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B.1 Research Field B.2 Case Study 1.0 B.3 Case Study 2.0 B.4 Technique: Development B.5 Technique: Prototype B.6 Technique: Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches Bibliography

B.1 Research Field Tessellation by definition is an arrangement of shapes closely fitted together. It forms a repeated pattern without gaps or overlapping. One example is the Islamic tileworks. By combining and reworking the basic geometries, it creates decorative elements. Design in tessellation requires the understanding of the part-towhole relationship. The design process is composite of two parts, the overall form and the arrangement of the modules. The overall form is structurally relied on each individual module. It requires intensive engineering in large scale architectural projects (faรงade, ceiling), which was difficult prior to the invention of the calculator. Tessellation takes several advantages (adaption, optimisation, evaluation ) from computational design process. The digital design method allows the continuity from design to fabrication. The parametric model enables cross-field documentation, which allows a direct and cohesive communication among different parties. As a result, the more freedom in design opens up new possibilities for tessellation. (For example, research pavilions in case study 1.0 and 2.0)



B.2.0 Case Study 1.0

ISAr Initial vs. Form-Found Geometry


Form-Found Surface

Tessellation of Form-Found Surface

Porosity Diagram

Voussoir Cloud Voussoir Cloud is a site-specific installation designed by IwamotoScott for the Southern California Institute Angeles. The project explores the pure compression form with ultra-light timber sheets. The form finding method is driven by the work of Frei Otto and Antonio Gaudi, which uses hanging chain models to optimize the form. Four different modules are designed to achieve a Delaunay tessellation that has greater cell density at the column bases and the vault edges, more porosity at the upper vault shell. 1 To simulate the reverse hanging method as well as investigate the part-to-whole relationship for tessellation, the B.2.1 exercise is divided into two parts. The first part is the form finding process that is focus on force simulation using Kangaroo Physics. By applying the tensile force (gravity and spring force) to the surface, the structure will generate compression in resistance. The second part explores the potential tile components, which investigate different effect from serval geometries.

Module Generation

1. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iwamotoscott Architecture | Voussoir Cloudâ&#x20AC;?, Iwamotoscott.Com, 2018 <https://> [Accessed 9 September 2018].


B.2.1 Iterations Displacement of Control Points

1 0


3 4

Original Form

Scale of Hollows



Gravitational Force

1 0


3 4

Input Geometry

Spring Force

Frame (Quad mesh)

1 0


3 4

Input Geometry

Frame (Triangular mesh)




1 0


3 4

Input Geometry



weavebird’s sierpinski triangles subdivision: level = 1

weavebird’s sierpinski triangles subdivision: level = 1

triangulate mesh + weavebird’s sierpinski triangles subdivision: level = 1

triangulate mesh + weavebird’s sierpinski triangles subdivision: level = 3

weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level =1

weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level = 5

weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level = 3

triangulate mesh + weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level = 1

triangulate mesh + weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level = 5

triangulate mesh + weavebird’s inner polygons subdivision: level = 3




Construability Materiality Porosity

Construabi Materiality Porosity

Construability Materiality Porosity

Construability Materiality Porosity



The ďŹ rst integration creates a strong appearance in elastic materiality. It could potentiality be used as a frame to pull fabric to form an elastic surface.

This iteration display an interesting relationship of pattern and structural behaviour at the same time. The wielded vertex in the frame is also the articulation joints for potential fabrication. The structure could be constructed using panels or glasses with the ability to be patterned.

The iteration was derived from a simple geometric input. Though subdivision, it creates interesting porosity as well as an intricate form.

The tips of each triangular panel were joined to form the structure. An elastic materiality is created through planar triangular panels. The porosity of the form has the potential to create interesting shadow eďŹ&#x20AC;ect.


B.3.0 Case Study 2.0


Dragon Skin Pavilion The Dragon Skin Pavilion is an architectural installation designed and build by a collaboration between LEAD and EDGE Laboratory for the 2011-12 Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism / Architecture. The design speculates the potential of digital fabrication and manufacturing technology in the spatial, tactile, and material possibilities of the architectural realm.2 The chosen reverse engineering project appears to contain a strong relationship between design to fabrication. At the same time, the folding techniques brings possibility to investigate materiality. For the reverse engineering task, we were trying to achieve all three criteria including the form-finding process, the insurance of fabrication logic as well as materiality testing.

“Dragon Skin Pavilion – Page 2259 – LEAD – Laboratory For Explorative Architecture & Design”, L-E-A-D. Pro, 2018 <> [Accessed 10 September 2018].


B.3.1 Reverse Engineering

Input Surface


Surface-V Division

Length Evaluation (“Arc” Length)

Plane Construction

Dispatch and Move

Object Orientation

Notching and Intersection (VB Script)

0,0 1,0

2,0 3,0



2,1 3,1

0,2 1,2

2,2 3,2

0,3 1,3 2,3 3,3 0,4 1,4

2,4 3,4

0,5 1,5

2,5 3,5


2,0 1,0


3,0 2,1 3,1

1,1 0,2

2,2 1,2


3,2 2,3 3,3

1,3 0,4

2,4 3,4

1,4 0,5

2,5 1,5


Data Structure Diagram


B.4 Technique: Development Extending to the Creek

Input Geometry of the Fence

Elevation for Pedestrian Path

Topographic Adjustment




Overall Form Design (Panel Arrangement)

Scale Along the Curve (Distance to Curve)



Frame 1 (Offset Thickness)

Overall Form Design (Panel Arrangement)

Frame 2 (Offset Thickness)



Overall Form Design (Panel Arrangement)













Panel Detail Design



The overall surface was constructed using loft command. The surface was adjusted and evaluated our chosen site conditions. This is the final result we obtain through a series of optimisation.


The density and orientation of the panel is crucial to creating space for our bird as well as provide privacy to this fence. At the same time, the fence needs to be dense enough to be constructible through notching.

We h poro view the m to be

have tested some possibility to create osity as we intended to open the w close to the river side. This is by far most successful one as it appears e the most controllable one.

This mesh was created using Kangaroo Solver. We intended to use mesh to resemble the shading quality formed by overlapping red gum branches as well as create an entrance for the bird. This simulation was moderately dense so it wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t disturb the bird as much, but maintain some fair shading quality.


B.5 Technique: Prototype

A rough 3D printed model was firstly made to examine the basics of the model before the iteration. Including finding the weakest point (articulated notches) in the structure. The model was used to studied scale and over form, as well as the initial reference for the later evaluation.

A rough 3D printed model was firstly made to examine th model before the iteration. Including finding the weakest p notches) in the structure. The model was used to studied s over form, as well as the initial reference for the later evalu

The original panel component of the Dragon Skin was pre the original panel form derives from a developable surfa actualise our project, we started from studying and follow A developable surface means the panel is limited be curv which is like our fabrication strategy using timber bending was mositurised and glulam-ed. A 3d-printed, 80 degree and curve. After drying, the panel buckles back about 10 d panel has a 90-degreed fold, which is suitable for our use puts each surface constantly in tensile and compressive fo develop (for example, perforation) the design, as it may p structural integrity. In this case, we had come up with the


he basics of the point (articulated scale and uation.

ess-formed. This indicates ace. To maintain and to wing a similar approach. ved only in one direction, g. 3 layers of balsa timber ed press is then help to form degrees. As a result, this e. However, timber bending orce, we can hardly further potentially destroy the second fabrication strategy.




Initially, we tried the timber soaking for testing (similar to steam bending). However, The strength of the grain will create surface tension on the surface. When after dried, the timber bounced back by a lot. Without glulam, the timber can only be bent in gentle curve, which creates only obtuse angle. This didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t meet our requirement.


Kerf bending - Success The second strategy is kerf patterning, while a series of pattern was laser cut on the ridge of the panel. We then ran the bending test to examine which pattern had the greatest bendability. This is an interesting way of fabrication, as we are giving new characteristic and materiality to the original material.

This is the most successful test as it could bend freely with no signs of buckle and cracking sounds.



Kerf bending - Failure Failure caused by the horizontal ribs in the pattern.



ure caused by the shallow etches (only 0.5mm deep)


3D Printing


The form finding process of our detail mesh was inspired by the Thallus Research Pavilion from Zaha Hadid Architect. The precedent used 6-axisarm robotic 3D printing Technology to actualise the construction of fine pipes on a dubly-curved surface. Though we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a formwork, we 3d printed the prototype as a demonstration of the viability of this fabrication method.


B.6 Technique: Proposal

The proposed design is to replace an existing private fence with a fence that provides resting and hunting space for the sacred kingfishier.



Merri Cree

Private fences within the area ap and lack of affinity. Public fences, on the contrary, ar landscape. Hence, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve decided to redesign


ek Trial

ppear to be impermeable

re more responding to the

n one of the private fences.


Experience 52

Drawing 53

Nature system sacred kingfishers

100 years growth for red gum trees develop habitual hollows.

Kingfishers live in grassland and woodland. They dig hollows on the trunk instead of building nests on the branches.

Th re ind the 19

They are territorial but not aggressive. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fight with their own kind.


They tend to stay two meters above the water when hunting.

he sacred kingfishers represent the egeneration of Merri Creek after the dustrial pollution. It takes 30 years for e committee to clean up the creek. In 993, the kingfishers finally returned.


HUman s PRIVATE T We want to maintain the two functions of the private fence but resign it corresponding to the site condition. T We want to maintain the two functions of the private fence but resign it corresponding to the site condition. T We want to maintain the two functions of the private fence but resign it corresponding to the site condition.




system FENCCE


Site Analy

The steepness of the site informs our form-finding process.

Our site is closed to richly growing red gums, which were favoured by the sacred kingfishers.

setb m

Our choicce revolves around the chosen site has unique characterist demarcation, steep valley, and on



Because the neighbourhood has a back, our chosen site wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t intervene too much with the existing neighbourhood.

Minimising blockage to the pedestrians.

habitation of Kingfisher. The tics including interesting parcel e major pedestrian pathway.


Concept D










Detail Elevation





A VB script is used to extract the intersection data. Panels are then laid out and numbered using grasshopper. This process demonstrates the fabrication logic from our resverse engineering task.





B.7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes Formulating the brief The brief for our Studio is to design a fence in the Merri Creek Trail. After doing the site analysis and research, our group has formed a brief that specially accommodates the hunting and resting needs for the Sacred Kingfishers. The brief appears to be strong as it provides a clear demarcation when evaluating our design iterations through analysis of bird behaviours (aforementioned in B6). However, the biophilia aspect of the design could be merely evidenced, as there is not president that demonstrates whether the bird accepts artificial dwelling. Besides, due to the short time frame, we didn’t have chance to gather more biological information about the kingfishers and develop our project further. As a conclusion, we have decided to reset our goal. Repertoire of computational techniques After a few weeks of learning through online tutorials and studio discussion, I was able to self-develop and self-critique my grasshopper skills. The process of developing grasshopper skills is very time-consuming and slow for me. At the start, I found the lack of grasshopper knowledge had slowed my progression. The situation has improved through the weekly practice of the journal work and the algorithm sketchbook. In addition, I have learnt more “tricks” from the studio, which speeds up my overall workflow. Iterations and evaluations Before we have formulated our specific design brief, I found my evaluation and iteration trapped in a vacuum. I used to have a lot of iterations that can hardly be evaluated. Through the design experience in the later part B, I now value iteration and evaluation equally important. The selfdebating process through evaluation process has made the iterations more purposeful. Skills in various three-dimensional media Our design proposal was relatively large in scale. Though the design process mainly “happened” on screen, we did make a draft quality 3D-printed prototype first to investigate the spatial composition and tectonics in a smaller scale. Because the lack of more advance digital skill, we still used several prototypes to test the materiality and furtherly optimise our design. Foundational understanding of computational geometry, data structure and types of programming One thing unique about the computation techniques is the data interpretation. Through transferring data, we are capable to generate lots of intricate form. To develop our computational skills further, we looked for both form-finding and the fabrication precedents.



B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches


By manipulating the scale of the modules, it changes the porosity of the form. As the components were scaled larger, it started to create space for sheltering. By changing the reference plane orientation and scales, the results have become more and more uncontrollable and unexpected. The last rows of iterations were created by a series of arches. The arches took its form from pulling two points which were initially extracted from the contouring and dividing the first geometry. However, the fidelity of the form was lost during the iterations.


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. “Iwamotoscott Architecture | Voussoir Cloud”, Iwamotoscott.Com, 2018 <https://> [Accessed 9 September 2018]

2. “Dragon Skin Pavilion – Page 2259 – LEAD – Laboratory For Explorative Architecture & Design”, L-E-A-D.Pro, 2018 < dragon-skin-pavilion/2259/> [Accessed 10 September 2018]