, according to the port authority.
The project has an estimated cost of around US$20 million per cruise terminal, giving a total investment of US$160 million, with construction potentially commencing in mid-2024 and full completion before the end of 2027. Carnival Corporation, Disney Cruise Line, and the Royal Caribbean Group were all actively involved in the study.
Meanwhile, ABL Group has concluded there are two possible brownﬁeld sites that could oﬀer opportunities to install a solar photovoltaic (PV) plant at the Port of Mombasa, Kenya for shoreside power supply.
Allread for TDT
Terminal Darsena Toscana (TDT), at the Port of Livorno, Italy, is now using Allread technology to automate trucking departures. Instead of performing the task manually, Allread has installed OCR in two lanes for the exit gate operation. Giuseppe Caleo, Commercial Director, TDT, states that Allread’s software is “easy to install and use and the algorithms work really fast and deliver good results with minimal hardware requirements.”
“The study found that signiﬁcant reduction in the local burning of heavy fuel oils can be secured from the use of cold ironing [shore power], resulting in an improvement to local air quality,” explained Aimee Besant, Energy Storage Lead, ABL Group, adding that a 5–10 MW peak solar plant energy system could be harnessed to support a green energy shore power system.
The project was commissioned following the proposed introduction of the Green Ports Policy by the Kenyan Ports Authority which plans for all vessels at the port of Mombasa to turn oﬀ onboard generators and operate from shore power.
RMGs at Gateway
DP World has increased rail capacity at London Gateway by 50 per cent by introducing two new Rail Mounted Gantry (RMG) cranes. The total investment of £12 million (US$14.9 million) follows the operator conﬁrming it has commenced construction of a fourth container berth at a cost of £350 million (US$433.4 million), which will increase terminal capacity by over 30 per cent when operations commence in 2024.
eight. These are supplemented by four MHCs.
6 Red Sea Gateway Terminal (RSGT), Jeddah has received three cranes, each with a 25 box outreach, raising the total units at the facility to 24 in total.
6 The new Qinzhou Automated Container Terminal, which commenced operations in July 2022, has received three cranes with a 25-box outreach, with a further four units on order. The initial 1 million TEU p.a. capacity will rise, in time, to 2.6 million TEU p.a.
6 The US East Coast Port of Virginia has agreed an order for ﬁve new cranes, to be split across two of its container terminals, as part of its equipment renewal plan. An outreach of 26 containers wide will facilitate the handling of vessels up to and including ULCVs. Upon delivery, Norfolk Harbour will have 30 STS units.
Gangavaram Port, in India, has conﬁrmed the arrival of a new locomotive train to boost the port’s operating capacity and eﬃciency in rake handling (a line of coupled freight wagons/ railcars that move together).
In January 2023, the port set a new record of handling 600 rakes, beating its previous high of 594 rakes in December 2022. Gangavaram Port Ltd (GPL) is a 100 per cent owned subsidiary of Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Ltd.
HAMMMAR SELF-LOADING TRAILERS
+ Handle up to 45 tonnes, full handling cycle ca 3,5 minutes
+ Can be used both as port/terminal equipment and as road transport
+ Able to transfer containers from a companion chassis or rail wagon
+ Low infrastructure requirements, no need for reinforced ground
+ Efficient transport over longer distances inside a terminal or port, easily moved between locations
CARGOTEC: SUCCESS FOLLOWED BY UNCERTAINTY AND AMBITION
After what it describes as an “excellent 2022,” Cargotec has entered 2023 with a record order book. However, the global equipment manufacturer also believes this year will be full of uncertainties.
“Current economic forecasts and the global situation, as well as price increases and availability challenges of materials and components still create uncertainty,” the company announced in its annual results presentation.
Table 1 represents a summary of both orders received and sales for Q4 2022 and Q4 2021, plus the full calendar year of 2022 and 2021. Notable results for the full year period 2022 include the
value of orders received up by 10 per cent while sales increased by a strong 23 per cent.
However, orders received and sales are only a small part of the story for Cargotec. In 2022, the company published new performance targets for its core businesses including a comparable operating proﬁt of 12 per cent in 2025 and 15 per cent by 2030.
In addition, it has ﬁrm targets relating to environmental factors, including doubling the eco portfolio sales growth compared to traditional products and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (in the value chain) by at least 50 per cent by 2030 (from its 2019 base level).
The company notes: “We continued to invest in product development to support our customers’ business and promote environmental solutions. As examples, Kalmar started serial production of fully electric reachstackers while Hiab now provides an electric version of all its truck mounted forklifts.”
Cargotec’s outgoing CEO, Mika Vehviläinen, who was appointed in 2013, retires at the end of March 2023, with his replacement conﬁrmed as Casimir Lindholm with eﬀect from April 1, 2023.
PORTO ITAPOA INVESTS IN NEW HARDWARE
The Brazilian Port of Itapoá has invested US$25 million in 10 remote-controlled Rubber-Tyred Gantry Cranes (RTGs), claiming it is the ﬁrst port in South America to utilise this type of equipment.
These new hybrid RTGs are able to stack containers six high, while also using six times less fuel than a conventional diesel-powered machine. The ﬁrst units are scheduled to arrive in May 2023, with the second batch due in November 2023.
This latest investment follows Porto Itapoá recently acquiring a new, US$11 million Portainer, that oﬀers a 70m outreach and will complement the existing six similar units (of which four have an outreach of 55m and two 65m).
DP World’s Antwerp
Gateway Terminal in Belgium has ordered nine new Kalmar hybrid straddle carriers. Each unit has a lifting capacity of 60 tonnes and reduces fuel consumption by up to 40 per cent compared to equivalent dieselpowered machines. Delivery is scheduled for Q4 2023 and the new equipment will replace older machines currently in service. Of the current terminal ﬂeet of 58 straddle carriers, 42 are hybrid models.
Norfolk International Terminals (NIT) at the Port of Virginia on the US East Coast is now using four MAFI T230e Electric Yard Tractors. Although the terminal has an existing ﬂeet of 100 diesel yard tractors, these new units are the ﬁrst zero-emission vehicles in use. They are being outﬁtted with GPS technology to connect to NIT’s terminal operating system to enable location tracking and route mapping.
At the same time, the port has also invested US$1.97 million in a new HCVM XT scanner that has been designed to inspect containers entering the yard. This piece of equipment was manufactured by British security
company, Smiths Detection, and is also the ﬁrst of its kind understood to be in use in Brazil.
The ﬁrst mobile cranes have been ordered for use in Guyana. Two port operators in the country, Muneshwers and John Fernandes, have made a joint order for two Generation 6 Konecranes Gottwald Mobile Harbour Cranes. Local press reports are suggesting that the Port of Georgetown will be the likely location of the equipment and with the machines possessing a working radius of 49m and a capacity of 125 tonnes container ships of up to Panamax size will be able to be worked. To date, only geared vessels call at the port.
If my inbox is any indication, 2023 is going to be another big year for D and D - not demurrage and detention (or Dungeons and Dragons!!!), but, rather, digitalisation and data. This is not new; it’s a wave that continues to grow, with no sign of cresting right away. Ports can play an important role here, but there needs to be a move away from the fragmentation that has characterised data eﬀorts. There is a cliché about each port being unique, but there are many commonalities embedded into how business information ﬂows.
Worth noting now is a review of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) of its Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS), which includes information about ports (among its more than two dozen modules). According to the IMO, “The review process aims to evaluate the functionality of each GISIS module in depth and identify speciﬁc actions to improve the portal and the overall user experience.” While some parts of GISIS
THINKING BIG ON DIGITALISATION, DATA AND INFRASTRUCTURE FUNDING
chains for generations to come…” Planners should be recognizing the importance of information “readiness” in terminal design, with some important voices advocating for automation to enhance ﬂows (which would help avoid 2021-style supply chain backups).
deal with international treaties administered through the IMO, others deal with nitty gritty detail, for example, one module includes a list of reception facilities for waste from vessels.
In the United States, more traditional infrastructure (think about wharves and rail spurs) is receiving attention- and increased funding. The U.S. Department of Transportation
PETER DE LANGEN
The 2M breakup in 2025, announced recently, came as a bit of a surprise, although Maersk in particular portrays it as a logical consequence of their integrator strategy. This integrator strategy implies a focus on providing a larger bundle of services than just shipping. As a consequence, Maersk needs to control its operations to be able to oﬀer reliability and adjust to disruptions that may emerge.
Maersk has been able to grow its integrator volumes substantially; over the last years, partly because the scarcity of containers and shipping capacity made it easier to strike long term
And, of course, that other D- decarbonization, will be seeing renewed attention, with all-important meetings of the IMO’s environmental protection committee scheduled for June. Ports will have an increasingly important role to play here; vessel operations (and port calls) are an integral part of the vessel trading patterns which, in turn, impact ratings given to vessels under new IMO regulations
(“DOT”) announced that around $660 million of Port Infrastructure Development grants will be available for The ﬁscal year 2023. PIDP investment in projects that would: “… modernise our nation’s ports and help strengthen our supply
The U.S. DOT grants are seeing an increased focus on this “D”with electriﬁcation and shore power projects likely to garner a growing share of the funding - handled through the Maritime Administration (MARAD), an integral part of the U.S. DOT.
THE 2M BREAKUP; WHAT CAN PORTS EXPECT?
agreements with shippers. However, Maersk’s annual report shows that, generally speaking, it provides land transport for one out of three containers it transports by sea, while it provides logistics services for roughly one out of ten containers it transports by sea. Especially when it comes to land-transport, Maersk’s share is not higher than that of MSC. There are huge diﬀerences in the service provision of both carriers in diﬀerent regions/ countries/ports. Therefore, it is problematic for any carrier, including Maersk, to claim to have
the best overall logistics value proposition across all important markets.
All of this implies that the maritime service network of shipping lines continues to be a competitive diﬀerentiator, and perhaps even the most important diﬀerentiator for shipping lines. Given that MSC has a much larger orderbook than Maersk, and that Maersk’s capacity once 2M is over is lower than that of the two remaining main alliances, this leaves Maersk in a bit of a vulnerable position.
Unless a main shake-up of the other alliances or a take-over
occurs, ports will be looking to make sure they have a strong involvement with MSC (through TIL) and Maersk (through APMT) in their respective port. This is especially relevant given their increasing focus on either a door-to-door or a more extended integrated logistics service bundle. Ports that already have terminals for both (like Rotterdam, Valencia, and Bremerhafen in Europe) may be positioned to beneﬁt from the 2M breakup. Thus once more, port companies are reminded not to take the existing alliance structure for grantedonly change is constant!
After two years of unheard of proﬁtability in the maritime sector will the players be able to manage their proﬁts to withstand the pressures of the next two years, or have they spent it all?
In the words of Hapag-Lloyd’s CEO, the party is over. As has been noted in this column previously, we are headed back to the old normal in the maritime industry with greater volatility in demand and revenue. The new normal of the Pandemic has not survived that global crisis. Charter rates have plummeted, and new orders of mega containerships are being delayed, and in some cases we have seen containership orders being converted to tankers.
The Drewry World Container Index fell below the US$2,000 per FEU mark for the ﬁrst time since July 30, 2020 and it has done so with a wallop with the composite global spot index sinking to US$1,997.22 per FEU in early
“THE PARTY IS OVER” AND THE PRESSURE IS ON
proﬁts. One thing that is for certain is the opportunist newcomers that joined the market with high charter rates will disappear and we may even see some mergers and acquisitions.
February, after peaking in September 2021 above US$10,300.
The recent news of the dissolution of the 2M alliance of Maersk and MSC will surely increase the competitive pressure for global carriers as they begin to work out what this means for the industry as a whole. Both Maersk and Hapag-Lloyd have already indicated that this will lead to market share battles as they will
MIKE MUNDY THE
In November last year the Tbilisi International Film Festival featured a documentary ﬁlm entitled, The Port that Never Was. It refers, of course, to the proposed new deep-sea port of Anaklia on Georgia’s Black Sea coast.
Undoubtedly, the ﬁlm was conceived in the wake of the government cancellation of the then latest incarnation of the Anaklia Port project, led by the Anaklia Development Consortium (ADC). It did so alleging that ADC had failed to secure suﬃcient investments while at the same time placing sizable and unrealistic demands on the state to underwrite large loans from international ﬁnance sources. The original idea was that the state would invest US$100 million and the private sector the rest.
However, the project was canned - the latest in a number of
struggle to ﬁll their ships. No doubt MSC will be a strong competitor.
Most of the large carriers are already sending out warning signals about their 2023 revenues, with Maersk indicating a drop of over 80 per cent. Japan’s ONE, meanwhile, recorded a 50 per cent quarter-on-quarter drop in
The port sector will suﬀer revenue losses compared to 2022 as increasing numbers of ships fail to be visible due to missed sailings and temporary lay-ups. Cargo volumes in the ﬁrst half of this year will be substantially down with growth coming in the third quarter. It remains to be seen whether that growth will be mild or explosive out of recovery. The war in the Ukraine will likely play a role in helping to determine this. We should also be careful with the port statistics from China which seem to pretend that there is no signiﬁcant drop volumes. Back to the old strategy of State misinformation.
Batten down the hatches!
“THE PORT THAT NEVER WAS”
attempts to deliver deep-sea port capacity to Georgia intertwined with the idea of Anaklia functioning as a hub serving Asia-Europe trade. The closure was messy and the repercussions linger on today. There are two ongoing arbitration disputes from prior investors including the Anaklia Consortium which is looking for US$1.62 billion in compensation.
But while there have been many critics of the Anaklia project – bottom line, is it really needed? Nevertheless, it is seemingly the project that never goes away.
Georgia’s government has recently announced it is back on the agenda again.
Against a background of rising demand for freight transit across Georgian territory, triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, late last year Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili said during a
government session: “The Anaklia Port will be built with the co-participation of the state, where the state will own 51 per cent (of the equity) while we will announce an international call for the rest and select the partner companies.”
A diﬀerent approach from previously with the state as the majority partner this time.
Despite, however, the ﬁllip provided by Eurasian freight that previously crossed Russia to the south diverting to the so-called Middle Corridor, which crosses Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Georgia, the fundamental question remains does the Anaklia project possess the necessary attributes to attract investment and be seen as a viable project? It is true to say that there are many non-believers.
Details of this ‘new coming’ for
the Anaklia project are sketchy. The project has previously been accused of suﬀering from too much political inﬂuence – is this new initiative born of the same ilk? If it does happen, will it attain “white elephant status?”
The Anaklia project appears to be a prime example of where more comprehensive studies and analysis, need to be undertaken to establish long-term viability – not just rushing to respond to today’s market needs. Plan, Prepare, Implement (if viable) is a message well worth taking onboard and which has proved its worth time and time again!
Meanwhile the bitterness over the last project continues with ADC suggesting that “The Port That Never Was” documentary ﬁlm “unveils the deceit of the Government in killing this project.”
NEW BALANCE OF POWER?
The past two years have seen a radical change in the distribution of container trades serving North American markets. What will the position look like when (and if) the market stabilises?
surveys the issues
With comprehensive data now available for 2022, total container port volumes for North America (the US and Canada but excluding Mexico) reached 66.3m TEU. This represents a decline of around 1.4 per cent over 2021. The Covid and post-Covid complications make it diﬃcult to determine underlying trends in demand, but several points nevertheless emerge:
4 Demand growth was slow in pre-COVID-19 2019 at just 1.4 per cent – way below the long-term average.
4 As was to be expected, demand contracted in 2020 as economies around the world slowed.
4 There was a massive expansion of 13.4 per cent in 2021 as latent demand bounced back.
The development of demand since 2015 by seaboard is summarised in Table 1.
It’s very diﬃcult to see what is going from the past three years of data, but what is clear is that some long-term trends are underway and that these are likely to be reasserted in the short to medium future.
When analysing the North American market as a whole it’s clear that the centre of demand gravity is the Midwest –although signiﬁcant local coastal markets, particularly in California and the northern Atlantic markets, are also very important. When serving the USA it is the overall costs of container delivery (shipping + port + inland delivery) that is the key driver of market share.
Within these costs the inland component is usually the key determinant of route choice. Changes in these cost structures are the driver of a port’s competitive position and its relative demand.
The development of demand since 2000 is summarised here. In addition to the pace of demand growth over the period, several points need to be noted.
In the 2000s the market share of the southern West Coast – especially California – recorded steady growth, with this representing a continuation of a trend funded by the shift towards Chinese demand and the eﬀectiveness of low-cost double stack intermodalism. However, the market share of these ports has been falling since 2010 – with a decline in share from 37.5 per cent to just 32.7 per cent in 2022. This decline was to some degree oﬀset by an increase in market share for Canadian ports as volumes at both Vancouver and Prince Rupert increased with greater penetration of the US Midwest markets.
The major beneﬁciary of these trends has been the East Coast. The share of northern ports has recovered signiﬁcantly – primarily driven by New York/New Jersey – but it has been the southern region of the Atlantic market that has been the clear winner. Market share for these ports – Virginia and
The compounding of all these factors means that established West Coast Interests must look very carefully at their actions if the golden goose is not to be (at least) pensioned-oﬀ!
south – have increased from 21.4 per cent in 2010 to 26.2 per cent last year. See Figure 1.
WHY HAS THIS HAPPENED?
This has been the result of the interaction of several trends:
4 The development of the Panama Canal is a key driver. With 15,000TEU+ vessels able to transit the new locks since 2016, the shipping cost driver for East Coast ports has been reworked. The linking of large vessels with key Atlantic gateway ports allows a highly cost-eﬀective option for the Midwest. This is a trend that still has further to develop.
4 The costs of shipping via the West Coast have consistently increased. Detailed data is scarce but it is widely known that stevedoring charges in San Pedro (Los Angeles/Long Beach) are regularly around 10 per cent higher than for New York and around 15 per cent more than in the southern Atlantic ports – a signiﬁcant diﬀerence. Intermodal charges have also increased despite competitive pressures. There is little sign of any change in either sector of the cost chain. The repeated periods of uncertainty with the ILWU/PMA negotiations will directly impact long term decisions on distribution centre and transload locations. The tide is going out for the West Coast.
4 Covid uncertainties caused a reappraisal of established priorities. The port delays were far worse on the West Coast and equipment inventory diﬃculties came to a head during the panic peaks in freight rates noted last year. None of this inspired conﬁdence for long term strategic investments.
4 Superimposed on all this have been geopolitical shifts. The reliance on the Chinese imports model may well be broken for good. If the Paciﬁc trades are to increasingly emphasise south-east Asian suppliers or Indian sources, then the East Coast via Suez route looks competitive. If Korea and Japan increase share, then the Paciﬁc Northwest – especially Canadian ports – become a very good option.
The compounding of all these factors means that established West Coast Interests must look very carefully at their actions if the golden goose is not to be (at least) pensioned-oﬀ!
At the same time as this shift, we are also seeing increased emphasis on other routeings. The Gulf Coast has been a neglected aspect of continental distribution for some time. The former limitations of the Panama Canal and the diversion costs for Gulf calls have long limited demand in this sector with Houston being the major exception with its local oil economy-driven markets driving volatile year-on year developments in containerised goods ﬂows.
As the new Panama Canal dimensions have asserted themselves the combined market share of the US Gulf Coast ports has increased from 6.3 per cent in 2015 to 7.7 per cent in 2022. As port capacity improvements accelerate and larger vessels are deployed this market share can only increase. The long-neglected potential of the Mississippi as a potentially low-cost gateway to the Midwest will also see demand accelerated via these ports.
Another major feature of the North American container trades has been their imbalance, with the emphasis on imported consumer goods there has been a massive and continuing problem of repositioning empty boxes. Equipment inventory issues were one of the major problems driving the delay crisis of 2021-2022. San Pedro ports have seen empty container moves account for around 37 per cent of all demand in recent years, with similar levels recorded in New York.
As lines seek to lower overall transport costs by looking for backhaul opportunities the Paciﬁc Northwest and Gulf
Coasts oﬀer far more in the way of potential cargoes. This will be a further driver in modifying continental demand patterns.
WHAT WILL BE THE NEW NORMAL?
So how will all of these complex factors play out? It seems that there will be at least a signiﬁcant modiﬁcation of the China model, with other Asian suppliers coming forward. At the same time, the relative cost ineﬃciencies of the major California ports and their intermodal connections will see further declines in market share. Also inﬂuential, the boost noted in the southern Atlantic ports can only increase, with the Gulf ports also moving ahead in terms of market share –albeit at the margin.
The North American market is massive and will remain the dominant import zone of the world economy. Given the volumes involved, even marginal shifts in market shares will have farreaching impacts and port investment will follow this trend.
There is a real requirement for accelerated capacity investments in these regions. This will be focused on additional berths and equipment but also require improved water depth and expanded intermodal connections.
These investments are now coming forward. The real drag on development has been (and will continue to be) the timelag between identifying demand and delivering new capacity. The example of Vancouver is highly pertinent here.
The expansion of Roberts Bank for further capacity has been under discussion for (at least) 20 years and remains as controversial as ever. It would be a very brave man who would bet on when containers will actually move through the proposed terminal. We are also seeing delays in Gulf port projects, although not to the same extent.
There is a contradiction between economic realities and vested interests. These factors will delay progress but –eventually – comparative cost and macro-factors will drive the market, as has happed in some ports such as Savannah and Virginia where real progress has been made.
Does 2022 performance among North-West Europe containerports evidence the seeds of structural change? Johan-Paul Verschuure, Director, Rebel Group, details the trends and analyses this key issue
8 Are the seeds of structural change visible in NorthWest Europe container terminal performance? Will Le Havre emerge as the real winner of the events of 2022?
What started as a promising year for container demand in North-West Europe, ended with a sharp reversal of fortune in 2022. For the third year in a row, container markets were highly volatile and performances varied widely per port, traﬃc type and quarter. In this article, we analyse the container throughput of Northwest Europe (Le HavreGdansk range) in 2022. A multitude of drivers, disruptions and diﬀerences make the trends diverge widely across the region. The question is whether these are structural shifts, a shake-up or will there be some reversals over 2023?
Container handling dropped by 4.3 per cent in 2022 in comparison to 2021 (-2.2 m TEU) over the entire range. This brings the total volume back below 2019 levels but higher than in 2018 and 2020. Le Havre, Dunkirk, Zeebrugge, Wilhelmshaven and Gdansk escaped the declining trend witnessed in the major hubs. The French ports, Zeebrugge and Wilhelmshaven proved good alternatives to their congested counterparts in other parts of the range.
Gdansk saw demand in its domestic hinterland increase, driven by macro-economic demand expansion. On top of this, Polish ports were handling additional rerouted Ukrainian port volumes. The relatively good performance of the eastern ports represents an extension of recent trends. Overall, French and Polish ports gained market share at the expense
of (in particular) German ports and to a lesser extent from Dutch and Belgian ports.
However, there is more to the ﬁgures than just these headlines. What is most striking is that the total reported decline in tonnage terms is even larger than in TEU. The decrease in the major hub ports in tonnage was almost double that of the decline in TEU. In particular, laden export volumes took a beating. A large number of empties has partially compensated for the even faster decline in laden containers in major hubs. As a consequence of slowing demand, an increasing ﬂow of empties are reported as being idle, with this putting increasing pressure on storage areas, but for diﬀerent reasons than during the COVID-19 pandemic.
There is a wide divergence noted over 2022 performance. The ports of Antwerp and Bremerhaven reported some improvement in the second half of the year after sharp declines in the ﬁrst half, where performance was shaped by the Ukrainian conﬂict and congestion. The partial recovery was mostly reported in Q3. Also, Le Havre recorded its growth in 2022 in the second half of the year. In contrast, Hamburg suﬀered from long strikes last summer and as a result recorded its entire decline solely in the second half of the year. This after the port reported an increase of almost one per cent even in the ﬁrst half of 2022. Rotterdam also saw
a worse second half of the year in comparison to the ﬁrst half, following slowing macro-economic growth and renewed COVID-19 lockdowns in China.
The decline at the major hubs was to a large extent resulting from lower transshipment volumes. In the ﬁrst half of the year liners pushed out transshipment activity from congested ports. In addition, transshipment and shortsea activity to/from Russia resulted in lower throughput volumes in the range. With St Petersburg having handled just over 2m TEU in 2021 before the conﬂict, the sanctions on this trade were felt throughout the range. In this context, it must also be noted that the port of Klaipeda (outside the considered range in accompanying graphics) reported an increase of 57 per cent in container throughput in 2023, up from 0.67m TEU to 1.05 m TEU. Also, Tallinn reported an increase of 18 per cent in 2022. These increases were partially due to cargo diversion from Russia.
SMALL PORTS OUTPERFORM MAJOR HUBS
Smaller ports (<2.5m TEU throughput) outperformed their bigger counterparts again. These ports expanded their market shares, both as a result of congestion in major container hubs in the ﬁrst half of 2022 and the dropping away of Russian container volumes at transshipment ports. This was an extension of the trend since 2016 and brings the market share of the smaller ports to around 19 per cent in the considered range – a sharp increase from the level of 12 per cent noted in 2015.
In line with smaller ports performing well the share of intra-European trade increased again. Since the beginning of the pandemic in 2020, shortsea container volumes have seen their share of total container throughput increase. Dedicated shortsea terminals have been performing well. The Ro-Ro sector actually achieved even higher growth rates as shortsea demand accelerated.
UK PORTS STABLE
UK ports saw a decline in volume in 2022, but the UK’s market share has stabilised vis-à-vis the Northwest European range. Since 2016, UK container volumes lost ground relative to their European counterparts. Lower exposure to Russian cargoes has recently beneﬁtted their relative performance. UK volumes in 2016 were 23.2 per cent of Northwest European container volumes to further decline to 20.1per cent in 2021 and rose to 20.3 per cent in 2022. The strikes in Felixstowe however did have a severe impact on container throughput. London Gateway was the key beneﬁciary of the strike at Felixstowe with Southampton keeping its volume relatively stable.
2022 was the third year with signiﬁcant shifts in the container market traﬃc volumes and routings. The question remains –as in the demand increase during the COVID-19 pandemic –will these changes be structural?
Demand seems set to remain slow following weak macroeconomic growth with this extending the trend of Q4 2022. With persistent pressure on energy and commodity prices, it seems the era of ultra-loose monetary policy will be shelved for the foreseeable future.
Container demand will, however, enjoy a bit of a tailwind from the renewed containerisation of breakbulk. Driven by high freight rates in 2021, breakbulk was taken out of the containers and shipped by multipurpose vessels once again. With the sharp decline in freight rates, containerisable breakbulk will ﬁnd its way back into the container terminals.
With congestion disappearing as rapidly as it emerged in 2020, it can be expected that the mainline calls will prefer to emphasise their hub-focused networks. The network beneﬁts from these hubs, combining gateway and transshipment, will be even more important given low the ﬂeet utilisation level now. With the large number of newbuilds coming onto the market in the coming two years, the pressure to consolidate volumes will be even higher. Accordingly, the good fortune of the smaller overﬂow ports is likely to be reversed in the short term.
The smaller ports can continue to beneﬁt from increased shortsea volumes, greater feedering from the major hubs as lines focus on large vessel utilisation rates and the popularity of other niche trades. This has supported the market share expansion of the smaller ports in the last few years and is likely to persist, driven by an increased focus on shortseabased supply chains.
Russian volumes are unlikely to return any time soon and this will leave a gap at the major hubs. However, shortsea terminals are also feeling the impact. This will, however, be partly oﬀset by growth in other Baltic and East European ports. Good feeder networks to the Baltics will be essential for hub port volume growth.
The more structural winner seems to be Le Havre driven by its long-term commitment and investments announced by MSC. It provides MSC with another option to route its cargo over one of their many container terminals in the range. The strikes this time were focused on Germany while French terminals kept operating without strikes. If this continues to be the case, Le Havre may be the real winner of the events of last year and ﬁnally realise its long-constrained potential.
8 North-West Europe container volumes and market share 2010 – 2022 inclusive
Demand seems set to remain slow following weak macro-economic growth with this extending the trend of Q4 2022
Growing Sustainable Supply Chains: Short Sea Shipping & Intermodal Networks Conference Programme
Royal Liver Building, Liverpool, UK
A neutral pan-European network dedicated to the promotion of short sea and feeder shipping and the intermodal transport networks that support the sector.
Chairman: Nick Lambert, Co-Founder & Director, NLA International Ltd
contact: +44 1329 825335
Media partners: GREENPORT
DAY ONE – Wednesday 3th May 2023
08:30 Coffee & Registration
09:00 Chairman’s Welcome
Nick Lambert, Co-Founder and Director, NLA International Ltd
SESSION 1: MARKET SECTOR OVERVIEW - THE NEW NORMAL IN AN ADAPTING MARKET
Considering Trends, Market Forces, and emerging Opportunities for Short Sea Feeder Services and Logistics
09:10 Port’s Welcome Address
Claudio Veritiero, CEO, Peel Ports Group
09:25 Gold Sponsor’s Address
09:35 Keynote Presentation
Robert Clegg, Short Sea Director United Kingdom, Containerships CMA CGM GmbH
09:50 Network Development & Appraisal in the Short Sea Sector
Mike Garratt, Chairman, MDS Transmodal
10:05 Building a case for a greener transport alternative for smaller cargo volumes –
Short Sea Shipping and intermodal cargo flow
Michael Rosenkilde Lind, Senior Commercial Manager, Port of Aalborg
A presentation from the Port of Aalborg with the research and findings of the process of trying to establish a new Ro/Ro route with only smaller local stakeholders along with major cargo flows on rail in transit.
10:40 Coffee & Networking
11:15 PANEL DISCUSSION: Post-Brexit & Post-Pandemic: Are we where we need to be?
Panel Moderator: Richard Ballantyne OBE, Chief Executive, British Ports Association
Doug Bannister, CEO, Port of Dover
Howard, Knott, IEA Logistics Consultant, Irish Exporters Association
Andima Ormaetxe Bengoa, Director - Operations, Commercial, Logistics and Strategy, Port of Bilbao Authority
Sean Potter, Commercial Director, DFDS A/S
12:30 - Lunch & Networking
SESSION 2: HOW TO PROMOTE GROWTH AND DELIVER RESILIENT END TO END SUPPLY CHAINS
A look at the changing landscape in end-to-end intermodal networks & the just in time supply chain.
14:00 Opening Address
Michelle Gardner, Deputy Director – Policy, Logistics UK
Logistics UK will highlight the opportunities in the supply chain for innovation and modal shift to benefit the environment and consumers as well as operators throughout the supply chain.
What mode of transport uses Ports?
Stephen Carr, Group Commercial Director, Peel Ports Group
We explore why the true answer to that question defines why both industry and consumers need to think differently about the role and the functions of modern ports.
Practical examples of building resilience into a supply chain using intermodal services
Geoff Lippitt, Chief Commercial Officer, PD Ports
How intermodal, short sea shipping, RoRo, LoLo and last mile delivery road haulage can interlink to provide resilience and enhance capacity for ports and operators
14:45 Port of Antwerp-Bruges – providing total intermodal connectivity solutions
Justin Atkin, UK & Ireland Representative, Port of Antwerp-Bruges
With excellent connections to the hinterland by estuary and inland barge, rail, road, and pipeline, discover how the Port of Antwerp-Bruges provides totally integrated transportation solutions, helping shippers
15:20 Coffee & Networking
15:50 PANEL DISCUSSION: Freeports: Driving change for coastal shipping and the supply chain?
A discussion on the impacts and benefits of Freeports. How will supply chains adjust? Xx
Panel Moderator: Richard Ballantyne OBE, Chief Executive, British Ports Association
Giles Jones, Project Manager, Liverpool City Region Freeport
Nolan Gray, Freeport Director, Tees Valley Combined Authority
Arne Mielken, Managing Director, Customs Manager Ltd
17:15 Conference Day 1 Wrap-Up – Conference Chairman
17:30 Conference Close
17:30 Evening Drinks Reception at the Royal Liver Building
18:45 Conference Dinner at the Royal Liver Building
DAY TWO – Thursday 4th May 2023
08:45 Arrival: Coffee
SESSION 3: SUSTAINABILITY & THE ENERGY TRANSITION – A ROUTE TO SHIPPING FREIGHT SUSTAINABLY
The journey and challenges for ports, shipping & logistics in achieving net zero
09:10 Chairman’s Opening & Summary of Day 1
09:15 Keynote Presentation
David Browne, General Manager, MAERSK
09:30 A Green Port’s Journey to Net Zero
Tanya Ferry, Green Port Consultant, Royal Haskoning DHV
Learn how Royal HaskoningDHV is helping the world’s ports embrace digital innovation, decarbonisation, and new-found resilience. And discover the challenges, savings, and operational benefits to be found on the journey to Net Zero.
09:45 Port of Amsterdam – At the forefront of the transition
Mark Hoolwerf, Deputy Director, Port of Amsterdam International
The port of Amsterdam is a global energy hub, meaning that it stands for a significant decarbonisation challenge. This presentation will focus on how the Port of Amsterdam approaches the energy transition, with a focus on its overall strategy and recent initiatives and developments. This will include subjects such as the role of hydrogen, clean shipping, and the collaboration with different parts of the value chain.
10:00 Lessons learned with shore power
Jacob Bjarkam, Business Development Manager, PowerCon
Shore power is expected to be scaled tremendously. PowerCon will provide key insights and lessons learned on how to best to implement this technology successfully, by sharing hands-on experience from past projects plus the latest news and innovation.
10:40 Coffee & Networking
11:20 PANEL DISCUSSION – Driving Efficiency through Data & Port Collaboration
Improving supply chain efficiency through data, collaboration, and digitalisation
Panel Moderator: Tim Morris, Head of Corporate Communications, Associated British Ports
Richard Willis, Technical Director - Port Operations & Technology, Royal HaskoningDHV
Eleni Bougioukou, Innovation Manager for Energy & Sustainability, Port of Tyne
Grant Hunter, Director - Standards, Innovation and Research, BIMCO
12:35 Conference Wrap up by Conference Chairman
12:45 Lunch & Networking
14:15 - 16:45 Technical Visit & Working Group
Delegates can enjoy a tour of the Port of Liverpool encompassing Liverpool 2, which will be hosted by Peel Ports Group. Delegates also have the opportunity to collaborate in the afternoon working group.
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PORT FEEDER BARGE ON HOLD
Dr. Ulrich Malchow, the driving force behind the development of the innovative Port Feeder Barge system, highlights its attributes and the politics which have prevented its introduction in Hamburg
The port of Hamburg, which has been experiencing stagnating throughputs of 8 to 9 Mill TEU for more than two decades now, was intended to be the ﬁrst beneﬁciary of the Port Feeder Barge (PFB) but a ‘roadblock’ appeared to prevent the system’s adoption.
Around a quarter of Hamburg’s throughput is being hauled within the port area before being loaded or after being discharged – 95 per cent of this volume by truck, although many of the facilities at both origin and destination have water access. This causes much congestion at the terminal gates and on the roads, especially on the ailing Köhlbrand bridge which represents a critical bottleneck between the eastern and western part of the port. It is also signiﬁcant to note the CO2 emissions generated by the intra-port road haulage of around two million TEU annually.
The PFB is an innovative self-propelled and self-sustained container pontoon of 168TEU capacity. Its onboard container crane can handle all container seizes and weights and is equipped with a telescopic spreader of the type used with mobile harbour cranes. The crane makes the barge independent from the availability of quay side cranes and at the same time oﬀers lower cost handling compared to the big STS cranes employed at ocean terminals.
This new type of harbour vessel, for which patents have been granted, even in China, is versatile in that it can be fuelled with LNG, methanol, hydrogen or even batteries, whatever is the preferred option to decarbonise intra-port container logistics.
HERO TO ZERO
When introduced more than a decade ago the idea of the PFB, developed by Hamburg based naval architect Dr Ulrich Malchow, was well received by Hamburg’s entire harbour community. All local terminals supported the idea and signed despatch agreements for handling boxes employing the PFB (i.e. refraining from the use of their own cranes). Local politicians also supported the idea. Without exception all political parties of the Hamburg Parliament supported the concept. Even the dockers union gave its consent by signing an agreement regarding the wage of the PFB’s crane operator. The general assumption was that the realisation of the PFB concept would be a ‘no-brainer’.
Unfortunately, just the opposite has transpired. HHLA (the state controlled and dominant terminal operator in Hamburg), which had already given its consent to use of the system, suddenly reversed this decision by terminating the despatch agreement for the PFB. Some years later, under some political pressure, the formal consent for PFB’s self-sustained cargo handling was given again. However, extra charges were implemented for each call of the PFB at HHLA facilities, which none of the other hinterland modes has to pay and which make the PFB uneconomical to operate as it has to compete with the low rates of road haulage in general. Use of the system and the resulting environmental beneﬁts has, therefore, eﬀectively been blocked by HHLA.
Instead of supporting practical proven concepts to improve intra-port container logistics HHLA has pursued what some might call science ﬁction projects. Angela Titzrath, HHLA’s
Chairwoman, personally announced that HHHLA was to investigate whether containers can be transported by air within the port by drones. In the same vein, in 2018 HHLA began working with Hyperloop TT, a US-based research and development company, on the so-called Hyper Port project which aims to use high-speed capsules to transport containers in vacuum tubes between ports and inland destinations. The ultimate merit of these projects is reﬂected in the fact that they have silently disappeared from HHLA’s development agenda after costing millions of Euros.
8 The Port Feeder Barge comprises a self-propelled and self-sustained container pontoon of 168TEU capacity with an onboard container crane oﬀering low-cost container handling
In 2022 the Mayor of Hamburg declared the objective of making the port of Hamburg the most sustainable in the world. In parallel, also a general traﬃc transition was proclaimed by the local government aiming at signiﬁcantly reducing carbon intensive road traﬃc.
Sadly, while HHLA is 69 per-cent owned by the state of Hamburg, such advice from its major shareholder has not yet signalled that HHLA is open to exploiting more practical concepts like the PFB. In contrast, the port of Rotterdam stands out as the port in the northern European port range which recognises the importance and beneﬁts accruing from environmentally friendly and eﬃcient intra-port container logistics.
Instead of supporting practical proven concepts to improve intra-port container logistics, HHLA has pursued what some might call science ﬁction projects
INNOVATION “NOW IS THE TIME”
Innovation in ports – a vague aspiration, an abstract idea, an isolated incident or a collective move forward? Felicity Landon speaks to Gadi Benmoshe, Chair of the IAPH Innovation Group and a member of its Data Collaboration Committee
Just imagine, for a moment, one port that is 100 per cent innovative and eﬃcient. Now, prepare to be disappointed.
“It is not enough that one port will be innovative and eﬃcient because the supply chain is comprised of all the stakeholders, in the origin port and destination port. It will be eﬃcient only if all of us try to help each other, regardless of the competition,” says Gadi Benmoshe. “For that reason, sharing between ports is very important.”
Benmoshe chairs the IAPH Innovation Group which recently published a fact sheet guide entitled, The Mindset Shift Towards Innovation. The result of brainstorming within the group, the 20-page publication is divided into six chapters, each with a practical port example at the end.
“We decided to do a fact sheet which is direct and very easy to understand,” says Benmoshe. “It was important to show it is not just talking – it is ports already doing something.”
Port managers don’t have time to read huge publications, he says – hence the executive summary provides ten recommendations to port leadership teams on how to integrate innovation in practice.
“One important factor that came out was the importance of collaboration between ports – this is one of our targets,” he says. “Today, what happens is that a start-up wants to do a pilot or try a solution in the port. They will probably have to focus mainly on the ports in their own country. They do the pilot – but if they don’t share the results of the pilot, they are wasting time and resources. If we can share this information and do collaborating pilots, exchanging information, we can be more eﬃcient.”
Already, the Innovation Group’s research and study has triggered innovation collaboration and exchange of experience between port members, says Benmoshe – for example, Fundación Valenciaport and Morocco’s National Ports Agency have been working together on the exchange of information.
Of the ten recommendations, perhaps a key one is this: “For an innovation approach to be fully integrated into the port’s organisation, the Chief Innovation Oﬃcer should report
directly to the top management with cross-functional access to all other departments.”
Other industries have already learned this lesson, says the guide. “The innovation function should collaborate throughout all levels of the organisation. This includes top management and the board to assure that innovation is aligned with corporate strategy and obtains the right funding.”
Benmoshe says there is a very diﬀerent mindset in today’s workforce compared to the previous generation – “but you have to foster it”.
“When you are building your innovations strategy in the port, you need someone dedicated to that. They should be at a high level in the hierarchy, to be heard and supported. Innovation is not only about technology – it can’t be the CIO (in this instance the Chief Information Oﬃcer) and it can’t be in addition to a day-to-day job. Innovation Oﬃcer is a full-time job.”
He would like to see trained ‘innovation agents’ in each department – from operations and mechanics all the way through to HR – who can proactively think about what innovation is needed in their area of work. “They can collect all the pain points and the innovation department can try to look for solutions to them. We are in ports – not in a university talking about theoretical solutions. We need innovation that will bring value. The next generation needs to be trained to be innovation agents and support the innovation ecosystem inside the port.”
Also, he insists, the management team must set aside time to focus on innovation speciﬁcally.
And what of those tech innovators trying to break into the ports sector? Among the associate members of the IAPH group were representatives of start-up companies and they brought some sharp feedback on port hackathons, said Benmoshe.
“Yes, start-ups want to win hackathons but they feel as if the ports doing hackathons treat them as students in a university who want to win a €5,000 prize. This is not what a start-up wants – they want a pilot and ultimately for the port to buy the product. A hackathon may be great PR, but we are looking for innovation.”
In other words, it is all very well having ‘tools for innovation’ like hackathons, pilots and proof-of-concept, but these need to be part of the bigger plan and ports should have a budget for purchasing a solution that works for them.
Ports and port authorities have, of course, varying levels of money and resources to dedicate to innovation, “but still we think that innovation is worthwhile ﬁnding”, he says. “You can do it on a diﬀerent scale – you don’t need to open an innovation hub but you make plans and make a start. We believe now is the time – it is important for ports to start the journey of innovation. You can start with low-budget items but still you have to follow some rules and have someone to work on that.”
DIGITAL AND PHYSICAL
Innovation can be digital, physical, or – as in the case of Lausanne-based Aeler – a combination of both. Two key examples follow of modern innovative initiatives.
Reinventing the Container
Lausanne-based Aeler Technologies has focused on ‘reinventing’ the container. Co-Naik Londono, Co-founder, explains: “Eighty per cent of goods travel in containers and 4mTEU are produced every year. Containers have not changed for more than 60 years and this is one of the ﬁrst discrepancies we saw in the market.”
Aeler, which is based at the EPFL university Innovation Park, has developed UNIT ONE, a smart container made of composites.
By switching away from steel, the company has created a container that is stronger and lighter, allowing for increased payload, says Londono. The composite provides passive insulation for the protection of cargo and an IoT system is embedded in the structure to provide real-time monitoring, linked to Aeler’s FleetManager platform.
“The platform is not meant to handle your logistics – it is just providing visibility so that customers can track what’s happening real-time,” he says.
Aeler oﬀers ‘CaaS’ – Containers as a Service, in a leasing model that includes the smart tracking and insurance. Importantly, the UNIT ONE is compatible with standard containers with the same handling and stacking norms, says Londono.
iTERMINALS 4.0 – THREE PROJECTS
The iTerminals 4.0 project was set up to develop and test a standard digital language that allows for two-way communication between port equipment and terminals’ operations management systems.
The project’s ﬁnal conference featured three innovative projects dependent on standardised data sharing.
Advanced Equipment Maintenance pilots focused on smart tyre pressure and oil monitoring at Malta Freeport: sensors, other hardware and even new wheels were installed on existing machines to enable the trials, notes Jan Willem Houwers, Senior System Engineer at Hyster-Yale.
“The change to a preventive maintenance process is by using a data-based approach to go from overview to insights,” he says. “It starts from getting the right data from the right sensor – can we monitor it real-time, and can we process it for insights?”
In the case of tyres, the goal is to prevent under or overinﬂation, detect and address leaks, and schedule checking and pumping. Inﬂation can be based on the temperature of the tyre, to achieve more precise pressure. In this way, the tech can optimise the lifetime of the tyres, he said.
“With preventative tyre maintenance, you spend less time
on pumping and have less scheduled operational downtime.”
The change to a preventive oil maintenance process is based on a fusion of sampling and sensing, so that oil is changed only when needed. This should prevent equipment being run with oil that needs replacing, by ﬂagging the event before any damage is caused, and also stop the routine throwing away of oil that still has 50 per cent of its life left. “We have been able to stretch the oil drain interval by 50 per cent on an empty container handler,” points out Houwers.
Increasing Energy Eﬃciency by applying dynamic container carbon footprint calculation: Ignacio Benítez Sánchez, Innovation Technician in Energy Transition and Sustainability at Fundación Valenciaport, notes the objective was “to prove that we can monitor and visualise the carbon footprint and energy eﬃciency signature of every container that is moved through the yard”.
Taking into account the energy sources used, KPIs were deﬁned at terminal level (KPI on global carbon footprint per weighted tonne and/or TEU) and at service level; visualisation options included ranking machines by time of use, energy consumed, energy cost and/or energy label, with trends displayed per machine.
The pilot proved that if you have the data regarding energy, you can visualise energy eﬃciency and carbon footprint indicators, zoom into particular containers, areas and vessels, and evaluate trends and forecasts regarding energy use and eﬃciency.
Improving Operational Safety at terminals by applying virtual geofencing: Pekka Yli-Paunu, Kalmar’s Research Director, cited the case of a manual straddle carrier under the ship-to-shore crane. “There can be employees working there, checking containers, etc., so pedestrians can be next to the container when the straddle is approaching the area.”
A virtual geofencing area set-up under the STS cane could give the straddle carrier driver the ‘all clear’ to approach at full speed, or detect a person in the area and sound an alarm that the driver should wait or slow down.
The system used intelligent cameras on the crane and wheel sensors on the straddle carrier, alongside standard wiﬁ and satellite navigation/positioning information provided via RTK Gateway link.
You can do it on a diﬀerent scale – you don’t need to open an innovation hub but you make plans and make a start. We believe now is the time…
Gadi Benmoshe, Chair, IAPH Innovation Group & Member Data Collaboration Committee
The use of a Maritime Single Window (MSW) system for ship data exchange will soon become mandatory in ports around the world. Felicity Landon reports on an IMO symposium that charted the way ahead with collaboration identiﬁed as central to progress
8 The Single Window for data exchange will be mandatory in ports from 1 January 2024. While there are common denominators in system conﬁguration it is invariably a bespoke business
Amendments to the FAL Convention announced by the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Facilitation Committee last year were welcomed as an important step in the acceleration of digitalisation in shipping. The FAL Committee agreed that a Single Window for data exchange should be mandatory in ports from 1 January 2024.
With this date in mind, the IMO, International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH) and BIMCO, with support from the International Port Community Systems Association (IPCSA), organised a symposium, “Maritime Single Window 2024 – a window of opportunities”. The event brought together speakers and attendees from across the maritime industry, including port authorities, associations, shipowners, solution providers, governments and other authorities.
“The MSW presents an opportunity for all stakeholders in shipping. It is a necessary step forward,” said Kitack Lim, Secretary General, IMO. “It is part of our imperative to highlight these opportunities as we are now one year away from the new requirements.”
There has always been collaboration between shipping and the ports industry, he noted – but the past few years had seen ‘dramatic progress’ in this area.
Without advancing on the collaboration front, decarbonisation and digitalisation will not move forward, said Nikolaus Schües, President (designate), BIMCO. “The MSW is a textbook example of one of those changes that is in fact ready to go and ready to be implemented – but of course, only with broad collaboration.”
The main barrier often cited by ports to implementing such a new digital solution is the legal framework in their home countries or region, followed by lack of human resources and lack of persuasion to collaborate between public and private stakeholders, said Schües. “The main barrier is deﬁnitely not technology – the technology is there and ready to go,” he reiterated.
What is needed is political will, a preparedness to see the bigger picture and collaboration across the sectors, he added. “Today, a nation and its authorities may operate with 15 ‘windows’ towards the hinterland – that is 15 windows that the crew need to report into when a ship approaches a port. And that is exactly 14 too many. We need one window, the Maritime Single Window.”
The beneﬁts are tremendous, he said – including alleviating the burden on crew time associated with paperwork and reducing the risk of human errors, alongside ﬁnancial beneﬁts and increasing eﬃciency.
The COVID-19 pandemic did little good to anyone but it did cause a major shake-up in shipping when it comes to digitalisation, fuelling an uptake in digital solutions and a wish to reduce paperwork and become more eﬃcient, noted Schües. “The Maritime Single Window is an opportunity we cannot aﬀord to miss.”
One panel session focused on possible architectures for a Maritime Single Window – should it be set up as a standalone system, as a module of a National Single Window (NSW), or as part of a Port Community System (PCS)? Key alternatives reported are discussed following.
FINLAND: HYBRID VERSION
Among the panel speakers was Sanna Vainionpää, Director of Domain Strategy and Head of Maritime, Siili Solutions, which is designing and building Finland’s National Maritime Single Window. She explained: “We don’t have very large port communities in Finland – the landscape is quite scattered, with a lot of quite small ports.” Hence the authorities took a National Single Window approach to trade facilitation. “Of course, the ports with their Port Community Systems have interfaces towards the public service that we are providing and to declarations, for example for waste management.”
A new ‘hybrid’ version of the National Maritime Single
Window is now being developed. “In addition, we are accelerating digitalisation in Finland and we have a national shared data platform that all the participants from the private and public sectors can utilise and share the data and beneﬁt from that. We have rethought ways of working, roles and responsibilities – and also the platform enables building value-added services for the companies. Basically, we are looking for the ideal perspective and approach for private/ public partnerships,” elaborated Vainionpää.
NETHERLANDS: CHALLENGING APPROACH
Mees van der Wiel, MSW and PCS expert at Portbase, explained the background to the Dutch PCS. Twenty years ago, Dutch Customs’ decision to go paperless was a deciding moment for the country’s ports, which had to opt for digitalisation, he said. Portbase was founded by the Port of Rotterdam, and Amsterdam later became the second shareholder.
The PCS grew, incorporating more ports in the Netherlands, to the point that it has been handling up to 90 per cent of the country’s ship calls.
“Then came the 2010/65 EU Directive [on ship reporting formalities]. There was a discussion then – should we incorporate the PCS into the MSW environment in the Netherlands? It was not the right time then for all kinds of reasons – governance, the way the ports and authorities work together, etc.”
However, the directive led to a better cooperation between the Dutch authorities and Portbase. The Netherlands chose a ‘challenging approach’ where not only maritime formalities, but also Customs formalities were introduced in the Single Window and, in addition, the system incorporated formalities for air cargo.
cooperation of all parties, he said – “making sure everyone got around the table, talked to each other on what would be the best situation given what we have, and how can we make it work. That is how it starts – collaboration is key in these kinds of projects.”
WHY NOT GLOBAL?
A challenging point was raised by the Ghana delegation in the audience, who had heard panel discussions about national systems and also regional systems. “I am sure very soon we are going to be looking at global systems. Shouldn’t this be put upfront so that anyone developing would have that future view? Otherwise, people will get there and everyone will be scrambling again.”
Periklis Saragiotis, Panel Moderator and Trade and Regional Integration Specialist at the World Bank, acknowledged that it might seem as if “we might as well start with something big at global level”. His view was: “We cannot predict the future but this is where it is going. There are a couple of examples of PCSs already exchanging information At the same time, MSWs still develop on a national level – in order to be part of a regional initiative, they still need to be national ﬁrst.”
The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management did a great job in project management and stakeholder management, where its focus was towards authorities and the two PCSs (Portbase and Cargonaut) and software providers, and the two PCSs focused on their own communities, noted van der Wiel. “The PCSs in the Netherlands now operate as a one-stop-shop for their respective communities, for both B2G and B2B information ﬂows, reﬂecting what the UN/CEFACT Recommendation 37 on Single Submission Portals describes.”
Looking ahead, it would be good to ﬁnd more cooperation between the MSW and the PCS, underlined van der Wiel. “There is a lot of governance behind it. We continuously have discussions with each other – when are you having your maintenance windows, when are the message implementation guides being published, when are we going to update the systems? And, when there is a failure, is it in the PCS or the MSW or maybe the authority?”
The success of the current system is really down to the
For many authorities or countries embarking on the PCS/ MSW route, a key was how to manage expectations – how to start small and scale up, he said. “A lot of work needs to be put in place before these systems become operational. How do you ensure the port and maritime stakeholders talk to each other and have a common vision? How will data sharing be implemented? There are technical and legal issues – all need to be addressed, starting at national level but keeping an eye on what’s happening at regional level and globally.”
Mees van der Wiel highlighted: “One of my takeaways for the audience was that in designing the MSWs globally, an agile mindset would be great. Start small, fail fast, but have a vision towards the future where you want to be and make that work.”
In the ﬁnal session, considering strategic partnerships and resources available for MSW projects, Jose Matheickal, chief of the IMO’s department of partnerships and projects (DPP), said that while digital transition was gathering pace in the developed world, developing countries have still to catch up.
“Things are not happening the same in the global south as the global north,” he said. He emphasised that the economic and regulatory drivers, in the form of FAL, are in place – and reminded delegates of the contribution to decarbonisation that MSWs will bring.
The main barrier often cited by ports to implementing such a new digital solution is the legal framework in their home countries or region, followed by lack of human resources and lack of persuasion to collaborate between public and private stakeholders…
Nikolaus Schües, President (designate), BIMCO
TAILORED SOLUTIONS PREVAIL
Digitalisation in ports continues to expand and Port Management Information Systems are a growing area of investment. Phoebe Davison examines recent market trends and activity
8 The consensus is that there is no one template for PMIS and tailored solutions are most appropriate
Digitalisation and the growth of new digital products supporting the shipping and ports industry continues to see tremendous growth with a wide range of diﬀerent companies oﬀering diverse solutions, and notably in the fast growing area of Port Management Information Systems (PMIS).
Information provider, Data&, estimates that at the start of 2022 the global maritime digital products and services market was worth in excess of US$150 billion and within 10 years this total could surpass US$350 billion annually. Big numbers.
PMIS are a key component of this sector and are being welcomed by many ports, as conﬁrmed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA): “The European Union has prioritised implementation of PMIS at its major ports….the Port of Rotterdam is well-known for its large-scale use of PMIS, and the Ports of Valencia and Hamburg have also developed advanced PMIS. In Asia, the ports of Singapore, Hong Kong, and Busan are prominent users of PMIS. Many major US ports have implemented PMIS, to varying extents, including the Port of Virginia, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Port of Oakland, the Port of Los Angeles and the Northwest Seaport Alliance.”
TAKING THE PLUNGE
There are a number of notable recent examples of ports taking the plunge and implementing PMIS, as the following examples conﬁrm:
6 The Port of Baku, Azerbaijan, is implementing a PMIS and expects the beneﬁts to deliver optimised use of the port’s terminal operational areas, leading to lower operating costs and increased speed and eﬃciency of data exchange between all freight processing parties. Other supporting beneﬁts include reduced paper usage, speeding up of interaction processes and increasing data accuracy
6 Malaysia’s Port of Tanjung Pelepas has deployed Innovez One’s AI-powered PMIS, dubbed MarineM. The introduction of MarineM provides an interface where port agents can register vessels and order services to support ship arrivals (such as supplies and marine services), with machinelearning algorithms using a planning module to automatically manage schedules and ship resources. As opposed to manual planning, the AI-powered system is able to instantly reallocate resources if a vessel’s ETA changes, thereby limiting waiting times and making the Port of Tanjung Pelepas more resilient in the face of congestion.
6 Brunei Darussalam, provider of pilotage and towage services for the port of Muara, Brunei, has also deployed MarineM to fully digitise and optimise all marine services for vessels arriving and departing the port. The digital platform replaces paper-based processes to capture job requests, track the progress of each job in real time, and generate invoices automatically.
6 In the UK, Associated British Ports is continuing to introduce vessel traﬃc services and port management information systems across all 21 of its ports following a deal signed with Wärtsilä, through the Wärtsilä Voyage digital software arm. Due for delivery before April 2023, the Port of Southampton will be using wide-ranging software applications. These include just-in-time (JIT) arrival monitoring and scheduling, machine learning algorithms and artiﬁcial intelligence applications to support operational eﬃciencies.
6 PORTIC, the port community system (PCS) of the Port Community of Barcelona, has released a new technological platform targeting both the capacity and speed of processing of operations and cybersecurity, in order to optimise
PORT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CompanyHeadquarters/Key LocationPMIS Product(s)
Caribbean Software SolutionsSt. Maarten, CaribbeanPort Management System
EmprossAthens, GreeceIntegrated Port Management System
Experion MaritimeMijnsheerenland, NetherlandsxPort® GISGROJyväskylä, FinlandPort Management & Digitalisation
Innovez PartnersSingaporePort Management Insights (PMIn-sightsTM)
IrugasaHong Kong / Shanghai, ChinaIrugasa PMIS
Klein Systems Group Ltd Burnaby (BC), CanadaKleinport KongsbergKongsberg, NorwayC-Scope
Leonardo CompanyRoma, ItalyI-Port
NASH MaritimeSouthampton, UKSEE PANEL: TAILORED SOLUTIONS
Sercel ConceptNantes, FranceMarlin Smart
TransasMumbai, IndiaTransas PMIS
performance, security and resilience. The project represents a US$5.3 million investment by the port to refurbish PORTIC’s technological infrastructure, after more than 10 years in use, with the aim of providing electronic document interchanges while including new AI technologies.
So, there is demand from the port industry for PMIS, but which companies are providing the products?
Table 1 highlights a cross section of the companies currently oﬀering PMIS solutions to ports. While the list is not exhaustive, it nevertheless conﬁrms that the requirement to supply PMIS is global, with the geographic range of companies located throughout Europe, Scandinavia, India, Asia and North America.
“NOTHING IS PERMANENT EXCEPT CHANGE”
This well-known quotation from Greek philosopher Heraclitus is one that Experion Maritime quotes in relation to its port
management information system. In a similar vein, Sercel Concept adopts an equally pertinent description of its Marlin Smart PMIS oﬀering: “Automate the mundane so you can focus on the important.”
With more than 5000 commercial ports operating globally, according to Data&, there are a high number of opportunities for companies oﬀering PMIS products, even allowing for removal of hype from reality regarding potential. The market is growing, but so is the need for these solutions.
Although probably better known as a former vehicle manufacturer and builder of ﬁghter jets, Saab underlines why integrated solutions for maritime users on a global basis are needed in order to ensure eﬃciently run ports, to overcome current challenges: “At present 30 per cent of shipments are delayed, 25 per cent of trucks on the road are empty and each transaction in the supply-chain can involve up to 28 parties.”
Tailored and Modular Solutions: Not One Size Fits All
Ports are implementing PMIS, but it is not uniform, as Chris Hutchings, Technology
Business Lead, NASH Maritime, explains:
“We see diﬀering levels of integration between port management information systems and vessel traﬃc services at diﬀerent ports, varying from full integration to almost full separation.
The latter case is typically related to historical use of systems which were not well integrated or took signiﬁcant resource/time to connect/integrate. With more modern software developments these issues are receding, they allow simpler and slicker integration of systems, from individual but also from multiple software providers.”
However, there are both risks and rewards in this sector, as Hutchings explains: “Making the right technology decision is challenging;
getting it wrong can impact budget, delivery and reputation. Typically, we ensure those with responsibility for navigation have the right hardware, software and systems in place to manage vessel traﬃc and marine operations safely.”
NASH Maritime acknowledges the true importance of this ever-growing area of activity, but accepts there is still some way to go: “Port digitalisation is recognised worldwide as a necessity to support global trade, to improve eﬃciency and transparency, reduce risks, enhance security and optimise shipping logistics to reduce costs and fuel consumption and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The process is underway, but it is an evolution, not a revolution, in part because maritime trade is global and digital
communications need harmonisation, collaboration and coordination across international borders.”
Hutchings further adds that ports need to see the beneﬁts of digitalisation to their operations and situation, and this means provision of tailored solutions which meet their needs rather than a simple one size ﬁts all solution.
Modularity is an approach fully endorsed by NASH Maritime. “We are seeing many clients recognising the beneﬁts of modular port management information systems which can be provided to deliver what they need today, with capacity to add more features/ functionality in future. Modern API links to external data sources and applications are now core requirements which further support a ﬂexible approach,” explains Hutchings.8 Table 1: Summary of Companies Providing PMIS Solutions
DOWN BUT NOT OUT?
The APMT Itajai terminal lives on but the clock is ticking. Is revival a realistic prospect in the face of tough competition? Rob Ward investigates
APM Terminals Itajai has come back from the dead since December and January and is now adding more container capacity back into the ﬁerce competition for liner calls that exists in the southern states of Brazil: a market that was worth 4.18m TEU last year.
Along with Portonave, APMT’s MSC-backed terminal rival across the River Itajai Acu, the duo comprise the Itajai Port Complex (IPC) and used to share around a million TEU annually. Nowadays, however, Portonave handles more than one million TEU alone with APMT landing zero containers in January of this year. The IPC has for many years been dubbed the Chicken Export capital of the world, because of its strong presence in the export of the white meat, and its status as the No 2 Brazilian port for boxes overall; after Santos.
The duo face competition for container traﬃc from three other sources, Porto Itapoa (in which Maersk group has a 30 per cent share), Rio Grande, in the far south of the state of the same name, and also Paranagua to the north.
With the little-known Rio Grande company CTIL last year winning a concession to run boxes out of Itajai after a lacklustre concession process, ANTAQ (the authority for Brazilian waterways) stepped in to cancel the concession, leaving the Itajai Port Authority (IPA) and APMT Itajai to thrash out some kind of deal and keep boxes in the game in the port of Itajai.
“CTIL had no experience of running a container terminal and were not suitable for Itajai and afterwards the IPA had to
virtually beg APMT to stay and gave them very good terms,” said one reliable source.
APMT Itajai has agreed to stay on until the end of the year and announced in February a brand-new service – from CTM, a Panamanian shipowner – linking the port of Montevideo, Uruguay, with Cartagena (Colombia) and Santiago de Cuba and Mariel, via Itajai and Paranagua.
“The arrival of this service marks the resumption of container handling at the Port of Itajai,” asserted Volnei Morastoni, the Mayor of the City of Itajai, which still controls port management until a new bid can be organised. The port also had two breakbulk vessels and one ro-ro vessel calling in January but the CTM vessel was the ﬁrst one this year with containers.
A PROCESS OF EROSION
APMT Itajai’s woes began a few years ago when its 21-year concession contract was coming up for renewal. The Danish company had been a major player in the Brazilian south container market – especially under the guidance of longtime CEO Walter Joos and Ricardo Arten – and had built up a strong operation, especially for chicken and pork shippers, who enjoyed the use of more than 11,000 reefer plugs in the IPC environs and hinterland.
Owing, however, to the uncertainty over two concession renewals that expired last year – both for APMT Itajai and the port authority itself which remains under auspices of Itajai
City council - several services gravitated from the Danishowned outﬁt to local rival Portonave. This latter terminal handled 1.15mTEU in 2022, up 4.8 per cent, according to Brazilian national waterborne traﬃc agency, ANTAQ. Porto Itapoa, which opened in 2011 saw a throughput of 885,822TEU last year, a 14.3 per cent increase over the previous year) and Terminal de Conteineres de Paranagua - TCP (owned by China Merchants Port Holdings, or CMPort) handled 1.16m TEU in 2022, up from 1.1mTEU in 2021
Robert Grantham, is a Director with the rapidly expanding Solve Shipping consultancy, and was once the Commercial Director at the Itajai Port Authority (IPA, from January 2009 to December 2012) and also used to be Brazil Country Manager for China Shipping. He lives in Navegantes and has the port of Itajai and its interests close to his heart and is deeply saddened by its demise.
“By January of this year all the regular liner services had ﬂed Itajai because of the uncertainty,” laments Grantham. “Productivity is also low because the equipment is now old and almost obsolete. Because of these ineﬃciencies many carriers are now choosing Portonave across the River, or Porto Itapoa to the north.
“It’s a very sad sight to see when you drive past the port, there are just a handful of containers to be seen. In January I believe the number of boxes moved at the APMT Itajai terminal was absolutely Zero.”
Another port consultant who keeps a close eye on southern Brazil additionally notes: “Although Itajai is open for business again I am not sure it will be possible to regain their lost services as, by now, those carriers and their shipper clients will have signed new contracts, probably for a minimum of one year. The only chance Itajai has is if Maersk, for political and/or diplomatic reasons, decides to switch one or two services back from Itapoa. It only has a 30 per cent equity stake in Itapoa and it would increase its standing in Santa Catarina and Brasilia but from an economic and logistics point of view such a switch would not make sense.”
Many 1000s of boxes from Itajai have found their way to TCP, located in the state of Parana (home of the famous Foz do Iguacu waterfalls), which has targeted cargoes from the interior of the state of Santa Catarina, that traditionally have only ever used Itajai. Indeed, a few years ago, TCP, located just 100 nautical miles from Itajai, took over the “chicken” mantle for a time. Theoretically, however, the near term could see the IPC steam into pole position again if APMT Itajai can entice back some more regular liner calls. But clearly there is a lot to be done before this can happen.
TCP has also gained from a new MSC service to the USEC, to ship forest products, which started in 2020.
Just as Itajai saw its throughput fall a massive 32 per cent from 517,541TEU down to just 350,083TEU in 2022, the market share of South Brazilian containers at APMT fell from 12 per cent to 8 per cent.
APMT Itajai management told Port Strategy that the new CTM service will call at least once a month and it hoped to win back some of its lost services.
TCP, utilising its logistics arm, TCP Log, has also been a major beneﬁciary of Itajai’s decline and saw its market share increase from 26 per cent to 28 per cent between 2021 and 2022 (up 6.7 per cent from 1.1m TEU to 1.162m TEU) but these are boxes mostly transferred via truck rather than new services transferred over from Itajai. The big winners in that regard are Itapoa and Portonave (Navegantes).
According to Solve Shipping a total of nine service calls have departed Itajai since the start of last year including Maersk’s
SOUTHERN BRAZIL: CONTAINER HANDLING
Asia service (average of 8800TEU ships) which switched to Itapoa both its north and southbound calls; CMA CGM/ Hapag Lloyd’s Africa service (2850TEU vessels) and Brasex (CMA CGM and Cosco with 3100TEU) both switched to Navegantes. Other deep-sea services just cut Itajai and added extra boxes to the two closest rivals.
In terms of coastal services: the Atlantico Sul (2600TEU) and Amazonas (2500TEU) and (MSC’s Brazilian ﬂag carrier Log In Logistica and CMA CGM’s Mercosul Line), switched to Navegantes and Itapoa, respectively.
The demise of Rio Grande, where Wilson, Sons operates the Tecon Rio Grande (TRG) terminal, has also been a key factor in the pendulum swing of cargo moves in southern Brazilian ports. TRG handled 517,665TEU in 2022, giving it a 19.6 per cent slump over 2021 ﬁgures, the second biggest fall in all Brazil.
Various sources and consultancies put this down largely to “blank sailings and cancelled calls” plus “bad weather.” TRG suﬀers in that it is at the “end of the line” in Brazil in terms of international carriers’ liner schedules so when bad weather or congestion at earlier (often more important) ports causes delays the easiest way to get back on schedule is to cancel the ﬁnal run from, say, TCP/IPC/Itapoa or even from Santos and turnaround at one of these locations.
It is notable that in 2022 of 415 scheduled services for TRG 150 were blank sailings, which is more than a third, compared to 154 out 702 for Navegantes (just 20 per cent).
What is clear that the trend away from Rio Grande looks set to continue for the rest of this year and Itajai’s situation looks very diﬃcult and will depend on Maersk and whether it acts to help the Itajai port community. Conversely, as long as they can ﬁnd the space, Itapoa, TCP and Portonave look set to continue building their throughput.8 Top: Southern Brazilian container port throughput 2021-2022 by TEU Above: Southern Brazil container facility market share – 2021 and 2022
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AZERBAIJAN: TAPPING TRANSIT POTENTIAL
BAKU BUILDS BIG
The Port of Baku is on an expansion path with capturing new transit cargo ﬂows at the heart of this. Oleksandr Gavrylyuk identiﬁes the drivers and details the plans
Moscow’s brutal war in Ukraine and its growing international isolation have led many global traders and logistics operators to bypass Russia and look for alternative ways of transporting cargoes between Europe and Asia.
In this context, Azerbaijan, a South-Caucasian nation located at the crossroads of longitudinal and latitudinal transport routes, seems to be determined to get the most out of its position on the world map.
In January this year, when speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Azerbaijan’s President, Ilham Aliyev, unveiled his country’s plans to almost double the annual capacity of its principal Caspian sea-gate, the Baku International Sea Trade Port (Port of Baku). The intention is to raise annual capacity from the present level of 15mt/yr to 25mt/yr over the near term.
The Port of Baku is instrumental in handling the evergrowing trans-Caucasian cargo traﬃc, being an integral part of the Trans-Caspian International Transport Route (TITR or the Middle Corridor).
Under the current circumstances, the further development of the port’s infrastructure and the planned expansion of its capacities are expected to substantially contribute to intensifying the Trans-Caspian freight ﬂows.
ALBAYRAK GROUP INVESTS
Last year, Baku agreed with Turkey’s Albayrak Group (AG) to jointly develop the harbour’s handling facilities. Under the deal, the Turkish company will run the Port of Baku’s ro-ro terminal. In addition, AG will take part in the construction of a new facility for handling 2.5 million tonnes of fertilisers a year. It will have a 49 per cent interest in the fertiliser terminal.
Turkish business circles are very interested in increasing the volume of cargoes transported between Europe, Turkey and Central Asia via Azerbaijan, according to Harun Oncu, Director of Logistics, Albayrak Group.
The Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are large exporters of mineral fertilisers with an immense production potential estimated at around 10 million tonnes a year. To reach international (speciﬁcallyEuropean) markets, their fertiliser exports need to cross the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus, thereby designating the Port of Baku as a key element in the associated logistics chain.
Reportedly, Azerbaijan has already come to agreement with the Central Asian states over the would-be handling of their fertiliser exports through the Baku harbour.
Also on the agenda for the Port of Baku is the construction of a grain terminal to ensure the country’s food security, according to Taleh Ziyadov, Director General, Port of Baku. This is another project expected to be undertaken in the short term. Over the medium to longer term further development plans forsee the construction of a dedicated container terminal, which would expand the harbour’s container handling capacity from 100,000 to 500,000 TEU, and a multimodal logistics terminal.
As the old harbour in downtown Baku had exhausted its expansion potential, in November 2010, Azerbaijan started erection of new port facilities on a 400ha land plot at the town of Alat, some 65km south of the capital Coty.
In September 2014, Alat saw the launch of a new ferry terminal linking it with Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. In March 2016, a special (free trade) economic zone was set up at the new harbour. In January 2018, a new ro-ro terminal was put into operation. Development has been progressive.
Last year, the Port of Baku handled more than 6.3 million tonnes of cargo, up 14 per cent on 2021. In terms of container handling, the harbour operator increased its 2021 volume by 16 per cent to 52,276TEU. In the ro-ro sector, Baku expanded the volume of handled trucks (TIR) by 31 per cent over the previous year to 51,514 and passenger car traﬃc trebled in 2022. Remarkably, transit cargoes made up about 90 per cent of all cargo volume handled at the port last year.
In addition to the port expansion, the Azerbaijani government is, according to President Aliyev, prepared to increase its investment in the development of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) railway, one of the TITR’s main arteries connecting the TransEuropean and Trans-Asian rail networks
“There is a strong global demand for the transport routes via the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Georgia and neighbouring countries,” he stressed pointing out that the cargo traﬃc only between Baku and Tbilisi grew by 75 per cent in 2022 over 2021..
Launched in late 2017, the 826 km-long BTK has uniﬁed the railway networks of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey into a single transport corridor. With an initial annual capacity of 6.5mt/yr, it is planned to to increase this over time to 17mt/yr.
Last year, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey signed a joint declaration expressing their readiness to carry out common transport initiatives, including both the Middle Corridor and BTK.
The same year, Azerbaijan, Iran and Russia inked the Baku Declaration on the further development of the International North-South Transport Corridor. Speciﬁcally, it is planned to transport up to 30 million tonnes of transit and bilateral cargoes between the three countries by 2030.
Situated at the intersection of the modern Silk Road and the North-South transport routes, Azerbaijan is ready to fully tap its transit potential.
8 The phased expansion of container handling capacity is on the agenda at the port of Baku along with plans in other cargo sectors to signiﬁcantly raise capacity
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Bromma has a three-pronged strategy for 2023. AJ Keyes discovers what the company is focusing on and how it intends to reach its goals
“Bromma has three clear focus areas for 2023,” explains Joakim Heijbel, Director, Digitalisation and Sustainability, Bromma, highlighting: “Continuous development of Bromma Solutions, digital solutions and the climate challenge.”
One major new product Bromma is developing in 2023 is a spreader speciﬁcally for straddle carriers at the request of its client base. In development for the past two years, the prototype is now built and Bromma is currently in discussions with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to take the prototype for trials. While the exact timescale for launch is not oﬃcially conﬁrmed, it will soon be in the company’s catalogue.
“We continue to focus on both the traditional side of our business, as well as growing our smart solutions oﬀerings,” says Lars Meurling, VP Sales, EMEA and Marketing, Bromma.
In addition to developing container handling hardware, the company is releasing two new service oﬀerings to its digital Hawkeye Platform. This product already supports machine vision technology on-board the spreader by using digital camera feeds from critical positions and powerful processing capabilities. This enables the spreader to provide visual information to enhance process automation as well as prevent costly failures.
For 2023, the Hawkeye Twin Twenty Detection System (TTDS) is being oﬀered. It is a spreader-mounted, camerabased option involving AI software trained to detect the condition of two twenty-foot units (being lifted simultaneously). It is a ﬂexible system that can work in diﬀerent operational situations, including viewing the containers before being landed to prevent damage and/or before lifting to prevent serious accidents.
Hawkeye Container Damage Inspection is also being launched as a solution to help manage the damage claims process. A spreader-based camera takes high resolution images of the container top, with pictures also recorded before a container pick and after placing. All images are then made available via cloud storage.
“Damage inspection has been developed on the back of direct customer requests. We can monitor and record to an image database the entire process involving our frame moving a container,” conﬁrms Heijbel.
The company is seeing greater use of its Spreader Monitoring System too, a product ﬁrst launched in 2019, that enables terminals to monitor the health of their spreader ﬂeet and improve productivity through provision of real-time data and statistics of spreader ﬂeets.
In 2022, Bromma saw 45 terminals across its three global regions (Europe, Mid-East & Africa, the Amercias and AsiaPaciﬁc) subscribe to SMS, with new features including a map view, Spanish language support, more in-depth analytical insights and greater API software integration. Expectations for more orders in 2023 are ﬁrmly on the agenda, especially in Spanish-speaking locations.
ADDRESSING THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE
Like all companies throughout the ports and shipping industry, the climate challenge remains at the forefront of Bromma’s activities for 2023.
The company has been undertaking in-depth analysis of
the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) impact caused by Bromma’s spreaders during their lifetime of use, while also identifying where improvements can be made.
Heijbel explains: “For Bromma’s ﬂagship hydraulic STS spreader (STS45) the majority of the CO2e emissions are generated from energy consumption during the use phase of the machine (67 per cent), but with the new all electric STS45E G2 PLUS spreader, the emissions from ‘use’ phase energy consumption are reduced by 87 per cent. This means that the total lifecycle CO2e emissions are reduced by 60 per cent or 73.7 tons using the all-electric STS45E G2 PLUS spreader.”
The company is also going back to basics to further its green credentials and is targeting the use of fossil-free Hybrit steel. This is a project that is developing a fossil-free steelmaking technology, using 100 per cent renewable electricity and hydrogen instead of coal and coke. The project is in the development and testing phase with plans to start volume production by 2026.
“Tests are being carried out, including fatigue tests on the headblock connection to compare conventional steel to fossil-free SSAB Hybrit steel. If available, SSAB Hybrit steel could be used to produce a zero-carbon yard spreader today,” states Heijbel.
Meurling puts the company’s strategic focus into context. “A lot of change is coming, and it is important for Bromma to be a part of this transition.”
So, what will make 2023 a special year? Meurling has a succinct reply: “An increase in the share of all-electric spreaders wanted.” Based on Bromma’s strong focus on supporting climate challenges and its continued release of more digital products, its reasonable to conclude Meurling will get his wish.
A lot of change is coming, and it is important for Bromma to be a part of this transition
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CONTAINER OPERATIONS: DRUG ENFORCEMENT
The international drug trade is booming with shipping containers the main method of delivery. Mike Mundy assesses what part technology can play in solving the problem
Illegal drugs are a problem that is not going away and speciﬁcally the smuggling of these drugs in containers.
The 1436 tonnes of cocaine seized worldwide in 2019 was the highest ever to be reported. The volume of cocaine seized globally increased by more than 50 per cent between 2015 and 2019, and cocaine was the second-most seized drug globally after cannabis in 2019. As in previous years, the vast majority of the global total was seized in the Americas, followed by western and central Europe. Although small in comparison with the Americas and Europe, quantities seized in emerging cocaine markets in Africa and Asia also reached record highs in 2019.
Experience in the European Union (EU) typiﬁes the approach normally taken by drug traﬃckers.
The majority of cocaine seized in the EU is transported by sea, largely in shipping containers. Cocaine is shipped to the EU directly from the countries of production but also from neighbouring countries of departure in South and Central America as well as the Caribbean. Based on quantities of cocaine seized in European ports and in ports elsewhere destined for Europe the 2020 totals were Brazil (71 tonnes), Ecuador (67.5 tonnes) and Colombia (32 tonnes). These were were the main departure points as they have been for some years, followed by Costa Rica (20.4 tonnes).
Indeed, it is becoming a more regular occurrence now to hear of drug discoveries in European ports and Antwerp in particular has attained something of a reputation for this since 2018 regarding illicit drugs shipped from Latin America. Data indicates that cocaine seizures in Antwerp rose from 91 tonnes in 2021 to close to 110 tonnes in 2022, making Antwerp the leading port for cocaine seizures in Europe.
The latter growth trend is not surprising and is one mirrored around the world in diﬀerent geographical locations. The money involved and the reality that only around two per cent of shipping containers are inspected make it an ongoing attractive area of operation for criminals.
Looked at from a technological point of view drug detection in containers is a major area of opportunity. Find a workable solution and there is a huge market to tap into. As experience shows, however, it is not quite as simple as that. There are solutions – container X-Ray systems and now so-called augmented X-Ray systems, densitometer systems, tracing detection via vacuuming and swiping, portable and wearable electro-chemical sensors, miniaturised devices employing near-infra red etc. Another option that has been worked on is the PLOT-cryo system which includes a thin probe that can readily sample air that is otherwise diﬃcult to reach. It can, for example, be introduced into a container with the doors closed via air vents or through drilling a small hole.
The solutions are coming – being reﬁned and there are more in the pipeline but matched against the scale of the challenge they are clearly dwarfed. There are just so many containers in circulation that it is impossible to apply one or more of these solutions to every one. Equally, as has become clear with standard X-Ray technology, while it provides an extremely useful resource for drug detection and acts as a big deterrent it is not entirely infallible.
Tracking technology can also be of service, highlighting unusual events – with terminal equipment for example in remote areas which may signal criminal activity taking place. There is also the rise of the Smart Container – some forecast this will have a big role to play in drug enforcement activities.
Typically, the beneﬁt of smart containers is that they can monitor the abnormal opening of container doors in real time, and Customs can also conduct spot checks in a more targeted manner. Further initiatives can be expected with smart containers but across the board it is clear that it will be some time before technology – even in this age of digitalisation – will be able to play a much larger and more inﬂuential role in drug detection. Solutions also have to come in at the right price with many government agencies in particular strapped for cash.
Short to medium term, there appears to be no better overall solution than broad-based strategies to contain the illegal drug trade, and there is scope here to try new approaches. Take, for example, the holistic approach taken by the Biden-Harris administration. Typically, such an approach includes measures such as depriving drug traﬃckers of the ability to ﬁnancially support their operations, addressing poverty, insecurity, and other drivers of participation in illicit economies, and protecting the environment from damage caused by the illegal drug trade. Further, a holistic approach should be responsive to the circumstances and conditions in each country. It involves working closely with partner agencies on an international basis to identify shared priorities and to design and implement evidence-based solutions with local buy-in. In summary, all resources have to be tapped to ﬁght the scourge of international drug traﬃcking.
8 The international cocaine trade is booming. Technology can provide a helping had in containing the problem – and new solutions are coming – but it is not the whole story
8 Just launched, Capacity’s new Zero Emissions Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Terminal Truck
SECTOR ANALYSIS: HYDROGEN FUEL CELL INTEREST BUILDS
The terminal tractor supply sector is pushing on with work aimed at introducing new clean fuel designs. Hydrogen fuel cell powered designs are clearly the ﬂavour of the day with various prototypes now under test and US-based Capacity the latest manufacturer to introduce an entirely new design. The economies inherent to such designs and particularly extended operational times, low maintenance costs and, compared to electric powered units, the requirement for less expensive support systems for refuelling together with other attributes are all seen as appealing to users and as such are primary catalysts to development work. Adding fuel to the ﬁre (excuse the pun) of R&D is the
enlisted support of specialist environmental engineering consultancies for propulsion and energy solutions as well as fuel cell providers such as Nuvera, a specialist in the provision of zero emission hydrogen powered fuel cell engines. In addition to the work in the ﬁeld of power source, there is also steadily growing interest in autonomous driving solutions – the most recent example being Hamburg terminal operator HHLA’s decision to invest in the Munich-based start-up Fernride, which is developing solutions in this ﬁeld. The two companies are implementing a pilot project for highly automated and electric container logistics at the HHLA TK Estonia terminal in Tallin with terminal tractors central to this.
R&D, PROTOTYPE TRIALS, NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES, DESIGN INNOVATION
8 Capacity: As PS goes to press, Capacity Trucks announces that its new Zero Emissions Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Terminal Truck will be formally launched at the Technology & Maintenance Council Annual Meeting, scheduled to take place in Orlando, Florida late February/early March. Capable of handling GCVWR of up to 180,000Ibs Capacity states the new unit is designed to operate for at least one full shift before refuelling and with this able to be completed within 15 minutes. A new generation terminal tractor design, the unit features a new look and redesigned cab as well as
8 Gaussin: Prominent in Gaussin’s terminal tractor product range is its APM 75T autonomous tractor design which the company oﬀers in electric and hydrogen powered versions. Simplicity of operation and low maintenance costs are highlighted by the company as key features together with the ability to achieve a ROI in just two years. The electric (FULL ELEC – BEV) and the FUEL CELL/HYDROGEN (FCEV) designs share a single modular vehicle architecture – a
Capacity’s patented Dura-Ride air ride suspension.
In 2020 Capacity Trucks formed an alliance with the Hyster-YALE Group to jointly develop electric, hydrogen and automation-ready terminal tractors. Capacity states: “The collaboration leverages each company’s product expertise in the global material handling solutions market, bringing together Capacity’s robust terminal truck platform and Hyster-Yale Group’s vast experience in lift truck electric powertrain and hydrogen fuel cell technology developed by its subsidiary company, Nuvera.”
common platform thus enjoying the beneﬁts of standardisation. Gaussin has pursued autonomous driving systems design since 2013, aiming to introduce its systems into the overall automation plans of terminal operators. Also oﬀered by Gaussin is the ATM 38T electric yard tractor purpose-built for trailer and semi-trailer movements as required for applications such as distribution centres, logistics hubs, container depots and other industrial applications.
8 Hyster: Under the Clean Port and Logistics Programme, a joint initiative of Hamburg-based container terminal operator HHLA and other European companies, Hyster has committed to supply HHLA with a hydrogen fuel cell powered terminal tractor and top pick container handler. The terminal tractor was scheduled to arrive at HHLA in late 2022 and the container handler in early 2023. Both units will be powered by Nuvera fuel cells and run on hydrogen fuel produced locally at the HHLA Hamburg Green Hydrogen Hub. Speciﬁcally, the terminal tractor design incorporates a
8 Kalmar: A part of the Cargotec Group, Kalmar announced at the beginning of this year that it is collaborating with Toyota Tsusho America Inc. and the global strategic environmental engineering consultancy Ricardo in a project to develop fuel cell powered terminal tractors. As part of this project, two fuel cell powered terminal tractors will be trialled with a USWC container terminal. Kalmar underlines that compared to battery powered solutions – which it also oﬀers – fuel cell powered terminal tractors will deliver extended operational uptime and reduce the need for new investment in electric grid infrastructure. Speaking at the time of the announcement, Chris Dvorak, Director of Engineering, Kalmar said: “We are applying the learnings we have gained from our battery-electric platform to implement a modular fuel cell platform that will help customers meet increasingly strict emissions targets. This is in line with our terminal tractor roadmap and supports Cargotec’s 1.5°C climate ambition.” The overall development
8 MAFI: The company added to its clean fuel tractor range in the second half of 2022 with the launch of a propane powered terminal tractor design. The unit incorporates PSI’s CARB-certiﬁed .02 NOx 8.8 litre propane engine which is claimed to produce fewer lifecycle emissions in comparison to an electric powered unit. Maﬁ further highlights the cost parameters of the new design stating a propane port tractor can be acquired at around one-third of the cost of an electric counterpart and with the added bonus of “refuelling infrastructure that cost signiﬁcantly less
8 Terberg Taylor Americas Group: This Group is a joint venture between the Royal Terberg Group and the Taylor Group of companies and in January this year it broke ground on a new US$20 million manufacturing facility in Lowndes County, Mississippi, USA. The Group reports: “The Terberg Taylor relationship is the result of two privately-owned
8 Terberg: Outside of the USA, Terberg has also been busy in its own right. In December 2022 Terberg Tractors Malaysia Sdn Bhd (TTM), the joint venture between the Royal Terberg Group and Sime Darby Industrial, added to its tractor portfolio the fully battery-powered electric terminal tractor, model YT200EV. Terberg notes: “The YT200EV terminal tractor features 350 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) batteries that provide continuous operation for up to 10 hours (in container port operation) and can be fully charged within an hour. The vehicle also features a 240 kW asynchronous water-cooled motor drive, capable of suﬃcient torque to carry up to 90 tonnes payload, making it more eﬃcient and cost eﬀective compared with diesel tractors.”
In Europe Terberg Special Vehicles commenced testing its concept Hydrogen Fuel Cell YT Terminal tractor in mainland Europe, ﬁrst in the port of Rotterdam and then, in late 2022, in the port of Antwerp, and in January 2023 in conjunction with Associated British Ports (ABP) at its Immingham facility. The latter comprehensive pilot project
45-kilowatt Nuvera fuel cell. The two units have also been conﬁgured to share many of the same components such as drive motor, battery modules, converters, hydrogen tanks and controls – the overall objective being to limit complexity, cost of design, manufacturing, service and maintenance.
The collaboration between Hyster and Capacity in the terminal tractor market – aimed at jointly developing electric, hydrogen, and automation-ready terminal tractors - is highlighted in the Capacity entry above.
programme is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies for terminal tractor applications.
Kalmar is also engaged in a US$20 million investment at its Ottawa, Kansas manufacturing plant which will realise a doubling of capacity, the conversion of the existing line to a high-speed line for ‘rapid build’ distribution terminal tractors and the addition of a new ‘ﬂex line’ with state-of-the-art technology to enable high-volume production of Kalmar’s fully electric and high-end terminal tractor models. The anticipated beneﬁts include signiﬁcantly reduced lead times for the supply of new units.
The Kalmar-Ottawa electric terminal tractor range is described by the company as in its second generation and featuring a number of key improvements over the ﬁrst generation – charge time cut in half, a direct drive solution, the ability to operate in extreme temperatures and of course zero carbon emission.
than electric recharging infrastructure.”
This new design option follows on from Maﬁ’s introduction of an electric version of its popular T 230 diesel terminal tractor in early 2021. It is powered by a battery pack with a capacity of up to 177 kWh. Also available is the T 225 De electric distribution tractor, employed especially for moving semi-trailers in distribution and logistics centres. The long wheelbase of 3500mm allows for signiﬁcantly more free space between the semi-trailer and the driver’s cab.
companies with very similar business models coming together to build the best terminal tractors for their customers.” The facility will be built as a scalable design so that it may continually meet production demands with the ﬁrst terminal tractor expected to be produced in 2024. The Terberg Taylor alliance covers the USA as a whole.
has received funding from ORE Catapult through Innovate UK’s Hydrogen Innovation Initiative, following funding of initial feasibility from the UK’s Department of Transport Clean Maritime Demonstration Competition. For use in conjunction with the project Air Products has provided a mobile hydrogen ﬁlling station.
VAHLE PORT TECHNOLOGY
ifm electronic gmbh ifm is one of the world’s leading sensor companies in the automation of measurement and control, optimizing technical processes in almost all industries.
+49 201 24 22 0
For more than a century, Bedeschi is providing effective and reliable solutions in a wide variety of industries (bulk handling, marine logistics and mining), capitalizing on synergies and cross competences.
Via Praimbole 38, 35010 Limena (PD) – Italy
Tel: : +39 049 7663100
Fax: +39 049 8848006
The BEUMER Group is an international leader in the manufacture of bulk material handling systems:
Stacker & Reclaimer
Tel.: +49 2521 240
Telestack are a leading global manufacturer of equipment for the bulk material handling industry including Ship Loaders/Unloaders, Hopper Feeders, Truck Unloaders, Bulk Reception Feeders, Stockpiling Conveyors, Link Conveyors and Telescopic Stackers.
Tel: +44 (0)2882 251100
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.telestack.comw
Over 60 years supporting Container Terminals in port operations: we create strategic
STS Portainer® and RTG Transtainer® cranes, services & Advanced Port Technologies.
World Headquarters 25503 Whitesell Street Hayward, CA 94545 Tel (510) 264-9288
Taylor Machine Works, Inc.
Taylor Machine Works designs, engineers, and manufactures more than 100 models of industrial lift equipment with lift capacities from ,000-lbs. to 125,000-lbs.
YOU CAN DEPEND ON BIG RED!
3690 N Church Avenue Louisville, MS 39339 USA +1 662 773 3421
SAMSON Materials Handling Ltd specialises in the design and manufacture of mobile bulk materials handling equipment for surface installation across multiple industrial segments. Designed for rapid onsite set-up and continuous high performance SAMSON equipment provides an excellent return on investment.
SAMSON Materials Handling Ltd specialises in the design and manufacture of mobile bulk materials handling equipment for surface installation across multiple industrial segments. Designed for rapid onsite set-up and continuous high performance SAMSON equipment provides an excellent return on investment.
Gemini House Cambridgeshire Business Park,
Gemini House Cambridgeshire Business Park,
1 Bartholomew’s Walk, Ely
LASE offers innovative and productive solutions for ports by combining state-of-the-art laser scanner devices and sophisticated software applications. We are specialised in the fully automated handling of containers, cranes or trucks.
Heavy duty rol e-chain® P4HD.56R
Energy chain with optional intelligent wear monitoring for double the service life, travels of up to 1.000 m, speeds of up to 10 m/s and fill weights of up to 50 kg/m.
The new heavy-duty rol e-chain meets all the relevant requirements for container cranes of the next and next-but-one generations. Longer and longer travels, greater dynamics, short stress cycles, zero failures.
VAHLE is the leading specialist for mobile power and data transmission
igus® GmbH Spicher Str. 1a D-51147 Köln, Germany Tel. +49-2203-9649-0 email@example.com igus.eu/P4.1
igus® GmbH Spicher Str. 1a, 51147 Köln, Germany Tel. +49-2203-9649-0 firstname.lastname@example.org igus.eu/P4.1
As one of the leading manufacturers of quick connector systems,Stäubli covers connection needs for all types of ﬂuids, gases and electrical power.
Tel: +33 4 50 65 61 97 email@example.com www.staubli.com/en-de/ connectors/
VAHLE provides the solutions to reduce the carbon footprint while increasing the productivity. RTGC electrification including positioning and data transmission making RTGC ready for Automation.
Westicker Str. 52, 59174 Kamen, Germany
Rohde Nielsen A/S
Specialising in capital and maintenance dredging, land reclamation, coast protection, Port Development, Filling of Caissons, Sand and Gravel, Offshore trenching and backfilling
Nyhavn 20 Copenhagen K. DK-1051 Denmark +45 33 91 25 07 firstname.lastname@example.org www.rohde-nielsen.dk
SFT is the leading fender manufacturer with +60 years of group experience in the design of safety critical fender system that protect vessels, port infrastructure and people.
We oﬀer the full range of customized fender solutions and maintain production facilities for high-quality rubber products, steel panels and foam fenders. Join the safe side. email@example.com www.sft.group Fogmaker develops, manufactures, and markets ﬁre suppression systems for engine compartments with high pressure water mist. Fogmaker is a market leader for automated ﬁre suppression systems with 200,000 installations in more than 50 countries since 1995.
Cambridgeshire CB7 4EA
1 Bartholomew’s Walk, Ely
England, United Kingdom (UK)
Cambridgeshire CB7 4EA
D-46485 Wesel, Germany
Tel: +44 1353 665001
England, United Kingdom (UK)
Fax: +44 1353 666734
Tel: +44 1353 665001
Tel: +49 (0) 281 - 9 59 90 - 0 firstname.lastname@example.org www.lase.de
For more information visit: seawork.com contact: +44 1329 825335 or email: email@example.com
Tel: +46 470 77 22 00 firstname.lastname@example.org www.fogmaker.com
MRS Greifer GmbH
Grabs of MRS Greifer are in use all over the world. They are working reliably and extremely solid. All our grabs will be made customized. Besides the production of rope operated mechanical grabs, motor grabs and hydraulic grabs we supply an excellent after sales service.
Talweg 15-17, Helmstadt-Bargen 74921, Germany
Tel: +49 (0)7263 - 91 29 0
Fax: +49 (0)7263 - 91 29 12 email@example.com www.mrs-greifer.de
Orts GMBH Maschinenfabrik
Over 40 years experience constructing and manufacturing a wide range of grabs, including electro-hydraulic grabs (with the necessary crane equipment) radio controlled diesel hydraulic grabs, 4, 2 and single rope grabs all suitable for bulk cargo.
Schwartauer Str. 99
D-23611 Sereetz • Germany
Tel:+49 451 398 850
Fax: +49 451 392 374 firstname.lastname@example.org www.orts-grabs.de
15 TO JUNE 2023 Southampton United Kingdom
For more information visit: seawork.com contact: +44 1329 825335 or email: email@example.com
Founded in 1932, Künz is now the market leader in intermodal rail-mounted gantry cranes in Europe and North America, offering innovative and efficient solutions for container handling in intermodal operation and automated stacking cranes for port and railyard operations.
Gerbestr. 15, 6971 Hard, Austria
T: +43 5574 6883 0 firstname.lastname@example.org www.kuenz.com
SANY Europe GmbH
offers a broad spectrum of high-performance mobile port machines such as Reach Stacker, Empty Container Handler, Heavy Duty Forklift Trucks and Material Handler
Sany Allee 1
Sany Allee 1
50181 Bedburg, Germany
Tel: +49 2272 90531 100
Tel: +49 2272 90531 100
Sany ID indd 1 25/01/2022 11:42
Visy systems reduce expenses, optimize safety & security, and increase throughput capacity via process automation. Our singleplatform gate operating system and OCR solutions manage all cargo, assets & personnel movements via quay, rail or road to keep operations moving.
VISY takes pride in solving operational problems, specialising in gate automation and access control solutions in ports and terminals. Their solutions streamline processes resulting in saving money and increasing productivity. Tel
To advertise in the Port Strategy Directory
Contact Arrate Landera +44 1329 825335 www.portstrategy.com
The world specialist in Power and Data Transfer Systems, Mobile Electrification, and Crane Electrification Solutions. We Keep Your Vital Business Moving!
Rheinstrasse 27 + 33
Weil am Rhein 79576 Germany
Tel: +49 (0) 7621 662 0
Fax: +49 (0) 7621 662 144 email@example.com
RTE CORPORATE HQ
We provide the most complete system of reliable data collection solutions for refrigerated transport terminals, vessels, and trucking operations through industry-leading innovations in remote reefer monitoring hardware and software products. Request a quote.
1 West Center Street McGraw, New York 13101 USA
Within USA +1 877.538.7764 (Toll Free) International +1 607.836.8954
is an industry-leading, trusted partner in managing and monitoring reefer containers and optimizing entire terminal operations through solutions like Reefer Runner and Terminal Tracker.
Contact: Stephan Piworus, Global VP Sales Marine & Ports, firstname.lastname@example.org; Mobile: +49 151 74122606 www.identecsolutions.com
The world leading manufacturer of Sideloaders, self-loading semi-trailers for versatile & efficient container handling.
TVH is a global player in the ﬁeld of spare parts and accessories for heavy forklifts, reach stackers, container handlers, spreaders and terminal tractors. With over 96,000 references in stock and more than 644,000 known references, TVH offers quality replacement parts for many brands and makes, including the hard-to-ﬁnd ones.
Tel: +44 2476 585 000 email@example.com
ELME Spreader AB
ELME Spreader, world’s leading independent spreader manufacturer supports companies worldwide with container handling solutions that makes work easier and more profitable. Over 21,000 spreaders have been attached to lift trucks, reach stackers, straddle carriers and cranes.
Stalgatan 6 , PO Box 174 SE 343 22, Almhult, Sweden
Tel: +46 47655800
Fax: +46 476 55899
T ERMINAL OPERATIONS SYSTEMS
The Brain of Logistics
With more than 30 years experience in IT Solutions and Business Operation Consultancy DSP offers a large portfolio of professional services and products to support terminal operations processes and system.
DSP Data and System Planning SA
Via Cantonale 38 6928 Manno, Switzerland
Tel: +41 91 230 27 20
Fax: +41 91 230 27 31 firstname.lastname@example.org www.dspservices.ch
Solvo Europe B.V.
Solvo’s software solutions such as TOS or WMS help container and general cargo terminals take full care of their cargo handling processes and make sure the clients expectations are exceeded.
Prinses Margrietplantsoen 33, 2595AM, The Hague, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 (0) 702-051-709
Email: email@example.com www.sovosys.com
15 TO JUNE 2023 Southampton United Kingdom
ERMINAL OPERATIONS SYSTEMS
Tideworks Technology provides comprehensive terminal operating system solutions for marine and intermodal terminal operations worldwide. Tideworks works at every step of terminal operations to maximize productivity and customer service.
+1 206 382 4470 www.tideworks.com
MAFI Transport-Systeme GmbH
Specialised in the development and production of heavy-duty equipment for transporting containers, semi-trailers, cargo/roll trailers and special container chassis in ports and industry.
Hochhäuser Str 18 97941 Tauberbischofsheim, Germany
Tel: +49 9341 8990 firstname.lastname@example.org www.mafi.de
For more information visit: seawork.com contact: +44 1329 825335 or email: email@example.com
TGI Maritime Software is a Terminal Operating System editor and integrator specialized in the support of Small to Medium Terminals. Its expertise is built on 34 years of experience within the maritime sector. TGI provides comprehensive services to its customers all along their projects. OSCAR TOS and CARROL TOS have already been successfully handled by 40 container and RoRo terminals worldwide.
Tel : +33 (0)3 28 65 81 91 firstname.lastname@example.org www.tgims.com
Brunton Shaw UK is a successful manufacturer of high quality wire ropes for a wide range of applications. The company effectively combines more than 130 years of experience and tradition with an up to the minute range of products, and a customer service package ideal for the modern market place.
Tel: +44 1909 537626
In the case of very high greenhouse gas emissions (total failure of mitigation) there is a risk of sea-level rise of two metres by 2100 and of up to 15m by 2300
SEA-LEVEL RISE: JUST HOW MUCH?
The World Maritime Organization calculates the scale of sea-level rise under diﬀerent global warming scenarios. The ﬁndings are not to be taken lightly.
Global sea level rise is on the march and is deﬁnitely a factor to keep an eye on.
A new report, Global Sea-Level Rise & Implications, from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), highlights the serious consequences of sustained sea level rise in conjunction with a variety of scenarios featuring diﬀerent levels of sea-level increase.
“Over the next 2000 years,” says the WMO, “global mean sea-level will rise by about 2 to 3m if warming is limited to 1.5°C, to 6m if limited to 2°C and 19 to 22m with 5°C of warming, and it will continue to rise over subsequent millennia.”
Clearly, whatever scenario plays out it will have implications for port planners and not least those in low-lying small islands and port-city locations possessing large populations such as Shanghai, Bangkok, Jakarta, Mumbai, Maputo, Lagos, London, Copenhagen, New York, Los Angeles and Buenos Aires. All these locations and more are under threat from an economic and humanitarian standpoint. Furthermore, the impacts of average sea-level rise are boosted by storm surges and tidal variations, as was made manifestly clear during the landfall of Hurricane Sandy in New York and Cyclone Idai in Mozambique.
Hurricane Sandy inﬂicted an estimated US$19 billion in damages and lost economic activity across New York City as well as being responsible for a serious loss of life. Cyclone Idai hit landfall in Beira, Mozambique, in 2019, killing over 1000 people across Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe and leaving 2.6 million people in desperate need of humanitarian assistance.
YESTERDAY TO TODAY
Global mean sea-level increased by 0.20m between 1901 and 2018. The average rate of sea level rise was 1.3 mm/yr between 1901 and 1971, increasing to 1.9 mm yr between 1971 and 2006, and increasing to 3.7 mm/yr between 2006 and 2018. WMO further estimates that during the period 2013-22 that sea level rise has accounted for 4.5 mm/yr. Human
inﬂuence is cited as the dominant factor behind these increases, at least since 1971.
Global mean sea-level has risen faster since 1900 than in any preceding century, in at least the last 3000 years. Equally striking, the global ocean has warmed faster over the past century than since the end of the last deglacial transition (around 11,000 years ago).
Looking to the future, without concerted action to bring down global warming then, as WMO underlines: “The likelihood and impacts of abrupt and/or irreversible changes increase with further global warming. At sustained warming levels between 2-3 C, the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets will be almost completely and irreversibly lost over multiple millenia causing potentially multi-meter sea-level rises. The mass loss is higher with higher warming rates.” And adds: “In the case of very high greenhouse gas emissions (total failure of mitigation) there is a risk of sea-level rise of two metres by 2100 and of up to 15m by 2300.”
The WMO further calculates that: “By 2100 the value of global assets within the future 1-in-100 year coastal ﬂoodplains is projected to be between US$7.9 and US$12.7 trillion (2011 value) rising to between US$8.8 and US$14.2 trillion (failure of mitigation).
RESPONDING TO THE CHALLENGES
The WMO cites the core diﬃculty in responding to the threat of sea-level rise as – dealing with slow onset changes and changes which as of today are subject to a signiﬁcant degree of estimation. In a nutshell, if the problem is not knocking on your door then it is diﬃcult to build a sense of urgency to deal with it. The reality is nevertheless present that for the foreseeable future sustained rises in sea level will occur with the probability of increased extreme sea level events. Accordingly, the WMO emphasises that recognising the challenges and planning ahead, in a coordinated manner, is integral to developing an eﬀective response. As it puts it:
“Sea-level rise poses a distinctive and severe adaptation challenge as it implies dealing with slow onset changes and increased frequency and magnitude of extreme sea-level events which will escalate in the coming decades.”8 Shanghai just one of the world’s leading ports at risk from sea-level rise
Call for papers - submit your abstract now!
The deadline to submit your abstract for the 44th Propulsion & Future Fuels conference has been extended. If you want to be part of the leading international conference and present to a 150 strong maritime audience, including operators by 25th March.
Abstracts are invited in the following categories:
Challenges of new technology/Cyber security rules/Operational technology/Safety
Hydrogen / Fuel cells - new innovations/ Ammonia – new innovations/Safety/
Methanol – new innovations/Safety/
Advances in exhaust gas cleaning systems
Advances in lubrication Green solutions for LNG, e.g. Bio methanea
Abstracts of 250 words should be sent by 25th March, with a biography of the speaker, headshot photo and logo to email@example.com
Contact: +44 1329 825335