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Errol Biodiversity Research Centre Looking North: Salt + Honey

design report emily wells


Abstract In approaching this project, I considered the vulnerabilit y of living in the North, where people are more susceptible to extreme weather conditions and will be impacted heavily by climate change. The North is a place which is constantly shif ting, both physically, and environmentally. An intrinsic condition of living in the North was considered to be the deeply rooted connection to the landscape. This idea is seen in Errol’s historic street pat tern and material construction, as well as in our masterplan proposals and our ambitions to reconnect the modern Errol to the potentially beautiful landscape surrounding it.. My approach to designing a building in a wild yet urban set ting sought to find a harmony bet ween life - both human and other - and the built environment. This is reflected throughout the project in at tempts to bring multiple life forms into the fabric of the building and in the at titude towards climate and climate control.

Fig.1: Derelict building in Errol


Contents

Fig.2: Small Cow Wheat

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Part 1 : A fragmented landscape

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Part II : Green connections

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Part III: Planting the seed of wilderness

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Part IV : Errol Biodiversity Research Centre


A Fragmented L andscape

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Historic Footprint

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Social Fragmentation

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Wild Fragmentation


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E RROL BIODI VE RS I T Y R E S E A RC H C E NT R E

A F RAGME NTE D LAN D SC AP E

Historic Footprint “Under the seeming disorder of the old city, wherever the old city is working successfully, is a marvelous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city.

Fig.3: Errol workers

Fig.4: Children on the streets of Errol

Fig.5: Errol High Street

- Jane Jac o bs, T he De ath and Lif e o f Gre at A me ric an C itie s

Historic photographs of Errol reveal a lively street life, with workers, children, and others occupying the street. Historically, Errol was a town of craf tsmen, with the village’s population in 1791 comprising primarily of weavers, followed by wrights, tailors, shoemakers, and blacksmiths. At this moment in time, it would have been the norm for these people to work in Errol, possibly even within their own homes, due to transportation being unusual. As Errol modernised it moved towards its current status as a satellite suburb for Perth and Dundee. Errol’s production was industrialised with the opening of the Inchcoonans Tile Works, which opened in 1910, though some form of clay works had been present in Errol for centuries prior. Errol’s Historic core is still the most lively part of the town, with the High Street being its heart. Though Errol contained numerous social spaces in the past, these were lost to modernit y.

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20th Centur y suburban grain Private space

Semi-Private space

Semi-Public space

Fig.6 This drawing was created using the definitions of public, semi-public, semi-private, and private space given by Jan Gehl in “Life Be t ween Buildings.� Gehl discusses the importance of providing degrees of privacy in urban spaces to

Historic urban grain

Communit y Centre Public space

Errol Estate

provide the ideal social conditions. The drawing reveals the complexit y of degrees of social spaces present in Errol’s Historic High Street, which are missing in the surrounding modern developments. While the modern

development is dominated by private space in the form of private gardens and single -family homes, the private space of the historic core is chipped away by semi-private and semi-public space. In Errol these take the shape of communal

alleys, court yards, gardens, and stairs, as well as one communit y centre. This diversit y in degrees of privacy provides more opportunities for interaction and socialising, and creates a sense of belonging.


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A F RAGME NTE D LAN D SC AP E

Social Fragmentation Although Errol was historically a lively place to live, modern developments have gravely impacted the town. The 20th Centur y developments grow East of the Historic core and consist primarily of single -family housing. In Errol, this morphology consists primarily of open semi-private front gardens, with private spaces which dominate the area. These areas are largely inward-looking, with fences preventing views out and views in. This is also manifested in the street level, with the majorit y of houses facing streets, creating a town which is closed of f from the landscape it sits in. The impact of these developments on Errol’s liveliness is tactile when one visits the town. Though historic photographs revealed an active street life, this was clearly lacking during the site visit. This can also be largely at tributed to the dominance of cars, an essential factor in Errol’s status as a commuter town. Cars prevent street life due to the hazards they pose, but also prevent residents from having interactions with neighbours due to the private, shut-of f nature of cars.

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A F RAGME NTE D LAN D SC AP E

Circulation

Social interactions

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A F RAGME NTE D LAN D SC AP E

Wild Fragmen tation Although there are still pockets of wilderness and unharmed biodiversit y across Scotland, these areas suf fer due to a lack of connectivit y, which is heightened towards the East and South of Scotland. The lack of connectivit y means that species which may normally interact in specific circumstances, such as highland birds and marine life, among others, are unable to do so, which puts strains on species which are unable to access the resources such as food and shelter that they may need. Additionally, the dominant agricultural landscape has pushed species back into areas which may not resemble the habitats they normally would inhabit. One example of this is the Scot tish Wildcat. Although it once inhabited the lowlands across the UK, this species is now only found in the Scot tish Highlands, which has caused for the population of Wildcats to dwindle. Additionally, the industrialisation agriculture has harmed the species which remained, as heavy machiner y, including cars, is frequently cited as a cause for a dwindling number of species.

Wildland/Anders Povlsen

NGO Owned

Wild

Agricultural

Scottish Government

Urban/Suburban

National Park

Fig.7: Scottish Land Ownership

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Grasslands

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A F RAGME NTE D LAN D SC AP E

Reedbeds

Coniferous woodlands

Broadleaved woodlands

Urban space


Green Connections

“Rewilding is not about abandoning civilization but about enhancing it. It is to ‘love not man the less, but Nature more’.” - Ge orge Monbiot, F ERAL

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A national wilderness

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A non-extractive economy


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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

A National Wilderness Our masterplan proposal aims to address the social and natural fragmentation in Scotland and Errol through the creation of a national net work of green corridors. These corridors exist to connect biodiversit y hotspots such as the existing reed beds in Errol and National Parks, among others. A key to this approach is to minimise traf fic in this net work and bridge over it where this is not possible. Within Errol, this approach includes reopening the closed train station and linking it to the town using a bike/foot path which cuts through the town along with a green corridor. Though Errol remains suburban in its nature, the edges are blurred with new mixed use development which embrace the wild and the urban simultaneously. Using the practice of rewilding, we aim to connect humans to nature and to themselves. The creation of a research centre helps maintain this practice and incentivates a connection to nature, while the Errol Arts Centre, the Biohub and the Errol Food Cooperative create social spaces which are currently lacking in Errol and reconnects residents with the wild.

Wildland/Anders Povlsen

NGO Owned

Wild

Agricultural

Scottish Government

Urban/Suburban

National Park

Fig.8: Connected Scottish Land Ownership

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Grasslands

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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

Reedbeds

Coniferous woodlands

Broadleaved woodlands

Urban space


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Fig.9: Section through Errol, down to the Tay

GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

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Fig.10: Masterplan


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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

I: Errol Food Cooperative II: Errol Arts Centre III: Errol Biodiversity Research Centre IV: The Biohub

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bike + foot path

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green corridor bus path


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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

A Non-Extractive Economy

Fig.11: The reedbeds are routinely cut to create a mosaic of habitats

Fig.12: Sheep create habitats for other species through grazing

Due to its extreme weather conditions which leave it extremely susceptible to climate change, our masterplan has sustainabilit y as a key factor in decision-making. To revive Errol’s lack of work and social spaces, it was important to do so in a non-extractive way, ensuring that circular processes are maintained wherever possible. When researching the rewilding process, one factor which came up consistently is the idea of waste products. Waste products come up constantly in the struggle to enhance Scotland’s native species. One example of this is seen in Errol’s reed beds, which are partially cut down seasonally in order to create a “mosaic” of habitats for the wide range of species which make the reeds their home. Although the reeds were planted for the purpose of thatching, it is unkown whether the reeds which are cut down for the purpose of biodiversit y are repurposed or treated as waste material. Other examples include the American Mink, a species which was released in Scotland following the demise of the fur industr y and has since caused significant harm to native species. These are carefully removed and humanely dispatched. Although there are ethical concerns surrounding the original purpose of bringing American minks to Scotland, it is still possible to treat the remains of these animals as a material for creation rather than as waste. Additionally, as part of maintaining the wilderness, it is possible to generate social and economic benefits. For instance, bee keeping is a good way to ensure the pollination of wildflowers and thus their longevit y, and cat tle grazing is currently used as a way to create many habitats in meadows, in a similar fashion to the cut ting of the reed beds. All of these byproducts can be used in Errol, the reeds can be used for weaving classes in the BioHub, ecologically sourced meats and honey can be sampled in the Food Cooperative, and these can also be sold to visitors in the Research Centre and the Arts Centre.

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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

Fig.13: Errol’s reed beds, showing areas which have been trimmed.

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GRE E N C ON N EC TION S

Circulation

Social interactions

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But rewilding, unlike conservation, has no fixed objective: it is driven not by human management but by natural processes. There is no point at which it can be said to have arrived. Rewilding of the kind that interests me does not seek to control the natural world, to re-create a particular ecosystem or landscape, but – having brought back some of the missing species – to allow it to find its own way.

- Ge or g e M onbiot, F ERAL

Planting the Seed of Wilderness

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Keystone Species

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Planting the green corridors

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Planting the wild side


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P LANTING THE SE E D OF WILDE RN E SS

Keystone Species

Fig.14: Yellow rattle

Fig.15: Pine Marten

Keystone species are species which may be missing from an ecosystem they once belonged to, and whose impact on said ecosystem greatly exceeds the number of species which belong to said ecosystem. Scot tish keystone flora include the Aspen, common Juniper, Common swif t, Dwarf birch, Grass of Parnasus, among many others. Native keystone fauna include the Pine Marten, Brown hares, Red Squirrels, water vole, and wood ants, and more. Our project aims not to reintroduce planned ecosystem but to take measures to reintroduce these species which will, in turn, help to rewild Scotland. An example of a keystone species included in our proposal, which was selected as an appropriate species for Errol’s climate is the Yellow Rat tle. This wild flower predates on stronger wildflowers, which weakens these, allowing weaker species the abilit y to compete for nutrients. This greatly increases vegetation diversit y and makes the Yellow Rat tle a species which is important in turning farmland into wild meadows. The increased meadow biodiversit y benefits bees and bumblebees. The lat ter are important to address as several native species of bumblebees have gone extinct, and many more face extinction due to the the loss of wild land. Another example of a keystone species is the Pine Marten. This animal has an arboreal lifest yle and spends most of its time on the ground, much like grey squirrels. As an animal which feeds on small mammals, the pine marten is a natural predator to squirrels. However, as red squirrels tend to inhabit tree canopies rather than the ground, pine martens are more likely to feed on grey squirrels. This predation helps to keep grey squirrel populations low, allowing for red squirrels to flourish in their absence.

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Birch

Fig. 21:

Raspberry

Fig. 22:

Common elder

P LANTING THE SE E D OF WILDE RN E SS

Fig. 23:

Damson

Planting the Green corridor Due to the social implications of the rewilding process, the green corridor would be planted in part with native species which provide fruit for animals such as birds and rodents, while also providing Errol’s residents with activities such as berr y and fruit-picking and related activities. As part of the urban/ wild realm, it is important that these species directly ser ve both humans and wild animals.

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Planting the wild side In order to restore red squirrel populations, it is important to create coniferous forests with few deciduous trees. Red squirrels are unable to eat the fruits of deciduous trees while their greatest threat, grey squirrels, prefer deciduous tree forests. Coniferous forests become strongholds for red squirrels as grey squirrels, an invasive species which has been largely responsible for the decimation of the red squirrel population.

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P LANTING THE SE E D OF WILDE RN E SS

Fig. 16:

Scots Pine

Fig. 17:

Yew

Fig. 18:

Red squirrel

Fig. 19:

Larch


Errol Biodiversity Research Centre 45

Context

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Programme

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Construction rooted in its place

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Materiality

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Niches for Species

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Connection to Climate


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Context The Research Centre is located on the outer edge of Errol, marking the shif t from the human-centred urban area to the wilderness. As such, the Centre must adjust to the requirements of both an urban set ting and a wild one. At the same time, the building sits on the edge of the hill, which slopes into the wolderness. To meet these dif fering conditions, the building responds volumetrically and materially. Material divisions also tie in strongly with the building’s uses, with circulation spaces and work/rest spaces being largely defined by the building material. Additionally, the building responds to this context in an experiential manner. While the building rises up from the sloped ground to guarantee a presence from Errol’s high street, it also pushes visitors, residents, and those who work there into natural conditions with its var ying degrees of exposure.

Fig: Errol Biodiversity Research Centre Massing Model


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Programme The Research Centre’s primar y objective is to manage and study the process of rewilding, as well as maintaining a librar y in the case of the Biodiversit y site failing. An important function of the Biodiversit y Centre is also to educate locals, students, and tourists on the importance of biodiversit y and rewilding. To cater for these needs, the building has a public scale, and spaces dedicated to education. These include a lecture hall, exhibition space, and spaces which are accessible to visitors, including labs which are closed of f physically but open visually through the careful placement of windows for onlooking. An additional function of the research centre is to provide for species which are important to Scot tish biodiversit y but are unable to sustain themselves. These include wildcats and Juniper trees, among others. To provide for the wild cats there is a dedicated wing of the building which provides space for wildcats to breed as well as space for the Centre’s veterinaries to care for the cats and to sterilize domestic cats to prevent hybridisation. As a research centre, there is need to provide accommodation for resident students, who may come from Dundee, or other nearby universities.


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Ground Floor

First Floor

1: Exhibiton Space 2: Lecture Space 3: Laboratories 4: Storage space 5:Toilets 6: Seed Store 7: Loading bay 8: Pharmacy 9: Prep area

1: Antechamber 2: Coat room/Reception 3: Gift shop 4: Toilets 5: Dining Hall 6: Kitchen 7: Loading bay 8: Staff rest space 9: Offices

10: Operating room 11:Office 12: Staff rest space 13: Wildcat habitat 14: Juniper veranda 15: Bike store 16: Biodiversity Garden A: Lift B: Circulation

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Second Floor

10: Wildcat habitat A: Lift B: Circulation

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1: Laboratories 2: Storage 3: Teaching Laboratory 4: Toilet 5:Accommodation 6: Social space 7: Wildcat habitat A: Lift B: Circulation


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Construction Rooted in its place Early construction in Errol used locally sourced materials such as clay bricks and sandstone, though only the lat ter is still visible in current day Errol as brick buildings have all been weatherproofed using a Harling finish. Decay and weathering has chipped away at some of these finishes which provide a small glance at what Errol brick looks like. Sandstone and clay deposits in the immediate vicinit y of Errol provided much of the construction material, with the majorit y of the clay used in Errol’s brickworks coming from clay pits surrounding the town. Sandstone of var ying colours and qualities was sourced from quarries at Clashbennie and Murie, both just 2km east of Errol. This tradition of using local materials shows a strong connection bet ween the land and the built environment. Though not explicitly locally sourced, later construction in Errol carries on the tradition of brick buildings, some rendered in Harling and others clad in exposed brick.

Fig.24: Errol bricks


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Sandstone deposits

Clay deposits


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Fig: stripped-back Harling exposes

Fig: modern construction in Errol

Errol’s traditional use of brick

embraces the clay landscape


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The decay of porous natural materials

like brick and stone creates niches for species to thrive. This is seen most of ten across Scotland with an array of mosses making people’s homes their own.

However, vegetative species arent’t

the only ones which find homes in decayed buildings. The decline in numbers of the Common Swif t has been strongly linked to the materials and forms of modern construction. The move towards imper vious materials in place of materials such as brick and stone as well as a decrease in architectural elements such as chimneys and eves, has stopped these birds from nesting in people’s homes.

Paired with the loss of natural habitats

to the agricultural landscape, modern construction has weakened the numbers of common swif ts in Scotland.

Fig.25: Common Swift


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Materiality

Fig: Errol Biodiversity Research Centre Material Model

The volume of building which meets the town is built in black waterstruck brick. To mimic the covering/uncovering of brick facades seen in Errol’s historic buildings, the building’s brick elements are finished in a black render and bricks are laid using a dark mortar, giving these blocks a monoly thic appearance. This appearance contrasts with the building’s timber elements, which are chosen due to their light weight nature, in order to meet the biodiversit y site, avoiding heavy foundations which get in the way of root systems, burrowing animals, and the vast underground net work of wild activit y which is hidden from the human eye. The one part of the building which contradicts the material concept of the building is the wild cat habitat. As an element which is intended to immerse wild cats in a wild environment while allowing the protection that humans can provide these animals, it is embedded in the ground and rises up as high as wild cats can climb in order to ensure that cats have as much of an immersive experience as humans can.


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Precedent: Brick Timber

Fig:Solid brick vs lightweight timber walls

Alzheimer’s Respite Centre

Much like the Biodiversit y Research Centre, Niall McLaughlin’s Alzheimer’s Respite Centre uses brick and timber construction. Despite the similarities in material, the Alzheimer’s Respite Centre uses an interlocking grid of walls in var ying materials, while the Biodiversit y Centre generally separates brick and timber into individual masses, which meet in certain controlled points. A common thread seen in both is the weightlessness of the timber construction contrasted with the heavy brick base. The Respite Centre’s numerous clerestor y windows are expressed in a light weight timber frame, which appears to float above the heavy brick monoly thic walls beneath it. Additionally, the at titude to the topography has similarities as both sit on hillsides, and use the stepped terrain to create programmatic divisions.


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“The building acts as a stage, a backdrop for the interior garden of flowers and light.” - P eter Z um thor on his Serpentine Pavillion

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Fig. 26: Wildflowers at Peter Zumthor’s Serpentine Pavillion

The contrast bet ween the black woven texture of Zumthor’s Serpentine Pavillion ser ves as a strong inspiration for the Research Centre’s materialit y. The mat te black building becomes an ideal backdrop to enhance the vibrant and varied colours and forms of wilderness.


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Ti m b e r The key consideration when deciding to meet the wilderness in timber is that life forms of any kind would be able to use the space beneath the building, as opposed brick construction, when foundations obstruct the growth of roots, digging animals, and others. Where the timber columns meet the ground they are at tached to metal fastening which is joined to concrete footings which carr y the building’s loads into the ground.


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Ti m b e r t o B r i c k Timber meets brick in a way that reflects the way it meets the ground and the purpose behind its selection as a material. Metal fastening slightly lif ts the timber members of f the brick ground to enhance the appearance of weightlessness. This reflects the fact that it meets the wild ground lightly, minimally preventing the activities that would normally occur below ground from taking place.


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The columns also support the timber railing

Metal fastening ties timber beams to columns maintaining an appearance of weightlessness

Metal fastening ties the timber beams to the brick wall. The beams rest gently on a rowlock course of brick.


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Fig.: Circulation spaces vs. Functional Spaces

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Niches for Species While the built environment is traditionally designed and built for human inhabitation, it is possible to design for animal inhabitation as well. While architecture provides protection among other important necessities to humans, it can do the same to other living beings. An example of this is Juniper. This species is native to Scotland but the number of living Juniper plants has dwindled due to many factors. These include small populations, as Juniper plants can be male or female they need at least 50 plants within a close vicinit y in order to be considered a viable population. Another important factor is that in their first years, Juniper plants are susceptible to predation by a wide range of grazing animals. The built environment can provide the necessar y space for a large population of Juniper plant to reach suf ficient maturation inorder to sur vive on their own in the wilderness. Other species such as the Common Swif t also benefit from a built environment which takes them into account.

Fig.27: Juniper


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The timber structure becomes the perfect place to shield young Juniper plants from pests. Using the external beams, the plants can be suspended from the ground, elevating them away from predators, while the roofless space provides the natural amount of rainwater and sunlight these plants would receive in the wild. This way, the plants require no care from people but are cared for by the building itself.

F irst F l o o r P l an, 1:100


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Another native species, the Northern Cranberr y requires sphagnum moss, which it at taches to in order to obtain water, in order to sur vive. Though the damp conditions are possible to see in the wild, a building envelope can provide these same conditions. The water -protected masonr y construction can be designed to retain enough water for sphagnum moss, and therefore the Cranberr y, to grow.

Ground F l o o r P l an, 1:100


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A small piece of reed bed can be recreated within the building. The masonr y can be lined to hold rainwater, which can be drained and later refilled following more rainfall, creating the perfect habitat for the growth of reeds. The building’s roof can be shaped to capture a large amount of rainwater, which is then passed on to the reeds through connected pipes.


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A green roof gives back some of the ground taken up by the building’s footprint to grow wild grasses and flowers. These at tract pollinators such as native bees and bumblebees, fritillar y but terflies, chequered skipper but terfly, and dragon flies, among others. These insects, in turn, at tract birds, who feed on them.


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“I could not continue just sitting and writing, looking after my daughter and my house, running merely to stay fit, pursuing only what could not be seen, watching the seasons cycling past without ever quite belonging to them.� -GEO RGE M O NB IO T


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Connection to Climate An important part of life in the North is the susceptibilit y to changing weather and shif ting seasons. An important component of the design of the Biodiversit y Research Centre is the careful consideration and an aim to connect the building users and visitors with the landscape and the weather simultaneously. This brings out clear sensorial dif ferences throughout the year which makes each visit distinct from the rest. In a similar way in which wilderness adapts to changing weather conditions, so does the Research Centre. Inhabitable spaces are designed to adapt to seasonal shif ts in weather through adaptable climate control elements such as windows and insulated shut ters. Additionally, the building users are likely to shif t seasonally as well, with students occupying the residences during term time, bet ween Autumn and Spring, and tourists occupying them during the Summer. An important part of embedding people in the landscape, and therefore, the weather is having var ying degrees of enclosure throughout the building. These range from fully insulated and heated, to partially insulated and unheated, to fully open spaces. These var ying degrees of enclosure are considered in a way that spaces that are inhabitable for a long period of time will be insulated but others will of fer a refreshing break from the monotonous temperature of these spaces.

Open space Unheated space Fully insulated space

Fig.: Degrees of enclosure


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Fully-insulated space

Unheated Space


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Errol’s reedbeds are visited by greylag, canada, and pink-footed geese during their migration, while machines are at work cut ting the reeds to prepare for the changing seasons

Winter

In springtime, bearded tits, water rails and migrant warblers are present in the reed beds

Summer

Spring

During term time, students occupy the Centre’s Acco mmodation spaces. Insulated shut ters allow residents to cocoon in the winter.

Marsh harriers and their young, red squirrels and seals are visible in Errol

As students vacate the space for summer break, tour ists become the Centre’s new residents Residents can immerse themselves in the warmer weather thanks to the shut ters.


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“I could not continue just sitting and writing, looking after my daughter and my house, running merely to stay fit, pursuing only what could not be seen, watching the seasons cycling past without ever quite belonging to them.� -GEO RGE M O NB IO T


104 Figures All co v er page i m ages are f ro m c an mo re.o rg .u k

Fig.1: Go u r diehi l l , Grange, Errol Tays ide R Pert h & K in ro s s D , B o r d e rs ht t ps : //canm ore.org.uk/c o llec t io n /183 9228

Fig.2: Cow w heat or Mel am pyre ht t ps : //anti quei m ages.blo g s p o t .c o m/2 015 /07/c o w -whea t- or - m e l a m p y r e - w i l d f l ow e r. htm l

Fig.3: O ld Photograph Farm Wo rkers E rro l Pert hs hire S c o t lan d ht t ps : //tour -scotl and-pho t o g raphs .b lo g s po t .c o m/2015 /0 6 / ol d - p hotogra p h - f a r m - w or ke rs- e r rol . htm l

Fig.4: O ld Photograph Cowgate E rro l Pert hs hire S c o t la n d ht t ps : //tour -scotl and-pho t o g raphs .b lo g s po t .c o m/2011 /11 / ol d - p hotogra p h - c ow ga te - e r rol - p e r thshi r e . htm l

Fig.5: O ld Photograph Hi gh S tr eet E rro l Pert hs hire S c o t lan d ht t ps : //tour -scotl and-pho t o g raphs .b lo g s po t .c o m/2015 /11 / ol d - p hotogra p h - hi gh - str e e t- e r rol . htm l Fig.6: Col l aborati on wi th Ca ro lin e Wells ( g ro u p wo rk) Fig.7: Drawi ng by Carol in e Wells ( g ro u p wo rk) Fig.8: Drawi ng by Carol in e Wells ( g ro u p wo rk) Fig.9: Drawi ng by Chri s Qian ( g ro u pwo rk) Fig.10: Col l aborati on wit h Ca ro lin e Wells

Fig.11:

Re e d cut ti ng by Barr y Ma d d en ht t ps : //www.norfol kwi l d lif et ru s t .o rg .u k/a-livin g -lan ds c a p e - ol d / b ur e - v a l l ey / d i sc ov e r

Fig.12: She e p grazi ng at Curbar Edg e, D erbys hire © Pet er Tho mps on / H e r i ta ge I m a ge s/ G e t t y ht t ps : //www.di scover wi l d lif e.c o m/an ima l-f a c t s /ma mma ls / w ha t- w oul d - ha p p e n - i f - she e p - stop p e d - graz i n g- our hillside s/

Fig.13: O bliqu e aeri al vi ew of the reed b ed s o n t he R iver Tay, lo o ki n g N N E . ht t ps : //canm ore.org.uk/f ile/ima g e/14 84 46 8

Fig.14: Ye llo w rat tl e Fl ower Il l ust rat io n ht t ps : //www.l m l i censi ng.c o .u k/po rt f o lio /yello w -rat t le -f lo w e r - i l l ustra ti on / # . X r S5 BWh K j b 0

Fig.15: B e e ch m arten ‘Martes foin a ’ ht t ps : //www.devi antart.c o m/o mn ic o g n i/art /B eec h -ma rt en - M a r te s- f oi n a - 2 8 4 92 6 6 5 9

Fig.16: V int ag e Botani cal pri nt S c o t s Pin e ht t ps : //www.etsy.com /l is t in g /2549 58145 /196 0-vin t ag e -b ota n i c a l - p r i n t- sc ots- p i n e

Fig.17: V int ag e Botani cal Pri nt Ta xu s ht t ps : //www.etsy.com /l is t in g /25 50 55 74 6/19 60 -vin t a g e -b ota n i c a l - p r i n t- ta xus

Fig.18: Ar t o f Wi ni fred Austen ht t ps : //www.pi nterest.co.u k/f ran c es ea t t le/a rt -o f -win if red - a uste n /

Fig.19: Lar ch

ht tp: / / w w w. pan teek. c o m/ Evel y n / pag es/ ev971. htm

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Fig.20: 1960 Vi n tag e Bo tan i c al Pri n t, Betul a pubesc en s, D o w n y Bi rc h ht tps: / / w w w. etsy. c o m/ l i sti n g / 255602256/ 1960- vi n tag e - bo tan i c al - pri n t- betul a? utm_so urc e=P i n terest&utm_me di um=Pag eTo o l s&utm_c ampai g n =S hare

Fig.21: Raspberr y ht tps: / / w w w. pi n terest. c o . uk/ pi n / 213498838562760388/

Fig.22: El derberr y ht tps: / / thel o c ustsan dho n ey. c o m/ 2017/ 09/ 05/ herbal - al tern ati ves- fl u- sho ts/

Fig.23: D amso n ht tps: / / w w w. fl i c kr. c o m/ pho to s/ bi o di vl i brar y /

Fig.24: Erro l Bri c ks ht tps: / / w w w. sc o t ti sh bri c khi sto r y. c o . uk/ erro l - bri c k- an d- ti l e - w o rks- i n c hc o o n an s- perth - an d- ki n ro ss/

Fig.25: Co mmo n Sw i f t ht tps: / / i mag es. fi n eartameri c a. c o m/ i mag es- medi um- l arg e - 5/ c o mmo n - sw i f t- 19th - c en tur y - sc i en c e - pho to - l i brar y. j pg

Fig.26: H o rtus Co n c l usus ht tps: / / w w w. fl i c kr. c o m/ pho to s/ 89744794@N04/ 8209846213

Fig.27: Jun i per, Bo tan i c al Il l ustrati o n ht tps: / / w w w. pi n terest. c o . uk/ pi n / 807762883142234007/

Fig.28: ht tps: / / w w w. i sto c kpho to . c o m/ g b/ i l l ustrati o n s/ c an ada- g o o se? medi at y pe=i l l ustrati o n &phrase=c an ada%20 g o o se&so rt=best

Fig.29: Grey l ag Go o se ( An ser an ser) i l l ustrated by the vo n Wri g ht bro thers ht tps: / / w w w. raw pi xel . c o m/ i mag e/ 325699/ premi um- i l l ustrati o n - psd- g o o se - abstrac t- ameri c a

Fig.30: Can vas Pri n t o f P i n k- fo o ted g o o se ht tps://www.mediastorehouse.com/fine -art-storehouse/magical-world-illustration/digital-vision-vectors-bird-lith o g raphs/ pi n k- fo o ted- g o o se - 154140 65. html ? n o c hki p=1&pi d=7046

Fig.31: Bearded Ti ts ht tps: / / fi n eartameri c a. c o m/ featured/ bearded- ti ts- n atural - hi sto r y - museum- l o n do n sc i en c e - pho to - l i brar y. html

Fig.32: Vi n tag e Bi rd Il l ustrati o n WAter Rai l ht tps: / / w w w. etsy. c o m/ l i sti n g / 209320329/ vi n tag e - bi rd- i l l ustrati o n - w ater - rai l

Fig.33: A n i l l ustrati o n o f a mal e ht tps: / / en . w i ki pedi a. o rg / w i ki / Bl ac k- thro ated_g ray _w arbl er

Fig.34: ht tps: / / w w w. i sto c kpho to . c o m/ g b/ i l l ustrati o n s/ harri er? medi at y pe=i l l ustrati o n &phrase=harri er&so rt=best

Fig.35: ht tps: / / an i mal di versi t y. o rg / c o l l ec ti o n s/ c o n tri buto rs/ Grz i mek_mammal s/ Pho c i dae/ Pho c a_vi tul i n a/

Fig.36: ht tps: / / di g i tal c o l l ec ti o n s. n y pl . o rg / i tems/ 510d47d9- 57be - a3d9- e040- e00a180 64a99# / ? zo o m=true


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107 Bibliography “ Erro l . ” Co n ser vati o n A rea A pprai sal . Ac c essed May 8, 2020. ht tps: / / w w w. pkc . g o v. uk/ medi a/ 3779/ Erro l - CA - A pprai sal / pdf/ E rro l _CA _app_- _w ho l e_do c . pdf? m=636491928834130000. “ Pri o ri t y S pec i es. ” S pec i es Pro fi l es. Ac c essed May 8, 2020. ht tps: / / sc o t ti shw i l dl i fetrust. o rg . uk/ sc o tl an ds- w i l dl i fe/ pri o ri t y - spec i es/ . D avi dso n , Peter. The Idea o f No rth . Lo n do n : Reakti o n Bo o ks, 2013. Gehl , Jan . Li fe Bet w een Bui l di n g s: Usi n g Publ i c S pac e. S ki ve: The D an i sh Arc hi tec tural Press, 200 6. Mo n bi o t, Geo rg e. Feral : Rew i l di n g the Lan d, S ea, an d H uman Li fe. Lo n do n : Pen g ui n Bo o ks, 2014. Pal l asmaa, Juhan i . The E y es o f the S ki n . C hi c hester: Jo hn Wi l ey & S o n s Ltd. , 2016. Perth & Ki n ro ss Co un c i l . “ Wi l dl i fe. ” Ac c essed May 8, 2020. ht tps: / / w w w. pkc . g o v. uk/ Wi l dl i fe. Zumtho r, Peter. Thi n ki n g A rc hi tec ture. Berl i n : Bi rkhauser, 2005.


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Profile for Emily

The Errol Biodiversity Centre  

The Errol Biodiversity Centre  

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