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Art Deco

A

ERTÉ (ROMAIN DE TIRTOFF) 1892-1990 Born in Russia, and beginning his career in Paris, Erté is considered one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. From

rt Deco was a very popular international art movement

1915 through 1937 he designed magazine

Typically Art Deco designers used stepped and zigzagged forms, rounded corners, sweeping curves, chevron patterns, triple-striped decorative elements, and black decoration.

body of work he produced there, helped define the entire art movement that was to become known as “Art Deco”. Erté is also known for creating extravagant costume, fashion and stage designs.

DESIGNER Royal Hickman came to Haeger Pottery near the end of the Art Deco period and created the Royal Haeger line which continues today. Known especially for his animal forms, Art Deco and modern influences were evident in Hickman’s flowing and elegant designs.

martinlawrence.com/erte

Art Deco was influenced by the art movements of Cubism, Futurism, and Constructivism. It is easy to see the modernization of many artistic styles and elements from the past, including Far and Middle Eastern design, Greek and Roman themes, even Egyptian and Mayan inspiration.

flickr.com/photos/ starshinegallery/2707054904

The term “Art Deco” was inspired by the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris, but was not actually coined until the 1960’s when Bevis Hillier, a British historian and critic organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in 1971. After this event, Art Deco made a come-back which continued with the popularization of graphic design in the 1980s. Art Deco was a major influence on many later artistic movements, including Memphis and Pop art.

William Van Allen was born in Brooklyn, New York and attended Pratt Institute. In 1908 he won a

greatest glass artists and jewelry design-

fellowship and studied in Paris. Upon his return to New York he formed a landmark partnership with H.

ers of the Art Nouveau and Art Deco periods.

Craig Severance. This team became known for abandoning the familiar design formula of: base, shaft, and capital, and adopting a distinctive approach to multistory commercial buildings. Van Allen is

He successfully made the transition from the

best known for his design of the Chrysler Building, recognized as the greatest example of Art

mannered, flowing Art Nouveau, to the modern,

Deco style skyscrapers.

elegant, functionality of Art Deco. His work was largely inspired by nature and classical Greek themes.

MATERIALS Many Art Deco designers rejected traditional materials for their work. They chose unusual, unique materials such as ebony, aluminum, lacquer, glass, stainless steel, marble, more rare expensive types of wood, even zebra skin. Pictured here is a beautiful and functional, marble and metal elevator piece.

Simple, geometric lines are inherent in Art Deco design; objects were simpler than Art Nouveau but were streamlined and elegant in their angular forms and vibrant colors.

WILLIAM VAN ALLEN 1883-1954

RENÉ JULES LALIQUE 1860 – 1945 Lalique is considered one of the world’s

juliaauctions.com/press_releases/pr_2008.asp

flickr.com/photos/noodle/2349242562p

Classified as “Recent Pop Art”, this young woman with cell phone is an example of modern artists recreating pop art that was originally inspired by the Art Deco period.

TYPOGRAPHY The sleek modern look of Art Deco is also clearly seen in typography. Many Art Deco type styles are all-cap fonts, and most are display designs because of their decorative nature. Type styles range from uncomplicated, lowwaisted monostroke designs, to ornate styles featuring double, triple or multi-lineal stroke details. Angular or curvy, elegant or playful, they all share the sophistication associated with that period.

These examples of Art Deco era color palettes feature primarily cool colors. The overall tone is cooler, and more metallic than the warm palettes of previous decades.

BEYOND AN ART-FORM Art Deco went beyond an artform, touching every part of life in time including: architecture, furniture, sculpture, clothing, costume design, stage and ballet sets, jewelry and graphic design. This Belkelite radio from the Art Deco period has a very colorful design and is highly collectable today.

desktoppub.about.com

Current design and art continue to be inspired by art deco themes. Rodney White, is a contemporary artist that paints in a vintage / retro weathered style echoing the old store signs and tins of the Art Deco period.

highstreetmirrors.com

covers for Harper’s Bazaar. The enormous

popartmachine.com/blog/young-woman-side-view-cell-phone-fashion-pop-art

art.com /gallery/id--a21231/rodney-white-postersenjoyart.com/rodneywhite

encompassing the period between the two world wars, or 1920 to 1939. This style of simple elegance and abstraction be gan as a Modernist response to the elaborate, flowing, natural forms found in Art Nouveau, but it was also a reaction to the forced austerity of wartime life. This time period was filled with social changes and industrial advances. Modern elements are reflected in machine and automobile patterns, and shapes that echo stylized gears and wheels Natural elements like sunbursts and flowers are portrayed in a graceful, geometric way often in symmetrical arrangements.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES -interiordesign.lovetoknow. com/Art_Deco_Style_Interior_Design -fonts.com/aboutfonts/articles/ fyti/01-01-2005.htm -en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco -retropolis.net/history.html -ref: artantiques.allinfo-about. com -greatbuildings.com/architects/ William_Van_Allen.html -sculpture-ceramic-masters. suite101.com/article.cfm/artist_biography_ren_lalique -enjoyart.com/rodneywhite.htm -collectics.com/education_haeger.html -arthistoryguide.com/travel/ travel43.aspx -desktoppub.about.com/od/ colorpalettes/l/blcpartdeco.htm

STUDIO Haeger Pottery, established in the early 1900’s produced lamps, figurines and other decorative items.

farm1.static.flickr.com

flickr.com/photos/89767536@N00/342760935

CMYK FORMULAS 1. C7M5Y10 | C7M90Y100 | C100M85Y10K6 | C40M25Y25K7 | C40K100 2. M40Y100 | C100M65Y10K6 | C80Y40K20 | C10M30Y60K10 | C5M5Y10K5 3. C7M5Y15 | M40Y25 | C30M55Y60K15 | C50K100


10

HOW

easy things you can do

IN YOUR HOME •Adjust Your Thermostat

Run your dishwasher only with a full load. Save 100 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $40 per year.

•Unplug Unused Electronics Even when electronic devices are turned off, they use energy. Save over 1,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $256 per year. Your electric meter is often adding up kilowatt hours when you don’t think you’re using an appliance. Unplug toasters and cell phone and other chargers when they’re not in use. Don’t use air fresheners that have to be plugged in. Use power strips. Cable boxes and video game boxes, and to a lesser extent TVs and VCRs, use almost as much energy when they’re off as when they’re on. Make it easy to turn them all the way off—plug them into a power strip and turn off the whole strip.

•Take Shorter Showers and Install a Low-Flow Shower Head Showers account for 2/3 of all water heating costs. Save 350 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $99 per year. Using less water in the shower means less energy to heat the water. Save 350 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $150.

•Check Your Waterheater Keep your water heater thermostat no higher than 120°F. Save 550 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $30 per year. Keep your water heater insulated could save 1,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $40 per year.

•Weatherize Your Home Caulk and weather strip your doorways and windows. Save 1,700 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $274 per year.

AT THE OFFICE •Use Recycled Paper

•Change the AC Filter Clean or replace dirty air conditioner filters as recommended. Save 350 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $150 per year.

•Use Compact Fluorescent Bulbs

•Fill the Dishwasher

PICK Make sure your printer paper is 100% post consumer recycled paper. Save 5 lbs. of carbon dioxide per ream of paper.

By making simple changes in your life, you can reduce the amount of C02 released into the atmosphere and help stop global warming. Put on a sweater instead of turning up the heat in your home. Save 1,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $250 per year.

Replace 3 frequently used light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. Save 300 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $60 per year.

TO

IN THE YARD Trees suck up carbon dioxide and make clean air for us to breathe. Save 2,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide per year.

Use your muscles instead of fossil fuels and get some exercise.

YOUR BUYING POWER •Buy Products Locally Buy locally and reduce the amount of energy required to drive your products to your store.

•Buy Minimally Packaged Goods

Keep the tires on your car adequately inflated. Check them monthly. Save 250 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $840 per year.

•Carpool When You Can

Less packaging could reduce your garbage by about 10%. Save 1,200 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $1,000 per year.

•Ditch the Plastic

2.5 million individual plastic water bottles are thrown away every hour in the US. Start using a reusable water bottle and just say no to plastic.

•Bring Cloth Bags to the Market

Own a big vehicle? Carpooling with friends and coworkers saves fuel. Save 790 lbs. of carbon dioxide and hundreds of dollars per year.

Using your own cloth bag instead of plastic or paper bags reduces waste and requires no additional energy.

•Change Your Air Filter

Raising meat contributes more global warming emissions than raising crops. Cutting back on meat even once a week can make a difference.

Check your car’s air filter monthly. Save 800 lbs. of carbon dioxide and $130 per year.

BULB

cooling bills. If every household replaced just three 60-watt incandescent bulbs with CF bulbs, the pollution savings would be like taking 3.5 million cars off the road! If you were disappointed by CF bulbs in the past, it’s time to try again. Today’s energysaving bulbs can be used just about anywhere—as reading lights, in vanities and wall sconces. Some are dimmaable; others work in three-way lamps. All are cheaper and more attractive than earlier models. It’s easy to start saving money and electricity today.

1 Start with one bulb.

•Use a Push Mower

•Inflate Your Tires

BETTER

efficient technology

HERE’S HOW TO GET STARTED:

•Plant a Tree

ON THE ROAD

A

Though we call them “lights,” traditional incandescent bulbs are actually small heaters that produce a little light — and waste a lot of energy making heat. (You know this if you’ve touched one that’s been on for a while!) In the 1880s, they revolutionized the world. But today, we can do better. Once dismissed as buzzing tubes in offices, fluorescent lights have gone compact and upscale. Energy-saving compact fluorescents (CFs) now rival Better the cozy, warm light of traditional bulbs. They use a fraction of alternatives the electricity, which means lower electricity bills and millions of tons less global warming pollution. And in the summer, because use more they don’t burn as hot as incandescent bulbs, they’ll lower your

•Choose Food Thoughtfully

There are lots of choices, so before switching all the bulbs in a room, try just one to make sure it gives the kind of light you want. Look for bulbs with a color temperature between 2650 and 2850 degrees Kelvin or labeled “warm white.”

2 Know your watts. Incandescent bulbs are known by how much power it takes to light them—a 40watt bulb is on the dim side and uses less power; a 100-watt bulb is bright and uses a lot of juice. Energy-saving CFs provide much more light per watt. Look for a CF bulb whose wattage is about one-quarter of the incandescent you’re replacing. For example, a CF bulb in the 15-watt range replaces around a 60-watt incandescent.

3 Check the shape and size. Both the CF bulb and its ballast (the bulb’s “engine” in between the glass and the screw-in part) can be bigger than standard incandescent bulbs. Inspect your lamp shade, the harp and the socket to ensure that your lamp can accommodate the CF bulb.

4 Be careful choosing CF bulbs to use with dimmers. In order for a CF bulb to work in a dimmer, it must be specially designed to do so. Read the package before you buy a CF bulb for a dimmer-controlled fixture.

5 Look for Energy Star. The most energy-efficient CF bulbs carry the Energy Star label, the imprimatur of the government-backed energy efficiency program.

6 Dispose of burnedout bulbs properly.

S

All fluorescent lights contain trace amounts of mercury. But don’t worry — there is far less mercury in CFs than in thermometers or old thermostats. Plus, using these bulbs helps prevent mercury from being released into the air from coalpowered power plants. When they burn out years down the road, recycle them.

7 See if your utility offers rebates. Energy-efficient bulbs help utility companies lessen their load at peak times, so sometimes they run special programs or rebates to encourage you to make the switch.

10 TOP easy easy things you can do to

GLOBAL WARMING


People requiring accommodations due to a disability should contact the Disability Services Office at 503.491.6923 or 503.491.7670 (TDD). Please call at least two weeks prior to the event.

People requiring accommodations due to a disability should contact the Disability Services Office at 503.491.6923 or 503.491.7670 (TDD). Please call at least two weeks prior to the event.


16

Noorbanu Nimji

Glossar y of Ing redients

G L O S S A RY o f I N G R E D I E N T S AGAR AGAR (Chinese grass) Agar Agar is a vegetable product and is used for setting liquids without refrigeration. BURGHUL Burghul is crushed wheat sometimes referred to as bulgar. It can be purchased from Lebanese specialty stores.

INDIAN COOKING with a Contemporary Approach

cardamom seeds

dishes. The whole pod, including the skin, is used. Also believed to stimulate the appetite, cardamom seeds are believed to contain oils that prevent cavities and help control dandruff. The cardamom with green pods is commonly used. It can be used with or without pods. Freshly ground cardamom with pods is used all through these recipes. Note: cardamom is highly aromatic.

small pieces and blend with a little water. Squeeze the pulp through a sieve and use the white liquid instead of ready cream or powder. This process may be repeated for weaker milks. The used flesh should be discarded.

There are many different kinds of lentils. This is a good source of protein.

CHILLI POWDER (lal chutney)

CASSAVA (mogo)

Chilli powders differ in strength. Therefore special care should be taken to use to your personal taste.

Mogo is a tropical rootstock. It is also called Yucca or tapioca.

CINNAMON (tug)

CORIANDER (dhana

Fenugreek are tiny yellow seeds. They are used In pickles. Coarsely ground can be purchased from Indian grocery. They can also be grown and the leaves are used In special dishes, and leaves are called methi ni bhajl. (pictured right)

Cinnamon has a pleasant, sweet taste and aroma. It can be purchased in sticks and powder form. (pictured below)

This can be purchased in seeds, coarsely ground or powder form. Fresh coriander leaves (kothmir) are also sold in some supermarkets and specialty food stores. It is also called Chinese parsley or cilantro. Can be grown from seed.

CARDAMOM (Elaychi) Also called "seed of paradise", cardamom is a relative of the ginger plant, grown in tropical regions of the world, cardamom is a small oval, green or white (bleached) ridged pod containing several small black seeds. It has a sweetish eucalyptus-like aroma. Its culinary uses include desserts, pilaus, sweet rice dishes, desserts, cakes and cookies as well as meat and fish

A Touch of Spice

CLOVES (laving)

COCONUT CREAM

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

3

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

4

GLOSSARY OF INGREDIENTS CHAPTER 1 - SOUPS, DRINKS, CHUTNEYS & RAITAS

37

CHAPTER 4 - VEGETABLE, BEAN & LENTIL CURRIES

47

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FOLDING

A TRADITIONAL SAMOSA

1

Fold the dough strip to create the shape shown in step 2.

2

Fold the other side up to match the first fold.

MORE ABOUT SAMOSAS Samosas are perhaps the most popular vegetarian (usually) Indian appetizer, street food, tiffin (light lunch) in not only India but throughout whole Indian subcontinent and its diaspora throughout the world. Quintessentially, it is similar to pastry such as fried empanada (popular in rural areas) with spicy boiled potato stuffing inside crispy flour dough served with spicy chutney.

cm) diameter; 2 portions into 1" (11 cm) diameter.

4 Brush each of the pastry rounds with oil. Sprinkle with a little flour. Stack the rounds starting with 1" (11 cm) circle first and oiled sides facing; brush with oil and repeat the process, using all the circles and ending with the 1" (11 cm) round. Do not apply oil on the top. 5 On a floured board roll the stack of rounds, turning over frequently, into 11" (21 cm) diameter.

8 Cut into 3 equal strips.

A popular non-vegetarian variant of this classic dish would have spicy ground meat (usually lamb) instead or along with potatoes.

9 Trim to the shape shown on the opposite page and keep covered in damp cloth until

http://www.food-india.com/recipe/

used.

R026_050/R032.htm

Can be frozen for over 3 months wrapped in aluminum foil. Thaw before using.

3

57 ALTERNATE COOKING METHOD: This recipe has many steps, but the final outcome is well worth the time invested.

Bake on greased foil in the center rack of the preheated oven at 500°F (2600C) for 3 to 4 minutes; remove and peel off the rounds. If the rounds are hard to peel, bake again for 1 minute.

Whether you use a garlic press, or chop your garlic by hand, fresh garlic is always the best choice and readily available. Select cloves that are large, heavy, and firm.

GINGER (adu) It Is sold as fresh root, dried, ready paste, and in cans. Through this book the cans are used. Discard the water and then blend In food processor with a little water. This can be stored In the refrigerator or freezer. (pictured below)

above: ground coriander left: fresh coriander

Separate the cloves and then crush them with the flat of a knife to more easily remove the skins, then mince fine.

GARLIC (lasan) Garlic is sold in most food stores, either fresh, powdered, or In dehydrated flakes. It is also sold In paste form. Throughout this book, dehydrated flakes are used. Soak dehydrated garlic flakes in water for 2 hours, and then blend In food

Flip the folded shape over to reveal the pocket ready for stuffing.

4

The final fold completes the samosa.

20

Many cooks like to use a separate, smaller cutting board for preparing garlic. This keeps the strong flavors from spreading in unexpected ways.

Rice and Chapatis

37

P E R S I A N P I L AU

Fish Poultr y and Meat

For best results, curries can be cooked ahead of time and reheated thoroughly before serving. Serves 4

INGREDIENTS

INGREDIENTS

1lb ½C 1C 4 4 4 6 1-3 1 tsp 2 lb 1T 2 tsp 2 tsp 1 tsp ½ tsp

chicken backs and necks for stock (500 kg) oil (125 mL) chopped onion (250 mL) cloves small cinnamon sticks cardamom pods black peppercorns hot peppers, slit cumin seeds (5mL) chicken breast, cut into strips 2”x 1” (5 x 2.5 cm) (1kg) lemon juice (15mL) salt, divided (10mL) crushed ginger (10mL) crushed garlic (5mL) crushed hot pepper, or to taste

1 4-6 2 ¼ lb 1 tsp ½ tsp ½ tsp ½ tsp ½ tsp ¼ tsp ¼ tsp 1 2 tsp 6 2C ½ tsp 1T

medium onion, slice or chop T oil (60-90mL) chicken pieces, skinned (1kg) crushed ginger (5mL) crushed garlic (2mL) crushed hot pepper (2mL) coriander powder (2mL) cumin powder (2mL) tumeric powder (1mL) chilli powder, or to taste (1mL) medium tomato, chopped tomato paste (10mL) small potatoes hot water (500 mL) garam masala (2mL) coriander leaves (15mL)

(2mL)

3 oz. 3 oz 1T

finely diced tomato (250 mL) basmati rice, washed and soaked in warm water for 10 minutes (500 mL) fried onion, OR (375 mL) large onions, fried oil for frying (onion, almonds and raisins) slivered almonds (115 g) golden raisins (115g) chopped coriander leaves

⅛ tsp

yellow food colour (powder)

20

strands saffron

1C 2C

1½ C 6

For stronger or milder curry add or reduce spices to your personal taste.

PREPARATION 1 Chop or slice the onions and saute

Raisins and almonds with onions.

PREPARATION

6 Add rice and cook until all the water is absorbed and the rice is cooked. Fry second amount of onion and set aside.

1 Boil chicken backs and necks in water

When eating, set whole spices aside, DO NOT EAT.

2 Heat oil, add 1 cup (250 mL) chopped onion and sauté until slightly brown.

3 Add whole spices, slit hot pepper, cumin seeds and sauté for about a minute.

7 Fry almonds and raisins in a little oil until raisins pop. Set aside. Stir food colour and saffron in ¼ cup (50 mL) water and set aside.

4 Add chicken, lemon juice, 1 tsp. (5 mL) salt, ginger, garlic, hot pepper, tomato and continue cooking until chicken is almost cooked, adding stock if necessary.

8 In another saucepan make layers of cooked pilau (rice mixture), fried onion, slivered almonds, raisins, chopped coriander and sprinkle with a mixture of yellow food colour and saffron. Repeat until everything is used.

5 Add reserved stock, to make 4 cups

9 Place in 300°F (150°C) preheated

(1L) liquid in an in the mixture.

oven for 20 minutes.

5 Add garam masala and coriander

over medium heat until golden brown.

leaves.

2 Add chicken and saute for further 3-4

6 Serve with rice or Chapati (page 40).

minutes. Golden raisins and slivered almonds.

(15mL) (0.5mL)

57

C H I C K E N o r M E A T C U R RY

Serve hot with Kachumber (page 13), and Kaila (pages 17-18), or plain yogurt. Serves 4 to 5

to cover for 1½ hours; reserve stock.

85 107

The best-flavoured ghee is made from unsalted butter. See recipe, page 18.

A combination of spices which varies from cook to cook In spiciness and hotness, see recipe page 18. Commercial versions are available In Indian or Oriental food stores.

Split beans are called daals (lentils). (right)

3 On a generously floured board, roll each portion into a circle: 6 portions into 6" (15

7 While still hot: trim 1/4" (0.5 cm) off 2 sides of the rounds.

19

CHAPTER 6 - SWEETS & DESSERTS INDEX

2 Knead well. Divide dough into 8 portions.

6

CHAPTER 3 - RICE & CHAPATIS

CHAPTER 5 - FISH, POULTRY & MEAT ENTRÉES

1 Make a pliable dough with the first 4 ingredients.

5

CHAPTER 2 - HORS D'OEUVRES & TEATIME SPECIALS

GHEE (clarified butter)

GARAM MASALA

DAALS (lentils)

PREPARATION

6 Heat a griddle to 315°F (190°C) and using the rolling pin, lift the round onto the griddle, lower the heat to minimum and cook for 1 minute only. Turn over, start peeling and separate each round until all 8 rounds are separated. Stack these par-cooked rounds to keep them from drying.

10

Eno Is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid.

Curry leaves are like bay leaves, but much smaller. They are sold fresh or dry. Fresh can be kept frozen in a container unto used.

Makes 24, perfect for giving guests an authentic and delicious taste of India.

all-purpose flour (375 mL) white vinegar (30 mL) salt(2 mL) water (105mL) loose flour cooking oil brush for preparation

ENO (Eno's Fruit Salt)

CUHKY LEAVES (limdho)

Hors D'Oeuvres & Teatime Specials

S A M O S A P A S T RY O R W R A P P E R S

1½C 2T ½ tsp ¼C + 3 T

MORE ABOUT GARLIC

Citric acid is used instead of lemon juice. It can be easily purchased from an Indian grocery.

Hors D'Oeuvres & Teatime Specials

INGREDIENTS

FENUGREEK (methi)

CITRIC ACID (limboo na pbool)

An International Best Seller

19

Edible silver paper is used to garnish any sweet dish. It is available at Indian grocery stores. It is very delicate and should be bandied carefully and gently.

This can be purchased in seed or powder form. Best ground in coffee grinder.

Cloves are aromatic, and are used whole or in powder form.

burghul wheat

processor with the minimum amount of water necessary. This can be stored in refrigerator or freezer. Minimum amounts of garlic have been suggested in these recipes, add additional garlic according to your preference. (see sidebar on right for more helpful hints regarding garlic)

EDIBLE SILVER PAPER

CUMIN (jeera)

There are different kinds of coconut cream or powder, which can be purchased from Indian specialty stores. Fresh coconut can be used as well. Chisel out white flesh, cut flesh into

MENUS

17

3 Add tomatoes and tomato paste and all the spices, except garam masala and coriander leaves and cook until half done.

If serving with Chapati, a drier sauce is required so add less water.

VARIATIONS

4 Add potatoes, again cook for a few minutes and add hot water. Cook until chicken and potatoes are cooked.

Palakh Chicken: This is the same recipe as above, but with an addition of spinach and less water. The sauce should have a very dry consistency.

The onions are chopped and prepared for the saute pan.

Onions and garlic create the best aroma known to enhance a kitchen.

Chicken Masala: This dish has a very thick sauce made with the basic curry sauce plus: 1 T (15 mL) plain yogurt, 1 T (15 mL) lemon juice; 8 strands saffron. Garnish with hard-cooked eggs and serve with Parotha (page 43), or Pita bread. Chicken can be replaced by cooked beef, ground beef or cubed lamb. Because meat takes longer to cook, it can be added before spices and cooked until tender or cooked meat can be used.

The chicken pieces are added to the onions after they turn a golden brown.

portfolio first try  

my first version of my work that will go in my portfolio

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