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‫  ‬ ‫‪١٠١‬‬ ‫‪ISLS 101‬‬ ‫‪ :‬أ ا ‪  /‬اءة اب ‪ $% ،‬ا‪ ( )* !"#‬ا'‬ ‫"‪ .!/0‬وﺕ‪0 )*2 ،+‬رة  ﺕ‪ ;<0‬دة وی‪9‬ح أه‪ $‬ا‪56‬ط ااد ‪112‬‬ ‫ ا‪ >16‬ا‪5‬ر ‪.;52‬‬

‫د اﻝ ت ‪ ٧٠‬ﺹ ‬

‫ها اﻝ! ﻝ و  ع ﺏ ‪ '() *+,‬و&‪ $%‬د‪#‬ة‬ ‫ﺏ ﻝ‪1‬ا ﻝ‪ 0‬وﻝ‪/‬‬ ‫‪*%‬لא א )و قوא دאد &ن‪ # $%‬ذ ! لא و ون‬ ‫‪%‬ط*‪- . #‬א ) ‪,‬א دא ‪)+‬و ‬

‫‪haniharab@hotmail.com‬‬ ‫أﺥ‪#‬آ‪ / 2‬ه ﻥ‪8 /‬ب‬

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‫א מא‪0‬ول ‬ ‫א א‬ ‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א‪0‬و ‪ ,‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪4‬وמא א ‬ ‫א ‪,7‬א ‪6‬و‪ : 5‬‬ ‫ﻒ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪) :‬ﹶﺛ ِﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﳊﺬﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻌﻠ ِﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﳛﻮﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹶﺛ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ -٤‬ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﹶﺛ ِﻘ ﹶﻔﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻛﺬﺍ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻭ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﻪ ﹶﺃﻭ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﺎﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺗﺪﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱢﺜ ﹶﻘﺎﻑ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻘﻮ‪‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﳌﻌـﻮﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺗﺜﻘﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺎﺡ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺗﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺜﻘﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌـﲎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳـﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬـﺬﻳﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎ ﹶﻥ‪ :‬ﺃﺩ‪‬ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﹼﺑﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻚ ؟ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺛ ﱠﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺗﺜ ﱠﻘﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻞ ‪ ‬ﱠﺬﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫א ‪,7‬א‪$9‬ط‪ : 3‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺟﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳊﺬﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻧﱯ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ –ﻻ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻳﹰﺎ– ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﻴﻠﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺴﻜﻮ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴـﺰ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘـﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺬﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﺬﻭﻕ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﳌﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺧـﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪4$‬وמא ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﻍ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻐﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺬﻛﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ } ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ‪ {...‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳـﺔ } ﺍﻟﻔﻨـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺍﺕ‪.{...‬‬ ‫א )‪:7‬א‪$9‬ط‪ 3‬א‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺘﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬מوא ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋِﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ‪ :‬ﺷﻌﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﲞﱪ ﻗﺪﻭﻣﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﹼﻤﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻘﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﲤﻴﻴﺰﹶﺍ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ ﲜﻬـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫א ق نא وא ‪ 7‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﴰﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﳑﻴﺰﺓ ﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪٤‬‬

‫א ‪2 3‬وא ‪ :‬‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ :2 3‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮﺓ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌـﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘـﺮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲰﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻨﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻑ ﻭﺇﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﻫﻪ ﻭﻣﺬﺍﻫﺒﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺑﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺵ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨـﺰﻝ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺩ‪.‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺣﺴﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺸﺌﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼـﻞ ﲟﺨﺘﻠـﻒ ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﺐ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺧﻠﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺭﻭﺣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﻭﻧﻮﺍﺣﻴﻪ ﻋﻘ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﺭﺍﻧﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻳﻌﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺻـﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ (١) :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ (٢) .‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ (٣) .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ‪ (٤) .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫א ق نא وא ‪ :2 3‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺩﻑ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻـﻞ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻏﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫وذجא )ق نא وא ‪2 3‬دא >س ز‪ :#‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻀﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

 ‬ ‫‬

‫‪ $‬دא א ‬ ‫א ‪$‬دא‪0‬ول‪:‬א ?نא ‪+‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪﴿:‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﳊﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٩ :‬‬

‫ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﻤﻠﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﲤﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻧﻌﻤﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺿﻴﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻨﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٣ :‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﺳﲑﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﰒ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻗﺪﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺬﺏ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺮﺣﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻘﻠﺒﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[٢١ ،٢٠ :‬‬

‫א ‪$‬دא

‪:‬א א  و‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﻲ ﺇﳍﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺣﻲ ﻳﻮﺣﻰ﴾‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﳌﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﺰ‪‬ﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[٤٤ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻮﺓ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[٢١ :‬‬

‫א ‪$‬دא

@‪:‬א  א‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻔﱵ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪$‬دא א ‪:A‬א ) ‪B‬א‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﲡﺴﻴﺪ ﳌﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﲟﻨﻬﺠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ا&‪8‬أ اﻝ‪ %‬ر* إذا )‪ $‬اﻝ!‪8‬‬ ‫> ع &‪#‬م ﻝ‪ A‬رون اﻝ‪8‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺭﺻﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺠﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺣﻀﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺧﺼﺐ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﱪ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫א ‪$‬دא  س‪:‬א ‪6‬א ‪ 7‬و?دא ‪ : 4‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

 ‬ ‫‬

‫‪> $‬صא א ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﲨﻊ ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺼﻴﺼﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﲢﺪﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ) :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪%‬و‪:C9‬א  ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ‪ } :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺣﻲ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ {‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪$‬א  ‪ :‬‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ )ﲰﺎﺕ( ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻧﺰ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑـﺎﳊﻖ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘـﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ ،[١٧٦‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﻧﺲ‪.[٣٢:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﺇﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﰊ ﻭﻛـﺬﹼﺑﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪﴿ ،[٥٧:‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﺒﻌﻮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﻓﺘﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻜـﻢ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[١٥٣:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻩ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻥ‪ ، [٥:‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺍﺗﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،[١٠٠:‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻧﱯ‪":‬ﺻﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻋﺼﺮ ﻛﻢ ﳜﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻀـﻤﲑ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﱰﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺰﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

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‫"ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻜﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻃﻤﺄﻧﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺳﻜﻴﻨﺔ"‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻭﺩﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴـﺪﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﻗﻞ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[٣٢:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻠﺢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺘﺬ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺘﺬ ﺑﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗـﺎﺕ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﻜﻦ ﺇﺫ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺮ ﺫﺍﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﳏﺒﻮﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻪ"‪.‬‬

‫ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻔﻈﺖ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘـﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻴـﺎﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺧﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﻤﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺆﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘـﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺳﻜﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺷﺤﺬ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺷﻌﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺸﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻷﻧﺲ‬

‫ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻭﺭ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻠﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻜﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﲑﺍﻥ ﺣﺴﺮﺍﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻔﺌﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻧﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻟﻘﺎﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻗﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻟـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ"‪.‬‬

‫ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﺜﻘـﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻳﻘـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺐ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺮﺹ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻭﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻋﺚ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﻞ ﻻﺑﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﲤﺰﺟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺰﺟﹰﺎ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﻜﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻭﺷﻌﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﱐ‬ ‫‬

‪: C‬א ‪D‬و ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪) :‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻋﻼﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ(‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﻃﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ﴾]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪﴿ ،[٣٨:‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺁﺗﺎﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[٧٧ :‬‬ ‫ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﴾‪﴿ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﰲ ﺷﱴ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﻉ‪﴿:‬ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺰ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻧﺬﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﴾]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪﴿ ،[١:‬ﻗﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[١٥٨ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨـﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬

‫زא א ‪D‬و ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻐﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﱪﺯ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﱯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‪: C‬א وא‪ :7E‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ) :‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻻ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ (‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪$‬א وא‪ :7E‬‬ ‫ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻫـﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑـﺎﻟﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻄﺮﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫?

א وא‪ :7E‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﲏ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫א ‪: C7‬א‪ : .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‪) :‬ﲢﺮﻙ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒـﺬﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪$‬و‪$‬وא‪ : .‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﺗﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺴﺨﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﺑﺘﻐـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫?

א‪ : .‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺿﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺐ ﰲ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﳋﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﱴ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﺎﻃﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺍﳊﺜﻴﺚ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א א ‪ 7‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪%‬א א ‬ ‫‪−١‬א )ز א ‪4‬ووא  و ‪ :#‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﳍﺎ‪﴿ ،‬ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣـﻦ ﺃﺣﺴـﻦ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﻐﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[١٣٨:‬ﻓﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺯ ﳍﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻮﺕ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻱ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٢‬א ‪7‬قوא‪ )9‬طא ) ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪﴿ ،‬ﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﺑﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻫﻮ ﲰﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺞ‪.[٧٨:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪﴿ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻣﺘﻜﻢ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪﴿ ،[٩٢:‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺇﺧﻮﺓ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٣‬א‪)9‬زאزوא‪- )9‬א ‪ :5 3‬‬ ‫ ﺭﻓﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﲤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺛﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺠﺰﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺤﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ )ﻭﻟﺰ(‪" :‬ﻛﻞ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﺎﺿﺮﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺒﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺐ ﳍﻮ ﺷـﺮ ﻣﺴـﺘﻄﲑ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﳚﺮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﻼﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﲑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﱏ ﺳﺎﺭﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬

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‫ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺮﻗﺔ ﺯﻳﻐﺮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮﻧﻜﻪ‪" :‬ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻥ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺘﻨﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻟﻨﺪﻳﻦ – ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ – ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٤‬א د‪, 2‬א ) لא وא‪7E‬وא )‪.‬ددא ‪ :5 3‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺪﺓ ﻋﱪ ﻗﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺷﱴ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﲤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ‪" :‬ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻷﻱ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺁﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﲢﺪﺩ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪ ﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻣﺪﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺃﺳـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻧﻘﺪﻩ ﻭﲡﺎﻭﺯﻩ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﻻ ﺭﻳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﲝﺴـﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﺟـﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ – ﰲ ﲢﺼﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﺤﻬﻢ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺧﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺃﻃﻮﻉ ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻧﻔﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ"‪.‬‬

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‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א   ‬ ‫‬

‫‪E‬א א ‬ ‫ ‪#‬א‪ K0‬‬ ‫‪$‬ون‪ 7 :7‬א א‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻠﺒـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪$‬ونא א ‪ : 6‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻭﺗﺴﺨﲑ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳍﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وא‪:E‬א אن‪ L‬نא ‪ :#‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﺳﻨﺤﺪﺩ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴـﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﳛﺼﺮ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺍﶈﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻻ ﺧﺎﻣﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺣﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺿﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﺎﻓﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﺿﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺿﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫א و‪:E‬א‪0‬ول‪:‬و‪:E‬א  ضوא  ط‪ :7‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻧﻐﻼﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻜﻔﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬

‫ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﻭﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﲔ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻘـﺪﱘ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ ﺛﻘﺎﻓـﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣـﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫א و‪:E‬א

‪:‬و‪:E‬א ولوא ذو ن‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻭﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲝﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺒﻬﺎﺭﹰﺍ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻃﻪ ﺣﺴﲔ ﳑﻦ ﺗﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻬﺎﺭ ﲟﺎ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﻥ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻐﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﲟﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺛﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﺴﺦ ﻭﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺣﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻓﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳓﻼﻝ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﻛﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻈﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺬﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‬ ‫א و‪:E‬א

@‪:‬و‪:E‬א )و قوא ) ق‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺠﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻋﺼﺮﻱ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋﻘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺍﳍﺰﳝﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻭﻧﻘﺾ ﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺛﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﲟﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻋـﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫א و‪:E‬א א ‪:A‬و‪:E‬א )زوא‪ )9‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻـﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﲤﻴـﺰﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﲞﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﺇﻓﺎﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ﲟـﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌـﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﲤﻴﺰ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺿﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﻋـﱪ ﻣﺴـﲑ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﱪﺯ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺰﺍﺯ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﻐﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻭﺑﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺤﻴﺺ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻓﺘﺆﺛﺮ ﻭﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫א מא

 ‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א‬ ‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א‪0‬و ‪ ,‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪4‬وמو‪ +%‬نא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א ‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ :6 2‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻘﹾﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺸـﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻭﺛﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﺜﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﳊﺒﻞ‪ :‬ﺷﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬א‪$9‬ط‪N‬א ‪ 7‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﻘﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳝﺎﺯﺟﻪ ﺷـﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻄﻪ ﺭﻳﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬א‪$9‬ط‪N‬אو‪ : 4)  3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻟﻮﻫﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺑﻮﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﲟﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﻛﺘﺒـﻪ ﻭﺭﺳـﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺧﲑﻩ ﻭﺷﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﻣـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﲨﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺮﺳﻮﻟﻪ  ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﺒﺎﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - %‬מא ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫‪−١‬א )و‪3‬د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ) ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ( ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ َِﺣّﺪﻩ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﺣِﻴﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪" :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ"‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺟﻌﻠﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻭﺃﺣﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺋـﻪ ﻭﺻـﻔﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﰲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﻈﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺜﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺑﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺏ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٢‬א ن‪ :‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻟﻐ ﹰﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﲔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺐ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﲰﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﺡ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ] :‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ – ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ – ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻛـﺎﻥ [ ﻭﻳﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﺇﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪$%−٣‬ولא دن‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪":‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪":‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ"‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻫﻮ‪" :‬ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻭﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ "ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﲨﻊ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﺒﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺒﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫‪ +%‬نא ن))(‬

‫‬

‫ﺳﺌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﻷﳝﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺧﲑﻩ ﻭﺷﺮﻩ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪−١‬א ‪+‬نא‪0‬ول‪:‬א ن ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‪ :‬ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ] ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﻪ [‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺏ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺭﺏ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬

‫"ا‪ D‬ن ﺏ ﻝ‪8‬ﺏ‪#‬ﺏ وﺡه ‬ ‫‪ / I‬ﻝ‪8‬اء ‪ G‬اﻝ‪8F‬ك"‬

‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺍﷲ ﺧﺎﻟﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[٦٢ :‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[٢٦ :‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻕ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﹼﻕ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﲔ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.[٥٨ :‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﶈﻴﻲ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺭﰊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻴﻲ ﻭﳝﻴﺖ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٥٨:‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ] ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ [‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻹﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﳉﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺲ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.[٥٦:‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻮﺣﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﺒﺪﻭﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،[٢٥:‬ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻻ ﻧﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[٦٤:‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﴿ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫  ‪ MN‬ﺕ‪#‬ﺡ ا‪K‬ﻝ‪#‬ه إ ‪ & J‬ة‬ ‫راﺱ ﺹ   ‪ G‬ا‪ D‬ن ﺏ‪8‬ﺏ‪#‬ﺏ‪$%‬‬ ‫ﺕ! ﻝ‪ J‬دون ﺵ‪.08‬‬

‫ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻌﺒﻮﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻀﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﻃﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﻤﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻗ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻟﻘـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ] ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ [‪:‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺘﺼﻒ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﱰﻫﺔ ﻋﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﴿ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﲢﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﴿ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ‪.[١١:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﴿ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻷﺑﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﺑﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ[‪.‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪−٢‬א ‪+‬نא

‪:‬א ن >‪ :+‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﺯﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﷲ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﳎﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺼﻮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ ﴿ﻻ ﻳﻌﺼﻮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﺮﻭﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ‪.[٦:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﻞ ﺑﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﻛﺘﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺿﻞ ﺿﻼ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١٣٦:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻻ ﳛﺼﻰ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ؛ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﻨﻮﺩ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺫﻛـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ‪ ):‬ﺃﻃﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﻖ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺌﻂ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻣﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻬﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﺟﺪﺍ ﷲ ( ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﲟﻦ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻭﻣﻴﻜﺎﺋﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺗﻔﺼﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ )ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺟﻨﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﻄﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪−٣‬א ‪+‬نא

@‪:‬א ن ‪ :)+‬‬ ‫ ﻧﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﺰﳍﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺆﻣﻦ ﲟﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻢ ﺇﲨﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺆﻣﻦ ﲟﺎ ﲰﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﻴ ﹰﻼ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﺍﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻭﻧﻮﺭ ﴾‪﴿ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻹﳒﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺪﻯ ﻭﻧﻮﺭ ﴾ ﴿ﻭﺁﺗﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺯﺑﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﴾‪ ﴿ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻒ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻧﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺃﻓﺘﻄﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﻣﻨـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﳛﺮﻓﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻘﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺺ ﲟﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﺎﰎ ﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﻭﲨﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﻴﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﻣـﻦ ﲢﺮﻳـﻒ‬ ‫﴿ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﻗﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﻬﻴﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٤٨:‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﷲ ﲝﻔﻈﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﻟﻪ ﳊﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٩:‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪١٩‬‬

‫‪−٤‬א ‪+‬نא א ‪:A‬א ن ل‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﲟﻦ ﲰﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺭﺳﻼ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﻴـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻬﻢ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺭﺳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺼﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻧﻘﺼﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[٧٨:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻧﺒﻮﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻫﻢ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻛﻔﺮ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺇﲨﺎ ﹰﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻬﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﱰﻫﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺯﻻﺕ ﻭﺧﻄﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻘـﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺑـﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺫﻛﻮﺭ‪" ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﳊﺰﻡ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﲟﺤﻤﺪ  ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ ﻭﻣﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ﻭﻣﺆﻳﺪ ﺑـﺎﳌﻌﺠﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﴿ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪.[٢٩:‬‬ ‫‪−٥‬א ‪+‬نא  س‪:‬א ن وמא‪ :R‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ  ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟـﱪﺯﺥ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﱪ ﻭﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺚ ﻭﺍﳊﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١٧٧:‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ] ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺷﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻠﻮﺩ‪.[...‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻪ ﻭﺍﻧﻀﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣـﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﴿ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[١٨:‬‬

‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻏﻔﻠﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺜﺎﻗﻠﻬﻢ ﻭﺣﺒﻬﻢ ﳌﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﺜﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﻌﺠﺒـﻬﻢ ﳌـﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻧـﻪ ﺑﺒﺼـﲑ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﺠﻴﺐ ۞ ﺃﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﻭﻛﻨﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻈﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﴾‪.‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳓﻦ ﲟﺒﻌﻮﺛﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[٢٩:‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

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‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪﴿ ،‬ﺃﻓﺤﺴﺒﺘﻢ ﺃﳕﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﻨﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﺒﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺟﻌﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ‪.[١١٥:‬‬

‫‪−٦‬א ‪+‬نא  دس‪:‬א ن  ‪-‬وא د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﻘﻀﺎﻫﻦ ﺳﺒﻊ ﲰﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﴾ ]ﻓﺼـﻠﺖ‪،[١٢:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﻦ ﻭﺃﻧﻔﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﲰﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺎﺿﻴﹰﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻓﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺽ ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪ [٧٢:‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﲤﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻔﺬ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻤـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻛﻨﻬﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻐﻬﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﺒﻠﻐﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺟﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﺘﻼﺯﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻚ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﲟﱰﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻬﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻀﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪+3‬מא ن  ‪-‬وא د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺧﲑﻩ ﻭﺷﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻠﻮﻩ ﻭﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺬﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‪﴿ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷـﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪ ،[٤٩ :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﺭﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[٣٨:‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﲟﺸﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﳝـﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘـﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ (٢) .‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺡ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺸﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

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‫‪> $‬صא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א ‬ ‫‪ −١‬د‪ :)

2‬‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ؛ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﺍﺗﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﲤﺎﻡ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺮﺍﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻹﳍﻲ ﳍﺎ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﺇﻧﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺇﻧﺎ ﻟﻪ ﳊﺎﻓﻈﻮﻥ ﴾ ] ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٩ :‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ﴿ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﳍﻢ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﻋﻮﺍ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺸـﻮﺭﻯ‪،[٢١:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ  "ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ" ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ  ‪":‬ﻛﻔﻰ ﺑﻘﻮﻡ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺘﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻬﻢ"‪.‬‬

‫‪ −٢‬د‪ 2‬ط‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻣﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﴿ﻓﺄﻗﻢ ﻭﺟﻬﻚ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﺣﻨﻴﻔـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻄﺮﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.[٣٠:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ )) :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ – ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ – ﻓﺄﺑﻮﺍﻩ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﳝﺠﺴﺎﻧﻪ (( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﻦ ﲞﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ‪..‬‬ ‫‪ −٣‬د‪ : 2‬‬ ‫ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﻋﻤﻰ (‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻫﺎﺗﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﻫﺎﻧﻜﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١١١:‬‬

‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﲟﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺪﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻣﻐـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻫـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺁﳍﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻔﺴﺪﺗﺎ﴾‪﴿ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺧﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ﺃﻡ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻘﻮﻥ﴾‪ .‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪ −٤‬د‪2‬وא‪ :3‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ‪) ،‬ﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪﴿ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﺘﻮﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ −٥‬دوط‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻻ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﻁ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻂ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺩﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻪ‪ -‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺰ ﻭﺟ ﹼﻞ‪ -‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺑﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻠﺪ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻳـﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﻘـﻮﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻨﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻭﺑﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﻞ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺴﺎﻙ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺣﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪،[٤٣:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻻ ﺇﻛـﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺒﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻲ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٥٦:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻮﺍﻻ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻧﺼﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﻋـﺪﺍﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺑـﲔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻤﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻬﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺎﺗﻠﻮﻛﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺟﻮﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻛﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﱪﻭﻫﻢ ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻄﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﺔ‪ ،[٨:‬ﻭ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﻭﻻ ﳚﺮﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺷﻨﺌﺂﻥ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺪﻭﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺘﺪﻭﺍ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﺤﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻭﺻﻠﻮﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴـﺔ‬ ‫﴿ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ﴾‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻛﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻫﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﴿ﻭﺭﻫﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﻋﻮﻫﺎ﴾‪،‬‬ ‫﴿ﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪﴿ ،[٣٢:‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘـﻎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺁﺗﺎﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[٧٧:‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

 ‬ ‫‬

‫‪%‬א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬و?

 ‬ ‫‪%‬و ‪:9C‬א‪, 

R‬א د‪ :‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪−١‬دאא ‪ 7‬ل‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﻫﺪﺍﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻗﻬﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻛـﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﻗﺒـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻻ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٥٦:‬‬ ‫ ﳒﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﳊﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻻ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﻨﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳍﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻃﺎﻑ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺼﺮﻩ‪ ":‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺄﻣﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﻭﻱ ﻏﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪...‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺏ ﻣﺜﻞ ﲡﺮﺑﱵ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﱵ"‪.‬‬

‫‪+−٢‬א س‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻟﻴﺰﺩﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺇﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﷲ ﺟﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺣﻜﻴﻤﺎﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ، [٤:‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬

‫ﺿﻨﻜﺎ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪ ،[١٢٤:‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻠﺒﺴﻮﺍ ﺇﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﻈﻠﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻷﻣـﻦ ﻭﻫـﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺘﺪﻭﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[٨٢:‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻜﲔ‪ " :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺷﻌﺚ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺸـﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻷﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻠﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻜﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﲑﺍﻥ ﺣﺴﺮﺍﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻔﺌﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﻭ‪‬ﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ‪"...‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﷲ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﻮﺭﻩ ﻛﻤﺸﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺼـﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﳌﺼـﺒﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺯﺟﺎﺟـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺔ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻮﻛﺐ ﺩﺭﻱ ﻳﻮﻗﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺯﻳﺘﻮﻧﺔ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﺯﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﻀـﻲﺀ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﲤﺴﺴﻪ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﺭ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[٣٥:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ –ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪": -‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳉـﻮﺍﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻊ ﺑﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﺃﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪−٣‬א) א  و!‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ﻳﺄﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﺩﻣﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺍﺿـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺧﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺄﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻬﻢ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻻﻡ ﺭﺟﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﻩ ﻟﻌﻠﻜﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪﴿ .[٩٠:‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻜـﺮ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[٢١ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﴿ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﳊﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺿﺔ ﳛﱪﻭﻥ ﴾‪﴿ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ ﻟﻨﻜﻔﺮﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺳﻴﺌﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻟﻨﺠﺰﻳﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ﴾‪ ﴿ ،‬ﻭﺃﳒﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻘﻮﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٤‬א ‪ #‬א ‪D‬دא>د‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻧﺰ‪‬ﻟﻪ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻚ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻟﻴﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨـﻮﺍ ﻭﻫـﺪﻯ ﻭﺑﺸـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪ ﴿ ،[١٠٢:‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩﻙ ﻭﺭﺗﻠﻨﺎﻩ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﻼ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[٣٢:‬‬

‫ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻬﻴﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﻋﺠﺒﺎ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﻛﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﲑ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﺍﻙ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺳﺮﺍﺀ ﺷﻜﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺿﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﱪ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺧﲑﺍ ﻟﻪ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺰﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼـﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﺻﺐ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺫﻯ ﺇﻻ ﻛﻔﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ" ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪" :‬ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺧﲑ ﻋﻴﺸﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﱪ"‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻛﻨـﺰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﻮﺯ ﺍﳋـﲑ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻛﺮﱘ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪ )−٥‬وא‪0‬لووא‪4.‬א ‪ : 7$‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻨﻄﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪـﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻐﻔـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺮ‪.[٥٣ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻨﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٥٦ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺃﻓﺄﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺄﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻭﻥ﴾ ] ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[٩٩ :‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺮ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﷲ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ﻼ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑـﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ "ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﺃﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮ ﻳﺴﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻮﻗﻨﹰﺎ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺒـﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻘـﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺎﻓﺬ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺴﻠﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﻣﻬﻤـﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﻮﻟﻜـﺖ ﻇﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ" )ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ /‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻤﺪ)‪.((٢٧‬‬ ‫‪-  −٦‬א >و وא ‪ E‬א ذא)‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺆﺍﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[٣٦ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪" :‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﴿ﻛﻞ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ﴾ ﺃﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺆﺍﺩ )ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻ( ﺃﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﻔﻮﻫﻢ ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪.[٢٤ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼـﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﲢﺼﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﳛﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺧﺎﺋﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﲔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﲣﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ﴾ ]ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪.[١٩:‬‬ ‫‪−٧‬א وز א‪ :2R‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻠﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﳌﻦ ﻇﻠﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﳌـﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻰ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﺎﳋﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﳍﻮ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﰒ ﺃﻭﺭﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻧﺎ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻇﺎﱂ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻣﻨـﻬﻢ ﻣﻘﺘﺼـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎﳋﲑﺍﺕ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺟﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﳛﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻭﻟﺆﻟﺆﹰﺍ ﻭﻟﺒﺎﺳﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻳﺮ﴾ ]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[٣٣-٣٢:‬‬ ‫ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻛﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﻳﻦ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻇﻠﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻛـﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻼ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﺤﻖ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﺌﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺳﻲ‪":‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺗﻴﺘﲏ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺧﻄﺎﻳﺎ ﰒ ﻟﻘﻴﺘﲏ ﻻ ﺗﺸﺮﻙ ﰊ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﺗﻴﺘﻚ ﺑﻘﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻐﻔﺮﺓ"‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﺑﺬﻧﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻄﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰒ ﻳﺆﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫﴿ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﻔﻐﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٤٨:‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‪: C‬א‪, 

R‬א ‪ :A).‬‬ ‫‪ 3)−١‬قא‪0‬و‪2‬א وא )‪: 7‬א ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻣﺘﻜﻢ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺑﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﺒﺪﻭﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.[٩٢ :‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﺐ‪" :‬ﻭﺗﺘﻼﺷﻰ ﺁﻣﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﲡـﺎﻩ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺠﻬﻮﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﲨﻌﲔ"‬ ‫ " ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﻭﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ " )ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪.(١٩٧‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﺗﻘﻮﺍ ﺭﺑﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻘﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ﺯﻭﺟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺚ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﴾]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١ :‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻈﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻠﻤﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛـﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺮ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ" ) ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ (‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‪ ":‬ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺣﱴ ﳛﺐ ﻷﺧﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺐ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ "ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٢‬א‪ 9‬طא  و‪+‬وא‪ :0‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺭﺑﻂ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪:‬‬

‫ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻻ ﻳﺰﱐ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﱐ ﺣﲔ ﻳـﺰﱐ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺴﺮﻕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣـﺆﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﺐ ‪‬ﺒﺔ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺼﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ" ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺴـﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪ ":‬ﻳﱰﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺰﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﻭﻓﺎﺳﻖ"‬

‫ﺏ ـ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﳏﺼﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻠﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﻭﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻭﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﺮ﴾]ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪.[٥٣ - ٥٢ :‬‬

‫ﺝ ـ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻓﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻔﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﺠﺰﺁﺅﻩ ﺟﻬـﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻏﻀﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻌﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٩٣:‬‬ ‫‪−٣‬א )‪ +‬لوא )‪ 7‬ونא‪ : ).9‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻴﺴﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻳﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ" ﻭﺷﺒﻚ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻌﻪ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﺸﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ " :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺍﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﲪﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻃﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﻜﻰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺗﺪﺍﻋﻰ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﻰ" ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٤‬א ‪7‬دא  א ‪+3‬מوא  ‪ :-‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺴﻂ ﺷﻬﺪﺍﺀ ﷲ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺮﺑﲔ ﺇﻥ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻏﻨﻴـﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﲑﹰﺍ ﻓﺎﷲ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻠﻮﻭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﲑ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١٣٥:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪":‬ﺍﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺿﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺑﺘﻚ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺍﺷﻬﺪ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺿﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﳛﻤﻠﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻛﻢ ﻭﺷـﺆﻭﻧﻜﻢ ﺑـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﺮﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺷﻨﺂﻥ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻋﺪﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﻯ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٨:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻣـﺮﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺴـﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻛﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻜﻤﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻧﻌﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻈﻜﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲰﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺼﲑﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٥٨:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻨﺒﻴﻪ ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀﻭﻙ ﻓﺎﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨـﻬﻢ ﻓﻠـﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮﻭﻙ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺣﻜﻤﺖ ﻓﺎﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺴﻂ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳛﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺴﻄﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٤٢:‬‬

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‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א א ‪ 7‬‬ ‫‬

‫ >ل א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א ‬ ‫۞א * א‪0‬و ‪:,‬א ‪ E7‬نא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬وא ‪ ۞7D‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﻌﺜﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻋﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮﺕ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[٣٦ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻮﺣﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.[٢٥:‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪..":‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﺧﻮﺓ ﻟﻌﻼﺕ ﺃﻣـﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺷـﱴ ﻭﺩﻳﻨـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ")ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ (‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺗﻨﺒﺜﻖ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺟﺪﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻧﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻗﻪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﹰﺍ ﻗﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﳏﻜﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ – ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﳎﺎﻧﺒﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜـﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﳍـﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳐـﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺴـﻢ ﺍﻹﳝـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣـﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻻ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﴿ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤ ٍﻞ ﻓﺠﻠﺘﺎﻩ ﻫﺒﺎ ًﺀ ﻣﻨﺜﻮﺭﹰﺍ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﴿ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻴﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻜـﺒﲑﺓ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺷﻌﲔ ۞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻈﻨﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻣﻼﻗﻮ ﺭ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٤٦-٤٥ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻃﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﻞ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﴿ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻴﻀﻴﻊ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺼﻪ‪.‬‬

‫۞א * א

‪3:‬א‪ )9‬د אמ۞ ‬ ‫א ‪ ,7‬א ‪4‬وמא‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﲝﻖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺻﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻩ ﻭﺗﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪3‬א‪ )9‬د ‪$‬وصא ?ن‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻻ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٥٦:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺎﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻇﺎﳌﻲ ﺃﻧﻔﺴـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﺳـﻌﺔ ﻓﺘـﻬﺎﺟﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٩٧ :‬‬ ‫‪3‬א‪ )9‬د ) ‪B‬א  ن‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﳒﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺇﻳﻠﻴﺎﺀ )ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﲑﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﻷﻗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﺼﺮ‪.‬‬

‫)‪# 7D‬و‪ :# 4 D‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪−١‬א ‪ 4.‬دو‪3‬א‪ )9‬د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ؛ ﻹﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺣﻖ ﻭﺧﲑ ﻭﻋﺪﻝ ﻭﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻐﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰒ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺮﻓﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳝﻨﻊ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﲟﻘﺎﺗﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺼﺎﺩﺭﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪+3−٢‬מא د‪2‬و‪3‬א‪ )9‬د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪":‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻓﺎﻗﺘﻠﻮﻩ"‬

‫ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻖ ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺴﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜـﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻗﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﺒﻠﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‬

‫ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻛﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺼﺎﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﰊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻴﺐ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫۞א * א

‪:‬א ‪> +‬و‪ 7  4) $‬د‪ ۞2‬‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ :> +‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻀﺐ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺑﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ؛ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﺻﻨﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﹰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﲨﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻳﻨﻄﺒـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ E%‬מא ذو‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ‪ :‬ﻛﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻐﺎﺋﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠ‪‬ﺘِﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﹶﻛﺒ‪‬ﺎِﺋ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻜﻔﱢ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺳﻴ‪‬ﺌﹶﺎِﺗ ﹸﻜﻢ‪﴾‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ِ﴿ :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬

‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٣١:‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪" :‬ﳌﺎ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺒﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻛﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺻﻐﺎﺋﺮ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺗﺮﻋﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻛﺎﳊﺼﲑ ﻋﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻮﺩﺍ ﻓﺄﳝﺎ ﻗﻠـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻜﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﻜﺘﺖ ﺳﻮﺩﺍ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ ﺻﻘﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﺳﻮﺩﺍ ﻣﺮﺑـﺎﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻜﻮﺯ ﳎﺨﻴﺎ"‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪ 3‬ون א ‪+3‬מ ‪%,‬لא ‪ :> +‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻤﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﳐﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻤﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻨـﺰﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﳐﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﺌﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺈﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪+3‬מ)‪+‬א ‪ :2 +‬‬ ‫ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ  ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺗﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻮﺣﺪﻭﻥ ﻻ ﳜﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻏﻔﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‪ِ﴿ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐ ِﻔ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑِـ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻐ‪‬ﻔِـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﹶﺫﻟِـ ‪‬‬

‫‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎﺀُ﴾]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٤٨:‬‬

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‫ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻋﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳜﺮﺟﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻪ ﻭﺷﻔﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻃﺎﻋﺘـﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻌﺜﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫۞א * א א ‪+3):7‬מא ‪ ۞7D‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﳎﺎﻻ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗـﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺒﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻟﻺﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎﺀ ﺭﺿﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪+3) $‬מא ‪ 7 7D‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ﻻ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﻼ ﻭﺭﺑـﻚ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﳛﻜﻤﻮﻙ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺷﺠﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﰒ ﻻ ﳚﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺣﺮﺟﹰﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺖ ﻭﻳﺴـﻠﻤﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٦٥:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺭ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻨـﺎﺯﻋﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺷـﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩﻭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺗﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﲑ ﻭﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻼ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺍﺯﻡ ﺃﻟﻮﻫﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ِ﴿:‬ﺇ ِﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﲣﺬﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺃ ِﻣﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻟﻴﻌﺒﺪﻭﺍ ِﺇﻟﹶﻬﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺣِﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺭﻫﺒﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩﻭ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹾﻠ ِﻪ ﻭﺍ ﹶﳌﺴِﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[٣١:‬‬

‫ ﺍﳌﺒﺪﻝ ﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺟﺎﺣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻛﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﳐﺮﺟﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻤـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﻖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ِﺷﺮ‪‬ﻛﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫﴿ﺃﻻ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[٥٤:‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺒﻐﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺣﻜﻤﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻗﻨﻮﻥ﴾‪] .‬ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٥٠:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﺃﹼﻓﹼ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪E%‬وאلא ‪ -  7‬א ‪+3‬מ وאنא و‪7‬دونא ‪ :D‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪":‬ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺮﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺋﻪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﺷﺮﻛﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻤﺲ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺼﲑﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻧـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳋﻀﺮ ﺣﺴﲔ‪":‬ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻫﺪﻡ ﳌﻌﻈﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘـﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ"‪.‬‬

‫۞א * א  ‪:‬א‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬دن۞ ‬ ‫‪,7‬א‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬دن‪ :‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﻟﻐﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺰﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﺰﺅ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﺉ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺰﺃ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﺳﺨﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺋﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳﻀﺤﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳉـﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﺰﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﶈﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﳝﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫‪+3‬מא‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬دن‪ :‬‬

‫ﺐ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﺃﹶﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎِﺗ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴﻘﹸﻮﹸﻟﻦ‪ِ ‬ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧﺨ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺰﺋﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،[٦٥:‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻏﺰﻭﺓ ﺗﺒﻮﻙ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺋﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﻏﺐ ﺑﻄﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻛﺬﺏ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺟﱭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﺑﺖ ﻭﻟﻜﻨـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻖ ﻷﺧﱪﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻠﻎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﲝﻘﺐ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻨﻜﺒﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﻨـﺎ ﳔـﻮﺽ ﻭﻧﻠﻌـﺐ ﻭﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ِﺰﺋﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[٦٥:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺃﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎِﺗ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮِﻟ ِﻪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ":‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳜﻠﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻫـﺰﻻﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﺧﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﺰﻝ ﺃﺧـﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃـﻞ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹸﺬﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺰ‪‬ﻭﹰﺍ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃﻋ‪‬ـﻮ ﹸﺫ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠـ ِﻪ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃﻛﹸـﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻣِـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺅﻧﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪﴿:‬ﹶﺃ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﻫ ِﻠﲔ‪.﴾‬‬ ‫‪%‬وאعو‪$‬وא‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬دن‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫א‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬ذא‪#‬א ‪ :4‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪:‬‬ ‫﴿ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻳﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻐﻠﻮﻟﺔ ﻏﻠﺖ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺪﺍﻩ ﻣﺒﺴﻮﻃﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﻖ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٦٤:‬‬ ‫א‪4)9‬زא‪? -‬نא ‪+‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ ﻭﺗﻜﺬﻳﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸـﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺐ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻫﺎﻧﺔ ﳌﺼﺎﺣﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛ ﹰﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺀﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺘﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺁﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻗـﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﲰﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻟﻘﻨﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺳﺎﻃﲑ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪ .[٣١:‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫א‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬ولא ‪+‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻌﻦ ﰲ ﻧﺒﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﻟﻘﺪﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺼﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻠـﺔ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺨﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻔﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﲟﻘﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺰ‪‬ﻭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﺭ‪‬ﺁ ‪‬ﻙ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻛ ﹶﻔﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻱ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ﺁِﻟ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ِﺬ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﹶﺎ ِﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.[٣٦:‬‬ ‫א‪4)9‬زא‪V -‬ن‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﺰﺍﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒـﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺟﻞ ﻭﻋﻼ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻘﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ـﻮﺍ ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠـ ِﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰِﻳـ ِﺰ‬ ‫ﺤﻤِﻴ ِﺪ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺝ‪.[٨:‬‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫‬

‫ طא‪4)9‬زא‪ -‬دن‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪‬ﻮﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻈﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻫﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺋﻌﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﲤﻜﲔ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫۞א * א  د‪:‬א و‪-9‬وא א‪ ۞-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‪ :‬ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎﻥ ﻓﺼﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﺣﺼﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻚ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﱄ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﱃ ﻓﻼﻧﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﻻﻩ ﻭﺍﲣﺬﻩ ﻭﻟﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﺀ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﳊﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ‪:‬ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻧﲏ ﺑﺮﺍﺀ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ﴾‬

‫]ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪.[٢٦:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺐ‪ ":‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱪﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼ‪‬ﻲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﳎﺎﻭﺭﺗﻪ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﱪﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﺾ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٣٦‬‬

‫א و‪-9‬وא א‪ -‬א ‪$‬وصא ‪ :D‬‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺑﺎﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﻧﺼﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﻧﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﻐﻀﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻧﺼﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﻧﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﻚ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻔ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻞ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺬ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ِﻓﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭِﻟﻴ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭ ِﻥ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣِﻨ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺘ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺼﲑ‪] ﴾‬ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[٢٨:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﻓِﻲ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٍﺀ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﻘﹸﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹶﺎ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﺬﱢ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﺗﺮﻯ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺒﺌﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻧﻔﺴـﻬﻢ ﺍﻥ ﺳـﺨﻂ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻫﻢ ﺧﺎﻟﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﻟﻮﻛﺎﻧﻮ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﻭ ﻣﺎﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺍﲣﺬﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻴـﺎﺀ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﺎﺳﻘﻮﻥ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻨﻮ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺨﺬﻭ ﻋﺪﻭﻯ ﻭﻋﺪﻭﻛﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠ ﹸﻘﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﻔـﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ﴾‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺃﻭﺛﻖ ﻋﺮﻯ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻻﺓ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﺍﺓ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺐ ﰲ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺒﻐﺾ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﺑﻐﺾ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻨـﻊ ﷲ ﻓﻘـﺪ ﺍﺳـﺘﻜﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺟﺪ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪" :‬ﺛﻼ ﹲ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﳛﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻻ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺬﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ"‪.‬‬

‫‪$‬ون ) ‪#‬א א‪2-‬نא ‪ +‬ن‪ :‬‬ ‫‬

‫א ‪$‬و‪2‬א‪0‬و ‪:,‬دמ א ‪,  +‬א  מ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪":‬ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﻪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻪ"‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺼﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻓﺴﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺟﺎﺓ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﺇﰒ‪.‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٣٧‬‬

‫א ‪$‬و‪2‬א

‪:‬دמא ‪+‬ون ‪,‬א ‪ +‬ن‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻻ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻗـﺎﻝ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﹶـﺎﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻼ ۞ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻮ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺛﺒ‪ ‬ﺘﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭ ‪‬ﻙ ‪‬ﺧﻠِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻏ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭﺇِﺫﹰﺍ ﻟﹶﺎﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻟ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻔ‪‬ﺘ ِﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻋ‪ِ ‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻱ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻟ‪‬ﻴ ﹾﻔِﺘﻨ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻤ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ ۞ ﺇِﺫﹰﺍ ﹶﻟﹶﺄ ﹶﺫ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ﹶﻗﻠِﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ِﻛ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻧﺼِﲑﺍﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‪.[٧٥-٧٣:‬‬ ‫א ‪$‬و‪2‬א

‪:‬א א‪2-‬א ‪.4‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘـﱪﺃ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎ ِﻓﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ )‪(١‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ)‪ (٢‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ )‪ (٣‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ )‪ (٤‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﺎِﺑﺪ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ‬ ‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺪ ُ)‪ (٥‬ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩِﻳ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭِﻟ ‪‬ﻲ ﺩِﻳﻦِ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ‪.[٦-١:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻻﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻻﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻑ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻣﺪﺍﻫﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﻧﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﻷﺟﻞ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺩﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺿﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻻﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻠﺘﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﳜـﱪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨﺬﹸﻭﺍ ِﺑﻄﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫א ‪$‬و‪2‬א א ‪:7‬دמא) ذמ ط ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﺨﻔِـﻲ ﺻ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻐﻀ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻫ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﻭِﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻟﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋِﻨﺘ‪ ‬ﻢ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﺪ‪ِ ‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﹾﺂﻳﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻘﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﺔ‪.[١:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺼﺎﺹ‪ ":‬ﺑﻄﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺒﻄﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺜﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨـﻬﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻄﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧـﱪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪﴿:‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄﻟﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺎﻻﹰ﴾ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳚﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﻛﻢ"‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪$‬و‪2‬א  ‪!):‬א )‪4  D‬מ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﺘ‪‬ﺒِـ ‪‬ﻊ ﺳ‪‬ـﺒِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻔﺴِـﺪِﻳﻦ﴾‬ ‫ﻚ ﺇِﺫﹰﺍ ﹶﻟﻤِـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻙ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻌ ﹾﻠ ِﻢ ِﺇﻧ‪ ‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻷﻋـﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،[١٤٢:‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﹶﻟِﺌ ِﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﱠﺎِﻟﻤِﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[١٤٥:‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫‪":‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺘﺪﺍﺀ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﺄﻓﻌﺎﳍﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫‪$‬و ‪#‬ن ) ‪#‬א א‪2-‬نא ‪ : +‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﻉ ِﺇﻟﹶـﻰ ﺳ‪‬ـﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺍﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﲎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﻋ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﻟﱠﺘِﻲ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻋ ﹶﻈ ِﺔ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ِﺇﻟﱠـﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪِﻳﻦ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪ ،[١٢٥:‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗﺠ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻇ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑِﺎﻟﱠﺘِﻲ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬

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‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺨﺮِﺟ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺩﻳ‪‬ـﺎ ِﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ـﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎِﺗﻠﹸﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ﹾﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﻄﹸﻮﺍ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻳ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻄﲔ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺤﻨﺔ‪ ،[٨:‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘـﺎﺗﻠﲔ ﺍﶈـﺎﺭﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﺻـﺤﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺩﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻛﻔﺮﺕ ﻭﺃﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺎﺩﻉ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ‪:‬ﻫﻠﻜﺖ ﺩﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪] :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﻭﺳﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺋﺖ ‪‬ﻢ[‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪-‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍﺀ ﳍﻢ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺃﻫﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻜﺮﻫﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﱄ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪] :‬ﺇﱐ ﱂ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻟﺒﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻚ[ ﻓﺄﻫﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﻤـﺮ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻷﺥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺸﺮﻙ ﲟﻜﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺕ‪-‬‬

‫ﻋﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺮﺿﺎﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ  ﺃﻥ ﻏﻼﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻬﻮﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻳﻌﻮﺩﻩ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪] :‬ﺃﺳﻠﻢ[ ﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺃﻃﻊ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ‪ ،--‬ﻓﺄﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺨﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪] :‬ﺍﳊﻤـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ [‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺼـﺪﻳﻖ ﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ  ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﺍﻏﺒﺔ ‪-‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‪ -‬ﺃﻓﺘﺘﺼـﺪﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؟ ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺣﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻬﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﳑـﺎ ﺫﲝـﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﰊ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳎﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳌﺴـﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﻳﺸـﻬﺪ ﳍـﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﻞ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺣﻞ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﻃﻌﺎﻣﻜﻢ ﺣﻞ ﳍـﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﺼﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﶈﺼﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗـﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺁﺗﻴﺘﻤـﻮﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻦ ﳏﺼﻨﲔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺤﲔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺘﺨﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺒﻂ ﻋﻤﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻳﻦ ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٥:‬‬

‫۞א * א  ‪:7‬א ‪ 6‬و א دن۞ ‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ 6‬و א دن‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ‪ :‬ﻟﻐﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ) ﹶﻏﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ( ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﳎﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻗﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻏﻼ ﻳﻐﻠﻮ ﻏﻠﻮﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏـﺎﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻐﻠﻮ‪ :‬ﳎﺎﻭﺯﺓ ﺍﳊﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ :‬ﻏﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﻭﺗﺼﻠﺐ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭ ﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧـﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﻮﻥ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻌﺘﺪﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﺗﻐﻠﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﻮ ٍﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٧٧:‬‬ ‫‪%‬وאعא ‪ 6‬و‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ‪ :‬‬ ‫א‪0‬ول‪:‬א ‪ 6‬وא ‪ +‬א‪  )9‬د‪ :5‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ ﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻔﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻻ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﱯ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴـﻤﻰ ﻓﺮﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪" :-‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺼﲑ ِﻓ ‪‬ﺮﻗﹰﺎ ﲞﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻠ ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ"‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﺪ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‪ ":‬ﰒ ﺃﺩﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ":‬ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺌﻈﺊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻻ ﳚﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﻨﺎﺟﺮﻫﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺛﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬ ‫א

‪:‬א ‪ 6‬وא ‪.‬ز>א ‪ : 7‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤـﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻭﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﳎﺮﺩ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﻫﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻥ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﳓﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻗﺪ ﻏﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺘﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪":‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﺘﻢ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺃﻣـﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﺸﺎﻛﻢ ﷲ ﻭﺃﺗﻘﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﻏﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻨﱵ ﻓﻠـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﲏ"‪.‬‬ ‫א ق نوא ‪ 6‬و‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ﺿﺮﺭﻩ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺿﺮﺭﻩ ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﱄ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ %‬א ‪ 6‬و‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺼﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﲑﺓ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺸﺪﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻐﻠﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﻌﻈﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﺇﻋﺠﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻣﻀﻞ ﻭﻳـﺪﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﳐﺎﻟﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻓ ﹸﻜﻠﱠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹲﻝ ِﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻬﻮ‪‬ﻯ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺿ ﱡﻞ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻊ ﻫ‪‬ـﻮ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ِﺑ ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ـ ِﺮ ﻫ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻯ ﻣِـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ﹾﻜ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻢ﴾]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[٨٧:‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ﴾]ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‪.[٥٠:‬‬

‫ ﲢﻜﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﳝﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻘﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﳏﺴﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺪ ﻭﻳﺸﺘﻂ ﻓﲑﻯ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻔﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﻜـﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﻔﲑﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻫﺠﺮﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﻓـﻴﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻮﺟـﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺰﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺷﻬﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺘـﺮﻙ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻼﳍﺎ ﻭﺣﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺼﺐ‪ :‬ﻧﻔﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺫﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻜﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻗِﻴ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺗِﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺰ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ﹾﻞ ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘِﺒ ‪‬ﻊ ﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ﹶﻔ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﻋﹶﻠﻴ‪‬ـ ِﻪ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀﻧ‪‬ـﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻮ ﻛﹶـﺎﻥﹶ ﺁﺑ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﺅ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ِﻘﻠﹸـﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺷ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ﴾]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،[١٧٠:‬ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺼﺐ ﳌﻦ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﳏﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺻـﻮﺍﺑﺎﹰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺷﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫جא ‪ 6‬و א دن‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﲔ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺘﺸـﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﻭﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪:‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﲑ ﱎ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﳐﺎﻃﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﺮﺍﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﳌﺨـﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠﻐﻠـﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻓﺎﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪ ‬ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻄﹰﺎ ِﻟ‪‬ﺘﻜﹸﻮﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﺍ َﺀ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺷﻬِﻴﺪﺍﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١٤٣:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺴﺮ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١٨٥:‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ِﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪﴿ :‬ﻳﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ِﺔ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ِﺩﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِﺎﻟﱠﺘِﻲ ﻫِـ ‪‬ﻲ‬ ‫ﺤ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﹾﻜ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻋ ﹶﻈ ِﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻉ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﺔ‪﴿:‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[١٢٥:‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫ﻚ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻐﻮ‪‬ﺍ﴾ ]ﻫﻮﺩ‪.[١٢١:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺗ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ ِﻘﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺷﱴ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿:‬ﻭﻣـﻦ ﻳﺘﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٢٩:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺤﻖ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١٧١:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻓِﻲ ﺩِﻳِﻨ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻜﺘ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺻﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﺒﲑﻫﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳊﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﲎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺣﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﳋﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ":‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺑﺄﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ"‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻮ ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻐﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺣﱴ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪":‬ﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﻌـﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻠـﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﻌـﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﻌﻮﻥ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪7‬ض‪$‬وא ‪ 6‬وو ط ‪ :‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ‬ ‫ﺿ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓِﻲ ‪‬ﺳﺒِﻴ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﹶﻓ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﹾﻟﻘﹶـﻰ ِﺇﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[٩٤:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺆﻣِﻨﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﹶﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺪﻭ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺫﺭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺣﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺰ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺭﲪﻚ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﻋﻈﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻛﺜـﺮ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﺸﺘﺘﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻏﻠﻂ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻔﲑﹰﺍ ﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺑﻞ ﺣﻜﻤـﻮﺍ ﻓـﻴﻬﻢ ﲝﻜﻤﻬـﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ن‪%‬ط א )‪ :+‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﻧﻘﺾ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻭﺗﺮﻭﻳﻊ ﺍﻵﻣﻨﲔ‪.‬‬

‫۞א * א

‪ :‬نא ‪ 7‬لوא  ل۞ ‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬ل ‪ :6‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻘﻞ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﻋﻘﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬لא‪$‬ط‪ : C3‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪:‬ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺗﺪﺭﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺴﻮﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﺎﻧ‪‬ﺘﻘﹶﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫א  ل א ‪ :6‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ﹾﻘ ﹸﻞ‪ :‬ﺗـﺤﻮﻳ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺇِﻟـﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﹶﻠﻪ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻘﹸﻠﻪ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻘ ﹰ‬ ‫א  ل א‪$9‬ط‪ :N‬ﻣﺎ ﺻﺤﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ز א ‪ 7‬ل אמ‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﺧﺺ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺍﺗﻘﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻭﱄ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘـﺮﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.[١٩٧‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﴿ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺼـﻬﻢ ﻋـﱪﺓ ﻷﻭﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎﺏ﴾ ]ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪﴿ ،[١١١:‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[٣٥ :‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪":‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﺐ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻮﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺫﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﻘﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻵﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻟﻐﻮﺍ ﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﺗﻨﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺍﺗﺒﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻞ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺁﺑﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻻﻳﻌﻘﻠﻮﻥ ﺷـﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﺘـﺪﻭﻥ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[١٧٠ :‬‬ ‫ ﺣﺮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ؛ ﻓﺤﺮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮ‪﴿ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻻﻡ ﺭﺟﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺟﺘﻨﺒﻮﻩ ﻟﻌﻠﻜﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮﻥ ﴾]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،[٩٠ :‬ﻭﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪":‬ﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﺮ"‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺷﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻄﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺅﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ ﳎﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺑﺮ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ِﺣﻜﹶﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫طقא ‪  7‬אמ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (١‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻐﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﻔﺴـﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺒﺼـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﻛﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣـﻊ ﻋﺪﻣـﻪ ﺃﻣـﻮﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳏﺒﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﺪ ﻭﺫﻭﻕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ " ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ )‪.(٣٣٨/٣‬‬ ‫ و س ‪ 7‬لدو ‪+‬لא ‪ 7‬وמ ‪,‬وא‪ 7 -‬وמ  ‪ E%‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﺰﻡ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻚ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻻﺑﺪ ﰲ ﲢﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺪﺥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻌﻠﻤـﻪ ﲟـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺚ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫‪E‬دא‪#‬א ‪ 7‬لوא ‪3‬وאسא ‪3‬دود‪ :2‬‬

‫ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﳏﺪﻭﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﻓﻜﻞ ﺣﺎﺳﺔ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻪ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻀﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺣﻘﺎﺋﻘﻬـﺎ ﻟﻘﺪﺭﺗـﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﲢﻴﻂ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳉﺎﺫﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻀﻌﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﺼﻬﺎ‪ }:‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ{‪.‬‬ ‫‪$‬א ‪X4‬א ‪ :W3$‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻼﹰ؛ ﺑﻞ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﺒﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻟـﻦ ﻳﻬﺘـﺪﻱ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣـﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﺪﺑﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣـﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻠـﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻜـﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺧـﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫א  لא ‪W3$‬א ذ‪ 795‬ضא ‪ 7‬لא ‪ :W$‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪" ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻠﲔ ﻗﻄﻌﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻇﻨﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻲ ﻧﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻇﻨﻴﲔ ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻧﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻠﲔ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﻋﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻠﲔ ﺻﺮﳛ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺬﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﳛﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫א מא

@ ‬ ‫א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬אמ‬ ‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א‪0‬و ‪ ,‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪4‬وמא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬א ‪ :6‬‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻟﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺎﻧﺔ‪.،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪) :‬ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ( ﺃﻱ ﻣﺬﻟﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﲰﻲ )ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ( ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺬﻟﻪ ﳌﻮﻻﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪:7‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬א‪$9‬ط‪ :N‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﶈﺬﻭﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻳﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﳊﺞ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻬﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺣﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺘﻴﻢ‬

‫ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺻﺪﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪  .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻬﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺇﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻟﻨﻌﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﻭﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﳊﻜﻤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﺮﲪﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٤٧‬‬

‫‪ +%‬نא ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﻭﲤﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻝ ﻭﲤﺎﻣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ن‪- %‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬وמא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א ‪ D‬ل‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﴰﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻜﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫א‪0‬ول‪D:‬و א ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬دن‪ : +‬‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻀﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺼـﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺤﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻠﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺻـﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪D) +‬لא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬א‪R‬دאوא ‪ :# 7‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﱐ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺸﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ :‬ﻛﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋـﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﺘﺎﻣﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﺮﺗﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭ ﳛﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٤٨‬‬

‫א

‪D:‬و א ‪ 7‬د‪ : 4 +2 3 2‬‬ ‫‬

‫ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺭﺣﺐ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻉ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻚ ﺃﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻋﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻔﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻚ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻔﻘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣـﱴ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻚ ( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪):‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻳﻐﺮﺱ ﻏﺮﺳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺰﺭﻉ ﺯﺭﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨـﻪ ﻃـﲑ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ  ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ ) :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﺪﻳﻘﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺪﺍﺀ (‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺟﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻠﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺼﺪﻗﻮﻥ ﺑﻔﻀﻮﻝ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺪﻗﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﺴﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﺗﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﲢﻤﻴﺪﺓ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻞ ‪‬ﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﺣﺪﻧﺎ ﺷﻬﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﻟﻮ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺟﺮ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ۞ ﻻ ﺷ‪‬ـﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻲ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜِﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺻ‪‬ﻼﺗِﻲ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[١٦٣-١٦٢ :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻠ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺑ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬

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@‪D:‬و א ‪ 7‬د‪ + 2‬نא ن‪ : +‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺭﺣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

‫ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺑﺼﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺐ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺋﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳋﺸﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﺫﺍﺋﻞ ﻭﻗﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻐ ‪‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺗﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﳊﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﺨﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺷﺘﻤﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺬﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺶ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻬﺘﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺴﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻆ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﲰﺎﻋﻬـﺎ ﻛـﺂﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎﻉ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺤﻒ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻓﻀﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺣﻮﺍﺋﺞ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺟﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻧﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٥١‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﰲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺇﱃ ﳎﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺣﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘ‪ ‬ﺮ ِﻛﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﺸﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺎ ٍﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳍﻮ ﳏﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﳏﺮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺃﻭ ﲰﺎﻉ ﻛﻼﻡ ﳏﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻇﻠﻢ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫?

א ‪D‬ول ‪4‬وמא ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ ﺻﺒﻎ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‪$‬א ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ ﻭ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺘﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﳜﻠﻖ ﰲ ﲰﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻠﺢ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻼ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﺎﺷﻌﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ‪.[٢:‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺪﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﳑﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺪﺑﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻛﺎ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰒ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻻ ﲢﺴﻦ ﺻﻼﺗﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻨﻈـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﻠﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻷﺑﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺑﺼﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ"‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺳـﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴـﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺟﺴﺪﻱ ﻭﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺑﺪﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳉـﻮﺍﺭﺡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﺟﻬﺖ ﻭﺟﻬﻲ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺻﻼﰐ ﻭﻧﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﳏﻴﺎﻱ ﻭﳑﺎﰐ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪."...‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

 ‬ ‫‬

‫دوא ‪A‬א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻘﻴﺎﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺗﺒﻌﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻫﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﶈﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬ ‫‪-٥‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﻓﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪−١‬دא ‪A‬א ‪7D‬وא ط‪ :5‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑﻨِﻲ ﺁ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻡ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻇﻬ‪‬ﻮ ِﺭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻰ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔﺴِـ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﹶﻟﺴ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻝ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﺫ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﲔ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[١٧٢:‬‬ ‫ِﺑ ‪‬ﺮﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﺑﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺷ ِﻬ ‪‬ﺪﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ِﺇﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻏﹶﺎ ِﻓ ِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹾـ ِﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺒﺪِﻳ ﹶﻞ ِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﺘِﻲ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟِﻠﺪ‪‬ﻳ ِﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻨِﻴﻔﹰﺎ ِﻓ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿:‬ﹶﻓﹶﺄ ِﻗ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻡ‪.[٣٠:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ِﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺄﺑﻮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﻮﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳝﺠﺴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ ‪‬ﻴﻤﺔ ﲨﻌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﲢﺴﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟـﺪﻋﺎﺀ( ﰒ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻗﺮﺅﻭﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺘﻢ )ﻓﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﳋﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳚﺪ ﺑﻔﻄﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺷﻌﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻄﺮﻳﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻱ ﻳﻌﻢ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺒﺪ ﻏﲑﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٢‬دא ‪A‬א ‪ L‬وא  ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻫﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﻋ‪‬ـ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭِﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻮﻓﱠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹸﺃﺟ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ِﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺔ ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﺣ ِﺰ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺫﹶﺍِﺋ ﹶﻘ ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹸﻛ ﱡﻞ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﺮ‪‬ﻭﺭِ﴾ ]ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪.[١٨٥:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻣﺘ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﻨ‪ ‬ﹶﺔ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ﻭ‪‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺩ ِﺧ ﹶﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ﻭﺃﺛﲎ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻮﺫﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻀ ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺳ ﹶﻜ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ﹾﺫ ﹸﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻛ ِﺬ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺁﺑ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪ِ ‬ﺫﻛﹾﺮﹰﺍ ﹶﻓ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺟﻞ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‪ ﴿ :‬ﹶﻓِﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻕ ۞ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺁِﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺪ‪‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﻘﹸﻮ ﹸﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺁِﺗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪ‪ ‬ﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺭ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٠١ -٢٠٠:‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺬﹶﺍ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﻨﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭﻓِﻲ ﺍﻟﹾﺂ ِﺧ ‪‬ﺮ ِﺓ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫‪−٣‬دא ‪A‬א ‪ 3‬وא )‪Z7‬מ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺴ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﺯ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺟﹰﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ـﺎ ِﻡ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺍﺟـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺽ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻓﹶﺎ ِﻃ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺼﲑ‪] .﴾‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ‪.[١١:‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﹶﻛ ِﻤ ﹾﺜ ِﻠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﻲ ٌﺀ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ‪‬ﺭﹸﺃ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻞ ﻭﻋﻼ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻷﻥ ﻳﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﺬﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﺎﻉ ﻟﺼﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﳏﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٤‬دא ‪A‬א ‪+D‬وא ‪ 7‬ن‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟِﺄ‪‬ﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻈﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬ﻡ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻻ ﺗ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭ‪‬ﺁﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳﹶﺄﹾﻟ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﻛﻔﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺭ﴾‪].‬ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪.[٣٤:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸﻮ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﺣِﻴ ‪‬ﻢ﴾‪] .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[١٨:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺠﹶﺄﺭ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ﴾‪] .‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[٥٣:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ِﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤ ٍﺔ ﹶﻓ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪِ ﹸﺛﻢ‪ِ ‬ﺇﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﻣﺴ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻓِﺈﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺁﻻﺀﻩ ﺍﳉﺴﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻴﻬﺎ ﳏﺺٍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳍﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻬﻔﻮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ ﺑﻨﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﷲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٥‬دא ‪A‬א ‪. 3‬وא‪ : ) 9‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺬ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﻤِﻴ ‪‬ﺪ ۞ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻔ ﹶﻘﺮ‪‬ﺍ ُﺀ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐِﻨﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ﹾﻠ ٍﻖ ‪‬ﺟﺪِﻳ ٍﺪ﴾‪] .‬ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‪.[١٦ ،١٥:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ِﺑ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻗﹶـﺪِﻳﺮﺍﹰ﴾‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑِﺂ ‪‬ﺧﺮِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶـﻰ ﹶﺫﻟِـ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ِ﴿ :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.[١٣٣:‬‬

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‫ﻒ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺪ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ـﺎ ُﺀ ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺨ ِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹾﺄ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﺬ ِﻫ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐِﻨﻲ‪ ‬ﺫﹸﻭ ﺍﻟﺮ‪ ‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ِﺔ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫ﺸﹶﺄ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳ‪ِ ‬ﺔ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻡ ﺁ ‪‬ﺧﺮِﻳﻦ‪].﴾‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[١٣٣:‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺳﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫)ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻛﻢ ﻭﺇﻧﺴﻜﻢ ﻭﺟﻨﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺗﻘﻰ ﻗﻠﺐ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻛﻢ ﻭﺇﻧﺴﻜﻢ ﻭﺟﻨﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﺠﺮ ﻗﻠـﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻜﻲ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻛﻢ ﻭﺇﻧﺴﻜﻢ ﻭﺟـﻨﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻮﱐ ﻓﺄﻋﻄﻴﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺇﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻴﻂ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻜﻢ ﺃﺣﺼﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻢ ﰒ ﺃﻭﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻭﺟـﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﻴﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﻮﻣﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ(‪ .‬ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٦‬دא ‪A‬א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬وא ) د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ  ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺇﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺴـﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻇﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻇﻠﻤﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﻃﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺴﻨﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺀﻭﺍ ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻠﻤﻮﺍ ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﲑﺗﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳒﺪﻩ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺰﻣﻮﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺣﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ  ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺇﻣﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﻣﻌﺔ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻫﺘـﺪﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﺪﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺿﻠﻮﺍ ﺿﻠﻠﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻟﻴﻮﻃﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א

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‫‪+3‬מא ‪ 7‬د‪2‬‬ ‫‪%‬و ‪ْ+3\ :9C‬מא ‪ 7‬د‪ :2‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺄﻋﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺯﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺞ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻻ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﻠﻐـﻮﺍ ﺣـﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﲦﻮﺍ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ :‬ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺯﺓ‪ ،‬ﻏﺴﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻭﺩﻓﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﺛﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻬـﺎ ﱂ ﻳـﺄﰒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺜـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻞ ﻛﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻭﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪D‬وطא ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬אמ‪ :‬‬ ‫‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٥٦‬‬

‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ـ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎﺓﹶ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻳ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﴿ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻱ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻼ(‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﻠﺼـﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰِﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸﻮﺭ‪].﴾‬ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪ .[٢:‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ )ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﻮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﻠﺼﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﺑﻪ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﺻـﻮﺍﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋـﺎﻟﺺ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ  ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺻﺎﳊﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻟﻮﺟﻬﻚ ﺧﺎﻟﺼـﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻞ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪D‬طא‪0‬ول‪:‬אص‪ :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻨﻔﹶﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘِﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆﺗ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻛﹶـﺎ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫ﺼ‪‬‬ ‫ﺨ ِﻠ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﴿ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﺃ ِﻣﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺩِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹶﻘﻴ‪ ‬ﻤﺔِ﴾‪] .‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪.[٥:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻟﹶـ ‪‬ﻪ‬ ‫ﲔ ۞ ﻻ ﺷ‪‬ـﺮِﻳ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻱ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎﺗِﻲ ِﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﺭﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ـﺎﹶﻟ ِﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﻜِﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﴿ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺻ‪‬ﻼﺗِﻲ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ِﻠ ِﻤﲔ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪.[١٦٣ -١٦٢:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ‪‬ﻭﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﻝ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﹸﺃ ِﻣ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻭِﺑ ﹶﺬِﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﺃﻥ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺛﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﺔ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ  )ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺉ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻣـﺮﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻜﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫א ‪D‬طא

‪:‬א ) ‪7‬وא وא  ‪D‬ع‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ (‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺄﺫﻭﻧﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻻ ﻋﱪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﳘﺎ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﲔ ﻫﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪) ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ(‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻷﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﺧﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

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‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺗﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻘﻴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻧﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﰱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ )ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﷲ ﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ )ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻘﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﺒـﺪﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻧـﻪ ﲟـﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺮﺍﺅﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ﺑﻌﺒـﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﻋـﺔ ﳐﺘﺮﻋـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪﻭﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻛﺠﻬﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺋﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ‪‬ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻋﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‬ ‫‪> $‬صא ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬‬ ‫‬

‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٥‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬ ‫‪-٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ‪.‬‬

‫‪−١‬א  وא )و‪ ::E‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﳍﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﱡﻒ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﺮﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ  ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﺎﺽ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺭﻳﺔ  ﺣﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻋﻈﻨـﺎ ﻣﻮﻋﻈـﺔ ﺑﻠﻴﻐـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺫﺭﻓﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻮﻋﻈـﺔ ﻣـﻮﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﺻﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﺣﺒﺸﻴﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌـﺶ‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻓﺴﲑﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﲤﺴﻜﻮﺍ ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﳏﺪﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﳏﺪﺛﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﻞ ﺑﺪﻋـﺔ ﺿـﻼﻟﺔ(‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬـﻮ‬ ‫ﺭﺩ ( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪) :‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻼ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺩ(‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ )ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺩﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺘﺪ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺘﺮﻋﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‪) :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ (‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﹼﻞ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﱪ ﻟﻼﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﺄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠـﻪ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﱂ ﳚﺰﻩ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٢‬א )وאزنوא‪)9‬دאل‪ :‬‬ ‫ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‪ ،‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻗﻔﱠ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺁﺛﹶﺎ ِﺭ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑِ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺳ ِﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻗﻔﱠ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﺑﻌِﻴﺴ‪‬ﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ ِﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﺁﺗ‪ ‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﹾﻟِﺄ‪‬ﻧﺠِﻴ ﹶﻞ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِـﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﺒﻌ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺭﹾﺃ ﹶﻓ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻫﺒ‪‬ﺎِﻧﻴ‪ ‬ﹰﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺑِﺘﻐ‪‬ﺎ َﺀ ِﺭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹸﻗﻠﹸﻮ ِ‬ ‫ﲑ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﹶﺎ ِﺳﻘﹸﻮﻥﹶ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪.[٢٧:‬‬ ‫ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﻋ‪ ‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻖ‪ِ ‬ﺭﻋ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻳِﺘﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺂ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛِﺜ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ِ ﴿ :‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹲﻝ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻠﻬِﻴ ِﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺗﺠ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ﹲﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻦ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪ِ‬ﺇﻗﹶﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ـﻼ ِﺓ ‪‬ﻭﺇِﻳﺘ‪‬ـﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻛﹶـﺎ ِﺓ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[٣٧:‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓِﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﹾﻟ ﹸﻘﻠﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺎﻓﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻮ‪‬ﻣﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻘﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﺈﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻟِﻠﺼ‪‬ﻼ ِﺓ ﻣِـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﺎﱐ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ﺁ ‪‬ﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﻧ‪‬ﻮ ِﺩ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻌ ِﺔ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﻮ‪‬ﺍ ِﺇﻟﹶﻰ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺫﺭ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻊ ﹶﺫِﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺧ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻟ ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻓِﺈﺫﹶﺍ ﹸﻗﻀِـ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬ ‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻀ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ِﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ﹾﺫ ﹸﻛﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶـﺜِﲑﹰﺍ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌﻠﱠﻜﹸـ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﻔ ِﻠﺤ‪‬ـﻮﻥﹶ﴾‬ ‫ﺽ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻐ‪‬ﻮﺍ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺸﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬ ‫]ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪.[١٠، ٩:‬‬

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‫ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪) :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﱂ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﻧـﻚ ﺗﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻠﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﻢ ﻭﱎ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺴﺪﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﻌﻴﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻟـﺰﻭﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻴـﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﲝﺴﺒﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺪﺩﺕ ﻓﺸﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻗﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﺴـﻼﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﱪ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﲏ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ ( ﻣﺘﻔـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ  ﺣﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﻫﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﱪﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﳓﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺘﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺘﻢ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﻷﺧﺸﺎﻛﻢ ﷲ ﻭﺃﺗﻘﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺭﻗـﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﻏﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻨﱵ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﲏ( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٣‬א )و]عوא )‪7‬دد‪ :‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻـﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳚﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﱐ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﱄ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺆﺩﻯ ﺑﺎﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﳋﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ﺇﱃ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﺹ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻛﺒﻌﺾ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﻛﺎﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﻌﱵ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﺼﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻳﻀـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻷﺻﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﺘﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺷﻌﲑﺓ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٤‬א ‪7‬وמوא ‪D‬ول‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﴰﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺑﻌﺜـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ٍﻝ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻮﺣِﻲ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﹶﺃﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻻ ِﺇﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ِﺇﻟﱠـﺎ ﹶﺃﻧ‪‬ـﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥِ﴾‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻗ ‪‬ﺒ ِﻠ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪.[٢٥:‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﹶﻓ ِﻤ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻫﺪ‪‬ﻯ‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﺜﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓِﻲ ﹸﻛﻞﱢ ﹸﺃﻣ‪ٍ ‬ﺔ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮ ﹰﻻ ﹶﺃ ِﻥ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺘِﻨﺒ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺎﻏﹸﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﺎ ِﻗ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﺔ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻜﹶـﺬﱢِﺑﲔ‪﴾‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻓﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧ ﹸﻈﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴﲑ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋ‪ ‬ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻼﹶﻟ ﹸﺔ ﹶﻓ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺣﻘﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪.[٣٦:‬‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﴰﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ  ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺸـﺮ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻌﺚ ﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ـﻮ ﹶﻥ﴾‬ ‫ﺱ ‪‬ﺑﺸِﲑﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻧﺬِﻳﺮﹰﺍ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﺜﹶـ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ِ‬ ‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹾﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻙ ِﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻓﱠ ﹰﺔ ﻟِﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎ ِ‬ ‫]ﺳـﺒﺄ‪.[٢٨:‬‬ ‫ ‬


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‫ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ  )ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﻳﺒﻌﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺜﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ( ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻭﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺭﺣﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﻢ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳊﻴـﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﺭﺡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪−٥‬א‪)9‬אوא دوאמ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﺼـﻠﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳊﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻣﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻧﻘﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﹾﻟ‪‬ﻴ ِﻘﲔ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪.[٩٩:‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪‬ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﺄِﺗ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ  ﴿ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭﺑ‪ ‬‬ ‫‪−٦‬א ‪$‬دوא ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ  ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ  ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻯ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻳﻨﻜﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﺠﺮﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻣﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻛﺼﻼﺓ ﺭﺍﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻞ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


тАл ╪╡╫Р ╫РтАм

тАлтАк┘ж┘втАмтАм

тАля▓дя╗┤я╗┤я║░ я║Ня╗╣я║зя╗╝я║╣ я╗гя╗ж я║Ня╗Яя║оя╗│я║Оя║АтАк.тАмтАм тАлтАктИТ┘зтАм╫Р  тАк2DтАм┘И╪п╫Ю╫Р ┘И╪╖ тАк :-тАмтАм тАля╗ня║Ня│Мя╗Шя║╝я╗оя║й я║Ся╗к я║Гя╗зя╗к я╗╗ я║Чя╗Ья╗оя╗е я╗ля╗ия║Оя╗Щ я╗ня║Ня║│я╗Дя║Ф я║Гя╗н я╗ня║│я╗┤я╗В я║Гя╗н я║╖я╗Фя╗┤я╗К я║Ся▓Ф я║Ня╗Яя╗Мя║Тя║к я╗ня║ня║Ся╗ктАк.тАмтАм тАля║┤тАкюаатАмя║Шя║а┘Ря╗┤я║ТтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я╗Я┘Р┘Ая╗▓тАм тАля║Р тАкюаатАмя║й тАкюавтАмя╗Л тАкюаатАмя╗о я╣╢я║У я║Ня╗Яя║ктАкюаитАмя║Ня╗Л┘Ря╗▓ ┘Ря║Зя║ля╣╢я║Н тАкюаатАмя║йя╗ЛтАкюаатАмя║Оя╗з┘Ря╗▓ я╣╢я╗У я╣╛я╗атАкюаатАмя╗┤ тАкюавтАмтАм тАля║Р я╣╕я║Гя║Я┘Ря╗┤ тАкюабтАмтАм тАля╗Ъ ┘Ря╗Ля║ТтАкюаатАмя║Оя║й┘Ря╗▒ тАкюаатАмя╗Ля╗итАкюамтАмя╗▓ я╣╢я╗У┘Ря║Ия╗зтАкюамтАмя╗▓ я╣╢я╗Чя║о┘Ря╗│ тАкюадтАмтАм тАля╗Чя║Оя╗Э я║Чя╗Мя║Оя▒ГтАкюаа я┤┐ :тАмя╗н┘Ря║Зя║ля╣╢я║Н тАкюаатАмя║│я╣╢я║Дя╣╢я╗Я тАкюаатАмтАм тАлтАкюаатАмя╗ня╣╛я╗ЯтАкюабтАмя╗┤ тАкюавтАмя║Ж ┘Ря╗гя╗итАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║С┘Ря╗▓ я╣╢я╗Я тАкюаатАмя╗Мя╗ая▒а тАкюабтАмя╗м тАкюавтАмя╗в тАкюаатАмя╗│ тАкюавтАмя║о тАкюабтАмя║╖я║ктАкюабтАмя╗н я╣╢я╗е я┤╛]я║Ня╗Яя║Тя╗Шя║оя║УтАк.[┘б┘и┘ж :тАмтАм тАля║ЮтАм тАля║╡ тАкюаатАмя╗│ тАкюавтАмя╗М я╣╢я╗а тАкюабтАмя╗в я╗гтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗│ ┘Ря╗а тАкюабтАмтАм тАля║╜ я╗У┘Ря╗▓ ┘Ря║│я║ШтАк┘Р юаитАмя║Ф я╣╢я║Гя╗│тАкюаитАмя║О ┘Ня╗б я╣╕я║Ыя╗втАк юаитАмя║Н тАкюавтАмя║│я║ШтАкюаатАмя╗отАкюаатАмя╗п тАкюаатАмя╗Ля╗ая╣╢я╗░ я║Ня╣╛я╗Я тАкюаатАмя╗М тАкюавтАмя║о ┘РтАм тАля║Х я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Н ┘Оя╗╖ тАкюавтАмя║н тАкюаатАмтАм тАля╗ня╗Чя║Оя╗Э я║Чя╗Мя║Оя▒ГтАкюаб я┤┐ :тАмя╗л тАкюаатАмя╗о я║Ня╗Яя▒ая║м┘Ря╗▒ тАкюаатАмя║з я╣╢я╗а тАкюаатАмя╗Ц я║Ня╗Яя║┤тАкюаа юаитАмя╗дя╗отАкюаатАмя║Н ┘РтАм тАля║Э я╗У┘Ря╗┤я╗мтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗н тАкюабтАмя╗л тАкюаатАмя╗о тАкюаатАмя╗г тАкюаатАмя╗М я╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗в я╣╢я║Г тАкюавтАмя╗│ тАкюаатАмя╗ж я╗гтАкюаатАмя║О я╣╕я╗Ы тАкюавтАмя╗итАкюабтАмя║Ш тАкюавтАмя╗в я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Ня╗Яя╗ая▒а тАкюабтАмя╗к ┘Ря║Ся╗дтАкюаатАмя║ОтАм тАля║Э ┘Ря╗г тАкюавтАмя╗ия╗мтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗ня╗гтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗│ тАкюавтАмя╗и ┘Ря║░ я╣╕я╗Э ┘Ря╗г тАкюавтАмя╗ж я║Ня╗Яя║┤тАкюаитАмя╗дтАкюаатАмя║О ┘Ря║А тАкюаатАмя╗ня╗гтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗│ тАкюавтАмя╗М тАкюабтАмя║о тАкюабтАмтАм тАля║и тАкюабтАмя║о тАкюабтАмтАм тАля║╜ тАкюаатАмя╗ня╗гтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя╗│ тАкюавтАмтАм тАля╗У┘Ря╗▓ я║Н ┘Оя╗╖ тАкюавтАмя║н ┘РтАм тАля║╝я▓СтАк] я┤╛юадтАмя║Ня│Кя║кя╗│я║ктАк.[┘д :тАмтАм тАлтАкюаатАмя║Ч тАкюавтАмя╗М тАкюаатАмя╗дя╗ая╣╕я╗о я╣╢я╗е тАкюаатАмя║С ┘РтАм тАля╗ня╗Ля╗ж я║Гя░К я╗гя╗оя║│я╗░ я║Ня╗╖я║╖я╗Мя║оя╗▒  я╗Чя║Оя╗ЭтАк) :тАмя╗Ыя╗ия║О я╗гя╗К я║ня║│я╗оя╗Э я║Ня╖▓ тАк ╪МтАмя╗Ыя╗ия║О я║Зя║ля║Н я║Гя║╖я║оя╗Уя╗ия║О я╗Ля╗ая╗░ я╗ня║Ня║й я╗ля╗ая╗ая╗ия║О я╗ня╗Ыя▒кя╗з┘Ая║ОтАм тАля║Ня║ня║Чя╗Фя╗Мя║Ц я║Гя║╗я╗оя║Ня║Чя╗ия║ОтАк ╪МтАмя╗Уя╗Шя║Оя╗Э я║Ня╗Яя╗ия▒п тАк) :тАмя╗│я║О я║Гя╗│я╗мя║О я║Ня╗Яя╗ия║Оя║▒ я║Гя║ня║Ся╗Мя╗оя║Н я╗Ля╗ая╗░ я║Гя╗зя╗Фя║┤я╗Ья╗втАк ╪МтАмя╗Уя║Ия╗зя╗Ья╗в я╗╗ я║Чя║кя╗Ля╗оя╗е я║Гя║╗┘Ая╗в я╗ня╗╗тАм тАля╗Пя║Оя║Ля║Тя╣░я║ОтАк ╪МтАмя║Зя╗зя╗к я╗гя╗Мя╗Ья╗в я║Зя╗зя╗к я▓░я╗┤я╗К я╗Чя║оя╗│я║РтАк ╪МтАмя║Чя║Тя║Оя║ня╗Щ я║Ня▓░я╗к я╗ня║Чя╗Мя║Оя▒Г я║Яя║кя╗й( я╗гя║Шя╗Фя╗Ц я╗Ля╗ая╗┤я╗ктАк.тАмтАм тАлтАктИТ┘итАм╫Р ┘И тАкAтАм╫Р тАк3тАм╪мтАк :тАмтАм тАлтАм

тАля║Гя╗н я╣░я╗╗тАк :тАмя║Ня╗Яя║Шя╗┤я║┤я▓С я╗ня╗зя╗Фя╗▓ я║Ня│Кя║оя║Э я░▓ я║Гя║╗я╗Ю я║Ня╗Яя║Шя╗Ья╗ая╗┤я╗ТтАк:тАмтАм тАля║и тАкюавтАмя╗┤ тАкюаатАмя║о я╣╢я╗Я тАкюаатАмя╗Мя╗ая▒а я╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗в тАкюабтАмя║Ч я╣╛я╗Ф ┘Ря╗ая║дтАкюабтАм┘Ая╗о я╣╢я╗етАм тАля║ая║ктАкюабтАмя╗ня║Н я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Н тАкюавтАмя╗ЛтАкюабтАмя║Тя║ктАкюабтАмя╗ня║Н тАкюаатАмя║ня║СтАк юаитАмя╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗в я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Н я╣╛я╗У тАкюаатАмя╗Мя╗ая╣╕я╗оя║Н я║Ня╣╛я╗Я тАкюаатАмтАм тАля╗Чя║Оя╗Э я║Чя╗Мя║Оя▒ГтАкя┤┐ :тАмя╗│тАкюаатАмя║О я╣╢я║Гя╗│тАкюайтАмя╗мтАкюаатАмя║О я║Ня╗Яя▒ая║м┘Ря╗│ тАкюаатАмя╗ж я║Б тАкюаатАмя╗гя╗итАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║Н тАкюавтАмя║н я╣╢я╗Ыя╗МтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Н тАкюавтАмя║│ тАкюабтАмтАм тАля║Э ┘Ря╗гя╗ая▒а я╣╢я║Ф я╣╢я║Гя║С┘Р┘Ая╗┤ я╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗втАм тАл█Ю тАкюаатАмя╗ня║ЯтАкюаатАмя║О ┘Ря╗ля║ктАкюабтАмя╗ня║Н я╗У┘Ря╗▓ я║Ня╗Яя╗ая▒а ┘Ря╗к тАкюаатАмя║гя╗ЦтАк┘Р юаитАмя║Яя╗мтАкюаатАмя║О ┘Ря║й ┘Ря╗й тАкюабтАмя╗л тАкюаатАмя╗о я║Н тАкюавтАмя║ЯтАкюаатАмя║Шя║ТтАкюаатАмя║О я╣╕я╗Ы тАкюавтАмя╗в тАкюаатАмя╗ня╗гтАкюаатАмя║О тАкюаатАмя║Я тАкюаатАмя╗М я╣╢я╗Ю тАкюаатАмя╗Л я╣╢я╗а тАкюавтАмя╗┤ я╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗в я╗У┘Ря╗▓ я║Ня╗Яя║ктАкюамтАмя╗│ ┘Ря╗ж ┘Ря╗г тАкюавтАмя╗ж тАкюаатАмя║г тАкюаатАмя║о ┘НтАм тАля▓Ф ┘Ря╗г тАкюавтАмя╗ж я╣╢я╗Ч тАкюавтАмя║Т я╣╕я╗Ю тАкюаатАмя╗ня╗У┘Ря╗▓ тАкюаатАмя╗ля║мя╣╢я║Н ┘Ря╗ЯтАкюаатАмя╗┤я╗Ья╣╕я╗о я╣╢я╗е я║Ня╗Яя║отАкюаитАмя║│тАкюабтАмя╗о я╣╕я╗Э тАкюаатАмя║╖я╗м┘Ря╗┤я║кя╣░я║Н тАкюаатАмя╗Л я╣╢я╗а тАкюавтАмя╗┤ я╣╕я╗Ь тАкюавтАмя╗в тАкюаатАмя╗нтАкюаатАмя║Чя╗Ья╣╕я╗оя╗зтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║╖тАкюабтАм┘А тАкюаатАмя╗мя║ктАкюаатАмя║Н ┘Оя║АтАм тАля║┤я╗а┘Ря╗д тАкюаатАмтАм тАл┘Ря║ЗтАкюавтАмя║Ся║отАкюаатАмя║Ня╗л┘Ря╗┤ тАкюаатАмя╗в тАкюабтАмя╗л тАкюаатАмя╗о тАкюаатАмя║│я╗дтАкюаитАмя║О я╣╕я╗Ы тАкюавтАмя╗в я║Ня╣╛я╗Я тАкюабтАмя╗д тАкюавтАмтАм тАля║╝я▓СтАкя┤╛юабтАмтАм тАля║╝я╗дтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║С┘Ря║Оя╗Яя╗ая▒а ┘Ря╗к тАкюабтАмя╗л тАкюаатАмя╗о тАкюаатАмя╗гя╗отАкюавтАмя╗╗ я╣╕я╗Ы тАкюавтАмя╗в я╣╢я╗У┘Ря╗и тАкюавтАмя╗М тАкюаатАмя╗в я║Ня╣╛я╗Я тАкюаатАмя╗д тАкюавтАмя╗оя╗Яя╣╢я╗░ тАкюаатАмя╗н┘Ря╗з тАкюавтАмя╗М тАкюаатАмя╗в я║Ня╗Яя╗итАк┘Р юаитАмтАм тАля║▒ я╣╢я╗Уя╣╢я║Дя╗Ч┘Ря╗┤я╗дтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║Ня╗Яя║╝тАкюаитАмя╗╝ я╣╢я║У я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Бя║ЧтАкюабтАмя╗оя║Н я║Ня╗Яя║░тАкюаитАмя╗Ыя╣╢я║О я╣╢я║У я╗нтАкюаатАмя║Н тАкюавтАмя╗ЛтАкюаатАмя║Ш ┘РтАм тАлтАкюаатАмя╗Ля╗ая╣╢я╗░ я║Ня╗Яя╗итАкюаитАмя║О ┘РтАм тАл]я║Ня│Кя║ЮтАк.[┘з┘и -┘з┘з :тАмтАм

тАля║Ыя║Оя╗зя╗┤я╣░я║ОтАк :тАмя║Ня╗Яя║Шя╗Ья╗ая╗┤я╗Т я║Ся╗Шя║кя║н я║Ня╗Яя╗Дя║Оя╗Чя║ФтАк:тАмтАм тАлтАк -┘бтАмя╗Ля║кя╗б я║Чя╗Ья╗ая╗┤я╗Т я║Ня╗Яя║╝я╗Ря▓С я╗ня║НтАкюаСтАмя╗ия╗оя╗етАк:тАмтАм

тАля╗Чя║Оя╗Э я║Ня╗Яя╗ия▒п  я║Ся╗Шя╗оя╗Яя╗ктАк) :тАмя║ня╗Уя╗К я║Ня╗Яя╗Шя╗ая╗в я╗Ля╗ж я║Ыя╗╝я║Ыя║ФтАк :тАмя╗Ля╗ж я║Ня╗Яя╗ия║Оя║Ля╗в я║гя▒┤ я╗│я║┤я║Шя╗┤я╗Шя╗ЖтАк ╪МтАмя╗ня╗Ля╗ж я║Ня│Мя║Тя║Шя╗ая╗░ я║гя▒┤ я╗│я▒кя║ГтАк ╪МтАмя╗ня╗Л┘Ая╗жтАм

тАля║Ня╗Яя║╝я▒п я║гя▒┤ я╗│я╗Ья▒к( я║Гя║зя║оя║Яя╗к я║Гя║Ся╗оя║йя║Ня╗ня║й я╗ня║Ня╗Яя╗ия║┤я║Оя║Ля╗▓тАк.тАмтАм

тАл тАм


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‫‪ -٢‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪:‬‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺫﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﺟﻬﺎﺩﻛﻦ ﺍﳊـﺞ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ )ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﻧﺴﺎﺅﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﺞ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ( ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٣٣ :‬‬ ‫ﻒ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻔ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ﹶﻜﻠﱠ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪] ﴾‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٢٨٦ :‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ﹾﻛ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻧﻔﹾﺴﹰﺎ ِﺇﻻﱠ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻧﻔﹾﺴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ِ﴿ :‬ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ﺫﹸﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬ﻌِﺘ ِﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻗ ِﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻴ ِﻪ ِﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹾﻠﻴ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔ ‪‬ﻖ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﺗ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ﹶﻜﻠﱢ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺴ ٍﺮ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺮﺍﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪.[٧ :‬‬ ‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬‬ ‫ِﺇﻻﱠ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺁﺗ‪‬ﺎﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺺ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣـﻦ ﺗﻴﺴـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻛﻌﺘﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﲨﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﲨﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻔﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻠﻴﺎﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻼﰐ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺻﻼﰐ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﲨﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺃﻭ ﲨﻊ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ صא א‬

‫‪٦٤‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א א ‪ 7‬‬ ‫‬

‫א ‪ 7‬د‪ 4+32‬و ‪$‬د ‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺨﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ ﹸﺓ ﻣِـ ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ِﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣ ٍﻦ ﻭ‪‬ﻻ ‪‬ﻣﺆ‪ِ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ ٍﺔ ِﺇﺫﹶﺍ ﹶﻗﻀ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻜﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺿﻞﱠ ﺿ‪‬ﻼ ﹰﻻ ‪‬ﻣﺒِﻴﻨﺎﹰ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﺣﺰﺍﺏ‪.[٣٦:‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺳ‪‬ﻮﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣ ِﺮ ِﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ِ‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻘِﻴﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼ ﹶﺓ ‪‬ﻭ ِﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺯ ﹾﻗﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻨ ِﻔﻘﹸﻮﻥﹶ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪.[٣:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻳ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺆ ِﻣﻨ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺑِﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬ﻴ ِ‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻜﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻌﻤﻪ ﻭﺁﻻﺋﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ﴿ :‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻱ ‪‬ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬ﺭ ِﺧ ﹾﻠﻔﹶـ ﹰﺔ ِﻟﻤ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳ‪‬ـﺬﱠﻛﱠ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺷ‪‬ـﻜﹸﻮﺭﺍﹰ﴾‬ ‫]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[٦٢:‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻌﺰِﻳـ ‪‬ﺰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹸـﻮﺭ‪﴾‬‬ ‫ﺴﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ـ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﺓ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺒ ﹸﻠ ‪‬ﻮ ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃﻳ‪ ‬ﹸﻜ ‪‬ﻢ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﱠﺬِﻱ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻮ ‪‬‬ ‫]ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪.[٢:‬‬ ‫‪%‬و ‪:9C‬א ‪ 4+32$‬و ‪$‬د ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻌﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺷﻌﺎﺋﺮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﴿ﻭﺃﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮﻱ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[١٤:‬‬

‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺯﺍﺩ ﺇﳝﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﻃﻤﺄﻧﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺣﻼﻭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺗﻄﻬﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٥‬‬

‫ﺻﻼﺡ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﴿ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[٤٥:‬‬

‫‪-٦‬‬

‫ﻃﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﲡﻤﻞ ﴿ﻳﺎ ﺑﲏ ﺃﺩﻡ ﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺯﻳﻨﺘﻜﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ﴾ ]ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪.[٣١:‬‬

‫‪-٧‬‬ ‫‪-٨‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‪: C‬א ز‪ 4+32 +‬و ‪$‬د ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻧﺼﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﲡﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳝﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٢‬‬

‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻸﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﳕﺎﺀ ﳍﺎ ﴿ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻔﻘﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳜﻠﻔﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻗﲔ﴾ ]ﺳﺒﺄ‪.[٣٩:‬‬

‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺗﻄﻴﻬﺮ ﻭﺗﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﴿ﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺗﻄﻬﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﺗﺰﻛﻴﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ‪.[١٠٣:‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﺎﺀ ﴿ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻕ ﺷﺢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﺄﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻠﺤﻮﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﳊﺸﺮ‪.[٩:‬‬

‫‪-٥‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺷﻜﺮ ﻟﻨﻌﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺳﺎﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٧‬‬ ‫‪-٨‬‬

‫ﺗﺂﻟﻒ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﻓﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺚ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‪: C‬א ‪$‬وמ‪+3‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠـﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺰﻣﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﲝﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻛﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٥‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬ ‫‪-٧‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﻓﻘﺮﻩ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﻋﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫א ‪: C7‬א ‪+3X3‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻦ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺒﺪﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﷲ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺗﺬﻛﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪-٥‬‬ ‫‪-٦‬‬

‫‪٦٦‬‬

‫ﲡﻠﻲ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺩﻧﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪: C‬א )و‪+‬ل‪+3‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻘﲔ ﺑﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺣﻮﺍﺋﺠﻪ ﴿ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺴﺒﻪ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪.[٣:‬‬

‫ د‪: C‬א ‪ 4+3D‬و ‪$‬د ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺣﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﻈﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﺰﺗﻪ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺟﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﲢﻮﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﻟﻺﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪: C7‬א )و ‪ 4+3‬و ‪$‬د ‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻼﻉ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠـﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﲝﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬ ‫‪-٢‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﺮﺑﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻓﻼﺡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﳒﺎﺣﻪ‪.‬‬

‪: C‬א ذ‪+3+‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺆﺩﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﺟﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ ﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﴿ﺇﻧﲏ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﺒﺪﱐ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻟﺬﻛﺮﻱ﴾ ]ﻃﻪ‪.[١٤:‬‬

‫‪-٢‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺟﻼﺀ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﺻﻘﻞ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﺷﺎﻑ ﻟﻌﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻷﻣﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪-٣‬‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﳏﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻟﺮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻘﻪ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٥‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﻏﺮﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮ‪.‬‬

‫‪٦٧‬‬

‫) ‪: C7‬א د ‪+3-‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻱ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-٣‬‬

‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ ‪CD‬א‪:‬א ‪ 4.‬د‪+3‬و ‪$‬د_‪ :‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﻧﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻈﻠﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻀﻌﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺑﻼﺩﻫﻢ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫‪-٤‬‬ ‫‪-٥‬‬

‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻒ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ ﻫﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫א و‪3‬د‪2‬א   ‬ ‫‬

‫ מو  ‪ #‬ط> א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ )ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪%‬و ‪4$3:9C‬وמא ‪ 7‬د‪ 2‬א ‪> 7D‬א )‪ 7‬د‪ :‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﻨﺤﺴﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺭﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺸـﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫

‪: C‬א ط وא )‪ 7‬ق ‪6‬א )א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬وא ط (‪ :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﻓﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﺑﺎﳉﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ‪ ،‬ﻇﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘـﺎﱄ ﱂ ﳛﻘﻘـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻫﻴﺔ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﺭﻏﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﻫﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺣﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﺑﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻓﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻇﻨـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪﴿ :‬ﺇﻳﺎﻙ ﻧﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻙ ﻧﺴـﺘﻌﲔ﴾]ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢـﺔ‪،[٥:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺃﲣﺸﻮ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺎﷲ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺸﻮﻩ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ﴾]ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺑﺔ‪.[١٣:‬‬ ‫

‪`): C‬א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬ن‪.‬و )א ‪ 7‬د‪2‬وא ‪ 7‬د‪ :(2‬‬ ‫ﺲ ِﺇﻟﹾﺎ ِﻟ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭ ِﻥ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺎﺕ‪.[٥٦:‬‬ ‫ﺠﻦ‪ ‬ﻭِﺍﹾﻟِﺄ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ﹾﻘ ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﺳﻒ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﻝ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﺎﺩﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺒـﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﺷﺒﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄﻘﻮﺱ ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ  ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ "ﺭﺏ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺭﺏ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﺮ"‪.‬‬

‫א ‪: C7‬א دع א ‪ 7‬دא‪ :#‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪" :‬ﺇﱐ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﲔ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻀﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﱵ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪" :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﱵ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺟﺬ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﺪﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﻤﻠﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﲤﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻧﻌﻤﱵ﴾ ]ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪.[٣:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺿﻞ ﺳﻌﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻫﻢ ﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳛﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﺻـﻨﻌﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻜﻬـﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.[١٠٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﺒﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﺜﻮﺭﹰﺍ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ‪.[٢٣ :‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﻢ ﻛﺴﺮﺍﺏ ﺑﻘﻴﻌﺔ ﳛﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻤﺂﻥ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫ ﺟـﺎﺀﻩ ﱂ ﳚـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪.[٣٩ :‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﺁﻧﻴ ٍﺔ﴾ ]ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺷﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪﴿ :‬ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻳﻮﻣﺌ ٍﺬ ﺧﺎﺷﻌ ﹲﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻠ ﹲﺔ ﻧﺎﺻﺒ ﹲﺔ ﺗﺼﻠﻰ ﻧﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺣﺎﻣﻴ ﹲﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻋ ٍ‬ ‫‪.[ ٥ ،٢‬‬

‫ ‬


‫ صא א‬

‫‪٧٠‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻠﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺣِﻜﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫‪٦٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻠﺨﺺ‬

‫‪٧٠‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﺎﻉ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﻚ ﻭﱄ‬ ‫ ‬

ملخص لثقافة 101  

من صفحة ١٥- ٤٨ اتوقع افضل انك تذاكره بدل الدش الكتير وطبعا لاغنى عن الكتاب تجميع افكار

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