Page 1

Basel Antiqua

Christian Mengelt

Basel Antiqua – Eine historische Druckschrift in neuer Gestalt

Basel Antiqua – The new design of a historical typeface

Chamaeleon Verlag Basel ISBN 978-3-9523175-9-4


Basel Antiqua – Eine historische Druckschrift in neuer Gestalt

Basel Antiqua – The new design of a historical typeface

Mit dieser Publikation möchte ich die historische Bedeutung des Schrifttypus «Basel Antiqua», der im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert durch verschiedene Basler Buchdrucker in ihren frühen humanistischen Druckwerken verwendet wurde, hervorheben. Zahlreiche dieser Werke sind noch heute in der Universitätsbibliothek Basel in ausgezeichneter Qualität erhalten. Das eingehende Studium dieser Basler Druckschriften hat mich in der Folge dazu ermuntert, diese historischen Renaissance-Antiqua neu zu gestalten. Angeregt zu diesem Projekt wurde ich zudem durch eine Anfrage von Daniel H. Garrison, einem amerikanischen klassischen Philologen, der eine englische Neuausgabe des grossartigen Anatomiewerks «De humani corporis fabrica» von Andreas Vesalius aus dem 16. Jahrhundert erarbeitete. Für den Druck dieses komplexen wissenschaftlichen Werks suchte er eine Schrifttype mit stilistischem Bezug zur historischen Vorlage, jedoch mit den technischen Eigenschaften einer modernen Textschrift.

With this publication, I would like to emphasize the historical significance of the typeface „Basel Antiqua“ used in the 15th and 16th centuries by different Basel printers for their early humanistic books. A number of these works have been preserved in the Library of the University of Basel and are still in excellent condition. A detailed study of these early typefaces from Basel printers encouraged me to arrange for a new design of this historical Renaissance typeface. I was made aware of this project after an inquiry from Daniel H. Garrison, an American Classical Philologist, who has made a new translation into English of the great anatomical work „De humani corporis fabrica” first published by Andreas Vesalius in the 16th century. He was looking for a typeface for the printing of this complex scientific work that would be both stylistically representative of the original historical model but also have the technical features of a modern text font. Christian Mengelt 1


Mit dieser Publikation mรถchte ich allen danken, die zum Projekt der neuen Druckschrift Basel Antiqua beigetragen haben. Ein spezieller Dank geht an Daniel H. Garrison und die Northwestern University, USA; an Erich Gschwind und den Verlag S. Karger AG, Basel; sowie an die Linotype GmbH, Deutschland.

2

With this publication, I like to thank everyone who contributed to the project of the new type design Basel Antiqua. Particularly I want thank to Daniel H. Garrison and the Northwestern University, USA; to Erich Gschwind and the publishers S. Karger AG, Basel; and to the Linotype GmbH, Germany.


Inhalt

Contents

Eine historische Druckschrift in neuer Gestalt (Vorwort)

The new design of a historical typeface (Preface)

Nicolas Jenson in Venedig Johann Amerbach, Johannes Froben und Johann Petri in Basel Basler Stempelschneider und Schriftgiesser im 16. Jahrhundert Die Verbreitung der «Basel Antiqua» im 16. Jahrhundert

Nicolas Jenson in Venice 4 Johann Amerbach, Johannes Froben and Johann Petri in Basel 6 Basel punch cutter and type foundry in the 16th century 8 The spread of the „Basel Antiqua“ in the 16th century 10

Johannes Oporinus in Basel

Johannes Oporinus in Basel

12

Drei historisch unterschiedliche Alphabete

Three historically different alphabets

14

Die historische «Basel Antiqua» als Ausgangspunkt zur Gestaltung einer neuen Druckschrift: – Prozess zum neuen Design der historischen Schrift – Formeigenschaften – Das Schriftbild der neuen Basel Antiqua – Grundschrift und Kursivschrift – Basel Antiqua im Vergleich

The historical „Basel Antiqua“ as starting point to a new typeface design: – Process to the new design of the historical typeface – Shape properties – The image of the new typeface Basel Antiqua – Basic roman and italic font – Basel Antiqua compared

18 20

Die Basel Antiqua Schriftfamilie

The Basel Antiqua typeface family

28

Figurenverzeichnis, Satzproben (Lateinisch, Griechisch, Kyrillisch) – Basel Antiqua Regular – Basel Antiqua Italic – Basel Antiqua Bold & Bold Italic Buchprojekt einer englischen Ausgabe von Vesalius «On the Fabric of the Human Body», Karger-Verlag, Basel

Glyph set and specimens of typeface (Latin, Greek and Cyrillic) – Basel Antiqua Regular – Basel Antiqua Italic – Basel Antiqua Bold & Bold Italic

30 32 34

Impressum

Imprint

1

16

22 24 26

Book project for an English edition of Vesalius‘„On the Fabric of the Human Body“ by Karger Publishers, Basel 36 42

3


Nicolas Jenson in Venedig

Nicolas Jenson in Venice

Die frühen Buchdrucker Italiens, wie etwa Nicolas Jenson als hervorragendes Beispiel in Venedig, schufen im 15. Jahrhundert ganz im Geiste der Renaissance ihre neuen Druckschriften nach dem Vorbild der humanistischen Buchhandschriften, die auf der karolingischen Minuskel (8. - 10. Jahrhundert) basieren. In der vermeintlichen Annahme, diese sei die Schrift des klassischen Altertums, nannte man sie «lettera antica» (die alte Schrift). Die erste «Venezianische Antiqua» von Nicolas Jenson, entstanden etwa um 1470, wurde das Vorbild eines neuen Schrifttypus und in der Folge weitherum nachgebildet. Diese Antiqua-Druckschriften der venezianischen Drucker, und besonders auch die neue Typografie und Buchgestaltung der italienischen Renaissance, hatten demzufolge auch bestimmenden Einfluss auf eine neue typografische Ausrichtung verschiedener Basler Buchdrucker des späten 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhunderts.

Nicolas Jenson in Venice is an outstanding example of the early printers of Italy, as who, in the 15th century in the spirit of the Renaissace, created a new roman typeface after the model of the humanistic book handwritings that were based on the Carolingian minuscule (8th to 10th century). In the assumption that this was the writing of classical antiquity, they were called „lettera Antica“ (the old script). The first „Venetian Antiqua“ by Nicolas Jenson, developed around 1470, became the prototype of a new type style and as a result has been widely imitated. The so-called roman or old style typefaces of the Venetian printers, and particularly also the new typography and book design of the Italian Renaissance also had a determining influence on the new typographic adjustment of different Basel printers of the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

Abbildung 1, Buchseite aus: Figure 1, page from: Diogenes (Laertius), Vitae philosophorum Nicolas Jenson, Venedig, 1475

4


5


Johann Amerbach, Johannes Froben und Johann Petri in Basel

Johann Amerbach, Johannes Froben and Johann Petri in Basel

Johann Amerbach hielt sich, nach seinem Studium in Paris, für kurze Zeit in Venedig, dem Zentrum des humanistischen Buchdrucks, auf, bevor er um 1475 nach Basel übersiedelte, um dort seine eigene Buchdruckwerkstatt zu eröffnen. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit widmete Amerbach dann auch dem Druck der Werke zeitgenössischer Humanisten. Nach 1500 führte Johann Amerbach seine Basler Druckerwerkstätte zusammen mit Johannes Froben und Johann Petri. Diese wurde in der Folge, nach dem Tod Amerbachs 1513, von Johannes Froben zu einer der bedeutensten Druckerwerkstätten Basels ausgebaut. Die Offizin von Amerbach, Froben und Petri verfügte über einen grossen Bestand verschiedener Schrifttypen, darunter auch verschiedene Antiquaschriften, hauptsächlich für den Druck der Werke der frühen Kirchenväter und Humanisten. Dadurch hat die Basler Offizin viel dazu beigetragen, die Antiquaschriften auch im deutschsprachigen Raum, wo vermehrt noch gotische Druckschriften verwendet wurden, zu verbreiten.

After his studies in Paris, Johann Amerbach stayed for a short time in Venice, the center of humanistic book printing. Around 1475, he moved to Basel to take up his own printing office. Therefore, Amerbach devoted special attention to the printing of works by contempo­r ary humanists. After 1500, Johann Amerbach ran his Basel printing office together with Johannes Froben and Johann Petri. After the death of Amerbach in 1513, Johannes Froben took over and built up the business to be one of the most important printing firms of Basel. The letterpress of Amerbach, Froben and Petri had a stock of numerous different type alphabets, among them several roman typefaces, mainly for the printing of the works of the early church fathers and humanists. Thus, these Basel printers contributed greatly to the spread of the roman typeface in the German-speaking countries, where gothic typefaces were still in use.

Abbildung 2, Buchseite aus: Figure 2, page from: Philephus Johannes, Epistolare, Johannes Amerbach, Basel, 1495

6


7


Basler Stempelschneider und Schriftgiesser im 16. Jahrhundert

Basel punch cutter and type foundry in the 16th century

Die Herstellung der Schrifttypen, das heisst, Stempelschnitt und Schriftguss, bildete technisch die Grundlage des frühen Buchdrucks. Dass der Buchdruck in Basel typografisch zu den schönsten seiner Zeit gehörte, hängt aufs engste mit dem hochentwickelten Handwerk der Basler Goldschmiede zusammen, die durch ihre Meisterschaft als Siegelstecher und Graveure auch in der Technik des Stempelschnitts für Druckschriften hervorragende Qualitätsarbeit leisteten. Über den Entwurf und Schnitt von Schrifttypen in der Offizin von Amerbach und Froben ist leider nur wenig Genaues überliefert – im Gegensatz zu den frühen venezianischen Druckern (Jenson, Manutius) kamen Amerbach wie auch Froben mehr von der wissenschaftlichen als von der handwerklichen Seite zum Buchdruck. Technisch war die Basler Offizin für ihre Zeit jedoch qualitativ hochstehend ausgerüstet – auch der Schriftguss der eigenen Typenalphabete ghörte zu ihrer besonderen Leistung. Die Schriftstempel wurden jedoch vermutlich zum Teil für sie im Auftrage und nach ihren Vorlagen auswärts geschnitten.

The production of typeface letters, i.e. punch cutting and type founding technically formed the basis of early book printing. The fact that book printing in Basel belonged typographically to the most beautiful of its time, is closely connected to highly developed handicraft of the Basel goldsmiths, who carried out excellent high-quality work thanks to their expertise as „Siegel“ cutters and engravers in the technology of punch cutting for typefaces. Unfortunately, we know very little about the design and punch cutting of typefaces in the printing office of Amerbach and Froben – in contrast to the early Venetian printers (e.g. Jenson, Manutius) Amerbach and Froben came more from the scientific than from the artisan side of book printing. However, regarding the printing process they were of highest quality for their time – also the casting of their type alphabets belonged to its special achievement. The type punches, however, were probably partiallly outwart cut for them by order and after their templates.

Abbildung 3, Buchseite aus: Figure 3, page from: Erasmus, Novum Testamentum, Johannes Froben, Basel, 1522

8


9


Die Verbreitung der «Basel Antiqua» im 16. Jahrhundert

The spread of the „Basel Antiqua“ in the 16th century

Mit diesen Basler Druckschriften aus der Offizin von Amerbach und Froben wurde dann auch ein reger Handel betrieben, sodass sie eine beachtliche Verbreitung fanden. So kann man bereits Ende des 15. und dann vermehrt anfangs des 16. Jahrhunderts eine grosse Zahl von Werken verschiedener Basler Drucker bewundern, die mit diesen Schriften gesetzt wurden. Um nur einige der bekanntesten Drucker zu nennen, welche diese Basler Antiqua-Schriften benutzten: Neben Amerbach, Froben und Petri, welche die Schrift einführten, Johannes Herwagen, Balthasar Lasius, Andreas Cratander und Johannes Oporinus. Demzufolge kann in diesen zahlreichen Basler Druckwerken des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts historisch von einem eigenständigen Schrifttypus, der «Basel Antiqua» – und parallel dazu auch von einer «Basel Antiquakursiv» – gesprochen werden.

The famous Basel typefaces from the press of Amerbach and Froben generated an active trade, and their good name began to spread considerably. So, by the end the 15th century and at the beginning of the 16th century, a large number of works carried out by different Basel printers and which had been set in these typefaces could be admired. To mention only some of the most famous printers, which used these Basel old style typefaces: Besides Amerbach, Froben and Petri, who introduced the typefaces, Johannes Herwagen, Balthasar Lasius, Andreas Cratander, and Johannes Oporinus. Historically therefore, these numerous Basel prints from the 15th and 16th century point to an autonomous typeface, the „Basel Antiqua“ – and parallel to it a „Basel Italic“.

Abbildung 4, Titelseite von: Figure 4, title page from: Iohannem Gastium, Parabolarum, Balthasar Lasius, Basel, 1540

10


11


Johannes Oporinus in Basel

Johannes Oporinus in Basel

Nach umfangreichen wissenschaftlichen Studien und Lehrtätigkeit in Strassburg und Basel wirkte Johannes Oporinus seit etwa 1537 als einer der in seiner Zeit bedeutendsten Buchdrucker und Verleger in Basel. Eines der vielen hervorragenden und auch typografisch bewundernswerten Druckwerke der Offizin von Johannes Oporinus war der Anatomieatlas «De humani corporis fabrica» des grossen Humanisten Andreas Vesalius. Dieses Werk erschien 1543 in einer ersten lateinischen Ausgabe in Basel. Die Schrifttypen dieses grossartigen Werks, das heute noch in verschiedenen Exemplaren in der Universitätsbibliothek Basel erhalten ist, diente dann auch hauptsächlich als gestalterische Grundlage für das Projekt einer Neuformulierung der historischen Basler Druckschrift der Renaissance, der Basel Antiqua.

At around 1537, after extensive scientific studies and teaching in Strasbourg and Basel, Johannes Oporinus worked in Basel as one of the most important printers and publishers of the time. One of the many outstanding and also typographically admirable printings of Johannes Oporinus’ letterpress was the anatomy atlas „De humani corporis fabrica“ by the great humanists Andreas Vesalius. This work was published in Basel in 1543 in a first Latin edition. The typefaces of this great work, different copies of which can still be seen at the university library of Basel, served then mainly as a formative basis for the project of a new design for the historical Basel old style typeface, the Basel Antiqua.

Abb. 5, Buchseite aus: Figure 5, page from: Andreas Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica, Offizin Oporini, Basel, 1543

12


13


Drei historisch unterschiedliche Alphabete

Three historically different alphabets

Die Antiqua-Druckschriften der Renaissance basieren auf drei historisch und gestalterisch unterschiedlichen Alphabeten, die in der damaligen Buchgestaltung zum Teil durchmischt aber auch als eigenständige Schriften eingesetzt wurden: 1. Die Majuskelschrift – abgeleitet von der klassischen römischen Kapitalschrift – wurde für Initialen von Satz- und Wortanfängen und hauptsächlich als Titelschrift eingesetzt. 2. Die Minuskelschrift – abgeleitet von den Buchhandschriften der Renaissance, der humanistischen Minuskel – bildet die typografische Grundlage der Antiqua-Druckschrift. 3. Die Antiquakursiv – abgeleitet von den handschriftlichen Kursivschriften der Renaissance – wurde, zeitlich etwas später entwickelt, und als profanere Alternative zur gehobenen Antiqua-Buchschrift verwendet.

The printing types of the Renaissance are based on three historically and typographically different alphabets, which in the book design at that time were used partially mixed and, in addition, independently: 1. The majuscule alphabet – derived from the classical roman capital letter forms – was used as initial letters at the beginning of sentences as well as word beginnings but mainly in titles. 2. The minuscule alphabet – derived from book handwriting of the Renaissance, the humanist minuscule – forms the typographic basis of the roman (old face) typestyle. 3. The roman italic alphabet – derived from the handwritten italic scripts of the Renaissance – was developed a little later, and was used as a more profane alternative to the more elegant roman book type.

Abb. 6, Schriftbeispiele aus: Figure 6, typeface examples of: Andreas Vesalius, Medici Caesari Epistola, Offizin Oporini, Basel, 1546

14


1.

2.

3.

15


Die historische «Basel Antiqua» als Ausgangspunkt zur Gestaltung einer neuen Druckschrift

The historical „Basel Antiqua“ as starting point to a new typeface design

Zielsetzung des Projekts war die Gestaltung einer neuen Druckschrift auf der historischen Basis der AntiquaSchriften der Basler Originaldrucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Ausgangspunkt dazu war das eingehende Studium dieser Druckschriften in verschiedenen originalen Basler Druckwerken, wie beispielsweise entsprechende Drucke der Offizin von Amerbach, Froben und Oporinus. Im Vergleich mit Schriften italienischer Drucke (Jenson, Bembo) wirkt die Antiqua der Basler Drucke in ihrem Charakter insgesamt eher kräftiger und schlichter. Im Einzelnen sind dabei folgende stilbildende Merkmale hervorzuheben: Offene, runde Formen mit kräftigen Grundstrichen, feine Ausbildung der Endstriche (Serifen) und ausgeprägter Kontrast der Strichmodulation. Der kräftige Schriftduktus ist einerseits von der Breitfeder der handschriftlichen humanistischen Minuskel beeinflusst und andrerseits technisch durch das Zusammenwirken von Schriftstempel, Farbe, Papier und Drucktechnik geprägt.

The objective of the project was the design of a new typeface based on the historical „Basel Antiqua“ (old face) of the original printings of the 16th century. The starting point was the detailed study of these historical typefaces in different original printings from Basel, as, for example, appropriate prints from the workshops of Amerbach, Froben and Oporinus. In comparison with roman typefaces of Italian prints (Jenson, Bembo), the character of the roman typefaces of the Basel prints are altogether depicted rather more strongly and more simply. The following style building features are highlighted in detail: Open, round shapes with strong basic strokes, fine shape of the serifs and pronounced contrast of the stroke modulation. The strong writing ductus is on the one hand affected by the broad pen of the handwritten humanistic minuscule and on the other hand technically mar-ked by the interaction of letter punching, color, paper, and printing technique.

Abb. 7, Schriftbeispiel aus: Figure 7, typeface example of: Andreas Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica, Offizin Oporini, Basel, 1543

16


17


Prozess zum neuen Design der historischen Schrift

Process to the new design of the historical typeface

Für die technische Umsetzung der historischen Schrift in eine moderne Satzschrift, einen digitalen Font, stehen heute gute CAD-Programme zur Verfügung – der gestalterische Prozess ist jedoch komplex und anspruchsvoll, fundiertes Wissen der historischen Schriftentwicklung sowie ausgeprägtes Formverständnis und Formgefühl sind dabei wichtige Voraussetzungen zum neuen Design. Das Beispiel in Abbildung 8 zeigt einen Auszug einzelner originaler Minuskelbuchstaben und deren Umsetzung in eine digitalisierte Formgebung: Von der fotografischen Vergrösserung der historischen Vorlage – zur digitalisierten Fassung der Schriftformen in Postscript-Konturen – zur digitalen Neugestaltung, dem neuen Design der Schrift.

For the technical transformation of the historical type to a modern typeface, to a digital font – today good CAD programs are available –; however, the creative process is complex and demanding, basic knowledge of the historical development of printing type and deep understanding and sense of letterform design are important conditions. The example of figur 8 shows an outcut of the original individual minuscule letters and their conversion to a digitized shaping: From the photographic enlargement of the historical model – to the digitized conversion of the letterform shape to postscript outlines – to the digital revised version of the new letterform design.

Abbildung 8: Von der historischen Vorlage zur digitalisierten Schriftorm Figure 8: From the historical model to the digitized shape of letterforms

18


onde 19


Formeigenschaften

Shape properties

Die subtile Durchgestaltung einzelner Formdetails und Formproportionen hat wesentlichen Einfluss auf den Rhythmus und damit besonders auch auf ein typografisch ausgeglichenes Gesamtbild der Schrift. Die stark nach links geneigten Achsen der Rundformen, die Ausbildung der Bogenanfänge und -enden sowie die durch den starken Strichkontrast geprägte Strichmodulation sind auf den Duktus der mit Breitfeder geschriebenen humanistischen Buchhandschrift zurückzuführen (Abbildung 9). Die Formulierung der Grundstriche und deren Abschlüsse, der Serifen, ist mehr denjenigen der klassischen Römischen Kapitalschrift nachgebildet (Abbildung 10).

By design, the subtle details of individual form and shape proportions have a significant impact on the rhythm and thus particularly to a balanced overall picture of the typographic font. The left inclined axes of round forms, the formation of the arc beginnings and endings, and domination by the strong stroke contrast modulation is due to the characteristics of the broad pen-written humanist book hand script (figure 9). The formulation of the basic strokes and their endings, the serifs, is more that of classical roman capital inscription letterforms (figure 10).

20


oecdpgarfst

Figure 9

Figure 10

Mihymnud

21


Das Schriftbild der neuen Basel Antiqua

The image of the new typeface Basel Antiqua

Zielsetzung der Neuformulierung war keinesfalls eine originalgetreue Nachbildung der historischen Vorlage, sondern eine eigenständige Schriftgestaltung mit den typischen stilistischen Eigenschaften des historischen Vorbilds. Diese Neufassung musste jedoch den heutigen technischen Anforderungen an eine digitale Satzschrift entsprechen. Dies bedingte, neben der gestalterisch-technischen Überarbeitung der Grundschrift, eine stilistische Vereinheitlichung und Harmonisierung der drei historisch unterschiedlichen Alphabete Majuskel-, Minuskel- und Kursivschrift. Dabei war historisch das humanistische Minuskelalphabet als gestalterische Basis massgebend. Die einzelnen Formen waren sorgfältig zu überarbeiten, sodass der Grundcharakter des Schriftbildes insgesamt weitgehend erhalten blieb. Die Majuskeln waren in der Formgebung stilistisch und proportional auf die Minuskelschrift abzustimmen und das Gesamtbild der Schrift gemäss den heutigen typografischen und lesetechnischen Anforderungen neu zu definieren.

The purpose of the redesign was not a faithful replica of the historical typeface, but an independent type design with the typical stylistic features of the historical model. This new design, however, had to meet today’s technical requirements for a digital typeface. This required, in addition to the design and technical review of a basic font, a stylistic uniformity and harmonization of the three historically different alphabets majuscule, minuscule and italics. Historically, the humanistic minuscule alphabet was determining as the formative basis. The individual forms were to be revised carefully, so that the basic character of the typeface as a whole remained largely intact. The capital letters were to harmonize in shape, style, and proportionality to the minuscule, and to define the overall image of the font according to the present technical conditions of typographic design and legibility.

Abbildung 11: Schriftprobe der neuen Form der Basel Antiqua Figure 11: Type specimen of the new design of the Basel Antiqua

22


Basel Antiqua Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veri tatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de la bore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi poster is prolaborent, quaten us ab eis posteritas ha beat quo ditetur. 23


Grundschrift und Kursivschrift

Basic roman and italic font

Die erste kursive Form einer Antiquadruckschrift, die Antiquakursiv (heute als Italika oder Italic bezeichnet), wurde um 1500 von Francesco Griffo im Auftrag des venezianischen Buchdruckers Aldus Manutius geschnitten. Abgeleitet von den handschriftlichen Kursivschriften der Renaissance, diente diese Antiquakursiv als eigenständige Druckschrift. Durch ihren engeren Duktus liess sie sich gegenüber der offenen und breiterlaufenden Antiqua in der Buchproduktion ökonomischer, platzsparender einsetzen. Diese beiden Schrifttypen, Antiqua und Antiquakursiv, waren historisch von verschiedener Herkunft und unterschiedlichem Gebrauch, also ursprünglich in ihrer Form typografisch nicht aufeinander abgestimmt. Die heutigen typografischen Anforderungen an eine Druckschrift verlangen jedoch eine Harmonisierung dieser beiden Schrifttypen zu einer einheitlichen Schriftfamilie. Demzufolge unterscheidet sich die neue Kursiv (Italic) der Basel Antiqua gestalterisch vom historischen Vorbild und ist als eine die Grundschrift ergänzende Variante typografisch auf diese abgestimmt.

The first form of a roman cursive printing type, now known as old face italic, was cut by Francesco Griffo in 1500 on behalf of the Venetian printer Aldus Manutius. Derived from the handwritten cursive scripts of the Renaissance, this roman cursive served as an independent typeface. Because of their narrow ductus they could be used against the open and wide-running roman type in book production more economically and space-saving. These two fonts, roman and italic, were historically from different backgrounds and different use, so originally they did not match each other in its typographic shape. Today‘s typographic requirements for a text typeface, however, require a harmonization of these two font types into a uniform typeface family. Consequently, the new italic variant of the Basel Antiqua differs from the historical model and is a complementary type design to the basic font.

Abbildung 12: Schriftprobe der neuen Basel Antiqua Regular und Italic (Textauszug Dante Alighieri) Figure 12: Type specimen of the new Basel Antiqua Regular and Italic (text extract from Dante Alighieri)

24


Basel Antiqua Regular Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent, quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur. Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat; non enim est lignum, quod secus decursus aquarum fructificat in tempore suo, sed potius perniciosa vorago semper ingurgitans et nunquam ingurgitata refundens. Basel Antiqua Italic Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent, quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur. Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat; non enim est lignum, quod secus decursus aquarum fructificat in tempore suo, sed potius perniciosa vorago semper ingurgitans et nunquam ingurgitata refundens.

25


Basel Antiqua im Vergleich

Basel Antiqua compared

Auch wenn die heute verfügbaren Druckschriften vom Typus einer Renaissance-Antiqua recht zahlreich sind, bildet die vorliegende Neufassung der historischen Antiqua der Basler Drucke aus dem 16. Jahrhundert eine wertvolle Ergänzung. Diese Basler Schrifttypen verfügen über einen eigenständigen Schriftduktus mit ausgeprägten Formeigenschaften, die sie von den bestehenden Schriften des gleichen Typus in mancher Hinsicht unterscheiden. Dies bestätigt der Vergleich der Basel Antiqua mit anderen Neuschnitten von Antiqua-Schriften des venezianischen Renaissance-Typus, wie etwa der Centaur von Monotype oder der Jenson von Adobe. Wichtig bei der neuen Gestaltung der Basel Antiqua war ausserdem, dass die Lesequalität als vielfältig anwendbare Buchschrift und die technische Umsetzung als digitale Fonts den heutigen typografischen und technischen Ansprüchen entsprechen.

Even if the typefaces of Renaissance typestyle available today are quite numerous, the present revised version of the historical old face of the Basel 16th century prints is a valuable addition. These Basel typefaces have their own ductus and style with pronounced form characteristics that distinguish them in some respects from extant works of the same type. This confirms the comparisons of the new Basel Antiqua fonts with other redesigns of the Venetian Renaissance type, such as the Centaur from Monotype or Jenson from Adobe. Important in the redesign of the Basel Antiqua was mainly the quality of legibility as applicable book type and the technical implementation as digital fonts that meet today‘s typographic and technical requirements.

Abbildung 13: Schriftprobe der drei Fonts Basel Antiqua, Centaur und Jenson Figure 13: Type specimen of the three fonts Basel Antiqua, Centaur, and Jenson

26


Basel Antiqua (Linotype) Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent, quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur. Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat... Centaur (Monotype) Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent, quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur.

Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat... Jenson (Adobe) Omnium hominum quos ad amorem veritatis natura superior impressit hoc maxime interesse videtur: ut, quemadmodum de labore antiquorum ditati sunt, ita et ipsi posteris prolaborent, quatenus ab eis posteritas habeat quo ditetur. Longe nanque ab offitio se esse non dubitet qui, publicis documentis imbutus, ad rem publicam aliquid afferre non curat... 27


Die Basel Antiqua Schriftfamilie

The Basel Antiqua typeface family

Als eine klassische Buchschrift beschr채nkt sich das Ausbauprogramm der neuen Basel Antiqua auf die Grundschnitte Regular und Italic mit je einer halbfetten Variante Bold und Bold Italic. Weitere Varianten, wie besonders leicht oder fett, schmal oder breit, w체rden diesem Schrifttypus stilistisch nicht entsprechen. Hingegen wurde die Schrift durch das griechische und kyrillische Alphabet erg채nzt. Verbunden mit den entsprechenden Akzent- und Sonderzeichen ist sie damit f체r ihre Anwendung in bis zu 89 Sprachen ausgestattet (siehe dazu die Schriftproben auf den Folgeseiten).

As a classical book typeface, the font program of the new Basel Antiqua is limited to the basic fonts Regular and Italic with ever a semi-bold variant Bold and Bold Italic. Further variants as particularly light or extrabold, condensed or expanded would not correspond stylistically to this typeface. However, the fonts were supplemented by the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. Connected with the appropriate accent and special characters, it is equipped for their application in up to 89 languages (see type specimens on the continuation pages).

Abbildung 14: Die 4 Fonts der Basel Antiqua Schriftfamilie Figure 14: The 4 fonts of the Basel Antiqua typeface family

28


Basel Antiqua Regular*

Basel Antiqua Italic*

Basel Antiqua Bold*

Basel Antiqua Bold Italic*

Basel Antiqua Basel Antiqua Basel Antiqua Basel Antiqua *) Open Type Fonts with Latin-, Greek- & Cyrillic Alphabeth

29


Basel Antiqua Regular ABC D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX YZ abcd e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z !“#$ % & ‘ ( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?@ [\]^ _ { | } ~ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬­® ¯ ° ± ´ µ ¶ · ¸ º»¿×÷ €℅ℓ № ™ Ω ℮ ∂ ∆ ∏ ∑ − ∕ ∙ √ ∞ ∫ ≈ ≠ ≤ ≥ ◊ ‘’‚“” „ † ‡ • … ¼ ½ ¾ ‰ � � � � � � � � � � � ÀÁÂ Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ ÖØÙÚÛÜÝ Þßàá â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú ûüýþÿ ĀāĂ ă Ą ą Ć ć Ĉ ĉ Ċ ċ Č č Ď ď Đ đ Ē ēĔ ĕ Ė ė Ę ęĚěĜĝĞğĠġ ĢģĤ ĥ Ħ ħ Ĩ ĩ Ī ī Ĭ ĭ Į į İ ı IJ ij Ĵ ĵ Ķ ķ ĸ Ĺ ĺ Ļ ļ Ľ ľ ĿŀŁłŃńŅņ Ňňʼn Ŋ ŋ Ō ō Ŏ ŏŐ ő Œ œ Ŕ ŕ Ŗ ŗ Ř ř Ś ś Ŝ ŝ ŞşŠšŢţŤťŦŧ ŨŪū Ŭ ŭ Ů ů Ű ű Ų ų Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ Ÿ Ź ź Ż ż Ž ž ƒ ȘșȚțȷfffi flffl Ẁẁ Ẃ ẃ Ẅ ẅ ỳ ΆΈΉ Ί Ό Ύ Ώ ΐ Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν ΞΟΠΡΣΤ ΥΦ ΧΨΩ Ϊ Ϋ ά έ ή ί ΰ α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξο π ρςστυφχψω ϊϋόύ ώ ʹ ͵ ; ΄ ΅ · ЀЁЂ Ѓ Є Ѕ І Ї Ј Љ Њ Ћ Ќ Ѝ Ў Џ А Б В ГД Е ЖЗИЙКЛ МН О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я абвгд е ж з и й кл м н о п р с т уф х ц ч ш щъыьэюя ѐёђѓ є ѕ і ї ј љ њ ћ ќ ѝ ў џ Ґ ґ ‽

Satzproben und Figurenverzeichnis der durch Linotype lizensierten Fonts mit lateinischem, griechischem und kyrillischem Alphabet, Akzent- und Sonderzeichen, die bis zu 89 verschiedene Sprachen abdecken.

30


Als Kernzeitraum der Renaissance wird das 15. und 16. Jahrhundert angesehen. Das Ende der Epoche vollzieht sich im beginnenden 17. Jahrhundert in Italien durch den neu hervortretenden Stil des Barock. Im Norden Europas kam die Renaissance später an und wurde auch erst später von der neuen Kunstepoche des Barocks abgelöst. Im protestantischen Nordeuropa wird der Epochenbegriff der Renaissance von dem der Reformation überlagert. Bei Künstlern der Renaissance denkt man in erster Linie an Italiener wie Leonardo da Vinci, Tizian und Donatello sowie an den Deutschen Albrecht Dürer. Με τον όρο Αναγεννησιακή τέχνη αναφερόμαστε στην ιτεχνική παραγωγή κατά την ιστορική περίοδο της Ανα γέννησης. Ένα από τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά της ήταν η ανανέωση των θεμάτων και της αισθητικής στην Ευρώπη. Η καλλιτεχνική παραγωγή την περίοδο αυτή είναι δύσκολο να οριοθετηθεί χρονικά, ωστόσο θεωρούμε πως ξεκίνησε στην Ιταλία τον 15ο αιώνα και διαδόθηκε στην υπόλοιπη Ευρώπη, με διαφορετικούς όμως ρυθμούς και σε διαφορετικό βαθμό ανάλογα με την γεωγραφική περιοχή. Τον 16ο αιώνα έφθασε σε πολλές χώρες στο απόγειό της. Паспяхова развівалася архітэктура, што знайшло адлюст раванне ў будаўніцтве шматлікіх ратуш, храмаў, палацаў, шпіталяў, дамоў цэхавых брацтваў і інш. Спачатку рэнеса нсныя рысы спалучаліся з элементамі готыкі. У 16 ст.– сярэдзіне 17 ст. рысы Адраджэння праявіліся і ў выяўленчым мастацтве, якое спалучала заходнееўрапей скія традыц ыі, асаблівасці візантыйскай мастацкай спадчыны і адметныя рысы тво рчасці мясцовых мастакоў. Пашырыўся жанр партрэта, у якім праявілася рэнесансавае разуменне асобы чалавека. 31


Basel Antiqua Italic ABC D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X YZ abcd e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z !“#$ % & ‘ ( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?@ [\]^ _ { | } ~ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬­® ¯ ° ± ´ µ ¶ · ¸ º »¿×÷ €℅ℓ № ™ Ω ℮ ∂ ∆ ∏ ∑ − ∕ ∙ √ ∞ ∫ ≈ ≠ ≤ ≥ ◊ ‘’‚“” „ † ‡ • … ¼ ½ ¾ ‰ � � � � � � � � � � � ÀÁÂ Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö ØÙÚÛÜÝ Þßàá â ã ä å æ ç è éê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ýþÿ ĀāĂ ă Ą ą Ć ć Ĉ ĉ Ċ ċ Č č Ď ď Đ đ Ē ē Ĕ ĕ Ė ėĘ ę Ě ěĜĝĞğĠġ ĢģĤ ĥ Ħ ħ Ĩ ĩ Ī ī Ĭ ĭĮ į İ ı IJ ij Ĵ ĵ Ķ ķ ĸ Ĺ ĺ Ļ ļ Ľ ľ Ŀ ŀ ŁłŃńŅņ Ňňʼn Ŋ ŋ Ō ō Ŏ ŏ Ő ő Œ œ Ŕ ŕ Ŗ ŗ Ř ř Ś ś Ŝ ŝ Ş ş Š šŢţŤťŦŧ ŨŪū Ŭ ŭ Ů ů Ű ű Ų ų Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ Ÿ Ź ź Ż ż Ž ž ƒ Ș ș Țțȷfffi flffl ẀẁẂ ẃ Ẅ ẅ ỳ ΆΈΉ Ί Ό Ύ Ώ ΐ Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο ΠΡΣΤ ΥΦ ΧΨΩ Ϊ Ϋ ά έ ή ί ΰ α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξο π ρ ςστυφχψω ϊϋόύ ώ ʹ ͵ ; ΄ ΅ · ЀЁЂ Ѓ Є Ѕ І Ї Ј Љ ЊЋ Ќ Ѝ Ў Џ А Б В ГД Е Ж ЗИЙКЛ МНО П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я абвгд е ж з и й к л м н оп р с т уф х ц ч ш щ ъыьэюя ѐёђѓ є ѕ і ї ј љ њ ћ ќ ѝ ў џ Ґ ґ ‽

Type specimens and glyph set of the fonts with Latin, Greek and Cyrillic alphabet, accents and special characters, licensed by linotype, which take off up to 89 different languages.

32


Als Kernzeitraum der Renaissance wird das 15. und 16. Jahrhundert angesehen. Das Ende der Epoche vollzieht sich im beginnenden 17. Jahrhundert in Italien durch den neu hervortretenden Stil des Barock. Im Norden Europas kam die Renaissance später an und wurde auch erst später von der neuen Kunstepoche des Barocks abgelöst. Im protestantischen Nordeuropa wird der Epochenbegriff der Renaissance von dem der Reformation überlagert. Bei Künstlern der Renaissance denkt man in erster Linie an Italiener wie Leonardo da Vinci, Tizian und Donatello sowie an den Deutschen Albrecht Dürer. Με τον όρο Αναγεννησιακή τέχνη αναφερόμαστε στην ιτεχνική παραγωγή κατά την ιστορική περίοδο της Ανα γέννησης. Ένα από τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά της ήταν η ανανέωση των θεμάτων και της αισθητικής στην Ευρ-ώπη. Η καλλιτεχνική παραγωγή την περίοδο αυτή είναι δύσκολο να οριοθετηθεί χρονικά, ωστόσο θεωρούμε πως ξεκίνησε στην Ιταλία τον 15ο αιώνα και διαδόθηκε στην υπόλοιπη Ευρώπη, με διαφορετικούς όμως ρυθμούς και σε διαφορετικό βαθμό ανάλογα με την γεωγραφική περιοχή. Τον 16ο αιώνα έφθασε σε πολλές χώρες στο απόγειό της. Паспяхова развівалася архітэктура, што знайшло адлюст раванне ў будаўніцтве шматлікіх ратуш, храмаў, палацаў, шпіталяў, дамоў цэхавых брацтваў і інш. Спачатку рэнеса нсныя рысы спалучаліся з элементамі готыкі. У 16 ст.– сярэдзіне 17 ст. рысы Адраджэння праявіліся і ў выяўленчым мастацтве, якое спалучала заходнееўрапей скія традыц ыі, асаблівасці візантыйскай мастацкай спадчыны і адметныя рысы тво рчасці мясцовых мастакоў. Пашырыўся жанр партрэта, у якім праявілася рэнесансавае разуменне асобы чалавека. 33


Als Kernzeitraum der Renaissance wird das 15. und 16. Jahrhundert angesehen. Das Ende der Epoche vollzieht sich im beginnenden 17. Jahrhundert in Italien durch den neu hervortretenden Stil des Barock. Im Norden Europas kam die Renaissance später an und wurde auch erst später von der neuen Kunstepoche des Barocks abgelöst. Im protestantischen Nordeuropa wird der Epochenbegriff der Renaissance von dem der Reformation überlagert. Bei Künstlern der Renaissance denkt man in erster Linie an Italiener wie Leonardo da Vinci, Tizian und Donatello sowie an den Deutschen Albrecht Dürer. Με τον όρο Αναγεννησιακή τέχνη αναφερόμαστε στην ιτεχνική παραγωγή κατά την ιστορική περίοδο της Ανα γέννησης. Ένα από τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά της ήταν η ανανέωση των θεμάτων και της αισθητικής στην Ευρώπη. Η καλλιτεχνική παραγωγή την περίοδο αυτή είναι δύσκολο να οριοθετηθεί χρονικά, ωστόσο θεωρούμε πως ξεκίνησε στην Ιταλία τον 15ο αιώνα και διαδόθηκε στην υπόλοιπη Ευρώπη, με διαφορετικούς όμως ρυθμούς και σε διαφορετικό βαθμό ανάλογα με την γεωγραφική περιοχή. Τον 16ο αιώνα έφθασε σε πολλές χώρες στο απόγειό της. Паспяхова развівалася архітэктура, што знайшло адлюст раванне ў будаўніцтве шматлікіх ратуш, храмаў, палацаў, шпіталяў, дамоў цэхавых брацтваў і інш. Спачатку рэнеса нсныя рысы спалучаліся з элементамі готыкі. У 16 ст.– сярэдзіне 17 ст. рысы Адраджэння праявіліся і ў выяўленчым мастацтве, якое спалучала заходне-еўрапей скія традыц ыі, асаблівасці візантыйскай мастацкай спадчыны і адметныя рысы тво рчасці мясцовых мастакоў. Пашырыўся жанр партрэта, у якім праявілася рэнесансавае разу-менне асобы чалавека.

Satzproben der Fonts: Type specimens of the fonts: Basel Antiqua Regular, Italic, Bold & Bold Italic

34


The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

35


Buchprojekt einer englischen Ausgabe von Vesalius «On the Fabric of the Human Body», Karger-Verlag, Basel

Book project for an English edition of Vesalius‘ „On the Fabric of the Human Body“ by Karger Publishers, Basel

Die historischen Ausgaben von Vesalius «De humani corporis fabrica», die 1543 und 1555 in der Basler Offizin von Johannes Oporinus in beindruckender Qualität gesetzt und gedruckt wurden, gehören zu den ersten wissenschaftlichen Publikationen, die in der Folge den typografischen Umgang mit Text und Bild massgebend geprägt haben. In der englischen Neuausgabe wurden diese historischen Vorlagen in ein modernes, zeitgemässes typografisches Konzept umgesetzt, das die historischen Gegebenheiten und Elemente wie die Initialen, die Illustrationen (Holzschnitte) und die Charakteristik der originalen Schrifttypen optimal integriert. Die auf beiden lateinischen Ausgaben basierende neue englische Übersetzung wurde durch zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Begleittexte und moderne medizinische Termini ergänzt. Diese inhaltliche Komplexität forderte typografisch den Einsatz von sich sowohl klar differenzierenden als auch ergänzenden Schrifttypen. Die Verbindung der neuen Basel Antiqua mit der der modernen serifenlosen Druckschrift Sinova prägt einerseits das neue typografische Erscheinungsbild und hilft andererseits die verschiedenen Lese-Ebenen zu schaffen, um durch die komplexen Texte zu führen. Das Buch umfasst rund 1‘500 Seiten, etwa 1 Million Wörter und 258 zum Teil grossformatige Illustrationen.

The historical editions of „De humani corporis fabrica“ by Vesalius were published in 1543 and 1555 by Johannes Oporinus in Basel, which placed great value in the quality of typesetting and printing. Both editions belong to one of the first scientific works ever published that was strongly influenced by the typographic handling of both text and illustrations. In the new English edition, these historical principles have been newly conceptualized and used to produce a modern typography which optimally integrates historical factors and elements such as the head letters, the illustrations (woodcuts), and the characteristics of the original typefaces. The new English translation, which is based on both of the Latin editions, has been updated with a multitude of scientific accompanying texts and the use of modern medical terminology. The complexity of the content demands a typographic adaptation that can clearly differentiate between font styles as well as elaborate on them. The marriage of the new typeface Basel Antiqua with the modern sans-serif Sinova facilitates the new appearance on the one hand, while on the other hand guides the reader through the different reading levels of the complex structure of the texts. The book is composed of approx. 1,500 pp. with around 1 million words and 258 partially large sized illustrations.

Abbildungen Seiten 37-39: Beispielseiten (verkleinerte Grösse) mit Titelei, Text, Legenden, Initialen und Illustrationen

Figures on pages 37-39: Examples of pages (reduced size) with titles, text, legends, inital letters, and illustrations.

36


C H A P TCEHRA P T E R

CHAPTER

BOOK

1 11 7 77 BOOK BOOK

THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODY T H E F A B RTI CH E F A B R I C OF THE HO UM N EB H OU DM Y AN BODY F A TH

73 73

73

On the Jugal BOne, O na a l an BleOsBnOe ,e e Otn nhdte h eueg Ju , mBling tJh Bg O Rn se a na Ou sReROsepR spei m Bm l iBnlg adnRtdOhctek hBeO BnO s eg ing tecn n a RaORc O k cOkuOt u cR ORp O p ipnpg tc ing

Bk. 1 Ch. 6 F

Bk. 1 Ch. 6 Fig. 3 Bk. 1 Ch. 6 F

Bk. 1 Ch. 6 F

33

Bk. 1 Ch. 6 Fig. 5 Bk. 1 Ch. 6 F

No figure is prefixed to this chapter, because the jugal bone, marked V considered a process [p. temporalis] of that bone [os zygo­ and X,1 was in the third and fifth figures of the preceding chapter; maticum] which forms the entire outside corner of the eye No figure islikewise, prefixed to this chapter, because thebecause jugalwas bone, marked V the [s. to temporozygomatica] marked Z in third No figureits issuture prefixed this chapter, the jugal bone, marked V considered a processa[p. temporalis] of that bone [os bone zygo­[os zygo­ considered process [p. temporalis] of that 33 socket [orbita] and will be counted the first of the bones of and X,1 wasfigure in the third and fifth figures of the preceding inthe the fifth. Thefifth bones that resemble a rock outcropping, and X,1and wasYin third and figures of thechapter; preceding chapter; maticum]maticum] which forms theforms entirethe outside the eyeof the eye which entirecorner outsideofcorner the upper maxilla. accordingly, the jugal bone does not likewise, itswhich suturewe [s.its temporozygomatica] was marked Zfifth inmarked the third call petrous,2 are also shown in the figure likewise, suture [s. temporozygomatica] was Zofinthe the third 33 socket [orbita] will be first of bones of bones of socketand [orbita] andcounted will be the counted thethe first of the figure and Y in theand fifth. The resemble a resemble rock preceding chapter in the that whole areathat where c, outcropping, c, m,am, m,outcropping, m, m, m, m, k,3 figure Y in thebones fifth. The bones rock have its own ends and is nothing but a region of two pro­ the upperthemaxilla. accordingly, the jugalthe bone does notdoes not upper maxilla. accordingly, jugal bone which we call petrous,2 are also shown inbase the fifth of the and such occur inare thealso of thefigure which weletters call petrous,2 shown inskull. the fifth figure of the cesses joined to each other by a suture (Z in fig. 3, ch. 6) preceding chapter in the wholeinarea where area c, c, where m, m, m, m,m, m,m, m,m, m,m, k,3m, m, have preceding chapter the whole c, c, m, k,3 its own andends is nothing a region two pro­ haveends its own and is but nothing but of a region of two pro­ [sutura temporozygomatica]. and such letters occur in theoccur base in of the the base skull.of the skull. and such letters

Bk. 2 Table 4

Bk. 2 Table 4

cesses joined each other by other a suture in fig. 3, ch.fig. 3, 6) ch. 6) cessestojoined to each by a(Zsuture (Z in [sutura temporozygomatica]. [sutura temporozygomatica]. t he use of t he j ug a l boNe

Bk. 2 Table 4

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Na m e s a r e a s sigNed to of t bone heofjhas ug a lmarrow, t he use t he jboNe ug a l being boNe certa iN a r e a s of boNe a s if t he y t he use the jugal no solid, hard, and as Na m e sNa ar s sigNed to meee sa e ely a s sigNed toe w er eNatrir sepa r at rugged as a stone. it was fitting for it to be constructed in certa iN a r eiN a saof boNe s if tahe y t he y the jugalthe bone hasbone no marrow, being solid, hard, andhard, as and as certa rea s of a boNe s if jugal has no marrow, being solid, this way (D, then Γ and later Δ in the 4th table of muscles)5 w er e eN t ir r at e r at e rugged asrugged a stone. fitting forfitting it to be in w er e ely eN t sepa ir ely sepa asita was stone. it was forconstructed it to be constructed in ERTAIN of the remaining bones of the because it [arcus zygomaticus] had to be placed in front of this way (D, and later Δ inlater the 4th of muscles)5 thisthen way Γ(D, then Γ and Δ intable the 4th table of muscles)5 body that lack their own edges and the temporal muscle like a cover; it is convex on the outside, because [arcus zygomaticus] had to behad placed inplaced front of ERTAIN ofERTAIN the remaining bones of bones the of it [arcus zygomaticus] to be in front of of the remaining the itbecause boundaries are described by profes­ concave in the inside, very wisely placed opposite that temporal muscle like a cover; convex the outside, body thatbody lackthat theirlack own edges andedgestheand the temporal muscle likeitaiscover; it isonconvex on the outside, their own sors of dissection no differently than muscle.6 concave in the inside, wisely that boundaries are described by profes­ concave in thevery inside, veryplaced wiselyopposite placed opposite that boundaries are described by profes­ if they were separate bones, and are sors of dissection no differently than muscle.6 sors of dissection no differently than muscle.6 mentioned with the others among the how Nat u r e m a de prov isioN for t he if they were separate bones, and are and are if they were separate bones, number of bones. to this class belongs the bone named os t e m p or a l muscl e s mentioned with the others among mentioned with the othersthe among the Nat u rNat e mu ar de prov e m a deisioN prov for isioNt he for t he iugale by the latins and ζύγωμα by the greeks becausehow both how number of bones.oftobones. this class belongs bone the named number to this classthe belongs boneosnamed os p or tem e sat all content t eaNature mlpmuscl orwas a lnot muscl e s with this bulwark, and to bones (there is one on each side) are compared by experts yet iugale by iugale the latins and ζύγωμα the greeks by the latins andby ζύγωμα by thebecause greeksboth because both in anatomy to the yokes of cattle or horses.4 a great degree hid the temporal muscle among the other bones (there is one oniseach are side) compared by experts yet Nature not atwas all not content thiswith bulwark, and to and to bones (there one side) on each are compared by experts yetwas Nature at allwith content this bulwark, bones of the head, carving a hollow [fossa temporalis] in in anatomy to the yokes of cattle a great degree the temporal muscle among otherthe other in anatomy to the yokes or of horses.4 cattle or horses.4 a greathid degree hid the temporal musclethe among the bones highly suitable for the reception of a muscle and t he j ug a l boNe [a rc us z yg om at ic us] bones of bones the head, carving hollow a[fossa temporalis] in of the head, acarving hollow [fossa temporalis] in hedging it about on every side by bulges and promontories the bones highly suitable for the reception of a muscle the bones highly suitable for the reception of aand muscle and t he j ug ajugal l jboNe us[athe zrc yg omon ic us] t he ug a l –[a boNe us zat yg om atidentified ic us] of neighboring parts. very deservedly did she construct the bone orrc rather place the skull hedging ithedging about on every on sideevery by bulges and promontories it about side by bulges and promontories by this name – consists of two bony processes meeting this, because when the muscles of the temples are abused, of neighboring parts. very deservedly did she construct the jugalthe bone – orbone rather therather place the on the identified of neighboring parts. very deservedly did she construct jugal – or placeskull on the skull identified seach other at an oblique suture. the posterior part of it (X they bring on convulsions, fevers, unconsciousness, and this, because thewhen muscles the temples abused, by this name – consists two bony processes meeting meeting this, when because the of muscles of the are temples are abused, by this name – of consists of two bony processes in figs. 3 and 5, ch. 6) is a process [p. zygomaticus] of the madness, since they are near the beginning of the nerves onbring convulsions, fevers, unconsciousness, and seach other at an oblique posterior part of it part (X ofthey they on convulsions, fevers, unconsciousness, and seach other at ansuture. obliquethe suture. the posterior it (Xbring temporal bone; the anterior (V in figs. 3 and 5, ch. 6) is [nn. craniales] and only bone separates them from the madness, since theysince are near the near beginning of the nerves in figs. 3 in and 5, ch. 6) 5, is ch. a process zygomaticus] of the of they are the beginning of the nerves figs. 3 and 6) is a[p. process [p. zygomaticus] the madness, and onlyand bone separates them from thefrom the temporaltemporal bone; thebone; anterior in figs. 5, 3ch. [nn. craniales] only bone separates them the (V anterior (V3inand figs. and6) 5,is ch.[nn. 6) iscraniales]

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

Bk. 5 Ch. 15

call the cheekbone is without articulis et Galeni in eum commenThe zygomatic arch; V is the tem­ 6 Cf. Galen, De usu partium 3.851.13 marrow, solid, and fit by its tarii 18a.426.9ff.: “This slender poral process of the zygomatic (tr. May, 1968, p. 508): “Indeed, this hardness for repelling injuries so bone, which attaches the upper bone, and X is the zygomatic arch (for that is what anatomists call the cheekbone without articulis et Galeni in eum commenThe zygomatic arch; V is the arch; tem­ V is the tem­ 6 Cf. Galen, usuGalen, partium call theischeekbone is without articulis et Galeni in eum commen01 The zygomatic 6 De Cf. De3.851.13 usu partium 3.851.13 as and to make itits a suitable bulwark jaw “This to theslender head, is called zygōma of the temporal bone. tarii 18a.426.9ff.: call it) is not just ordinary bone but marrow, solid, fit by poral processprocess of the zygomatic p. May, 508): “Indeed, this “Indeed, marrow, solid, and fit by its tarii 18a.426.9ff.: “This slender (tr. May, 1968,(tr. poral process of the zygomatic 1968, p. 508): this for the temporal muscle, convex by the anatomists because Hippoc­ has no marrow and is dense and 02 Lapidea; as usual, Vesalius prefers hardness for repelling so injuries the upper bone, and X is the zygomatic is what hardness injuries for repelling so bone, which attaches the upperarch (for thatarch bone, and X is the zygomatic bone, which attaches (foranatomists that is what anatomists on the outside but concave on the rates himself said it yoked the two hard as rock; for Nature has con­ Latin to Greek terminology. a suitable zygōma process of the temporal bone. ordinary bone but to makebulwark it a suitable bulwark jawistocalled the head, is called zygōmacall it) is not just process of the temporal bone. jaw to the head, call it) is not just ordinary bone as butto make it as inside.” bones,because lying close to them like a trived to establish in front of these See the legendprefers to fig. 5 of Ch. 6. by the anatomists muscle, convex Hippoc­ has no marrow dense and Lapidea;03 as usual, Vesalius for the temporal muscle, convex by the anatomists because Hippoc­ hasand no is marrow is dense andfor the temporal 02 Lapidea; as usual, Vesalius prefers yoke.” muscles a rampart as insensitive as 04 iugum, -ī n., Gk. ζυγόν, τό = “yoke,” on the outside rates himselfrates said ithimself yoked said the two hard as rock; hard for Nature has Latin to Greek terminology. onbut theconcave outside on butthe concave on the it yoked the two as rock; forcon­ Nature has con­ Latin to Greek terminology. possible.” Vesalius rewrote the sec­ hence ζύγωμα for6.the arcus zygo05 d is the arcus zygomaticus, Γ the inside.” tolying themclose like ato them like atrived to establish of these See the legend tothe fig. 5 of Ch. inside.” bones, trivedintofront establish in front of these 03 See legend to fig. 5 of Ch. 6. bones, lying close tion onasthe use of theaszygomatic maticus. The nomenclature musculus temporalis, Δ the m. masyoke.” muscles a rampart iugum, -ī04 n., Gk. ζυγόν τόGk. = “yoke,” yoke.” muscles ainsensitive rampart as insensitive as iugum, -ī ,n., ζυγόν, τό =is“yoke,” bone as followsthe in the 1555 edition: Hippocratic (De zygoarticulis 30.6). See seter in the 4thΓtable rewrote hence ζύγωμα for the arcus d is the arcus the of muscles, possible.” Vesaliussec­ rewrote the sec­ hence ζύγωμα for the arcus05zygo05 dzygomaticus, is the arcus zygomaticus, Γ thepossible.” Vesalius “Each process or area which we In Hippocratis librum de musculus temporalis, Bk. II. Δ the m. mastion on the use ofon the zygomatic maticus. The Galen, nomenclature is tion the use of the zygomatic maticus. The nomenclature is musculus temporalis, Δ the m. masin as thefollows 1555 edition: Hippocratic (De articulis 30.6). See seter in the 4th table of muscles, bone in the 1555 edition: Hippocratic (De articulis 30.6). See seter in the 4th table of muscles,bone as follows “Each process“Each or area whichorwe Galen, In Hippocratis de process area which we Galen, Inlibrum Hippocratis librum de Bk. II. Bk. II. 01

01

02 03 04

Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig. 25 Bk. 5 Ch. 15

37


112

ON thE BONE REsEMBLINg t h E g R E E K U p s I L O N1 ��

K E Y TO FI GU R E S A N D C H A R AC T E R S SE T FORTH HERE the first figure of the present chapter represents the anterior face of the bone [corpus ossis hyoidei] resembling the letter υ [Greek upsilon], together with its lesser or more elevated sides [cornua minora] and the ossicles which are connected to them as far as the processes of the temporal bones that are shaped in the fashion of a stylus [processus styloidei]. the second figure shows the posterior region of the bone resembling an υ, along with the more elevated ribs [cornua]; but for the moment we have not drawn those ossicles which extend to the processes that resemble a stylus and are drawn in the previous figure.2

A, B, C 1 Larger and middle ossicle [corpus] of the hyoid bone, visible on its anterior side. A and B indicate the protuberant region of this surface. In between these characters appears the particular *. tubercle of this region, marked *. C indicates the transversely elongated depression discernible in the superior part of this middle ossicle. D 2 Posterior side of the larger ossicle [corpus], depressed and concave. E, F 1, 2 Lower sides [cornua majora] of the hyoid bone, which with the middle ossicle represent a figure like an υ. g 1, 2 Joint of the lower side [cornu majus] with the broader and larger ossicle of the hyoid bone.

FI R S T FI GU R E

01

02

An earlier version of this chapter was published in Medical History 37.1 (1993), pp. 3–36. Neither of these figures illustrates a typically human hyoid bone – a notable departure for a book which stresses human as opposed to animal anatomy. The left hyoid bone shown above (fig. 1) has a canine feature in the chain of narrow ossicles (K, L, M, N) that extend in the dog to the styloid bone (in the human, this connection

is made by the stylohyoid ligament). The right hyoid bone (fig. 2) represents the posterior aspect of the same bone with L, M, N removed. Its lesser horns (I, K) appear nearly the same length as the greater horns (E, F), whereas in humans the lesser horns have only a fraction of the mass and length of the greater, and are altogether different in shape. Vesalius is described as using “the larynx of an ox and of some other animals” in a 1540 anatomy

h 1, 2 Apex of the lower side, which is attached to the process of the laryngeal cartilage that resembles a shield [cornu superius cartilaginis thyroideae]. I, K 1, 2 Upper sides [cornua minora] of the hyoid bone, considerably thinner and more smoothly rounded than the lower ones. L, M, N 1 Three ossicles, very often3 joined to the upper sides [cornua minora]. Besides the fifth plate of the muscles at the letter L, several earlier illustrations of the twelfth chapter of the second book4 at A, B, C, and D further represent the hyoid bone.

SE CO N D FI GU R E

03

lecture at Bologna “because, he said, in the hanged [human] subjects we cannot see the larynxes, for they are destroyed by the noose, but they are however quite different [in man and in animals]” (Eriksson, 1959, p. 285). The illustrations in this chapter appear to blend human and animal anatomy. Lat. ut plurimum, perhaps “more often than not”; see preceding note. 04 05

38

Possibly, these are nontypical, ossified portions of ligamentum stylohyoideum; more likely, this figure reflects features of the canine hyoid bone and apparatus, in which the cornu minus is connected to the pars tympanica and vagina processus styloidei by a series of ossicles (L = epihyoid, M = stylohyoid, N = tympanohyoid), unlike the ligamentum stylohyoideum of the human. An error in both editions; these illustrations appear in Ch. 21, Bk. II. A fanciful compound unattested in LSJ or the TLG medical canon, com-


CHAPTER

CHAPTER

1 1 1313 BOOK

BOOK

T H E F A B TRHI CE F A B R I C OU FM TH E H OF THE H AN BU OM D YA N B O D Y

113

113

L oc a nd m etshe of t he L oc at ionataion nd na m ena s of h yoid h yoid bonebone

56

terior surface, it is concave. the anterior, it is indented terior surface, it is concave. on the on anterior, it is indented on in topanaselongated in an elongated depression theisshape is on top as depression becausebecause the shape for it, and because of the muscles and ligaments suitablesuitable for it, and because of the muscles and ligaments it. for thedepression upper depression are implanted theprominent most prominent attachedattached to it. fortointo theinto upper are implanted LACED LACED BEFOREBEFORE the most third andmuscles fourth muscles in table the 4th of muscles) of the islarynx is taken a bonecoltaken the col-thirdthe and fourth (R in the(R4th of table muscles) part of part the larynx a bone [mm. mylohyoidei] to this bone; for the sake ofbut unity, on the pro[mm. mylohyoidei] peculiarpeculiar to this bone; lectivelylectively for the sake of unity, con-but conon the proof different many different tuberance visible this location, at thewhich sides are which are structedstructed of many ossicles;ossicles; tuberance visible in this in location, at the sides 56 someit call it ὑψιλοειδές5 from somewhat the somewhat impressed in the area itwhere it the swells, some call ὑψιλοειδές5 from the impressed in the area where swells, firstthe first of theυ,letter otherssucmore two suc- muscles two muscles [mm. sternohyoidei] this bone shape ofshape the letter othersυ,more [mm. sternohyoidei] peculiarpeculiar to this to bone those without experience in dissection, make their insertion in the 4thoftable of muscles; the cinctly cinctly ὑοειδές;ὑοειδές; those without experience in dissection, make their insertion (S, T in(S, theT4th table muscles; the misled by thishave term, have translated it inasGalen as “the bone other muscles of this are Q [musculus stylohyoideus] misled by this term, translated it in Galen “the bone other muscles of this bone arebone Q [musculus stylohyoideus] resembling pig.”6 bone this isbone is named elsewhere and V [musculus omohyoideus]). from the hollow resembling a pig.”6a this named elsewhere and V [musculus omohyoideus]). from the hollow of the of the λαμβδοειδές [“lambda-shaped”] from of theposterior let- posterior first two muscles [radix linguae] λαμβδοειδές [“lambda-shaped”] from the lookthe of look the letside, theside, firstthe two muscles [radix linguae] that that ter Λ; translators by thishave name have become move the tongue have their principal originin(D D ter Λ; translators deceiveddeceived by this name become accus- accusmove the tongue have their principal origin (D D figs. 1in figs. 1 tomed to itrender it lambda-like as “the lambda-like suture of the head” and19, 2, bk. ch.ii). 19, moreover, bk. ii). moreover, theishyoid is convex tomed to render as “the suture of the head” and 2, ch. becausebecause the hyoid convex D 3inand figs.4,3ch. and6;4,Bch. 6; B3rd in skeleton). the 3rd skeleton). forthe outside on the outside but hollow inside, the muscles also con(C, D in(C, figs. in the but i forbut ion but hollow inside, the muscles are alsoare conpart have recently errors of this sorta from a veniently placed farther from of injuries my partmy have recently removedremoved errors of this sort from veniently placed farther from the paththe of path injuries comingcoming Galenboth which both italy and Germany published the outside. thisossicle larger [corpus ossicle [corpus ossis hyoidei], version version of Galenofwhich italy and Germany published from thefrom outside. this larger ossis hyoidei], Latin. herophilus7 is also havethis called this bone positioned above the larynx, be by found by in Latin.inherophilus7 is also said to said have to called bone positioned slightly slightly above the larynx, may bemay found παραστάτης [”companion”], it is located touch, but its sides [cornua] aremore a little morehidden. deeply hidden. παραστάτης [”companion”], perhapsperhaps becausebecause it is located touch, but its sides [cornua] are a little deeply to the tongue, or the larynx, or the jaws, just the this Withwider this ossicle, wider ossicle, two others next to next the tongue, or the larynx, or the jaws, just as in theas inWith two others [cornua[cornua minora,minora, organs serving generation he callsitems certain items παραστάτης cc. majora] are on united eachone side.11 one ofis these organs serving generation he calls certain παραστάτης cc. majora] are united eachon side.11 of these lower,is lower, κιρσοειδής, “the varicose companion” [i.e. spermatic thehigher. other higher. κιρσοειδής, “the varicose companion” [i.e. spermatic duct] duct] the other δ to ε in and παραστάτης (from δ(from to ε in figs. 22 figs. and 22 23, and bk. 23, V), bk. andV), παραστάτης ἀδενοειδής in thefigures), same figures), “the glandular ἀδενοειδής (ξ, B in (ξ, theBsame “the glandular com- comL oW ersside of htyoid he h yoid L oW er side of tshe bonebone panion.”8 moreover, there are who, somebecause who, because panion.”8 moreover, there are some it is it is in the throat, have itcalled it the φαρύγγετρον.9 theossicle lower [cornu ossicle majus] [cornu majus] is somewhat located located in the throat, have called the φαρύγγετρον.9 i thei lower is somewhat shorter shorter and and haveitmade it my practice throughout name this broader “the broader the[cornu upper minus] [cornu minus] (one is E, F in figs. have made my practice throughout to nametothis “the than thethan upper (one is E, F in figs. bone resembling υ,” orsuccinctly more succinctly “the hyoid.”1 and 2,1the andother 2, theI,other I, K), and is connected to nobone other bone bone resembling an υ,” oranmore “the hyoid.” K), and is connected to no other (G 1inand figs.2)1of and of the middle, wider ossithan thethan sidethe (G side in figs. the2)middle, wider ossiclehyoid of thebone, hyoidtobone, toitwhich it isattached firmly attached which is firmly by car- by carmiddL e ose sicL of htyoid he h yoid middL e os sicL of tehe bonebone cle of the tilagecartilaginous and cartilaginous a noteworthy tilage and ligamentligament over a over noteworthy end bone of this(Hbone (H in figs.2)1isand 2) is joined the human thisquite bonedifferently quite differently constructed breadth.breadth. the endthe of this in figs. 1 and joined the human has thishas bone constructed [ligamentum thyrohyoideum to the superior the quadrupeds which until have dissected,10 [ligamentum thyrohyoideum laterale]laterale] to the superior pro- prothan thethan quadrupeds which until now wenow havewe dissected,10 cess superius] [cornu superius] of the laryngeal that looks is the broadest ossicle of thebone hyoid(A,bone of the laryngeal cartilagecartilage that looks and it isand theitbroadest ossicle of the hyoid B, *(A, , C B, cess *, C [cornu like a [cartilago shield [cartilago thyroidea] B in figs. 4,3 and 4, D inconvex fig. 2), on convex on the outside and forjutting like for- a shield thyroidea] (A, B in(A,figs. 3 and in fig. 1,inDfig. 1, in fig. 2), the outside and jutting We call rightly thisossicle lower or ossicle side, together ward own protuberance; but or inside, orposon the posch. 38).ch. We 38). rightly thiscall lower side, or together ward with itswith own its protuberance; but inside, on the

Bk. 1 Ch. 6 Fig.Bk. 3, 41 Ch. 6 Fig Bk. 1 Skeleton 3Bk. 1 Skeleton

Bk. 5 Fig. 22, 23Bk. 5 Fig. 22, 23

Bk. 1 Ch. 13 Fig.Bk. 1, 21 Ch. 13 Fig

Bk. 2 Table 4 Bk. 2 Table 4

Bk. Bk. 2 Ch. 19 Fig. 1, 2 Ch. 19 Fig

Bk.3,14 Ch. 38 Fig Bk. 1 Ch. 38 Fig.

Bk.255 Ch. 15 Fig Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig.

Bk.255 Ch. 15 Fig Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig.

Bk.255 Ch. 15 Fig Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig.

Bk.255 Ch. 15 Fig Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig.

06

07

dissected humaniscadavers, is fre10 handwritten Vesalius’ handwritten comments on cadavers, frecomments on from υ ψιλόν “short u” and dissected human 09 reading A variant bined frombined υ ψιλόν “short u” and 09 A variant forreading φαρύγ-for φαρύγ- 10 Vesalius’ quently citedHis bycontriGalen. His contri- γεθρον, or γεθρον the 1555 edition delete this portion quently cited by Galen. delete this portion -εἰδές “-like,” presumably , or larynx,by translated by LSJthe 1555 edition -εἰδές “-like,” presumably because it because it larynx, translated LSJ butions to nomenclature of the sentence. are note- are note- as φάρυγξ ,as is shaped likeletter. the Greek , i.e. the “windpipe” or of the sentence. is shaped like the Greek An letter. An butions to nomenclature i.e.φάρυγξ the “windpipe” or use of visual 11 edition The 1555 edition adds: “We call their usefor oftheir visual adds: “We call additional element could be ὕψι , worthy for worthy “pharynx,” butsense not insugthe sense11sug-The 1555 additional element could be ὕψι “pharynx,” but not in the , comparisons. The word παραthese the hyoid bone comparisons. The word παραthese the sides ofthe thesides hyoidofbone “on high,” here, “pharynx“on high,” because it isbecause situatedit is situated gested here,gested “pharynxwithinAvicenna, in his generally means “compan-bone.” The word στάτηςmeans his chapter ’Onchapter ’On “companabove high the larynx, bone.”isThe word is Hippocratic (De with Avicenna, above the larynx, on thehigh neck.on the neck.στάτης generally Hippocratic (De Throat’.”(980–1037) Avicenna (980–1037) ion,” or “bystander,” and is applied anatome 1.1); is the Throat’.”the Avicenna and is applied is anatome see also 06 inBecause, in or Greek, hys or sus meansion,” or “bystander,” see also1.1); Galen, De Galen, De Because, Greek, hys sus means to the twin spermatic ducts as well the Arabian physician to the twin spermatic ducts as well the Arabian physician and philos - and philoslibris propriis 19.28.1, Pseudo“pig”;may butalso there also be a note libris propriis liber 19.28.1,liber Pseudo“pig”; but there bemay a note the hyoid boneas conceived as theGalen, Introductio opher whose Canon of Medicine conceived the opher whose Canon of Medicine Galen, Introductio of irony this false etymology as as the hyoidasbone seu medicusseu medicus of irony in this falsein etymology as to see the May, larynx; see May, 14.721.5, Aretaeus had been considered authoritative to the larynx; authoritative 14.721.5, Aretaeus (2ndDe cent. AD), Dehad been considered Galen’s description ofisthe larynx is companioncompanion (2nd cent. AD), Galen’s description of the larynx since 1100, in appearing in at least 60 at least 60 causis et signismorboacutorum morbo- since 1100, appearing based in part on pigSee anatomy. See 1968, p. 26. 1968, p. 26. causis et signis acutorum based in part on pig anatomy. or partial Latin editions 08 see ForGalen, whichDe seeusu Galen, complete orcomplete partial Latin editions 08 For which par-De usu par- rum 1.7.1–4,rum 1.7.1–4, 2.2.1.3, and Aëtius May, 2.2.1.3, and Aëtius May, 1968, p. 352,1968, n. 32.p. 352, n. 32. between 1500see and 1674; see Siraisi tium 4.190.3ff. 1968, p. 644). Amidenus (6th and 1674; Siraisi (May, 1968, (May, p. 644). Amidenus (6thIatricorum cent. AD), Iatricorumbetween 1500 07 Herophilus of (4th–3rd Chalcedon (4th–3rd tium 4.190.3ff. cent. AD), Herophilus of Chalcedon (1987). (1987). cent. BC), the most of important of the liber 2.92.24.liber 2.92.24. cent. BC), the most important the

Bk.255 Ch. 15 Fig Bk. 5 Ch. 15 Fig.

Greek anatomists in Alexandria who Greek anatomists in Alexandria who

39


M a n wa s gi v en a neck f or t he s a k e of t he lu ngs HAT A NECK was given mankind for the sake of the lungs is best proven by the fact that it is always missing when there are no lungs. for example, this is the reason fish (which also have no lungs) have no neck. those animals to which nature gave lungs are also endowed with a neck.22 for it was necessary that the rough artery [trachea] (shown in fig. 1, ch. 38; vessels running through the neck and lungs are seen in the figure at the end of Bk. iii and in the one attached to the end of Bk. iv), through which we bring air into the lungs when we inhale and blow it out again when we exhale, run from the mouth to the lungs, and for this reason that a space intervene between mouth and lungs, since it was fitting that man be endowed with adequate exhalation23 (which is the material of the voice). for the voice is impossible without benefit of the rough artery. therefore we do not wonder that no animal without a neck emits a voice.24 since, therefore, the lungs are contained in the thorax, and the rough artery (which it was altogether fitting to stop at the mouth) rises out of the lungs, the interval between the upper part of the thorax and the pharynx is made for that artery. Because the thorax and the mouth are separated from each other for the space of the interval between them, a path is made no less for the parts that travel downward from above (such as the dorsal medulla and the gullet) than for those that extend upward from below (such as the rough artery and many smooth arteries and veins). Man therefore obtained a neck for the 40 sake of the rough artery, and a rough artery for the sake of

n in figs. 2 the dorsal their propa in the spac to fashion

t he se v

there are, t in the figu tons), whos beginning neck. it is neckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use since no on because th jaws for tak a neck with

g a l enâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s of t he

so galen, n preter of h gent, and constructio and its join need i say? the twelfth the head, a ficulty of th that i too w part; i read


sake

that travel downward from above (such as the dorsal medulla and the gullet) than for those that extend upward from below (such as the rough artery and many smooth on the vertebrae of the neck or cervix arteries and veins). Man therefore obtained a neck for the sake of the rough artery, and a rough artery for the sake of voice and respiration. Man was allotted a length of neck as much as was useful to the rough artery for the functions just stated. indeed, it was convenient that the parts next to the scapulae, the upper arm, the forearm, the hand, as well as the transverse septum have nerves (ϖ [π], ρ, ς, τ, Φ, *, , n in figs. 2 and 3 preceding ch. 11[, Bk. iv]) coming from the dorsal medulla that travels through the neck. and for their propagation, it was necessary that vertebrae be located in the space between the head and the thorax with which to fashion a neck.25

ankind for proven by ssing when ample, this t22 he tion oftthe voice. also, as it was this se and the preceding sentence v en v ert eBr a e of he neck2 6 necessary that the parts adjoining were deleted in the 1555 edition. so have no the scapulae, and the arms, and 23 1555 adds: “through a long canal, animals to there are, athen, thetransverse humanseptum neckhave (Anerves to B or rather pipe.” seven vertebrae in the thein dorsal runs 24 the this explanation is condensed ch. 14, I from h a neck.22 in figure illustrating to K themedulla threethat skelethrough the neck, it was also nec­ from the opening of the 8th book ea] (shown tons), whose nature and use i shall essary nowfor attempt to explain, the sake of their propa­ of Galen’s De usu partium gation that of vertebrae be placed in (3.609.1ff.; May, pp. 384ff.). k and lungs beginning my1968, account with the motions the head and the space between the head and Galen’s teleology does not become in the one neck. it is not my intention here tothegive an account of the thorax, of which the neck or less strange to the modern point cervixthat of manhave is constructed.” of view when down and quadrupeds we bring air neck’s use inboiled birds and long legs, paraphrased by vesalius. 26 the opening of this section was gain when since no one fails to understand thatrewritten nature provided them, as follows for the 1555 25 the preceding eight sentences are “the human neck consists condensed as follows the hands, 1555 nd for this because they have inno withedition: an extended neck and of seven vertebrae; i shall include edition: “Man is provided with as and lungs, jawsmuch for taking in food, and for thisin reason fashioned them my account of them as well that a length neck as is useful Beispiel der Basel Antiqua in of originaler Schriftgrösse derthe neuen englischen Ausgabe h adequate a neck with more vertebrae.27 part of the occiput which is articu­ to rough artery for the genera­ von Vesalius «On the Fabric of the Human e). for the Body», Karger-Verlag, Basel ugh artery. a lBasel en’Antiqua s opinion a Bou t t he Mo t ions Example g of the in original type size of the new English edition of hout a neck of t he he a d 2 8 Vesalius‘„On the Fabric of the Human Body“ e contained by Karger Publishers, Basel altogether so galen, nature’s rare miracle and the most perfect interlungs, the preter of her works, nowhere demands so learned, intelli-41 d the phar- gent, and hard-working a reader in considering a part’s

the t the h ficult that i part; a mi of an selve You when

27

A1

lat wh to wh in to fo th en 15 th tio m te vic gr ne ha


Impressum Copyright 2013: Christian Mengelt www.megelt-blauen.ch

Quellen zu dieser Publikation: Sources for this publication:

Text & Layout: Christian Mengelt Offsetdruck: Borer Druck Laufen Fonts: Die beiden Druckschriften dieser Publikation, die Basel Antiqua und die Sinova Pro, sind von Christian Mengelt gestaltet und von Linotype lizenziert worden. Both typefaces of this publication, the Basel Antiqua and the Sinova Pro, are designed by Christian Mengelt, and licensed by Linotype.

Albert Bruckner: Schweizer Stempelschneider und Schriftgiesser, Benno Schwabe, Basel, 1943 Jan Tschichold: Geschichte der Schrift in Bildern, Holbein-Verlag, Basel, 3. Ausgabe 1951 Antonio Hernandez: Johannes Froben und der Basler Buchdruck des 16. Jahrhunderts, Gewerbemuseum, Basel, 1960

Digitalisate von Originaldrucken: Digitized prints of the original printings: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München: Abb. 1 (2 Inc.c.a.366) Abb. 6 (Res/2 M.med. 112) Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf: Abb. 2 (NLAT235:INK) Universitätsbibliothek Basel: Abb. 3 (FG V 42) Abb. 4 (FO V 1:11) Abb. 5 und 7 (Lb I 1) Printed Edition 2013, Chamaeleon Verlag Basel www.armin-vogt.ch ISBN 978-3-9523175-9-4

42

Fig. pages 37-41: English edition of Andreas Vesalius‘ „On the Fabric of the Human Body“ by Karger Publishers, Basel – www.vesalius-fabrica.com.


& Basel Antiqua Italic

Basel Antiqua  

The new design of a historical typeface

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you