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The theory of the extraterrestrial origin of life is not an articulated single theory. It is more of an extension of the belief that since evolution on Earth is a fact (some question this), certainly the same forces would have resulted in life in other places in the universe. Extraterrestrial life is never associated with the possibility that life perhaps could have been created elsewhere if it could be created on earth. If it could be verified that life existed elsewhere in the universe, it would be presented as proof of biological evolution. Some would say, this could not be farther from the truth. Although it is true that if life could evolve on Earth, it certainly could evolve in other places if the conditions were right. However, it is equally true that if life could be created on Earth it could be created elsewhere also. In fact, if the creative force and/or God was powerful enough to produce life, it would be powerful enough to create the correct environment in which to place the created life. Extraterrestrial life is currently a hypothetical notion. No scientific evidence of the existence of extraterrestrial life has been widely accepted by scientists. One thing sited as evidence of extraterrestrial life is UFO sightings. Although with the possibility of extraterrestrial life forms, evidence has been evasive. Scientists are directly searching for unicellular life within the solar system, carrying out studies on Mars and examining meteors that have fallen

to Earth. There is some limited evidence that microbial life might possibly exist on Mars. An experiment on the Viking Mars Lander reported gas emissions from heated Martian soil that some argue are consistent with the presence of microbes. However, the lack of corroborating evidence from other experiments on the Viking indicates that a non-biological reaction is a more likely hypothesis. Independently, in 1996, structures resembling bacteria were reportedly discovered in a meteorite known to be formed of rock ejected from Mars. Again, this report is arguably disputed. Scientists are also searching indirectly for intelligent life through a SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) project. It is theorized that a technological society in space will be transmitting information. SETI uses radio telescopes to scan the sky for evidence of such transmissions that would infer intelligent life. No evidence of intelligent life has been identified to date. In 1950, a scientist named Enrico Fermi made the statement that many sophisticated societies populate the Galaxy. Fermi then realized that any civilization with an amount of rocket technology and some incentive could rapidly colonize the entire Galaxy. Within ten million years, every star system could be brought under the wing of the empire. This prompted Fermi to ask the question, “where is everybody?� This is referred to as the Fermi Paradox.

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Egyptian pyramids

Ancient Alien Theory According to ancient alien theorists, extraterrestrials with superior knowledge of science and engineering landed on Earth thousands of years ago, sharing their expertise with early civilizations and forever changing the course of human history. But how did this concept develop, and is there any evidence to support it? Ancient alien theory grew out of the centuries - the old idea that life exists on other planets, and that humans and extraterrestrials have crossed paths before. The theme of humanalien interaction was thrust into the spotlight in the 1960s, driven by a wave of UFO sightings and popular films like 2001: A Space Odyssey. The space program played no small part in this as well: If mankind could travel to other planets, why couldn’t extraterrestrials visit Earth? In 1968, the Swiss author Erich von Däniken published Chariots of the Gods?, which became an immediate best-seller. In it, he put forth his hypothesis that, thousands of years ago, space travellers from other planets visited Earth, where they taught humans about technology and influenced ancient religions. He is regarded by many as the father of ancient alien theory, also known as the ancient astronaut theory.

This rock painting was found in the Sego Canyon in Utah and is from approximately 5,500 B.C. The large eyes are reminiscent of modern reports of “aliens” having disproportional large eyes.

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An example of a Petroglyph found on a mountain. This implies that ancient aliens may have visited Earth.

Most ancient alien theorists, including von D채niken, point to two types of evidence to support their ideas. The first is ancient religious texts in which humans witness and interact with gods or other heavenly beings who descend from the sky - sometimes in vehicles resembling spaceships and possess spectacular powers. The second is physical specimens such as artwork depicting alien-like figures and ancient architectural marvels like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Egypt. If aliens visited Earth in the past, could they make an appearance in the future? For ancient alien theorists, the answer is a resounding yes. They believe that, by sharing their views with the world, they can help prepare future generations for the inevitable encounter that awaits them.

Stonehenge

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The study of life’s diversity involves more than just going into the world or the laboratory and looking for new things. The places we look, the tools we use, and the experiments we do are influenced by our theoretical and conceptual understanding of the limits of life, the mechanisms of evolution, and the role and significance of diversity. Conversely, new observations and experimental results are constantly forcing us to adjust our theoretical framework.

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The Fermi Paradox - Where are they? The simplest solution with the paradox of Fermi would be of saying that we didn’t observe anything due to the fact that there was nothing to observe. We are alone in the Galaxy or, at least, we are the first to have reached the threshold of technology. This answer can sound reasonable first. It is possible that the probability of appearance of the intelligent life is so weak that the planet Earth is the only one in the Galaxy where it occurred. This assumption is nevertheless not very satisfactory because it seems to give again a special role to the Earth whereas throughout history, astronomy discoveries withdrew its central place in the universe. Another solution consists in calling into question simulations of the civilization’s expansion in the Galaxy. Indeed, the space flights could be very

fast but the colonization’s process could be much slower. The speed of colonisation wouldn’t then be proportional to the speed of only one space flight. The duration for colonising the Galaxy could be similar to the age of the Galaxy, which would explain why the solar system was not yet reached. Certain solutions rest on the difficulty of space flights. It could be much more difficult or risky than to what is generally assumed. Factors such as cosmic rays could make it practically unrealisable. Other explanations put forward psychological or sociological reasons. Thus a technological civilization could be very hesistant to colonize other planets because the new colonies would end up being turned over against their mother’s planet, a case which happened quite often in the history of humanity. 7


Classic flying saucer

Conical disk

Rugby ball shaped

Coin like disk

[Source: Weekly World News “8 Most Common UFO Shapes”] 8


Top shaped

Egg shaped

Diamond shaped

Blinding light

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Biologists have confirmed that at least six other types of molecules can also support life (as well as DNA and RNA), dramatically increasing the likelihood of life on other planets. A team from the University of Cambridge managed to manufacture synthetic XNA’s (xenonucleic acids), which mimic some of the properties of DNA and RNA. It is crucial for organisms to able to grow and reproduce in order for life to be sustainable, so they must have a way to transfer genetic material from one molecule to another. Although DNA and RNA are the only naturally occurring structures on Earth to have this ability, the new research proves that they are not the only possible paths to life.

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Area 51 has been a constant source of conspiracy theories since the 1950s. No one actually knows what goes on behind this heavily guarded area of land except the people who work there. Speculation is rife with theories covering everything from Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) to secret government aircraft manufacturing. Area 51 is located in a remote area of the Nevada desert, north of Las Vegas. The official explanation given by the military is that it is a firing range used by the air force. It has a restricted “no fly zone” placed on it and is very heavily guarded. The perimeter fence is monitored by hundreds of close circuit television cameras. Armed guards patrol the area and signs warn that trespassers will be shot. Except for the people who work in Area 51, virtually no one has ever been inside. Photographs exist showing a large airbase that is not marked on any map. One of the most popular theories as to what goes on behind the fence is that of the UFO. In the 1950s, a UFO supposedly crashed in the Roswell area. The craft and its inhabitants were taken to Area 51 to be examined. Theorists say that the government is trying to replicate the technology used by the UFO or even trying to rework the UFO back to flight status. These theories have done much for tourism in the area. There are even highway signs that read, “Extraterrestrial Highway”. Another major theory is that Area 51 simulates the environment of the moon. It has been suggested that the whole of the Apollo moon landing in 1969 actually took place in Area 51 due to its similarity to the moon. One of the most popular theories is that this is where the military carries out top-secret aircraft testing. The aircraft supposedly tested there are known as Black aircraft, and the idea is to keep their existence a secret for as long as possible. This includes keeping their existence hidden from the enemy and the public.

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A

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The Alien (Xenomorph), is an extraterrestrial predatory creature featured in the films Alien, Aliens, Alien 3, Alien Resurrection, Alien vs. Predator and Alien vs. Predator: Requiem. They are merely interested in breeding their generation and the destruction of life that could pose a threat.

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B.O.B. (Benzoate Ostylezene Bicarbonate ) from the film “Monsters vs. Aliens�, is a blue one-eyed indestructible gelatinous mass that was created by scientists injected a chemically-altered ranch dressing into a genetically-altered tomato. He has the ability to absorb anything, form into any shape, doesn’t have a brain and digests objects within seconds (depending on size). He can also extend his body and detach his eyeball. He was captured in 1958 and was sent to Area 52.

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The film District 9, features extraterrestrials nicknamed ‘Prawns’, given to them because of their resemblance to local pests in Johannesburg. It is meant to imply that they are feeders, scavenging and living off waste. However, they’re also hard warriors with strong fighting strengths.

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E X T R AT E R R E S T R I A L

E.T. is an extratterestrial, who is stranded on Earth. E.T.’s face was in fact, inspired by the faces of Carl Sandburg, Albert Einstein and Ernest Hemingway.

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Aliens are largely described as resembling human beings. In being the average height of humans, having a pair of eyes, a nose, a mouth and a pair of arms and feet. Sometimes, with a more enlarged head including big eyes.

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Tripods featured in the film The War of the Worlds, are a type of fighting machine. There design is based on the praying mantis insect, which apparantly was H.G. Wells’ (author of The War of the Worlds) favorite insect. They are typically three-legged and use Martians to invade Earth.

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"We were seeded from Mars, Mars is further from the sun, smaller than the Earth, and got settled down first when the planets were being born. The Earth was hot, turbulent and closer to the Sun - if life was going to get started possibly by stuff reigning down from space, it may have started on Mars first of all. Most probable, that life started on Mars and seeded the Earth." Heather Couper Space expert

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Maj. Jesse Marcel, Sr. Lt. Walter Haut Brigadier General Roger M. Ramey

The Roswell Incident The event took place during the first week of July 1947 and involved the recovery of wreckage by the military from a remote ranch northwest of Roswell, New Mexico. There is now considerable testimony from former members of the military known to have been involved, including two brigadier generals, that the recovered material was not of terrestrial origin. Admittedly, such a claim taxes the limits of credibility for discerning and rational individuals. It also tends to evoke a response of immediate dismissal. The preponderance of evidence, however, indicates the event occurred. A rancher named Mac Brazel discovered strange metal strewn across a wide area of range land he tended. Because of the material’s unusual characteristics, Brazel took pieces of the debris to the authorities in Roswell, New Mexico. Intrigued by the debris, Colonel Blanchard, commanding officer at Roswell Army Air Field, ordered two intelligence officers to investigate.

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Roswell Army Air Field was the home of the 509th Bomb Group, which was an elite outfit - the only atomic group in the world. The two men Col. Blanchard sent to the crash site were Major Jesse Marcel and Captain Sheridan Cavitt. Upon their report, Colonel Blanchard quietly ordered that the ranch area be cordoned off. Soldiers removed the debris, sending it to Army headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas. On the morning of July 8, 1947, Colonel Blanchard had Lt. Walter Haut issue a press release stating that the wreckage of a “crashed disk� (UFO) had been recovered. The press release was transmitted over the wire services in time to make headlines in over thirty U.S. afternoon newspapers that same day. Lt. Walter Haut was the Public Information Officer at Roswell AAF. Within hours something had happened and the press release was retracted, and further press coverage restricted.


Col. William "Butch" Blanchard

The late General Thomas DuBose was a colonel and General Ramey’s chief of staff at Eighth Air Force Headquarters in Forth Worth, Texas, in 1947. Before his death in 1992, General DuBose testified that he himself had taken the telephone call from General Clements McMullen at Andrews Army Air Field in Washington, D.C., ordering the coverup. The instructions were for General Ramey to concoct a “cover story” to “get the press off our backs.” At a press conference in Fort Worth, the Army explained that the intelligence officer and others at Roswell had misidentified the debris, which was, in fact, the remains of a downed balloon with a metallic radar reflector attached, and not a flying saucer. Public interest faded, and the Roswell event became a part of UFO folklore, with most ufologists accepting the official government version of the story.

It was not until the late 1970s, with Jesse Marcel’s decision to comment publicly on the strange material and other aspects of the Roswell event, that the UFO crash story was revived. Since that time, new evidence indicates the weather balloon explanation was part of an elaborate government coverup, and in fact, the original report of a recovered flying disk was probably true. Investigations into the UFO crash story continue with the goal of pressuring the United States government to end the coverup and to reveal to the American public what actually crashed on the New Mexican desert that night in July 1947.

Maggie & Mack Brazel

Col. Thomas J. DuBose 23


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__________Antonio Villas Boas__________ _____Betty and Barney Hill______ long structure descended from the bottom of the At the time of his alleged abduction, Ant么nio Vilas-Boas According to a variety of reports given craft. On October 21, 1961, Barney reported to the was a 23-year-old Brazilian farmer who was working at by the Hills the alleged UFO sighting investigator Walter Webb, that the "beings were night to avoid the hot temperatures of the day. On happened on September 19, 1961, at somehow not human". Barney ran back to his car October 16, 1957, he was ploughing fields near S茫o around 10:30 p.m. The Hills were and in a near hysterical state, he told Betty, "They're Francisco de Sales when he saw what he described as driving back to Portsmouth from a going to capture us!". He saw the object again shift a "red star" in the night sky. According to his story, this vacation. Just south of Lancaster, New its location to directly above the vehicle. He drove "star" approached his position, growing in size until it Hampshire, Betty claimed to have away, telling Betty to look for the object. She rolled became recognisable as a roughly circular or observed a bright point of light in the down the window and looked up, but saw only egg-shaped aerial craft, with a red light at its front and sky that moved from below the moon darkness above them, even though it was a bright, a rotating cupola on top. The craft began descending and the planet Jupiter, upward to the starry night. to land in the field, extending three "legs" as it did so. west of the moon. While Barney Almost immediately, the Hills heard a rhythmic At that point, Boas decided to run from the scene. navigated U.S. Route 3, Betty reasoned series of beeping or buzzing sounds which they According to Boas, he first attempted to leave the that she was observing a falling star, only said seemed to bounce off the trunk of their scene on his tractor, but when its lights and engine it moved upward, like a plane or a vehicle. The car vibrated and a tingling sensation died after traveling only a short distance, he decided satellite. Since it moved erratically and passed through the Hills' bodies. The Hills said to continue on foot. However, he was seized by a 1.5 m grew bigger and brighter, Betty urged that at this point in time they experienced the (five-foot) tall humanoid, who was wearing grey Barney to stop the car for a closer look, as onset of an altered state of consciousness that coveralls and a helmet. Its eyes were small and blue, well as to walk their dog - Barney stopped left their minds dulled. A second series of and instead of speech it made noises like barks or at a scenic picnic area. codelike beeping or buzzing sounds returned the yelps. Three similar beings then joined the first in Betty, through binoculars, observed an couple to full consciousness. They found that subduing Boas, and they dragged him inside their "odd shaped" craft flashing multicolored they had traveled nearly 35 miles south but had craft. lights travel across the face of the moon. only vague, spotty memories of this section of Once inside the craft, Boas said that he was stripped Because her sister had confided to her road. They recalled making a sudden unplanned of his clothes and covered from head-to-toe with a about having a flying saucer sighting turn, encountering a roadblock, and observing a strange gel. He was then led into a large semicircular several years earlier, Betty thought it might fiery orb in the road. room, through a doorway that had strange red be what she was observing. Through Arriving home at about dawn, the Hills assert symbols written over it. (Boas claimed that he was binoculars Barney observed what he that they had some odd sensations and able to memorise these symbols and later reproduced reasoned was a commercial airliner traveling impulses they could not readily explain: Betty them for investigators.) In this room the beings took toward Vermont on its way to Montreal. insisted that their luggage be kept near the samples of Boas' blood from his chin. After this he However, he soon changed his mind, because back door rather than in the main part of the was then taken to a third room and left alone for without looking as if it had turned, the craft house. Their watches would never run again. around half an hour. During this time, some kind of rapidly descended in his direction. He quickly Barney noted that the leather strap for the gas was pumped into the room, which made Boas returned to the car and drove toward binoculars was torn, though he could not become violently ill. Franconia Notch, a narrow, mountainous recall it tearing. The toes of his shoes were Shortly after this, Boas claimed that he was joined in stretch of the road. inexplicably scraped. Barney says he was the room by another humanoid. This one, The Hills claimed that they continued driving on compelled to examine his genitals in the however, was female, very attractive, and naked. She the isolated road, moving very slowly through bathroom, though he found nothing unusual. was the same height as the other beings he had Franconia Notch in order to observe the object They took long showers to remove possible encountered, with a small, pointed chin and large, as it came even closer. The couple watched as contamination and each drew a picture of blue catlike eyes. The hair on her head was long and the silent, lighted craft moved erratically and what they had observed. Their drawings were white (somewhat like platinum blonde) but her bounced back and forth in the night sky. As they strikingly similar. Ten days after the UFO underarm and pubic hair were bright red. Boas said drove along Route 3 through Franconia Notch, encounter, Betty began having a series of he was strongly attracted to the woman, and the two they stated that it seemed to be playing a game vivid dreams. Never in her memory had she had sexual intercourse. During this act, Boas noted of cat and mouse with the couple. recalled dreams in such detail and intensity. that the female did not kiss him but instead nipped Approximately one mile south of Indian Head, But they stopped abruptly after five nights him on the chin. When it was all over, the female they said, the object rapidly descended toward and never returned again. After extensive smiled at Boas, rubbing her belly and gestured their vehicle causing Barney to stop directly in the hypnosis sessions, Dr. Simon concluded upwards. Boas took this to mean that she was going middle of the highway. The huge, silent craft that Barney's recall of the UFO encounter to raise their child in space. The female seemed hovered above their vehicle and filled the entire was a fantasy inspired by Betty's dreams. relieved that their "task" was over, and Boas himself field of the windshield. Carrying his pistol in his Though Simon admitted this hypothesis did said that he felt angered by the situation, because he pocket, he stepped away from the vehicle and not explain every aspect of the experience, felt as though he had been little more than "a good moved closer to the object. Using the binoculars, he thought it was the most plausible and stallion" for the humanoids. Barney claimed to have seen about 8 to 11 consistent explanation. Barney rejected Boas said that he was then given back his humanoid figures who were peering out of the this idea, noting that while their memories clothing and taken on a tour of the ship by the craft's windows, seeming to look at him. In unison, were in some regards interlocking, there humanoids. During this tour he said that he all but one figure moved to what appeared to be a were also portions of both their attempted to take a clock-like device as proof of his panel on the rear wall of the hallway that encircled narratives that were unique to each. encounter, but was caught by the humanoids and the front portion of the craft. The one remaining Barney was now ready to accept that they prevented from doing so. He was then escorted off figure continued to look at Barney and had been abducted by the occupants of a the ship and watched as it took off, glowing brightly. communicated a message telling him to "stay where UFO, though he never embraced it as fully When Boas returned home, he discovered that four you are and keep looking." Barney had a conscious, as Betty did. hours had passed. continuous recollection of observing the humanoid Antonio Vilas Boas later became a lawyer, married forms wearing glossy black uniforms and black caps. and had four children. He died in 1992, and stuck to Red lights on what appeared to be bat-wing fins the story of his alleged abduction for his entire life. began to telescope out of the sides of the craft and a 25


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“I am leaving soon, and you will forgive me if I speak bluntly. The universe grows smaller every day, and the threat of aggression by any group, anywhere, can no longer be tolerated. There must be security for all, or no one is secure. Now, this does not mean giving up any freedom, except the freedom to act irresponsibly. Your ancestors knew this when they made laws to govern themselves and hired policemen to enforce them. We, of the other planets, have long accepted this principle. We have an organization for the mutual protection of all planets and for the complete elimination of aggression. The test of any such higher authority is, of course, the police force that supports it. For our policemen, we created a race of robots. Their function is to patrol the planets in spaceships like this one and preserve the peace. In matters of aggression, we have given them absolute power over us. This power cannot be revoked. At the first sign of violence, they act automatically against the aggressor. The penalty for provoking their action is too terrible to risk. The result is, we live in peace, without arms or armies, secure in the knowledge that we are free from aggression and war. Free

to pursue more... profitable enterprises. Now, we do not pretend to have achieved perfection, but we do have a system, and it works. I came here to give you these facts. It is no concern of ours how you run your own planet, but if you threaten to extend your violence, this Earth of yours will be reduced to a burned-out cinder. Your choice is simple: join us and live in peace, or pursue your present course and face obliteration. We shall be waiting for your answer. The decision rests with you.� Klaatu, The Day the Earth Stood Still

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The Abduction Narrative Capture Examination and Procedures Conference Tour Loss of Time Return Theophany Aftermath

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"It is quite possible that complex molecules have formed in outer space. We found reasonably complex things, when we look out in Space there are large clouds of gas and dust from which stars form from those giant molecular clouds. Astronomers have detected that things like methane and long complex molecules of carbon are the sort of things we need to start life of. There are lots of molecules that we have not determined what they are, we think there could be things possibly as complex as amino acids, that you need for life out there in space." Simon Goodwin Researcher in Astronomy

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ARE WE ALONE?

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“No-one would have believed, in the last years of the nineteenth century, that human affairs were being watched from the timeless worlds of space. No-one could have dreamed that we were being scrutinized, as someone with a microscope studies creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water. Few men even considered the possibility of life on other planets. And yet, across the gulf of space, minds immeasurably superior to ours regarded this earth with envious eyes; and slowly, and surely, they drew their plans against us.� Richard Burton

Watch the BBC Radio 4 episode, In Our Time, Extraterrestrials BY MELISA HASAN


Extraterrestrials