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STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, ALLAN MENGQI HUANG 837095


CONTENTS A.0 INTRODUCTION A.1 DESIGN FUTURING A.1.1 Pixel Building A.1.2 Orica House (former ICI House)

A.2 COMPUTATION A2.1 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 A2.2 Al Bahar Towers

A.3 Composition/Generation A.3.1 Digital Grotesque I A.3.2 Guggenheim Helsinki Proposal

A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning Outcome A.6 Appendix

CONCEPTUALISATION 3


CONCEPTUALISATION 5


A.1

DESIGN FUTURING

6

CONCEPTUALISATION


Faced with challenges like overpopulation, climate change and pollution, we humans now confront “the accelerating defuturing condition of unsustainability�. The anthropocentric mode of our habitation has resulted we are treating the planet as an infinite resource at our disposal.1 It has become clear that the only way we can overcome the situation is by changing our values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour.2 The possibility of another kind of future must be speculated through all design practices.3 As architecture is an autopoietic system like any other function systems in the society, itself needs to develop to accommodate the changing context.4 New design possibilities and speculations need to be explored and examined.

1. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg), pp. 1 2. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona. (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press), pp. 2 3. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg), pp. 6 4. Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 1 CONCEPTUALISATION 7


A.1.1 PIXEL BUILDING | STUDIO 505 The Pixel Building is an ecological friendly approach for design futuring. Scoring an outstanding 105 Green Star points and LEED points, it is the highest rating building in Australia and around the world.5 The design proposal of Pixel is to create a self-sustain commercial building in the probable future of resources shortage and carbon constrained environment. As Tony Fry suggests in Design Futuring, design futuring must accomplish two tasks which are slowing the rate of defuturing and redirecting the human habitation towards a more sustainable mode.6 Pixel has achieved both. All of panels used for the façade are recycled and produce zero waste to the environment. The capability of self-generating energy and water on site enables it to perform off-gird and be resilient in the possible energy and resource shortage conditions. As the first carbon-neural office building ever been built in Australia, it opens up the possibilities for more ecological-friendly buildings. Simultaneously, it dedicates as a paradigm to demonstrate a green building can be constructed within the reasonable budget and efficiently reduce the operational cost, which contributes to the redirection of the current design competition of commercial building, from commercial focused to sustain-ability focused design. Moreover, the proposal of the Pixel is not only about producing a greener building, but also promoting a greener life style for the occupants. For example, it offers bicycle storage and shower facilities to encourage people ride or walk to work. The panel façade, as the shading strategy, prevents glare and maximizes the natural light to reduce the dependence of artificial lights.

5. Studio 505, ‘PIXEL’, Work - Studio505 <http://www.studio505.com.au/work/project/pixel/8> [Accessed 29th July 2018] 6. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg), pp. 6 8

CONCEPTUALISATION


Figure1: https://www.archdaily.com/190779/pixel-studio505

CONCEPTUALISATION 9


A.1.2

ORICA HOUSE (FORMER ICI HOUSE)

| BATES SMART MCCUTCHEON

The design of ICI House assimilated the international trend for multi-storey buildings, originated in the United States, and reformulated with local concerns. It was a landmark in the planning of the City of Melbourne.7 Originally, the highest building in the city planning was St Paul Cathedral, which corresponded to the phenomenon of social values highly affected by religion. ICI House is the first Australia more than double the previous height restriction enforced in Victoria. The breaking of height limitation has opened up opportunities to a more democratic design and speculated the vertical development in the urban context. After World War II, with rising of middle class in society, modernism derived from industralisation and mass production. It proposed a preferable future that was determined by government and industry.8 One of its major characteristic is functionalism. ICI House, as the first modernism office skyline in Melbourne, displayed a diversified definition of function. This function was not narrowed down to existential need. Such design has accumulated momentum to open up discourse to other possibilities. It has integrated a new composition and anthropologic philosophy for workplace, which has encompassed of occupants’ comfort. It redefines the design philosophy for workplace by incorporating public garden and amenity spaces, including game room, cafeteria, and rooftop promenade into its design. The idea of creating a workplace what workers could relax and work informally has been highly valued in contemporary workplaces.

Figure 2 & 3: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/sep/07/melbourne-australia-first-skyscraper-ici-orica-house

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CONCEPTUALISATION

7. Australian Institute of Architects, ‘Notable architecture’, Australian Institute of Architects (revised by 2018) <http://www.architecture.com.au/architecture/national/notable-buildings > [Accessed 30th July 2018] 8. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona. (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press), pp. 4


Figure 4: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/sep/07/melbourne-australia-first-skyscraper-ici-orica-house CONCEPTUALISATION 11


A.2

COMPUTATION

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CONCEPTUALISATION


As Peter Zellner states in Hybrid Space, â&#x20AC;&#x153;architecture is recasting itself, becoming in part an experimental investigation of topological geometries, partly a computational orchestration of robotic material production and partly a generative, kinematic sculpting of spaceâ&#x20AC;?.9 The relationship between computer and architecture has expanded. Design approach has shifted from computerisation to computation, which the digital technologies in architecture has gone beyond the representational tool, but as a design method. In addition to the innovation in the fabrication and construction process, new architectural theories intersect between science, technology, deign and architectural culture have emerged. 10 Besides, the digital-base information enables the convergence of design information and construction information. The continuity through different phases and the single source of information among various professions and trades enable architects to have more control over the final outcome. 11

9. Peter Zellner (1999). Hybrid Space: New Forms in Digital Architecture (New York: Rizzoli) 10. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 1 11. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press), pp. 7-8 CONCEPTUALISATION 13


A.2.1

ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2014-15 | INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, UNIVERSITY STUTTGART

Figure 5: https://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/icd-itke-2014-2015-research-pavilion_o 14

CONCEPTUALISATION


The ICD Pavilion is a prototype that explores application potentials of computational design, simulation and fabrication processes in architecture.12 The design team analysed biological formation sequence of the water spider’s web and examined it in the building tectonics and morphology. The Pavilion is composite of an ETFE membrane, which acts as the envelop as well as the pneumatic formwork, and the reinforcing carbon fibers underneath. The computational design is employed during the form finding process, which enables the structural behaviour of the fibers to be simulated. High material efficiency can be achieved by controlling the density of the fiber and excluding unnecessary non-structural ones. Corresponding to the design strategy, robotic fabrication is adopted to actualize the tectonics. The continuum of the information enables the design logic to be undertaken through the construction process. As the pneumatic formwork is gradually reinforced through fabrication process, the deformation due to the changing stiffness results a huge challenge to construction. Not only the fibers must be precisely located, constant feedback and adjustment is required between the actual construction and the digital generated paths for the robot arm. After each new application, position parameters of all the existing fibers are sensed and sent to the digital model. Recalculation of the robot path is processed and applied. As Mark Burry suggests scripting as a driving force for 21st century architectural thinking,13 case study like ICD Pavilion shows the power of scripting of algorithm as a design method in realm of biological design and other research-based design in architecture.

Figure 7: https://www.domusweb.it/en/news/2015/07/14/icd_itke_research_pavilion.html

Figure 6: https://architizer.com/projects/icditke-research-pavilion-2014-15/

12. Institute for Computational Design and Construction, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15’, University Stuttgart Institute for Computational Design and Construction< http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 6th August 2018] 13. Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (West Sussex and UK: John Wiley and Sons) CONCEPTUALISATION 15


A.2.2

AL BAHAR TOWERS | AEDAS

Figure 8: https://www.protenders.com/en/projects/al-bahr-towers 16

CONCEPTUALISATION


In the conceptual ream, computation, digital architecture of topological, non-Euclidean geometric space, kinetic and dynamic systems, and genetic algorithms are supplanting technological architecture.14

Figure 9: https://is-arquitectura.com/arquitectura/torres/al-bahar/ CONCEPTUALISATION 17


Unlike lots of performative architecture places defined performance above form-making,15 the form of the Al Bahar Towers is driven by the cultural, social and environmental context in Abu Dhabi.16 The façade patterns are inspired by the traditional Islamic â&#x20AC;&#x153;mashrabiyaâ&#x20AC;?, but interpreted in a dynamic fashion. In addition to the ornamental aspect, the components can open and close correspondingly to the sun path, which provides an alternative shading strategy for the building. Both the computational design and technology have contributed to the realisation of the design, that prioritizes the architectural ideas and aesthetics while balancing the performance. The tessellation of the components is generated by the parametric design. Since the topological relationship is controlled by algorithm, changes and refinements can be adapted at any stage of the design process without rebuilding the model. Besides, the computational method enables the structural and performance analysis to be integrated during the form finding process, hence, an informed performative design can be achieved. As Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman state in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, the digital in architecture has begun to enable a set of symbiotic relationships between the formulation of design processes and developing technologies.17 The strategies of fabrication and construction are determined corresponding the design scenario. The employment of CNC machines allows high quality-controlled and mass-customized production. Topographic survey machines were used during the on-site installation to ensure the precise location. In conclusion, the Al Bahar Towers demonstrate the capability and the possibility of the computational design in realm of performative architecture and open up more opportunities to such realm of design.

14. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press), pp. 3 15. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press), pp. 24 16. Abdulmajid Karanouha and Ethan Kerberb (2015). Innovations in dynamic architecture (Online: IOS Press), pp.188-191 17. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 1 18

CONCEPTUALISATION


Figure 10: https://www.archdaily.com/270592/al-bahar-towers-responsive-facade-aedas

Figure 11: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Al-Bahar-Towers-The-foldingshading-system-opens-and-closes-according-to-suns_fig1_308555888

CONCEPTUALISATION 19


A.3

COMPOSITION/GENERATIO

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CONCEPTUALISATION


ON

Shifting from computerisation to computation, from composition to generation, algorithmic design allows designers capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s formation.The logical continuity enables the designers to integrate other aspects, such as performance, fabrication or/and construction methodology, material, all into one. The sharable data between the computational design and digital fabrication design enables the intricate geometry to be fabricated and/or constructed, which can shift the existing boundaries within the discipline.18 However, the deterministic and unequivocal nature of scripting can sometimes result the outcome to be too rational and unsympathetic. As Stan Allen states the meaning in architecture is constructed as an encounter between and the public,19 thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s still a doubt about what the computation might lead us to.

18. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc), pp. 08-15 19. Allen, Stain (2008). Practice: Architecture, Technique, and Representation (New York: Routledge), pp XIV CONCEPTUALISATION 21


Figure 12: http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/digital-grotesque-I

Figure 13: http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/digital-grotesque/ http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/digital-grotesque-I 22

CONCEPTUALISATION


A.3.1

DIGITAL GROTESQUE I | MICHAEL HANSMEYER HANS AND BENJAMIN DILLENBURGER Digital Grotesque I is the paradigm that embodies the principle of ‘computation is redefining the practice of architecture’.20 The designers aim to create an architecture that defies classification and reductionism. They explore unseen levels of resolution and topological complexity in architecture by adopting subdivision algorithm.21 The designers generate the forms by defining the rules, which enables the outcome to be iterative. The balance between the expected and the unexpected embodies the junction of human intelligence and machinery, in which the design can go beyond the intellect of the designer. 22 Besides, the data generated within the design process can cross discipline. The continuity between the computational design and digital fabrication opens up new opportunities. High-resolution, complex geometries can now be produced at a competitive price and within a short period of time. When there’s no longer an extra cost for complexity, it offers designer constructive freedom of design as well as breaks the prejudice of ornamentation is a luxury. Different from the compositional design, generative design transfers the design concept in a meaningful, dynamic way. However, neither the construction methodology nor the static outcome can capture the design process. To anyone who isn’t informed about the design process, the product can be alienised and lack intuitions from the original concept.

Figure 15: http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/digital-grotesque-I Figure 14: http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/digital-grotesque/

20. PETERS, BRADY (2013). COMPUTATION WORKS: THE BUILDING OF ALGORITHMIC THOUGHT (NEW YORK AND UNITED STATES: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC), PP. 08-15 21. MICHAEL HANSMEYER COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE, ‘DIGITAL GROTESQUE I (2013)’, MICHAEL HANSMEYER COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE <HTTP://WWW.MICHAEL-HANSMEYER.COM/DIGITAL-GROTESQUE-I> [ACCESSED 9TH AUGUST 2018] 22. PETERS, BRADY (2013). COMPUTATION WORKS: THE BUILDING OF ALGORITHMIC THOUGHT (NEW YORK AND UNITED STATES: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC), PP. 08-15

CONCEPTUALISATION 23


A.3.2 GUGGENHEIM HELSINKI PROPOSAL | GILLES RETSIN

Figure 16: https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/

Figure 18: https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/ 24

CONCEPTUALISATION

Figure 17: https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/


The proposal form of Guggenheim Museum composites three large-scale strata supported by a series of slender columns, which evokes the surrounding context of the city’s eteläsatama area. Inspired by WWII timber airport hangars, the volumetric roof is generated by algorithm based on the logic of defining mass through lines.23 By integrating simulation tools in the form generative process, the structural and the material performance of the low-grade timber can input as a set of parameters to the iteration, as a result, the components can be located in a structurally and performative optimised way. Highly repetitive components reduce the requirement of customized junctions, which reduces the construction difficulty as well as manual installation mistakes. The scale of the precedent determines it enables to have a large design team and several computational experts involved, however this scenario is usually not the case in residential projects. A considerable small scale means problem-solving is generally the design approach and there’s fewer space for variations. Besides, the evaluation process is more likely completed by both designers and clients. Hence, rather than producing an optimized performative house to the client, the designer should design based on the clients’ needs and preference. As the process is really objective, the compositional design is more suitable than the generative design.

Figure 19: https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/

23. Lidia, ‘Guggenheim Helsinki Proposal | Gilles Retsin’, ARCH2O < https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/> [Accessed 30th July 2018] CONCEPTUALISATION 25


A.4 CONCLUSION “ When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.” —— Brady Peters24 Encountered with nowadays challenges, such as overpopulation, resource shortage and climate change, a new design approach; computational design, has come to power and refine the future design practices. Just like the past, when architects developed architectural drawing to interpret their design. Computational design allows architects to use algorithm to extend their intellect and capability to deal with highly complex situations. Shifting from a helpful tool within the design process, the customized algorithm has become a part of the design itself, hence it’s critical for architects to determine their role in design process as well as the possibility of computation design. The unpredictability of outcome doesn’t mean the uncontrollability, on the contrast, it allows flexibility of the design to adopt the constant changing parameters. With the powerful simulation tool, the architects are able to integrate new material and tectonics, test the boundaries of existing fabrication technology and design building under changing environment and occupation. In conclusion, the computation determines the design process within a range of constraints, and the architects determine the design outcome.

24. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc), pp. 15 26

CONCEPTUALISATION


A.5 LEARNING OUTCOME During Conceptualisation, I have an in depth understanding about the theory of computational design, of knowing how it redefines the practice of architecture by integrating the algorithmic thinking into design. Through lectures, readings and discussion in the tutorial session, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve gained the knowledge of design with algorithm in terms of its limits and the infinite possibilities. Among the six precedents, the Digital Grotesque I interests me the most. The way that the sophisticated ornament and its extremely fine level of detail fascinates me. It also helps me to form a continuous way of thinking when by using generative design methods, different aspects are highly integrated and become a unitized whole. I have also gradually gain knowledge on Grasshoper, where I can now understand the basics of Grasshopper and how each component can synergize to provide a controllable outcome. However, the algorithmic thinking is still the most difficult part during application.

CONCEPTUALISATION 27


A.6 APPENDIX Fence Rebuild

The photo is taken along the Domain Street, and it is private houseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fence. The fence is made of metal, and composites a series of discrete components. It defines the boundary of the ownership as well as protect the privacy from the main street.

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CONCEPTUALISATION

Sketch of the fence


The fence is rebuilt as a 3D model in Rhino. Then the fence is then simplified into a series of lines, which are used as input for the exploration of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;loftâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; command. The procedure includes rebuilding, changing the control points, moving locations and scaling.

CONCEPTUALISATION 29


ITERATIONS

(from the least favourite to the most favourite)

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CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 31


32

CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 33


ITERATIONS

Different vector directions are explored. The first four are gener direction. The rest are generated by multiple vector directions.

The surface is selected as the input of iterations.

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CONCEPTUALISATION


rated by simple vector

CONCEPTUALISATION 35


ITERATIONS

Procedure: Use the contour lines to generate the points then produce lines between those points.

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CONCEPTUALISATION

Procedure: Generate the points around the on the contour lines, connect the points. The generated forms are not very successfu original form is lost. The forms become ran


e geometry and

Procedure: Generate points on two different contour lines, then use them as two sets of input for generating the arches, one for start point and one for the end point.

ul as too much information of the ndom and out of control.

CONCEPTUALISATION 37


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg) 2. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona. (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) 3. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg) 4. Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley) 5. Studio 505, ‘PIXEL’, Work - Studio505 <http://www.studio505.com.au/work/project/pixel/8> [Accessed 29th July 2018] 6. Fry, Tony (2009). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford and New York: Berg) 7. Australian Institute of Architects, ‘Notable architecture’, Australian Institute of Architects (revised by 2018) <http:// www.architecture.com.au/architecture/national/notable-buildings > [Accessed 30th July 2018] 8. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona. (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) 9. Peter Zellner (1999). Hybrid Space: New Forms in Digital Architecture (New York: Rizzoli) 10. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London and New York: Routledge) 11. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press) 12. Institute for Computational Design and Construction, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15’, University Stuttgart Institute for Computational Design and Construction< http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 6th August 2018] 13. Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (West Sussex and UK: John Wiley and Sons) 14. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press) 15. Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York and London: Spon Press) 16. Abdulmajid Karanouha and Ethan Kerberb (2015). Innovations in dynamic architecture (Online: IOS Press) 17. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London and New York: Routledge) 18. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc) 19. Allen, Stain (2008). Practice: Architecture, Technique, and Representation (New York: Routledge) 20. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc 21. Michael Hansmeyer Computational Architecture, ‘Digital Grotesque I (2013)’, Michael Hansmeyer Computational Architecture <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/digital-grotesque-I> [Accessed 9th August 2018] 22. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc 23. Lidia, ‘Guggenheim Helsinki Proposal | Gilles Retsin’, ARCH2O < https://www.arch2o.com/guggenheim-helsinki-proposal-gilles-retsin/> [Accessed 30th Ju 24. Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought (New York and United States: John Wiley & Sons Inc

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uly 2018]

CONCEPTUALISATION 39

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