Issuu on Google+

@=JK=FKHAFK=DK *,   K Y f l … • ^ ] Z j m Y j a •  * ( ) (

SAN10002-psychologie02.indd 24

14-12-2009 12:14:45


hkq[`gdg_a]

@]lZj]afak`]le]]klgf\]jrg[`l]da[`YYek\]]d nYf\]e]fk&?]dmcca_eYYj$oYfln]]dl]nYYcra]f o]^YZ]dkYYfnggjngd\gf_]f^]al]fÇ]fYf\]jk% ge&Gn]j`]lfmlnYf\Y_\jge]f]f`]lYn]j][`lk] ]^^][lnYfdabklb]keYc]f&

EYff]frabfafl]dda_]fl]j\Yf njgmo]f

Eabf`]jk]f]fo]l]fo]doYl _g]\nggje]ak

Eql`]2 <] `]jk]f]f nYf eYff]f `]Z% Z]f ]]f _jgl]j ngdme]& R] k[gj]f Z]l]j ghaf_]oacc]d\]oakcmf\]l]klk]f]jrabf Zgn]f\a]fe]]jeYff]f\Yfnjgmo]f\a] ]plj]]e`gg_k[gj]fghAI%l]klk& >]al2 BY$ eYff]f`]jk]f]f `]ZZ]f e]]j ngdme]& EYYj njgmo]f`]jk]f]f `]ZZ]f o]]j ]]f a]lk _jgl]j ghh]jndYc \] Y^e]% laf_Ydkb]\]hdgga]fmal\]`]jk]f]frgm `Yd]f! ]f e]]j n]jZaf\af_]f lmkk]f \] n]jk[`add]f\]_]Za]\]f&<]_jggll]nYf\] eYff]dabc] `]jk]f]f \g]l ]j \mk fa]l rg n]]dlg]&=f\YleYff]fnYc]jmalrgf\]j% dabc `g_] k[gj]k `Yd]f gh oakcmf\]% ]f AI%l]klk$r]_lggcfa]lrgn]]d&L]f]]jkl]ak `]l n]jk[`ad af YYflYdd]f eYff]dabc] ]f njgmo]dabc] malZdafc]jk `]]d cd]af& EYYj Z]dYf_jabc]j2eYff]fk[gj]fggcnYc]jmal% rgf\]jdabcdYY_&?]ea\\]d\k[gj]feYff]f ]fnjgmo]f]n]f`gg_ghAI%l]klk&

Eql`]2GfkZj]afo]]l`g]`]leg]lj]Y%

FY\]fc]fcgkln]]d]f]j_a] Eql`]2 9dk `]l Zj]af af_]oacc]d\ \]fc% o]jcn]jr]l$n]jZjmacl`]le]]jZjYf\klg^&

>]al2 Gfk Zj]af ak ]]f ]f]j_a]n]jkdaf\]j2 `]l _]Zjmacl eYYj da]^kl rgÌf loafla_ hjg% []flnYf\]da[`YYek]f]j_a]&<Y_\jge]f cgkl ]n]fn]]d ]f]j_a] Ydk ]]f eg]adabc] [ab^]jj]]ck hjgZ]j]f l] gfl`gm\]f& 9dk gfr] `]jk]f]f fa]lk \g]f$ k[`Yc]d]f r] gn]j gh `]l Ë\]^Ymdl eg\] f]lo]jcÌ& <al kqkl]]ecgele]l]]fafY[la]oYff]]j`]l Zj]afeY_dma]j]f2`]lf]lo]jcndYelgh]f n]jZjYf\le]]jrmmjklg^\Yf]]fcdghh]f\ `Yjl& OYYj `]]^l `]l Zj]af `]l \Yf \jmc e]]7E]leabe]j]f&@]lf]lo]jcaknggjYd Y[la]^ Ydk e]fk]f eabe]j]f gn]j `]l n ]jd]\]fg^YYf\]lg]cgekl\]fc]f&

_]j]f gh _]nYYj& Af `]l kl]f]f lab\h]jc cgf\]f\]`]jk]f]flg[`ggcaf]]f^jY[% la]nYf]]fk][gf\]Z]hYd]f`g]o]eg]k% l]fgflkfYhh]fYYf]]fjgg^\a]j7 >]al2 :ab hjaeala]n] _]nYj]f o]l]f gfr] `]jk]f]fhj][a]koYff]]jo]`]lgh]]f j]ff]feg]l]fr]ll]f&9dk]j]]f_a_Yfla% k[`] _gjaddY nggj gfr] f]mk rgm klYYf$ eYc]f\]`]jk]f]fYmlgeYlak[`Y\j]fYda% f]YYf]fklYYfo]cdYYjgel]ndm[`l]fg^ l] n][`l]f& EYYj gh eg\]jf] _]nYj]f ak gfk Zj]af kd][`l]j nggjZ]j]a\$ Zdabcl mal gf\]jrg]c fYYj `]l ndm[`l_]\jY_ nYf e]fk]fZab]]fZjYf\af]]foYj]f`mak&<] e]fk]f\a]af`]l_]ZgmooYj]f$j]f\]f lg]f `]l ZjYf\YdYje Y^_af_ fa]l rg kf]d eg_]dabcfYYj\]\a[`lklZabrabf\]fgg\mal% _Yf_& R] _af_]f ]]jkl dYf_k \] cYkkY& OYYjge7@mfZj]af`Y\ra[`af_]kl]d\gh Y^j]c]f]f ]f fYYj Zmal]f _YYf$ \mk oYk \YlZab_]nYYjggc`mf]]jkl]j]Y[la]&Mal Yf\]j]gf\]jrg]c]fZdabcl\Yle]fk]fZab ZjYf\YmlgeYlak[`\]r]d^\]o]_fYYjZma% l]f f]e]f Ydk \a] oYYj\ggj r] fYYj Zaf% f]frabf_]cge]f&R]d^kYdk\]fgg\mal_Yf_ \a[`lZab]f\ma\]dabcra[`lZYYjak&Ggc`a]j cgel\Yl\ggjYYf_]d]]j\_]\jY_2\]`]j% k]f]f`]ZZ]fnYfl]ngj]fYdZ]\Y[`lnaY o]dc]o]_b]fYYjZmal]frmdl_YYf]f`gm% \]fra[`n]jngd_]fkYYf\Ylnggjf]e]f&

Njgmo]fn]j\oYd]fkf]dd]j \YfeYff]f Eql`]2 Njgmo]dabc] `]jk]f]f rabf fa]l _]eYYclge\]o]_l]naf\]f&

>]al2 Njgmo]f cmff]f ra[` Z]kl gjaˆfl]%

<Y_\jge]fcgkl ]n]fn]]d]f]j_a]Ydk ]]feg]adabc][ab^]j% j]]ckgfl`gm\]f

:jYafljYafaf_`gm\l b]Zj]afaf[gf\ala] Eql`]2 NYf ZjYaf ljYafaf_ hmrr]dk$ [gehml]jkh]dd]% lb]k!cjab_b]]]fÕll]jZj]af& >]al2:jYafljYafaf_$Zabnggj% Z]]d\af\]ngjenYfjablb]k gfl`gm\]f$akl]]]fngm\a_ ge ][`l fmlla_ l] rabf& =]f jgf\b] `Yj\dgh]f `]]^l e]]j raf$ ge\Yl Z]o]_af_ ]]fZ]jg]h\g]lghYdd]jd]a [g_fala]n] ]f eglgjak[`] nYYj\a_`]a\]f& Ggc `]dhl `]l \] Zdg]\nYl]f _]rgf\ l] `gm\]f$ oYYj\ggj \] r]fmo[]dd]faf\]`]jk]f]f _g]\ ogj\]f nggjra]f nYf \] fg\a_] rmmjklg^ ]f _dm% [gk]& Ggc nggj `]l Zj]af ak \]Z]kl]ogjc%gmlY^oakk]% d]f\& D]]k ]]f _g]\ Zg]c$ eYYc emra]c g^ \g] a]lk Yf\]jk [j]Yla]^k!$ khgjl ]f cd]lke]l]]fnja]f\af&

j]f$ r] \g]f \Yl Ydd]]f Yf\]jk \Yf eYf% 6

<]`]jk]f[]dd]fnYfj]dYla]^kdaee]e]fk]frabf_g]\_]Œkgd]]j\]fklmj]fhjacc]dkkf]dd]j\ggj&

SAN10002-psychologie02.indd 25

K Y f l … •  ^ ] Z j m Y j a • * ( ) (  *-

14-12-2009 12:14:50


?jabk_]Za]\ f]f&<YlZdabclmalgf\]jrg]coYYjZabeYf% f]f ]f njgmo]f af ]]f najlm]d] o]j]d\ Z]og_]f&Af\a]o]j]d\oYj]fjgml]ke]l n]jk[`add]f\] `]jc]ffaf_khmfl]f ]]f _]Zgmo e]l ]]f Z]hYYd\] cd]mj$ ]]f ghnYdd]f\] c]jc!& OYff]]j \] `]jc]f% faf_khmfl]fo]j\]fo]__]`YYd\$`Y\\]f njgmo]fe]]jeg]al]\YfeYff]fge\] o]_l]naf\]f&Njgmo]f_]Zjmac]f\mk]]f Yf\]j]kljYl]_a]3rabja[`l]fra[`nggjYdgh gjaÂ&#x2C6;flYla]hmfl]f&EYff]fd]ll]fe]]jgh Y^klYf\]f]fja[`laf_&

Dabklb]keYc]fo]jcl Eql`]2 =]f fa]mo] ZYYf YYff]e]f$ ]]f j]dYla] n]j% Zj]c]f2Ydk`]lghZ]dYf_jab% c] Z]kdakkaf_]f YYfcgel$ cmfb]eYYjZ]l]jYdd]nggjk ]fl]_]fkgh]]fjabr]ll]f& >]al2 Dabklb]k eYc]f o]jcl Yn]j][`lk$ Zdabcl mal gf\]j% rg]c nYf hkq[`gdgg_ 9h <abckl]j`mak& @ab da]l hjg]^% h]jkgf]f ]n]f fY\]fc]f gn]j af^gjeYla] gn]j ]]f fa]moYYfl]k[`Y^^]fYmlg$ g^bmaklYĂ&#x2013;]a\af_rg]c]f&<] fY\]fc]jkfYe]f\]kd][`l% kl] Z]kdakkaf_]f$ l]joabd \] h]jkgf]f\a]\]af^gjeYla] ]n]fda]l]fZ]rafc]f]fa]lk Yf\]jk _af_]f \g]f$ \] Z]kl] Ymlg nggj \] Z]kl] hjabk cgr]f&LahnYf\]hkq% [`gdgg_2dYYlb]af^gje]j]f$ ]f _Y \Yf a]lk d]mck \g]f& <Yf cgel \] Z]kl] Z]kdak% kaf_nYfr]d^Zgn]f\jabn]f&

*.   K Y f l Â&#x2026; â&#x20AC;˘ ^ ] Z j m Y j a â&#x20AC;˘ * ( ) (

SAN10002-psychologie02.indd 26

Njgmo]frabf_]Zgj]f emdlalYkc]jk Eql`]2 Njgmo]f cmff]f `mf YYf\Y[`l

Eql`]2Gn]j`]lYd_]e]]f_]Zjmac]fo] hjaeYgn]jYdd]jd]alYc]fn]j\]d]f& eYYj]]f^jY[la]nYfgfkZj]af$\]j]kln]j% c]]jlaf]]fkggjlkdYh]f\]lg]klYf\& >]al2 NYf \]r] l`]gja] ak fa]lk oYYj& B] _]Zjmacl]dc]\Y_b]`]d]Zj]af&R]d^kYdkb] ]]f kaeh]d j]c]fkgee]lb] eYYcl$ ak `]l `]d]Zj]afY[la]^$rgZdabclmalEJA%Z]]d\]f&

NYfe]\al]j]fogj\b]fa]l kdaee]j Eql`]2E]\al]j]fakd]cc]jgflkhYff]f\$ eYYjkdaee]jogj\b]]jfa]lnYf& >]al2 G^ b] kdaee]j ogj\l nYf e]\al]j]f eg]l fg_ ogj\]f Z]o]r]f$ eYYj ]j _]Z]mjlo]dnYfYdd]kafb]`]jk]f]f&E]f% k]f\a]dYf_]j]lab\j]_]deYla_e]\al]j]f$ `]ZZ]f e]]j _jabr] eYkkY& NggjYd `]l _]Za]\ \Yl n]jYfloggj\]dabc ak nggj `]l _]`]m_]f]fd]]jhjg[]kk]f$akZab`]fZ]l]j gfloacc]d\$f]lYdk\]_]Za]\]f\a]Z]ljgc% c]frabfZab\]n]jo]jcaf_nYf]egla]k&<] gf\]jrg]c]jk \]fc]f \Yl \al n]jcdYYjl oYYjgee]fk]f\a]j]_]deYla_e]\al]j]f hgkala]n]]egla]kcmff]fgho]cc]f&

<ggjÂ&#x2026;Â&#x2026;f_dYkoabfkl]jn]f]j Yd`]jk]f[]dd]fY^ Eql`]29dkb]]]foabflb]\jafcl$Z]k[`Y\a_ b]`]jk]f[]dd]f&B]`]jk]f]fcmff]f_]]f fa]mo][]dd]fYYfeYc]f$\mkb]\jafclafb] d]n]f`]]doYl_jabr]eYkkYnggj_g]\cYhgl& >]al29d[g`gdakl]fja[`l]fn]]dk[`Y\]YYf af`mf`]jk]f]f&R]cmff]f`]lkqf\jgge

>]al2 Njgmo]f cmff]f dYf_ fa]l rg _g]\ emdlalYkc]fYdkogj\l_]\Y[`l&Gfr]`]j% k]fk rabf rg _]gj_Yfak]]j\ \Yl o] gfr] YYf\Y[`l]a_]fdabceYYjZabÂ&#x2026;Â&#x2026;f\af_l]_]% dabccmff]f`gm\]f&EmdlalYkc]jkn]j\]d]f `mfYYf\Y[`l`]d]eYYdfa]lgn]jn]jk[`ad% d]f\]lYc]f3`mf`]jk]f]fkoal[`]f`]]f ]fo]]j&@]lk[`Yc]d]flmkk]fn]jk[`add]f% \] Y[lanal]al]f _]Z]mjl af \] n]jc]]jk% []fljYd]k gf\]j `]l nggj`gg^\3 af \] hj]^gflYYdk[`gjk& @]jk]f[]fljY \a] fa]l YYf\]Z]mjlrabf$ogj\]f]n]fklad_]d]_\ Ydk b] ]]f af_]oacc]d\ l]d]^ggf_]khj]c ng]jl& EYff]f`]jk]f]f rabf oYl \Yl Z]lj]^l kljacl]j _]gj_Yfak]]j\$ nYf\YYj \YleYff]fnYffYlmj]`mfYYf\Y[`l`]l da]^kl]ghÂ&#x2026;Â&#x2026;f\af_ja[`l]f&Njgmo]fcmf% f]fkf]dd]jkoal[`]f$eYYjggcnggj`]f _]d\l \Yl \af_]f l]_]dabc \g]f nYYc `]d]% eYYdfa]l_g]\malhYcl&9dk]]fnjgmo]]f l]d]^ggf_]khj]cng]jll]joabdr]]]f]%eYad Z]Yfloggj\l$akggcZab`YYj\]ngdd]YYf% \Y[`lfa]lZab`]l_]khj]c&4

E]]jd]r]f7 Â&#x153;@]l_]`]aenYfb]Zj]af$K&9Yeg\l]f  K&OYf_$Cgkegk$**$-( Â&#x153;:]fac\Yl7OYl`]jk]fgf\]jrg]cn]jl]dlgn]j b]r]d^$E&Ea]jYk$Fa]mo9ekl]j\Ye$)/$1( Â&#x153;N]jk[`adeY_]jrabf&OYYjge]jeYff]f ]f njgmo]f rabf$ E& >& <]d^gk$ Mal_]n]jab :]jl:Ycc]j$)1$1-

l]ckl2E]fkb]E]d[`agjtZ]]d\2;gjZak

<]Z]kl]ogjc%gmlk nggj]]fĂ&#x2022;lZj]af2 d]r]f$[j]Yla]^rabf$ khgjl]f]fcd]lk]f

O]_]Zjmac]feYYjla]f hjg[]flnYfgfkZj]af

nYfCgjkYcgncjab_]f$oYYjZabr]gm\]`]j% aff]jaf_]fn]j_]l]f]f_]]ffa]mo]`]j% aff]jaf_]f e]]j YYfeYc]f& E]fk]f \a] e]leYl]\jafc]f$Z]k[`Y\a_]f`mfZj]af ][`l]jfa]l&Rgf\]j_]nYYjnggj\]`]jk]% f]fcmff]fnjgmo]fÂ&#x2026;Â&#x2026;f_dYkYd[g`gdh]j \Y_\jafc]f&Jg\]oabfakr]d^k_g]\3e]f% k]f\a]\ja]g^na]jc]]jh]jo]]cjg\]oabf \jafc]f$dgh]f]]fdY_]jjaka[ggh\]e]f% la]&:gn]f\a]feYYcl`]lZj]afo]d\]_]% dabcj]_]deYla_fa]mo][]dd]fYYf&

Malgf\]jrg]cZdabc l\Ylcaf\]j]f\a]Y Yfkhgj l\g]fZ]l]jcmff]fj]c]f]f Zjgf2FG;"FK>!&

14-12-2009 12:14:54


Hersenspinsels