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2010-11 ANNUAL report

TRANSFORMING RESOURCE EXTRACTION

technical

systems engineering industry transformation collaboration


Vision Transforming the mining industry’s approach to evaluation and extraction of mineral deposits. The Commonwealth Government and the Australian mining industry have realised the risks of declining ore grades and rising energy costs, and through CRC ORE are investing in new technologies that will maintain the viability of Australian mines beyond periods of high commodity prices.

profiling

efficiency

integrate


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Research Overview

inside 6

What is CRC ORE

7

Industry Challenges

9

Research & Industry Partners

13

Chair Report

15

CEO Report

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Opinions of Performance

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Operations

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Finance

27

Program One Overview

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Rock Mass Attributes

31

Environmental Indicators

33

Process Indicators

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Program Two Overview

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Blastech

40

Flexible Circuits

43

SEE II Simulator

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Program Three Overview

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Integrated Case Studies

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Telfer Integrated Case Study

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Mogalakwena Selective Blasting Trial

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Mt Whaleback Short Term Scheduling Project

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Training & Education

59

Researcher Workshop

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Governance Report

software

innovation

decreasing impact data


The collective expertise of the Participant organisations affords CRC ORE a position with remarkable opportunity to make a significant difference to the Australian mining industry and the broader community.

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

What is CRC ORE? CRC ORE is a Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) established in June 2010 under the Commonwealth government CRC initiative. The CRC Program supports end-user driven research collaborations to address major challenges facing Australia. With the support of Anglo Platinum, BHP Billiton, Newcrest Mining, Xstrata, The University of Queensland, AMIRA International, Queensland University of Technology and The University of Tasmania, CRC ORE was awarded $17.5m

over five years in the 12th round of the Federal Government’s Cooperative Research Centre Program. Since then, JKTech, Quantitative Group and CAE have joined as participants of the Centre. The collective expertise of the Participant organisations affords CRC ORE a position with remarkable opportunity to make a significant difference to the Australian mining industry and the broader community.


Industry Challenges Over the last 30 years, the average grade of Australian ore bodies being mined has halved while the waste removed to access the minerals has more than doubled. This trend is repeated worldwide and is driving massive increases in energy consumption

by the mining sector. In the last decade Australian mines incurred a 70% rise in energy use, and a 31% decline in productivity over the same period. At the same time, growing constraints on energy, water and carbon have seen costs rise dramatically.

Multifactor Productivity in the Australian Mining Industry Multifactor Productivity in the Australian Mining Industry Indexed 2000-01=100

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 5

-7

74

19

7

-7

76

19

9

-7

78

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1

-8

80

19

3

-8

82

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5

-8

84

19

7

-8

86

19

9

-8

88

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1

-9

90

19

3

-9

92

19

From Topp et al. (2008)

These pressures directly threaten the economic viability of mineral extraction, and the situation is set to deteriorate further as social expectations and

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7

-9

96

19

9

-9

98

19

1

-0

00

20

3

-0

02

20

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-0

04

20

7

-0

06

20

9

-0

08

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From Topp et al. (2008)

new environmental legislation continue to target the industry.

Energy Consumption by Mining in Australia

7

5

-9

94

19


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

not offsetting the decline in grade, and in the near future the industry will reach a tipping point where mass processing of low grade deposits using conventional technology is no longer viable.

At the present time mining companies must increasing capital expenditure and energy consumption to increase throughput and extract as much metal as possible from the available low grade ores. These productivity improvements are

AverageOre OreGrades Grades Over Over Time Average Time Nickel Grade (%)

Copper Grade (%)

Lead Grade (%)

Gold Grade (g/t)

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Ore Grade

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1

0

1970

1975

1980

1985

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To reverse the trend the industry is seeking to embrace new technologies to increase extraction efficiency. These technologies will need to increase the metal content of ore being processed, while reducing energy and water consumption during the extraction process.

This is the challenge that CRC ORE was created to address, with a three program portfolio targeting inefficiency throughout the mining process and aiming to dramatically reducing the cost and environmental impact of mining operations.


...a fresh look at mining practices with significant opportunity for step change discoveries.

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Research & Industry Partners Research Participants The world class capability of mining and minerals processing research at the University of Queensland extends back over 40 years through the activities of the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) and the WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre (BRC). In 2001 these Centres were amalgamated with four others to form the Sustainable Minerals Institute and encompass all aspects of sustainable mining practice. QUT is well established as a leader in business and mathematics and brings knowledge from applications in other industries to provide a fresh look at mining practices with tremendous opportunity for step change discoveries. The University of Tasmania is renowned as one of the premier international teaching and research centres in Earth Sciences. Their extensive, state of the art geological laboratory facilities enable cutting edge testing across all fields of geology

Industry Participants As the world’s largest mining company, BHP Billiton brings over 100 years’ experience in the industry from a portfolio of operations and projects which span every commodity and continent.

Anglo Platinum has a long history of supporting extensive R&D effort and was the sponsor of the demonstration of concept study which developed the simulator for Sustainability and Extraction Efficiency (SEE). The concepts developed through this study underpin the CRC ORE philosophy of mine wide process optimisation with a focus on economic and environmental performance. AMIRA International acts on behalf of over 40 sponsors of the P9 and P843A projects to bring a wealth of knowledge developed in minerals processing, geometallurgy and mining industry driven collaborative research which spans over four decades.

Commercial Partners QG are premier providers of geological and mining consulting services specialising in mining geostatistics, mine geology, mine planning, geometallurgy and quantitative financial risk analysis. The technical expertise, business acumen and high-level communication skills brought to CRC ORE by QG will add particular value through contributions to Program 3.

Newcrest Mining is Australia’s leading gold mining company with operations in Australia, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea.

CAE Mining draws on CAE’s position as a global leader in modelling and simulation technology and combines it with Datamine’s 30 years’ experience in mine planning and ore-body modelling to deliver innovative technology and services to the mining industry.

Xstrata Technology has been developing and marketing technology in the metals industry for over 30 years, and has produced advances such as IsaMill, IsaSmelt and Albion Process.

JKTech translate research findings into industry standards and delivers education and training to support the utilisation of innovation and technology by industry.

Mining

QG


Harnessing Cumulative Gains across the Minerals Extraction Value Chain CRC ORE sets out to improve the overall efficiency of minerals extraction by connecting the knowledge that has been gained in individual disciplines over the past 40 years. With the recognition that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, combining these individual advancements has begun to see significant improvement in the efficiency of the entire minerals extraction process.

Exploration

Ore Body Knowledge

Planning & Evaluation

Mining

Processing

Rehabilitation & Closure

Mining and processing operations involve a variety of steps, each with their own characteristics and requirements for efficiency. However, in some cases the conditions required to optimise any one of these steps may be counterproductive for the achievement of optimisation in another. To reduce the potential for siloed approaches to have a negative impact on the operation as a whole, CRC ORE projects consolidate information and develop frameworks that link discipline specific data. This allows for visibility of the impact of innovations on the entire process, resulting in broader gains in efficiency.

Collaboration in Action A Broader Approach to Extracting Minerals Expansion in the mining industry often demonstrates undesirable environmental consequences. The underlying reasons for this are: • A focus on individual stages of ore extraction – departments have responsibility for different parts of a mining operation. • Limited knowledge of how ore body properties will impact an operation’s economic and environmental performance.

The benefits of an integrated approach to resource extraction are demonstrated through site based case studies. CRC ORE cross discipline project teams undertake operation wide investigations to identify opportunities to increase plant head grade, decrease water and energy consumption and decrease carbon emissions using a philosophy of connectivity. Central to the success of these projects is extraordinary engagement and cooperation between researchers and industry personnel in working together toward a common objective.

Mining Geology Minerals Processing

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

CRC ORE’s footprint Throughout the past year, the Centre’s projects have been based at four main hubs throughout Australia. • School of Earth Sciences at the University of Tasmania (Sandy Bay, Hobart) • Sustainable Minerals Institute at The University of Queensland -- Julius Kruttschnitt Minerals Research Centre (Indooroopilly, Brisbane) -- WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre (St Lucia, Brisbane) -- Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation (St Lucia, Brisbane) -- Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry (St Lucia, Brisbane) • Queensland University of Technology -- Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering (Gardens Point, Brisbane) -- Faculty of Science and technology (Gardens Point, Brisbane) • Quantitative Group (Fremantle, Perth)

CRC ORE activities have a global reach

Coupling these individual advancements has already shown significant improvement in the efficiency of the entire minerals extraction process


Chairman of the Board, Jonathan Loraine

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education

Jon Loraine

Governance

Chairman

Who / What Chair is CRC Report ORE? Achievements over the past 12 months

Challenges in the coming year.

The management team of the Centre should be congratulated on the speed with which CRC ORE was established over the past year. From initial award of Commonwealth funding in December 2009 and incorporation of CRC ORE Ltd in May 2010, the CRC executed its Commonwealth CRC Funding Agreement in July 2010, and its’ Participants Agreement in October 2010. The CRC formal launch was held in December 2010.

A major focus during the coming year will be to advance the Research Programs, and develop integration strategies to bring the research outputs together into tools and techniques that can be utilised by industry. An excellent start has been made and I look forward to seeing this continue in the coming years.

During this period the board of CRC ORE was appointed and a small, highly qualified management team has been assembled under CEO Prof Alan Bye. The Centre also established a Technical Advisory Panel, Chaired by Dr Geoff Oldroyd with high level representation from the CRC Participants.

The Centre has made great progress during the year and on behalf of the board of CRC ORE, I would like to thank the following parties for their efforts: •

The Commonwealth of Australia Cooperative Research Centres Program for its support and encouragement during the establishment of the Centre.

Activities

AMIRA for its strong support in the bidding process and as a participant in the Centre.

All of the Centre participants for their active support and commitment.

My fellow board members of CRC ORE for their efforts and enthusiasm during this inaugural year for the Centre.

The Technical Advisory Panel for its key role in ensuring the effective conduct of the research programs.

The newly-formed management team of CRC ORE for the enthusiasm and energy with which they have kicked-off the activities of the Centre.

A focus during the year was initiation and progression of the three research programs, managed respectively by Prof Steven Walters, Program Leader, Resource Characterisation, Prof Malcolm Powell, program Leader, Resource Extraction and Prof Rodney Wolff Program leader, Resource Evaluation. By the end of the year the research programs were progressing well. A key differentiating aspect of the Centre’s activities will be an emphasis on site-based project activities that are designed to address the realworld operating needs of our Participants. To this end important projects have been initiated with Newcrest Mining and Anglo Platinum. A number of other project proposals are under consideration.

New Participants Demonstrating the validity and importance of the Centre’s research programs, a number of applications were received from potential new Participants during the year, and we welcomed Quantitative Group, JK Tech, and CAE Mining to the organisation. Each has strong attributes and will greatly add to the research initiatives and activities of the Centre.

Thanks

We look forward to advancing CRC ORE’s research programs in the coming year, and to making a step-change sustainable difference to the way in which the mining industry conducts its business.


A flexible mining operation that can selectively upgrade ore bodies and harness ore variability will be a competitive advantage to mining companies.

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education

Alan Bye

Governance

CEO

CEO Report Overview Over the past year the impressive earnings and capital expenditure from the mining industry continue to mask underlying frailties. Declining grades and increasing costs are driving down the underlying productivity of the mining industry, now down 31% since 2001 according to reports by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. History indicates that the mining industry will move out of a high metal price cycle and this is likely to coincide with higher energy prices and carbon taxes. The design of a flexible mining operation that can selectively upgrade ore bodies and harness ore variability will be a competitive advantage to mining companies and enable them to respond to volatile markets. CRC ORE’s purpose is to address these issues to ensure Australia’s mining companies are competitive and environmentally responsible in the long term.

CRC ORE Activities How does CRC ORE make a long term difference? How do we convert research projects into sustainable business practices for mining operations? CRC ORE is focusing on a small number of well funded, well resourced research projects based on operating mining sites. The projects have cross-discipline research teams, as well as direct involvement from industry and commercial partners from the outset. An example is the Telfer Resource Upgrade Project, which is pioneering the way we design whole-ofmine mineral extraction. The aim is to liberate gangue at every handling point from blasting through to flotation, thereby drastically reducing the volume of material to be processed and significantly increasing head grades. The resultant reduction of energy, water and tailings are a major additional benefit. Projects such as this are only possible through a large scale collaborative effort, and this structure ensures the developed technologies are shaped and validated by operating mines sites and commercial providers in a way that directly addresses the industry’s requirements.

The mining industry is currently driven by rapid capital growth, but is struggling to deal with some fundamental organisational and people issues, which are contributing to the decline in productivity. Integrated Operations Centres are a compellingly logical solution for many of these problems and are receiving great interest since Rio Tinto Iron Ore’s highly successful Operations Centre was commissioned in late 2009. A significant challenge for the industry is achieving sustainable continuous improvement. CRC ORE is addressing this issue by ensuring its technologies will be delivered into operations centre environments where they will be sustained as standard operating practice rather than short term projects.

Research Partners CRC ORE is privileged to work with world class research participants at the University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology and the University of Tasmania. The Centre has set a bold vision during its 5 year life to ‘transform the minerals industry approach to evaluation and extraction’. This was possible due to the generous support and existing research capability provided by the SMI. The vision for CRC ORE was developed out of the SMI which is contributing significant background IP to enable CRC ORE to deliver its vision. SMI hosts CRC ORE and provides access to over 300 mining industry researchers. Queensland University of Technology and the University of Tasmania expand these capabilities through a range of world class facilities and researchers. Expertise in mathematics, statistics, geometallurgy, geology and environmental geochemistry will play a critical role in realising CRC ORE’s ambition to transform the industry using novel technologies.


Research and Utilisation Leadership Team Program 1 Program 2 Resource Characterisation Resource Extraction Table.... CRC ORE researcher leaders/partners

Program Leader

Dr Steve Walters

Prof Malcolm Powell

Prof Rodney Wolff

Industry Mentor

Dean Collett

Dr Ray Shaw

David Whittle

Sub Program Leader

Prof Lottermoser Prof Chitombo Dr Julie Hunt

Dr Marcin Ziemski Prof Emmy Manlipeg Mr Alan Cocker

Prof Erhan Kozan Prof Chris Eves Prof Paul Robertson

Commercial Support

Dr Dan Alexander (JKtech), Prof John Vann (QG), Dylan Webb (CAE Mining)

Research Manager

Lauren Stafford

AMIRA

Going Forward

AMIRA International Ltd is an independent association of minerals companies which develops, brokers and facilitates collaborative research projects. AMIRA is key participant in CRC ORE and manages leading research projects in mineral processing (P9) and Geometallurgy (P843). These projects are core building blocks to the CRC ORE integration initiative and AMIRA’s strong support is gratefully recognised.

Having set a vision and resolved legal agreements the key task for year one was to gain research momentum and generate industry demand for CRC ORE activities. Through a major collaborative effort this has already yielded success in a number of areas, the highlights of which you will find on the following page. Balancing the expectations of varied CRC participants is an obvious challenge for collaborative ventures such as CRCs and the CEO’s key role is to find the ‘sweet-spot’ between the participants so that research outcomes can be produced rapidly. The abilities and enthusiasm of the all the CRC ORE participants combined with the board, TAP and management team has made this possible.

Commercial Partners QG, JKTech and CAE Mining are welcomed as new participants to CRC ORE. The three companies have already made a significant contribution to enhancing CRC ORE’s activities through their generous time, energy and vision. JKTeck and QG bring an existing business alliance and their participation in CRC ORE enables the integration of geometallurgy, mineral processing and economic evaluation. This capability provides a commercial platform into which CRC ORE research can be developed and rapidly deployed to industry. In April 2010 CAE and Datamine announced the acquisition by CAE of The Datamine Group, a leading supplier of mining optimization software tools and services, to further its entry into the mining sector. With operations in nine countries, CAE Mining offers a broad network to deliver CRC ORE research outcomes. CAE Mining has particular expertise in operations centres and this is an ideal platform to deliver CRC ORE technology.

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Through its collaborative partnerships CRC ORE has made a strong start to our five year initiative. Large integrated case studies are being used to demonstrate the value of a systems approach to mineral extraction. We will continue to leverage and expand these studies as they provide the environment for industry, research and commercial partners to develop and validate step change technologies.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Highlights • Program Leaders at the forefront of industry innovation appointed

• CRC ORE commences 8 industry case studies

• ATO confirms not for profit tax exemption

• In January 2011 CRC ORE welcomed Prof Berndt Lottermoser as the lead researcher for environmental characterisation in mining. Prof Lottermoser is the UTas New Star Professor in Environmental Geochemistry.

• Financials -- Industry funding commitments at 113% of plan -- Admin costs below budget -- New funding through memberships and projects > $2m. -- Non-staff in-kind was >$2m and -- Staff in-kind was 84% of plan in monetary terms

• 10 PhD students involved in CRC ORE research • JKTech, QG and CAE Mining join CRC ORE • QG, JKTech and CRC ORE train +100 industry professionals in Geometallurgy


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Opinions on Performance At the end of CRC ORE’s first year, our participants share a few words on their opinions of the Centre’s performance.

INDUSTRY David Whittle – BHP Billiton CRC ORE delivers collaboration between those developing new technologies and those that will be employing them to improve the mining process. Through this collaboration, it has the potential to make a step change in several key areas of mine planning and operations. At the end of its first year CRC ORE appears to have made a strong start. Program 3 is focused on planning and evaluation. By engaging researchers from outside the conventional mining disciplines, CRC ORE is seeking to bring fresh perspectives to select questions in mine scheduling and accurate financial evaluation in mining. BHP Billiton is providing additional support for this research in the form of site based case studies. Looking beyond the current environment of high commodity prices, it is important that the industry addresses continued improvement to ensure prosperity. CRC ORE’s research is contributing to new approaches that will keep mining competitive and at the forefront of Australian industry in coming years.

RESEARCH Ian Mackinnon – Queensland University of Technology Despite the inherent challenges of collaborative research projects, they remain one of the most effective ways of significantly advancing practical outcomes for an industry. To produce viable outcomes, researchers and industry practitioners must work closely on problems that focus on the triple bottom line. In this regard, the mining community is no exception. Rapid advances often accrue to those researchers willing to work across traditional disciplinary boundaries and this is evident at the outset in CRC ORE.

CRC ORE’s strength lies in fostering research collaboration between established groups in minerals characterisation and processing, maths, modelling and simulation, and geostatistic and econometric analysis. These groups have not previously had an opportunity to combine their skills towards a common goal, but clearly innovative solutions to global resource problems are well within reach for the cohort of researchers at CRC ORE. The leadership within the CRC, comprising highly experienced mining practitioners, will ensure that CRC ORE technology is effectively employed by industry participants. In time, I expect to see widespread understanding of industry’s challenges emerging from the CRC’s case studies and thus broad application of novel solutions across the industry. In its inaugural year, CRC ORE has forged strong links between research institutions and industry, and has laid the groundwork for what may be a step change transformation of the mineral resources sector.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER John Bailey – CAE Mining Many mining companies have realised the need to plan more strategically to ensure long term growth. While much of the data for strategic planning is already available, the tools to effectively utilise this data lag behind. The challenge now lies in shaping this vast amount of information into a form that enables mine managers to make rapid decisions using up to the moment information. CRC ORE’s technologies have the capacity to go beyond visualisation and allow for intelligent long term planning. Only a collaborative effort of the scale of CRC ORE can bring about transformation in an industry such as mining. A year into its operation the Centre has demonstrated that it has the capability to put research in the hands (and on the mine sites) of industry partners. I believe CRC ORE is already well placed to achieve its ambitions, and look forward to seeing this continue over the next few years.


This being the first year of CRC ORE activities, operations focused on building a foundation for the future of the Centre.

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Operations With mining a major driver of the Australian economy, the Commonwealth Government has recognised the need for the industry to develop these technologies to sustain economic growth through times of commodity market volatility.

expected to be executed in the second quarter of the 2011/12 financial year. UQ researchers have commenced work on the assumption that legal contracts will be finalised in due course as a formality.

The Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR)’s Cooperative Research Centre program was founded with the stated aim of delivering significant economic, environment and social benefits to Australia by supporting end-user driven research partnerships.

As another crucial part of the establishment of CRC ORE processes, mechanisms for protection of intellectual property (IP) and commercialisation development were initiated. At the forefront of this is the Intellectual Property Committee, which was established by the Board to provide leadership on issues of IP. This is further supported by the creation of a central IP register to record and track relevant IP, including project IP and background IP. The register is being trialled and prepared for use in anticipation of CRC ORE research programs reaching advanced stages over the next few years.

CRC ORE’s funding is primarily derived from this program, leveraging the support of the Centre’s major research partners and industry end-users. Funding from long term industry projects such as AMIRA’s P9 and P843 has also contributed significantly to attracting Commonwealth funds, which now support collaborative efforts across a number of research centres. This being the first year of CRC ORE activities, operations focused on building a foundation for the future of the Centre over the next five years of its lifespan as a CRC. Foremost amongst these was establishing legal contracts with the providers of CRC ORE funded research. As of September 2011 the majority of these had been finalised, with contracts through The University of Queensland

HR contracts have been formalised with the Program Leaders of CRC ORE’s three research programs, with Professor Rodney Wolff joing Dr Steve Walters and Professor Malcolm Powell in mid-2011. With research beginning in earnest, Tim Howard has been appointed Communications Officer to keep participants and industry abreast of developments at the Centre. CRC ORE also welcomes Shuting Jin in the role of Administration Officer. Shuting will be working closely with the COO and Finance Officer.

Mark Neville (COO), Jana Baranovic (Finance Officer), Alan Bye (CEO) and Lauren Stafford (MR&U) at the launch of CRC ORE.


Over $2M in new industry investment was committed to CRC ORE in this financial year.

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Financial Report CRC ORE Ltd (CRC ORE) is a public company limited by guarantee. The principal activity of the company during the course of the financial year was the administration of the Co-operative Research Centre for Optimising Resource Extraction. According to the Commonwealth and Participants Agreements the company will receive funding over a five year period (2010 - 2015) from its participants and the Australian government in the proportions outlined below.

Total Cash Funding

In-Kind is the provision of human and physical resources by participants’ organisations for the benefit of CRC ORE. In-kind covers non-cash support, primarily the provision of human and physical resources for CRC ORE activities. This generally includes time spent providing mentoring to researchers and the use of participants’ facilities for research and events. These resources will be used to finance industry driven research into optimisation of extraction of minerals deposits. The company research direction is shaped by the pursuit of the outcomes articulated in the Commonwealth Agreement.

CRC ORE Ltd 2010 – 2011 Financial Year In the 2010-11 financial year CRC ORE Ltd received cash contributions from all the Participants totalling $4,696,839, exceeding the 2010 - 2011 contractual commitment by 11%. The company has also received the government grant of $3,150,000 funded by the 3 Co-operative Research Centre program.

Industry Partners $11.25 million Participating Universities $4.52 million

Total In-Kind Funding

Overall In-Kind contributions obtained from 2.5 CRC ORE’s participants reached $4,675,937, well over the amount committed under the 2 Commonwealth Agreement in the first year, 1.5 mainly due to a significant additional level of Non-Staff In-Kind received from mining companies. Upgrade Factor

Government $17.5 million

1

CRC ORE also secured further significant revenues of approximately $2 million through new 0.5 memberships and additional research agreements to support further research effort. The company 0 continues to seek backing from external funding sources to expand its research portfolio.

Participating Universities $2.3 million Industry Partners $1.53 million

Approximately 85% of CRC ORE expenditure was used to fund research activities. The remainder was used to support administrative functions including commercialisation, communications and corporate governance.


RE EN DU U ER CE SA G D G Y E

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RE W DU U AT CE SA E D G R E

PR MI O NE C R ES A SI LS N G

Research Overview

Connecting the dots....

O OL GY

GE

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

The success of CRC ORE hinges on the ability to deliver results that demonstrate the overall impact of options for improvement within and across the departments of geology, mining, minerals processing and mineral economics on operations as a whole. Program 1: Resource Characterisation is developing ways to measure and describe the features of complex rock materials in order to better predict how it will behave in mining and waste management processes. This information and understanding of the rock mass developed in Program 1 will be drawn on in Program 2: Resource Extraction, to simulate the best methods of mining and minerals processing. Program 3: Resource Evaluation will assess the value of the technical outcomes of programs 1 and 2 using sophisticated financial models that consider mineral resource economics on a new level. Together, the research across the three programs of CRC ORE will change the definition of economic ore and could considerably enlarge Australia’s viable economic deposits.

Innovation in the hands of end users CRC ORE’s research programs, which individually focus on enhancing knowledge and generating new technologies within their field, come together to demonstrate the influence on the whole operation through cross discipline case studies. Through these case studies, industry partner mine sites receive the dedicated attention of teams of cross discipline specialists focused on optimising their minerals extraction processes and seeing them in action on the operation. Results are measured by the impact on metal production and profitability, energy and water consumption and carbon emissions. The CRC ORE project portfolio will develop tools in the form of software and methodologies that will enable decision making to enhance the efficiency of mining operations. The outputs will enable

corporate tracking and comparison of business unit energy efficiency per unit metal produced. In addition it will allow site engineers to consider changes to the design, layout and operation of mines so as to minimize their environmental footprints and increase metal production.

CEO Manager Research & Utilisation

Program Leader: Resource Characterisation

Program Leader: Resource Extraction

Program Leader: Resource Evaluation

Environmental Indicators Project Team

Flexible Circuits Project Team

Geostatistics Project Team

Process Indicators Project Team

Integrated Extraction Simulator Project Team

Integrated Evaluation Project Team

Rock Mass Analysis Project Team

Blasteck Project Team

Integrated Mine Planning Project Teams


Program 1: Resource Characterisation – Overview Program Leader Dr Steve Walters Program Mentor Dean Collett Achieving maximum efficiency and productivity for mining operations requires accurate and timely information on the nature of the rock feed provided for mineral extraction. The characteristics of the feed influence decisions on the type of mining, choice of optimal processing technologies, scheduling of the overall mining plan, planning for waste management and ultimately optimisation of resource utilisation. Program 1 aims to provide information on the nature of feed suitable for use in mine site optimisation within the overall objectives of CRC ORE. This information feeds into Programs 1 and 2 where it promotes a new cross-discipline approach to integration based on common goals of optimisation, productivity and sustainability. A key aspect of the knowledge and tools being developed in Program 1 is the ability to provide predictive information early in the planning and utilisation cycle. This involves a range of indicators to predict processing attributes of rock feed such as blasting, grinding, flotation recovery or acid mine drainage. Provision of these indicators involves development of new small-scale, fast and efficient laboratory tests which provide much more extensive information compared to current practice. New ways of analysing and modelling larger multi-attribute data sets also requires more effective softwarebased data visualisation tools and concepts.

To facilitate this approach more effective crossdiscipline education and training is also being developed within Program 1. A common perception in the minerals industry is that in many mining operations the inherent natural variability of rock feed makes it difficult to apply normal manufacturing principles employed in sectors such as the motor industry, where component specifications are carefully controlled. Provision of more extensive rock feed information combined with new education and training initiatives aims to change these current perceptions and drive increased efficiency. Activities within Program 1 are grouped into three themes together with related training and education development. There is also significant cross-program participation in site-based integrated case studies. • P1A: Provision of shared 3D common rock mass attributes and models. • P1B: Developing new and improved predictive environmental indicators for significant mineral reactions such as acid rock drainage, propensity for dust generation and trace element mobility. • P1C: Application of small-scale, fast and efficient tests for mineral processing indicators. Program 1 is managed by Dr Steve Walters, who has over 30 years industry experience in mineral exploration, mining and applied research. Until recently he was manager for the major AMIRA P843/P843A Geometallurgical Mapping and Mine Modelling project involving over 20 industry sponsors and five research institutions. There are strong collaborative links between CRC ORE Program 1 and the ongoing AMIRA P843A project.

Multi-attribute block models visualise complex data sets to aid planning

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Characterising the rock mass yields benefits at all stages in the minerals extraction process.


P1A: 3D Common Rock Mass Attributes and Models Project Leader: Professor Gideon Chitombo (WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre (BRC) - UQ) Researchers: Dr Penny Stuart, Dr Ian Brunton and Dr Marcin Ziemski (BRC-UQ), Dr Geoff Just (consultant) Commencement: March 2011.

Collecting and interpreting fundamental rock property attributes to share across disciplines. This project seeks to amalgamate collection and interpretation of cross-discipline rock property data into a set of common fundamental and intrinsic rock mass attributes suitable for sharing. The aim is to increase the efficiency of data collection and identify opportunities for integration. Development of a centralised database for common rock mass attributes ultimately embedded into the 3D resource block model encourages early collection of data suitable for a range of applications. A shared approach also facilitates use of more effective technology for data collection that could be regarded as too costly for individual specialist application.

3D block models visualise ore body properties.

The minerals industry is traditionally divided up into professional disciplines with different backgrounds, skills and objectives. On mine sites this is manifested in different departments responsible for aspects such as geology, mining, mineral processing, mine planning and waste management. Types of data required for rock feed characterisation are typically regarded as different

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for each department/discipline. The conventional approach results in different independent sampling and testing campaigns using different testing methods with results regarded as non-transferrable between disciplines. Lack of co-ordination and communication between different specialist sampling and testing campaigns mean that costly and time-consuming information is difficult to integrate and compare.

These will create an awareness of specialist needs and approaches across disciplines, and are important for encouraging greater integration and sharing of resources The major activity underway in Project 1A is an extensive review of current industry practice to identify opportunities for increased integration and data sharing. This involves use of an experienced multi-disciplinary research team with expertise across the specialist areas. The review will identify opportunities for improved speed to data, application of more automated and novel data collection technologies, potential to share costs and data across disciplines, improved centralized data management strategies and enhanced visualisation tools. In consultation with industry sponsors the outcomes will be used to develop technology and gap-based further research to develop common rock mass models. The project is developing accredited education and training courses to encourage cross-discipline understanding and common goals. The first offering involves mass mining design and mine planning. Elements in the course include deposit characterisation, mining method selection, mine design layout and infrastructure, caving mechanics, blasting, fragmentation and materials handling. These will create an awareness of specialist needs and approaches across disciplines, and are important for encouraging greater integration and sharing of resources.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Understanding variations in geology can have significant flow on effects for extraction and processing.


Accredited research and training is an important aspect of industry awareness for improved predictive environmental planning and management.

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

P1B: Environmental Indicators Project Leader: Professor Bernd Lottermoser (School of Earth Sciences-UTAS) Researchers: Dr Taryn Noble (SES-UTAS), Ms Anita Parbhakar-Fox and Mr Ashish Sadhu (PhD students (SES-UTAS), Dr Mansour Edraki (CMLR-UQ) Commencement: January 2011. The project is focussed on mineralogical and geochemical attributes of rocks that are likely to influence environmental performance and management of ores and wastes during mineral processing, product manufacture and waste disposal. This will be based on new and improved laboratory testing procedures designed to provide predictive indicators.

This project will provide fundamental information for future management tools needed by industry to predict waste and ore characteristics such as acid mine drainage. Provision of early indicators will allow a more proactive view on potential environmental issues linked to assessment of management and mitigation as part of overall mine planning and optimisation. Initial research is focussed on development of small-scale, rapid laboratory tests for significant mineral reactions such as acid rock drainage), propensity for dust generation and trace element mobility. As the tests move into the validation phase it is anticipated that sponsor case study sites will be used to demonstrate commercially significant outcomes.

The need for improved understanding of environmental liabilities and risks associated with mining operations has been widely recognised in the industry. A number of companies have identified that a well organised and implemented approach to acid mine drainage can have significant financial benefits, with some suggesting that as little as a 10% reduction in liability may be worth tens of millions to Net Asset Value. Activities have been developed in close collaboration with the AMIRA P843A Geometallurgical Mapping and Mine Management project involving over 20 global industry sponsors. The University of Tasmania has also set up dedicated laboratory facilities to support this work.

Dr Taryn Noble, Ms Anita Parbhakar-Fox (centre) and Professor Bernd Lottermoser inspecting kinetic leach trials at the University of Tasmania.

Accredited research and training is an important aspect of industry awareness for improved predictive environmental planning and management. Short courses have already been developed to promote this understanding.

Ms Anita Parbhakar-Fox examines ARD samples


P1C: Application of Small-scale Testing for Mineral Processing Indicators Project Leader: Dr Steve Walters (CRC ORE) Researchers: Dr Julie Hunt and Dr Ron Berry (CODES-UTAS), Dr Karin Hoal, Mr John Jackson and Ms Diana Drinkwater (JKTech – UQ), Mr Cristian Carrasco (MSc student JKMRC – UQ) Commencement: July 2010. Project P1C is focused on the development of small-scale, rapid and low cost laboratory tests for predictive processing indicators related to aspects such as blasting, crushing, grinding, flotation recovery and leaching. Indices developed using this data will enable optimisation of processing circuits to cope with variability in the geology. This typically requires large numbers of tests and reduced time to data compared to conventional approaches. While the resulting predictive information can be scaled up to mining blocks, the challenge is to preserve options for evaluating a range of processing routes and decisions which can be used to optimize the overall mining operation. Multiparameter spatially distributed processing indices embedded into the resource block model are key inputs into other programs in CRC ORE.

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Rapid testing methods will increase the speed and viability of sampling campaigns

Development of predictive processing indices linked to geological variability and spatial distribution is a key aspect of the emerging area of geometallurgy. There are close collaborative links between Program 1C and the AMIRA P843/P843A Geometallurgical Mapping and Mine Modelling project which has been underway for six years with over 20 industry sponsors. The role of CRC ORE is to promote and ensure integration and cross-discipline understanding of geometallurgical processing indices across the entire mine site optimisation and valuation chain. This also includes support for the transition between research prototypes to commercial testing products, as well as the provision of integrated training to enhance industry understanding and implementation. In addition to these activities,


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

CRC ORE is constantly seeking to identify potential breakthrough technologies beyond the scope of current research projects.

consumption in comminution through early waste rejection, and fundamentally changing the concept of in-situ effective cut-off grades.

A key aspect in understanding and demonstrating relevance to the entire mine site valuation chain is application of processing indicators in large scale CRC ORE integrated case studies. Significant collaboration between project P1C, other CRC ORE programs and Newcrest Mining is currently underway as part of the Telfer Integrated Case Study. This includes development of new small-scale testing procedures to predict potential for early size by size separation of ore from waste. Outcomes of this case study have implications for reducing energy

Provision of integrated training and education is essential to promote industry understanding and acceptance of predictive processing indicators. Course development is currently underway involving a coalition of research providers and SMEs to develop a sustainable training and education program aimed at industry practitioner level. The emphasis will be on practical ‘how to’ training and cross discipline awareness ranging from introductory level to 1-2 week practitioner modules.

Composition of the ore dramatically affects choice of optimal processing method.


Flexible circuits allow processing to be optimised to deal with variations in the ore feed.

Program 2: Resource Extraction – Overview Program Leader Professor Malcolm Powell Program Mentor Ray Shaw

Program 2 aims to connect geology, mining and processing at a level of integration long desired by industry. It will result in fundamentally new ways of extracting ore bodies that are efficient and environmentally sensitive. The blasting project will develop techniques to tune the rock fragmentation (size distribution) to the downstream processing route. The Integrated Extraction Simulations, which call on the capabilities of Flexible Circuit models, will predict the variation in recovery, energy and water performance. Blastech integrated blasting software for open pit mines draws on three years of prior research to develop a single software interface to import geological information and optimise blast design

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and charging. Blasting considerations can be made for fragmentation, movement (grade control) and metal concentration. The software enables selective blasting techniques to be employed in a mass mining environment. Dynamic blast design leverages the geotechnical block models developed by Program 1 to produce pattern design parameters for concentrating blast energy. With rock breakage accounting for more than 50% of mine site energy consumption, reducing the size of feed to the mill can have a significant economic effect. Selective Liberation utilises chemical energy (the most cost effective form of energy) to increase fragmentation in regions of high metal concentration, resulting in substantial energy savings across the circuit. The Integrated Extraction Simulator (IES) will provide a platform to be utilised along the whole minerals value chain. The current specification study project is identifying the software architecture, database


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

and data processing structures that will satisfy these simulation requirements. The Software Requirement Specification is complete and currently existing potential simulator platforms are being assessed as possible bases for the IES.

These outputs will be fed into the integrated valuation tool of Program Three to provide a holistic assessment of different options, aiming to quantify the hitherto hidden economic and environmental benefits of improved circuit design and operability.

Through utilising the outputs of the advanced blast design and the Flexible Circuit research, Integrated Extraction Simulations will demonstrate the net effect of blasting and process circuit changes on the overall energy performance of extraction, with the aim of providing compelling cases for changes in blasting methodologies and circuit design.

Outputs from Program 1’s resource characterisation research provide processing properties for the ore body that will be linked to the process models. This allows a range of feed characteristics to be used to simulate the circuit response over life-of-mine; enabling robust and flexible circuit design that can cope with significant variations in the ore body.

Rock breakage accounts for more than 50% of mine site energy consumption.


P2A: Blastech Project Leader: Alan Cocker (WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre (BRC) - UQ) Researchers: Mark Jones (BRC-UQ), Dr Peter Townsend (consultant) Commencement: October 2010. Blastech will provide a software framework that incorporates state-of-the-art models to predict the fragmentation and three-dimensional movement of a blasted rock volume. For the first time these blasting models will make use of a comprehensive geological and geotechnical description of the rock mass via a multi-parametric block model. The software will also have the capacity to employ Measurement While Drilling (MWD) data as a proxy for measured rock. The project is led by Alan Cocker, a senior researcher at the Bryan Research Centre (BRC) within The University of Queensland’s Sustainable Minerals Institute. Other team members include experienced BRC software engineer Mark Jones, and Dr. Peter Townson, a consulting software

Blastech will model the behaviour of blasted rock volumes.

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developer who has unique skills in modelling the complexities of 3D blast movement. The project started in October 2010 and is due to deliver a prototype of the Blastech system by end May 2012. The project is progressing according to plan, with the software specification delivered and the primary architecture finalised. Blast and block model data can be imported, and the database schema to accommodate these data sets is well advanced. Both 2D and 3D visualisation components are near complete. BRC’s layered fragmentation model has been built in, and the algorithms needed to operate it in support of blast pattern design are under test. The BRC 3D blast movement modules are now operational in Blastech and the first results are being displayed in the 3D view. This research is taking place at BRC, with support from field projects and interested mines. Blastech aims to incorporate the best possible description of the rock mass in blast design, and provide state-of-the-art blasting models to predict its behaviour when blasted. This will significantly improve existing resource utilisation thereby helping to increase sustainability in open pit mining, while reducing its environmental impact. These features align well with CRC ORE’s operational brief and contracted Commonwealth requirements.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Predicting rock movement and fragmentation to significantly improve resource utilisation.

Blast characterisation aids blast design.


Flexible circuits enable more efficient processing of variable feed.

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

P2C: Flexible Circuits Project Leader: Professor Malcolm Powell (JKMRC - UQ) Researchers: Dr Simon Michaux, Mr Paul Kay and Dr Nirmal Weerasekara (JKMRC) Additional simulator integration by Dr Marcin Ziemski (BRC-UQ) Commencement: January 2011

Minerals processing circuits that adapt to changes in the feed. The Flexible Circuits project is designing circuits that can respond to the changes in feed composition and size over the life of a mine, and are intrinsically more robust and thus controllable. They may also facilitate ore upgrade or sorting and reduce overall energy consumption.

As the feed type changes, conventional circuits respond by over-or under-loading in various parts of the circuit. This leads to large fluctuations in throughput and grind-size. These fluctuations pass down to the recovery process resulting in fluctuating recoveries, particularly in flotation that is directly linked to grinding. Flexible circuits should be able to shift processing load around the components of the circuit to maintain a more balanced throughput and grind. This flexibility will also allow the circuit to make the most of changes in blast and mining methods, such as dramatically finer feeds, or dealing with high and low grade ores independently and differently. Circuits will be designed to allow for future technology to be integrated into the flowsheet, especially targeting ore sorting and upgrade. This is to facilitate expansion through upgrade of gangue rather than addition of more grinding power. The target is to contribute to the reduction of overall circuit energy usage by 30% for expansions of existing operations or for new mines, and to deliver associated operating cost reductions.

Modifying the design of processing circuits can significantly reduce their energy footprint (seen here measured in kWh/t).


Mining consumes 4.7% (projected to 9.7% in 2030) of Australia’s energy production, and comminution (grinding) accounts for about 50% of that. Previous studies by the researchers indicate potential for comminution energy savings of over 40% in direct energy usage, and over 50% in embodied energy usage. Embodied energy comprises the energy used to manufacture grinding media, mill liners, and other associated grinding consumables. These estimates are a strong indication that the potential prize from this approach is considerable.

Variation in feed has a significant impact on process efficiency that traditional circuits cannot respond to.

The Flexible Circuits project investigates multiple opportunities along the process chain to work off the strengths of each unit of equipment and balance that against the other units in the process – thus providing flexibility. It will also analyse the production of daughter products that lead to greater efficiency in downstream processing stages. Target energy savings will be achieved through cumulative improvements across the entire minerals processing circuit. As the success of this project is based on pushing the boundaries of equipment performance, it requires advancement of the existing simulation and modelling capability. In particular, the implementation gaps that this project intends to address are: • Mechanistic modelling of equipment through the Unified Comminution Model (UCM) • Incorporation of reliable power calculations in process models Energy consumed in the production of grinding media is a significant component of energy used by mining.

Improvements to one piece of equipment in the mineral processing circuit tend not to consider the impact on the total circuit. Efficiency gains produced in isolation are not flexible enough to respond to the large changes in feed that all mines experience, and do not achieve a substantial reduction in energy usage.

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• Ability of the models to deal with different components in the feed (Associated AMIRA P9O work) Pilot testing will be used to further develop and validate the simulations and models. The simulations will also guide the commercial pilot testing, which will demonstrate the practical feasibility of the circuit to respond to major changes in feed composition and to reduce direct energy consumption by over 30% and embodied energy in grinding media by 50%.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance


P2D: Integrated Extraction Simulator (IES) Project Leader: Dr Marcin Ziemski (WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre (BRC - UQ) Researchers: Mark Jones (BRC-UQ) and Emmy Manlapig (JKMRC –UQ) Commencement: January 2011 A single simulator platform to be utilised along the whole minerals value chain. Process simulations have significant potential for optimising process design and operation. The ability to provide process energy, emissions and water use information from simulations can also contribute to better financial valuations over the total life-of-mine. Current simulation packages such as JKSimMet and JKSimFloat were designed at a time when knowledge of the key determinants of process and mine performance were less advanced than they are today. Mineral processing and extraction research is continuously developing a deeper understanding of how to predict the recovery, energy, water and other environmental outcomes from processing of an ore body. Furthermore, traditional mining industry simulators have addressed individual phases of the overall beneficiation process and do not capture the benefits of modelling the integrated extraction process. A flexible, extensible platform is therefore required as the integrating vehicle to combine disparate phases of minerals extraction and exploit the detailed ore body and equipment process understanding that is continually being updated in mining and processing research.

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Research project is a scoping study that is identifying the software architecture, database and data processing structures that satisfy the requirements of a flexible, robust and extensible minerals extraction simulator. The software functionality defined will be able to accommodate the concepts being developed within the AMIRA P9O project and support the utilisation of current and future research knowledge in predictive studies. The simulation platform design is aimed at providing an architecture that supports multicomponent simulation, links easily with external models and software packages, and can be utilised along the whole minerals value chain, from mining to final product. The possibility of including pyroand hydro-metallurgy is also being investigated. IES architecture and the abstraction between the software platform and models used Project deliverables include: • Project development and test environment – Complete (Team Foundation Server - TFS) • Software Requirement Specification (SRS) – Complete • Assessment of external simulator platforms as possible bases for IES – In Progress • Definition of a data dictionary • Database schema • Software Architecture Specification (SAS) • Software Implementation Plan (SIP) This project will provide the necessary software technology to fully exploit the predictive capabilities of the new multi-component AMIRA P9 models, as well as capture the successful outcomes of the original Anglo Platinum SEE project in new generation software. The convergence of these two research streams will create a powerful new generation predictive tool for optimising across the whole life of mine, from planning through to closure.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

EXISTING INDUSTRY MODELS & SIMULATORS

REPORTING ENGINE

SOFTWARE CONTROL ENGINE

SQL DATABASE

MINERAL PROPERTIES

PERFORMANCE LIBRARIES

MODEL-SPECIFIC LIBRARIES

DATA INTERFACE WIZARD

INTEGRATED EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY SIMULATOR IES architecture and the abstraction between the software platform and models used


Program 3: Resource Evaluation – Overview Program Leader Professor Rodney Wolff Program Mentor David Whittle Project Researchers: Professor Erhan Kozan, Professor Chris Eves, Dr Jay Sarkar, Professor Paul Robertson and Dr Gian Luca Casali (QUT) Program 3 aims to create innovative new methods for resource evaluation, addressing the multidimensional complexities overlooked by traditional static valuation methods. The program will create user friendly tools to simplify complex decision making and attach value to decisions in a rational way. Program 3 utilises inputs from throughout Program 3 utilises inputs from throughout the CRC ORE research portfolio to generate comprehensive valuation models. Discoveries in Resource Characterisation constitute the inputs for research into resource extraction, which in turn render performance information. The aim of Program 3 is to take this rich information set, integrate it into technical resource models, and obtain

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sophisticated assessments of value and risk which exceed present practice in terms of reducing restrictive business assumptions, increasing the robustness of analyses, and identifying drivers of financial risk. The Program has assembled a diverse array of researchers from each of the Centre’s university research partners. This research team constitutes experts in financial econometrics, applied statistics, operations research, valuation, and accounting, all of whom consider risk and optimality from their respective backgrounds. The team has extensive experience in working with industry, business, and government, and is now pooling efforts in forthcoming research projects in Program 3. The team is joined by industry-based researchers from the Quantitative Group and CAE Datamine and, with mentorship generously provided by Mr David Whittle of BHP Billiton, is rapidly sharpening collective skills in bringing their experience to mine project evaluation. This research profile and the structure of CRC ORE research programs have meant that the Program began with an identification of present practice and theory so that the broad research plan, as presented to the Commonwealth during the bidding process, could be clarified and specified.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Finding the gaps in existing knowledge. This was achieved through two initial projects. The first was a gap analysis, led by Professor Rodney Wolff, joined by Professor Erhan Kozan, Professor Chris Eves, and Dr Jay Sarkar, who reviewed mine project evaluation from the perspectives of financial risk, operations research, valuation theory, and economic fundamentals. The aim of this research was to survey publicdomain descriptions of mine project evaluation and to identify the specific ways in which modern quantitative methods could be harnessed to provide a holistic view of risk, both internal and external to a mine site. The study resulted in a set of detailed technical considerations which could potentially bring about step-change improvement to mine planning and evaluation. Mr David Whittle (BHP Billiton) and Mr John Vann (Quantitative Group) have reviewed the draft papers, which are currently being revised for circulation within CRC ORE and ultimately wider publication. The second was a scoping report on factors influencing the absorption of new technologies in the Australian mining industry. This research addressed a crucial companion problem to the development of new evaluation methods, namely a sector-wide view of how obstacles for innovation can be overcome. Professor Paul Robertson and Dr Gian Luca Casali executed this research, which comprised both literature investigations and structured interviews with key participants in the industry. Its principle finding was that there is often unnecessary confusion among the parties to innovation caused by poor communication and coordination and a lack of cooperation, underlining the imperative for holistic approaches to evaluation and planning. The Program is now positioned to initiate the substantial research projects envisioned in the original bid for the CRC: (1) rich block models; (2) optimal scheduling; and (3) integrated evaluation. Project 1 will consider how to import distributions of data – geological, geotechnical, energy, water, market risk – such that those distributions can be propagated through a mine plan and risk factors evaluated. This will be delivered as a PhD thesis, anticipated to be undertaken by Mr Jonathan Graham of CAE Datamine. It has been approved and will be led by Professor Rodney Wolff.

Project 2 was approved at the end of the CRC’s first year, and an initial visit to the BHP Billiton Iron Ore Mt Whaleback site was undertaken in mid-2011 to outline the project’s data requirements. Professor Erhan Kozan and Dr Sam Liu are working closely with industry mentor David Whittle from BHP Billiton to optimise pit to mill scheduling for iron ore, with a view to wider ore extraction applications. Data supplied by BHP Billiton Iron Ore from the Mt Whaleback mine site will feed the research, providing the computational experiments with real operation information allowing validation of the theoretical models and algorithms. These will be linked with commercial mining software to deliver insightful and quantitative recommendations that allow rapid decision making by mine managers. Expected benefits include improved production efficiency, reduced transportation costs and minimised impact to the environment. Project 3 is expected to be approved and to start within the first half of the coming year of operation, and will consider the disconnect between shortterm and long-term planning through research in statistical analysis of high-dimensional block model data sets, aggregation of financial risk through the mine value chain, and robust optimisation in the presence of rolling horizons. The Resource Evaluation program anticipates significant benefits for the mining industry in the form of user friendly tools to simplify complex decision making and attach value to decisions in a rational way that is currently impossible.


Large integrated case studies demonstrate the value of a systems approach to mineral extraction.

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Industry Challenges Operations / Activities RESEARCH OVERVIEW Resource Characterisation Resource Extraction Resource Evaluation

Integrated Case Studies


Telfer Integrated Case Study

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As a CRC ORE integrated case study, one of Australia’s most remote mines has become host to a range of radical new technologies that could significantly impact how the industry does business. Newcrest Mining’s Telfer site has partnered with CRC ORE to improve production efficiency at their operations, with particular focus on energy and water conservation.

points. Support from cross-discipline specialists supplied by CRC ORE has made it possible for Newcrest to review the effectiveness of existing extraction processes at the Telfer site against the new generation of flexible modular processing circuits. The project will also produce options for management resulting from the evaluation of the new circuit designs.

Experts from CRC ORE will gather and analyse data to assist in the design of new circuit configurations, which will then be compared to the more conventional crush-grind-float circuits currently in use. Newcrest and CRC ORE are expecting significant outcomes such as an increase of effective feed grades and a decrease in overall tonnage processed.

The Telfer project is focused on increasing feed grade and reducing energy and water consumption by classifying feed material as early in the process as possible. Rock breakage (particularly at the finer size ranges) requires a significant amount of energy, accounting for approximately 60 percent of all energy used in the mining process.

CRC ORE regards the mining process as one integrated progression, with cumulative gains possible through optimisation at all handling

Telfer was selected for its geological structure, which exhibits a number of characteristics which make it appropriate for this project. Telfer ore

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

tends to separate grades by fragment size, making it possible to screen material during processing. This reduces the amount of rock that must be crushed and milled and raises the mineral content of ore being fed to the mill. With technology outpacing the discovery of new deposits, miners are returning to areas previously considered unviable with old methods. Effective exploitation of the finer size fraction will bring precision in sorting coarse

ore, earlier rejection of waste and a significant decrease in overall energy consumption. As an organization committed to seeing innovative and cost-effective advancement in ore extraction technologies, the benefits for CRC ORE are accumulating. This important partnering with Newcrest’s Telfer mine has already seen the fast-tracking of data that will be used to bring positive future outcomes for the whole mining industry.


Site Based Case Study – Mogalakwena Selective Blasting Trial Early field application of CRC ORE blasting technology yields success As part of its commitment to put technology in the hands of end-users, CRC ORE conducted a site base case study in Selective Blasting at the Anglo Platinum’s Mogalakwena operation in South Africa. With support from industry sponsor Neville Plint, Head of Research and Development at Anglo Platinum, the February trial utilised Selective Blast Design technology developed as part of Research Program 2 to significantly improve the grade of ore being fed to the mill.

Selective Blasting achieves these results by using geometallurgical data to target high yield sections of the ore body with greater blast energy, resulting in fine fragment sizes in high grade material. Low grade ore is distributed to coarse fragments, allowing for separation prior to grinding. This enables the mill to process material at a very high grade, without low grade material driving down the average. Flow-on effects are seen in a potential 20% increase in the viability of low-grade material, as well as a possible 30% reduction in waste processing.

Selective blast designs result in higher energy concentration and greater fragmentation in high grade areas of the rock mass.

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

The February trial upgraded feed to the mill by upwards of 25% across all streams, an early success for CRC ORE case studies. This was achieved in spite of “worst case scenario� conditions at the site, where unseasonal rain necessitated manual cleaning of blast holes and extensive re-drills to achieve the 3D energy distribution required. The work leading up to the trial has been a collective project by specialists working on Selective Blasting methodologies. It has been determined that selective blasting facilitates ore beneficiation and waste removal in the early stages of the extraction process through the specific fragmenting of the blast. This allows the grade to be partitioned by screening prior to the ore entering the processing circuit, reaping large gains in efficiency. This trial involved an advanced blast targeting high-grade material for greater fragmentation, followed by coarse particle screening to remove oversize, bringing about an upgrade in the ROM ore. The layout of the site

enabled the project team to conduct the trial with no real interference to day-to-day operations. In early April, Dr Marcin Ziemski travelled to South Africa to run the blast material through the plant using SmartTagsTM to ensure that the feed was the correct material. One third of the blast volume was processed and the lab findings demonstrated an upgraded feed by factors of 2 to 2.5 times expected grade across all streams. CRC ORE wishes to acknowledge the efforts of the site and project teams, who conducted a gruelling 24-hour survey of the feed, working in three shifts to ensure the accuracy of the survey process. Their hard work has paid off by demonstrating the benefits of this technology to increase the viability and efficiency of mines using existing equipment. Neville Plint at Anglo Platinum has championed this research from the initial idea through proof of concept and now testing and validation. CRC ORE would like to recognise his long term support and efforts to enable the development of this innovation.

Selective Blasting and Screening 3

Upgrade Factor 2.5

Planned Feed Grade

Upgrade Factor

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Sample Date

Graph: Highlighted area indicates the period in which feed from the trial passed through the mill. Head grade improved by as much as 2.5 times the average.


Short Term Scheduling Project comes to Mt Whaleback Researchers from CRC ORE’s Resource Evaluation program travelled to Western Australia in late July to get their first look at BHP Billiton Iron Ore’s Mt Whaleback iron ore mining operation, soon to be home to a short term scheduling project that aims to significantly improve efficiency of mine sites through the development of new methodologies. Professor Erhan Kozan and Dr Sam Liu joined BHP Billiton Iron Ore representatives David Whittle and Shah Chaudari to meet with operations managers at the site and outline the project objectives The project will optimise the handling of Mt Whaleback’s iron ore by separating the feed by grade prior to transportation.

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Professor Kozan brings a fresh perspective to the research, with the visit being his first experience on a mine site. His extensive background in transportation and supply chain logistics will drive the development of the project’s state-of-the-art multi-stage scheduling methodologies. Data supplied by BHP Billiton Iron Ore from the Mt Whaleback mine site will feed the research, providing the computational experiments with real operation information allowing validation of the theoretical models and algorithms. These will be linked with commercial mining software to deliver insightful and quantitative recommendations that allow rapid decision making by mine managers. Expected benefits include improved production efficiency,


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

reduced transportation costs and minimised impact to the environment. The two day visit included a tour of the Mt Whaleback mine site followed by presentations by the researchers to BHP Billiton Iron Ore representatives covering the scope of the project and data requirements.

The researchers and CRC ORE would like to thank David Whittle, Shah Chaudari and Ian McKechnie from BHP Billiton and Western Australian Iron Ore operations at Mt Whaleback for their significant efforts in organising the visit.


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Industry Challenges Operations / Activities RESEARCH OVERVIEW Resource Characterisation Resource Extraction Resource Evaluation

Training & Education


TRAINING & EDUCATION Making a Difference in the Minerals Industry. Developing a strong skills base to implement new approaches to evaluation and extraction of Australia’s mineral deposits is a core focus of CRC ORE. Education and Training activities at CRC ORE aim to generate the social capital required to carry new technologies over the tipping point to infiltrate the processes and behaviours of the minerals industry. CRC ORE collaborative projects investigate the challenges faced in minerals extraction from a holistic perspective. As integral members of their project teams, our students gain site and operation experience and the opportunity to work with world renowned discipline specialists and industry professionals. Through day to day interaction with colleagues from various backgrounds, students supported by CRC ORE develop an appreciation for the factors impacting on the mining value chain and the effect their decisions have on other functions of the operation. Van Tran is a PhD student enrolled at UQ researching Risk Based financial evaluation methods for the Australian mining industry. Van recently visited the Telfer mine site that is providing the case study data for his thesis. “It was great to have the opportunity to see the site first hand because it makes it easier to understand how my work fits in.”

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The ease of access to data sets for his project, facilitated by the collaboration model of the Centre, was a key drawcard of conducting research at CRC ORE. “Some people are in their PhD for years and they don’t have a data set,” says Van, “so I am very lucky.” Education and training activities throughout CRC ORE’s first year of operations have included: • The support of Research Higher Degree students, Postdoctoral fellows and research associates. • The development and delivery of training courses that offer new knowledge on cutting edge technologies and emerging disciplines. CRC ORE and its participants have ensured that these courses have a delivery pathway which offers opportunity to gain credit within tertiary institutions and eventually may articulate to enable the award of post-graduate degrees. • Workshops to support skills and competency development. • Support of initiatives within partner institutions including the SMI RHD Conference. • Facilitation of Industry internships to offer opportunities for operational experience and practical learning activities. CRC ORE is currently recruiting 8 Research Higher Degree Students in addition to a number of Honours Students and Research Associates to continue the development of capacity across the scope of the CRC ORE portfolio.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

CRC ORE collaborative projects investigate the challenges faced in minerals extraction from a holistic perspective. CRC ORE RHD students: tomorrow’s Innovators and Decision Makers focused on mining industry challenges.

Current PhD students related to research activities: Student

Enrolling Institution

Program

Van Tran

UQ

PhD

Risk based financial evaluation methods for the Australian Mining Industry

Michael Scott

UQ

PhD

Modelling the financial impact of eco-efficiency parameters in the mining industry

Cristian Carrasco

UQ

MSc

Control and predictive models for coarse gold beneficiation with sorting potential at Telfer mine, Newcrest, Western Australia

Anita Parbhakar

UTAS

PhD

Predictive environmental mineralogy and geochemical techniques: a new approach to integrated acid rock drainage characterisation

Ashish Sadhu

UTAS

PhD

Uses of Carbon Sulphur Analyses for Sulphide Waste Characterisation.

Marcos Bueno

UQ

PhD

Development of a multi-component tumbling mill model

Ashleigh Collins

UQ

PhD

Modelling of multicomponent interactions in hydrocyclones

Gerson Sandoval

UQ

PhD

Attributing Physical Properties to Floatability Component Modelling

Jason Scally

UQ

MSc

The dynamic parameters and higher order moments of the generalised hyperbolic distribution within the context of risk and portfolio management applications

Hector Galvez

UQ

PhD

Blast induced fragment conditioning

Richard Hartner

UQ

PhD

Integration and analysis of optical and MLA-based microscopy for optimisation of geometallurgical modelling and ore deposit characterisation

William Hancock

UQ

PhD

Fundamentals of gravity flow in block caving based on large scale numerical simulations

Mitesh Chauhan

UQ

PhD

Development of small scale flotation test

Boris Albijanic

UQ

PhD

Flotability of multiphase particles in different chemical environments

Bianca Newcombe

UQ

PhD

Developing a method of predicting plant performance of ores from mineral characterisation and laboratory tests

Topic


CRC ORE researcher Jason Scally at the Researcher Workshop in June

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Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Researcher Workshop Researchers connect the dots at Collaboration Workshop Researchers from The University of Queensland, QUT and the University of Tasmania attended the inaugural CRC ORE Researcher Workshop on June 30 for a glimpse of the Centre’s future direction and to network with researchers from other disciplines. Attendees saw firsthand how visualisation and Integrated Operations Centres (IOCs) may be an effective pathway to industry utilisation of research outputs, with Newcrest Mining’s multimillion dollar Albion Collaboration Hub playing host to demonstrate the visualisation and data platforms which will enable mine managers to make rapid decisions based on models developed by CRC ORE. CEO of CRC ORE, Professor Alan Bye, opened the session by presenting the unifying vision for the Centre, outlining the integration between CRC ORE’s research programs and how they may contribute to the Planning Centres of the future. QUT’s Gavin Winter impressed the audience with a live demonstration of the system, projecting satellite imagery of Newcrest’s Telfer operation onto a giant screen of three linked projectors before transporting the assembled researchers below ground with 3D models of the Telfer Deeps tunnels. In addition to the stunning visualisation capabilities of the system, the facility feeds data alongside imagery to provide mine managers with a fully integrated view of operations on the ground. Andy Sherring, mastermind of Rio Tinto’s Perthbased Remote Operations Centre, introduced the idea that these centres are likely to become the norm for mining operations in the next few years.

Researcher Workshop

By concentrating dispatchers and other mine managers in one room, significant gains in efficiency are possible through both process optimisation and shared knowledge. With the room buzzing with excitement about Integrated Operations Centres, Newcrest’s Dean Collett presented on the opportunities and challenges facing the Telfer gold mine. Dean reflected on the worldwide trend for declining ore grades and rising energy costs, and proposed process optimisation as the most likely solution. Quantitative Group’s Scott Jackson presided over the afternoon workshop, forming cross discipline teams and challenging them to do the seemingly impossible: double the ore grade while halving energy use. With Telfer as a sandbox, researchers set to work finding novel solutions to a complex problem, using integrated approaches to find value adding opportunities across the mining process. Geologists and mineral processing engineers worked alongside mathematicians and mass mining experts, bringing new perspectives to the discussion. The afternoon presentation revealed the power of collaboration, with a series of innovative ideas and research topics borne out of the conversation. For many of the researchers the June workshop was the first opportunity to meet colleagues in CRC ORE’s other research programs and begin collaborative relationships that will yield exciting results in years to come. CRC ORE looks forward to hosting more collaborative events in the near future, and wishes to thank Dean Collett and Carol Koch from Newcrest for helping to organise the event.


Structure of CRC ORE CRC ORE has been established as a collaboration between CRC ORE Ltd and the various industry and research participants under the Commonwealth Government Cooperative Research Program, administered by the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science and Research (DIISR). CRC ORE signed the Commonwealth Agreement as a requirement of Commonwealth funding, while participants signed an additional Participants Agreement. The company is further bound by the requirements of the Company’s Constitution. The Board of CRC ORE is committed to upholding the principles of good governance recommended by the Australian Stock Exchange Corporate Governance Council, in a manner consistent with the broader corporate business community. With this in mind, the Centre’s governance entities have been

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structured to ensure a level of transparency and accountability in line with the ASX recommendations. CRC ORE Ltd has been endorsed as a charitable institution by the Australian Taxation Office and is entitled to a number of tax concessions.

The Board of CRC ORE is committed to upholding the principles of good governance recommended by the Australian Stock Exchange Corporate Governance Council


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Governance Report Board, Committees & Key Staff Governance Arrangements

The Constitution also requires that the Board as a collective possess skills in the following areas:

Overview The Board of CRC ORE Ltd defines business policies, provides strategic direction, considers commercial matters and oversees research activities. The members of CRC ORE Ltd elect the Board. An Audit and Risk Management subcommittee has been appointed by the Board and, in accordance with best practice guidelines, consists of a chair that is independent and not the chair of the Board and has three members, none of whom are executive management. The Board has also established an IP and Commercialisation Subcommittee on which any three Board members may serve. The CRC ORE Ltd Board met four times during 2010-11. The company has eight Directors including the Chair and CEO, with Directors elected by the members of CRC ORE for a term of up to two years.

• corporate governance; • mining/resources industry knowledge; • relevant research experience; and • commercial and financial expertise. The Board has established the following committees: • Audit, Compliance and Risk Management Committee • Remuneration Committee • IP Management/Commercialisation Committee • Technical Advisory Panel Each of these Committees is governed by a charter approved by the Board.

CRC ORE Ltd BOARD

Technical Advisory Panel

Audit, Compliance and Risk Committee

Research Program Leaders

CEO

IP Management and Commercialisation Committee

Centre Executive

Remuneration Committee


Our Board Jon Loraine Chairman (Independent) Jonathan Loraine has over 30 years of senior level mining industry operational and commercial experience in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Australasia. This has encompassed exploration management, project development and financing, and operational management across all sectors of the resources industry.

Alan Bye Director Alan Bye is the Chief Executive Officer and Director of CRC ORE Ltd. Alan Bye has over 10 years experience with Anglo American in senior management roles in operations, planning and consulting. Previously Alan was the Director of the W H Bryan Mining and Geology research centre where he led a cross discipline R&D team working on mining projects across a range of commodities and international locations

Andrew Logan Director Andrew is the EGM for Strategy, Step Change and Technology at Newcrest Mining. Andrew Logan’s experience in the mining and civil industry ranges across multiple disciplines including business step change & improvement projects, investment management, project management,

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technical leadership, Ore Reserve evaluation, geotechnical engineering and mine planning. His experience spans civil engineering, open pit mining; and underground mining techniques including selective and bulk techniques.

Bill te Kloot Director (Independent) Bill te Kloot is a highly experienced executive with a broad background in all aspects of financial and administration management and corporate governance. This experience has been gained in a wide selection of industries (sugar, coal, retail, waste management, marine transport and technology) and in both public and private companies.

Chris Moran Director Professor Chris Moran is the Director of the Sustainable Minerals Institute at the University of Queensland. Chris started with a degree in agriculture and a PhD in soil science and digital image processing from the University of Sydney. He worked as a natural resource scientist doing spatial science in the CSIRO for 16 years. He has been involved in minerals industry water and sustainability research since 2004. He has published around 80 articles in scientific journals, technical reports and a significant number of commercial and government information papers and popular media reports.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Don McKee Director (Independent) Don McKee has over 40 years experience in the mining and minerals industry and related fields. For over three decades, Don held roles which were responsible for the leadership and business development of the mining and engineering research and education activities across The University of Queensland. Don was personally responsible for the establishment of JK Tech in 1986, in 1997 he became the first full time Director of the Sir James Foots Institute of Minerals Resources and was responsible for the development its’ successor, the Sustainable Minerals Institute (SMI), after successfully receiving funding from the Queensland State Government and The University of Queensland.

Gavin Yeates Director Gavin is currently the Vice President of Minerals resource Development at BHP Billiton. He has over 30 years of experience with BHP and BHPBilliton in mining and related fields at a variety of locations with a variety of commodities, in operations, planning, and consulting, and more recently in management and executive roles with exposure to all aspects of the mining business.

Ian Mackinnon Director Currently Professor of Research and Commercialisation at QUT, Ian Mackinnon has many years experience in technology transfer including founder and executive director of a start-up company – NanoChem Pty Ltd – which developed environmentally friendly new materials for the chemicals and wastewater-treatment industries. Before this, he was Professor and Foundation Director of the Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis and Director of Advanced Ceramics Development, UniQuest Pty Ltd, both at The University of Queensland.

Mark Neville Company Secretary Mark Neville is the Chief Operating Officer and Company Secretary for CRC ORE Ltd. The principal role of a company secretary is to support the Board of Directors and oversee the various governance functions of the company. The secretary carries out administrative functions and, together with any director of the company, may execute documents on behalf of the company. A company secretary has ostensible authority to bind the company in administrative matters.


Committees The Audit, Compliance and Risk Committee assists the Board to verify and safeguard the integrity of the Company’s financial reporting and ensure that the Company adequately manages its risks. It is responsible for making recommendations to the Board of Directors on the adequacy of external audit, internal audit, risk management and compliance procedures. It was established along with the Remuneration Committee by the Board and meets throughout the financial year.

Name

Independent/Organisation

Geoff Oldroyd

Independent Chair

Dan Alexander

JKTech

Alan Bye

CRC ORE

Dean Collett

Newcrest

Bruce Gemmell

UTas

Audit, Compliance & Risk Committee

Geoff Gault

UQ

Members

Scott Jackson

Quantitative Group

Bill te Kloot

Erhan Kozan

QUT

Chris Moran

Nathan Bullock

Xstrata

Jon Loraine

Neville Plint

Anglo Platinum

Lauren Stafford

CRC ORE

Wayne Stange

AMIRA

Dylan Webb

CAE Mining

David Whittle

BHP Billiton

The IP Management and Commercialisation Committee has been established to provide the Board with advice on intellectual property and commercialisation issues including ensuring integration of research, development, commercialisation and adoption processes and matters of risk management and corporate governance in the area of intellectual property, adoption/commercialisation activities. The Committee charter requires that the Committee meet as and when required.

Geoff Oldroyd Technical Advisory Panel Chairman Geoff Oldroyd is the Chairman of the Technical Advisory Panel for CRC ORE Ltd. Dr Oldroyd is a mining engineer with over 40 years of experience in the mining and mineral resources industry, and brings to the position a global understanding of the technical, economic and environmental challenges of resource extraction. This important position strengthens governance at CRC ORE by providing oversight for research programs while addressing new research opportunities.

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The Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) is a Committee of the Board of CRC ORE that guides the research direction of the company. It provides strategic advice and recommendations to the Board, covering both new research proposals, and monitors the progress and results of ongoing projects. The TAP guides and enhances research and innovation by providing technical advice and identifying new research opportunities, as well as contributing knowledge or understanding of resources required to conduct site based validation and research activities.The committee is responsible for critically reviewing proposals and ongoing research projects, making recommendations for their adoption or amendment and ensuring they are aligned with CRC ORE’s research objectives. The TAP meets quarterly and is comprised of research and end-user representatives, with an independent Chairman.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance

Key Staff Professor Alan Bye Chief Executive Officer Professor Alan Bye is the CEO of the Cooperative Research Centre for Optimising Resource Extraction. This high profile, multi-million dollar programme aims to address some of the mining industries significant challenges in the areas of energy use and improved exploitation methods for mineral resources. In his prior post, Alan was previously director of the W H Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre at the Sustainable Minerals Institute (University of Queensland). He was with Anglo American for over 10 years and has held a range of cross-discipline positions in the areas of geology, geotechnical engineering, mine to mill, blasting engineering and mining manager.

Dr Mark Neville Chief Operating Officer Mark has extensive experience in Business and R&D management, technology transfer, product commercialisation, intellectual property management, business development and contract negotiation. He has previous experience as Manager of Technology Transfer for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Prior to joining ANSTO Mark was the International Business Development Manager for Environmental Systems & Services for AEA Technology plc., formerly the UK Atomic Energy Authority. Mark has published more than 30 technical papers in international journals and holds 9 international patents.

Jana Baranovic Finance Manager CPA Jana Baranovic is the Finance Manager at CRC ORE. In this role she is responsible for the financial management, tax and other compliance processes and management, government and statutory reporting. Jana is a CPA qualified accountant (Flinders University of South Australia), she also holds a Law degree from Czechoslovakia and is currently completing her Graduate Diploma of Applied Corporate Governance. She has extensive experience in financial management in a number of industries in both the public and private sectors, including the Business Manager role with ACID CRC.

Lauren Stafford Manager Research and Utilisation Lauren Stafford is the Manager of Research and Utilisation at CRC ORE. In this role she is responsible for the research project management, communication and education and training activities of the Centre. Lauren was previously the Business Manager of the WH Bryan Mining and Geology Research Centre at Sustainable Minerals Institute where she played a key role in the establishment of CRC ORE. Lauren holds a Bachelor of Applied Science (Hons) and a Bachelor of Education from The University of Queensland.


Tim Howard Communications Officer Tim Howard is the Communications Officer for CRC ORE, and is responsible for communications activities including marketing strategy, public relations, events management and production of creative. Tim brings with him expertise in brand management, advertising and creative industries, and previously worked as a digital marketer for electronics manufacturer Canon’s Australian Ambassador for Photography, Chris Bray.

Shuting Jin Administration Officer Shuting brings with her over five years of experience in research administration and grants management in a university setting. She has previously worked as a program coordinator in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University and as a clinical research coordinator managing clinical trials at Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States. Shuting holds a BSc in Biological Sciences from Stanford University.

Steve Walters Program Leader – Resource Characterisation Dr Steve Walters is Program Leader for Resource Characterization in CRC ORE. Steve has over thirty years of experience in the global minerals industry in the areas of exploration geology, mining geology, corporate research and geometallurgy. He previously played a key role in establishment and subsequent management of the AMIRA P843 GeMIII project - the largest university

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based research project in the emerging field of geometallurgy. During this time he was a joint appointment between CODES - the ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits at the University of Tasmania and the JKMRC at The University of Queensland. In addition to his current CRC ORE role, Steve is also a Research Consultant to JKMRC mainly involving support for technology transfer and validation case studies related to the ongoing AMIRA P843A project.

Malcolm Powell Program Leader – Resource Extraction Trained in Physics then mineral processing at Mintek (South Africa), Malcolm completed a PhD in grinding media motion and linear wear. After forming the comminution group at the University of Cape Town he joined the JK Research Centre at the University of Queensland to take up the Chair in Sustainable Comminution in 2007. He continues to lead comminution research at JKMRC while overseeing CRC ORE’s resource extraction program.

Rodney Wolff Program Leader – Resource Evaluation Rodney Wolff is Chair of Geostatistics at The University of Queensland and Program Leader for Resource Evaluation with CRC ORE. His research interests cover topics including applied statistics, data analysis, econometrics, experiment design, gambling, mathematics, probability, risk, surveys and time series. He was previously Professor of Financial Econometrics at Queensland University of Technology and received his PhD from the University of Oxford in 1990.


Industry Challenges Operations & Activities Research Case Studies Training & Education Governance


Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Programme

CRC ORE Ltd Level 7, Sir James Foots Building Corner of Staff House and College Roads The University of Queensland St Lucia, QLD, Australia, 4072 PO Box 6043 St Lucia, QLD, Australia, 4067

CRC ORE Annual Report 2010-2011  
CRC ORE Annual Report 2010-2011  
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