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STRUCTURE

FUNCTION

1

arbor vitae

white matter of cerebellum; carries sensory and motor info to and from

2

cerebellar cortex

gray matter of cerebellum; cognitive functions like attention & language

3

massa intermedia

gray matter that connects left and right thalamus

3

massa intermedia (hole in third ventricle)

gray matter that connects left and right thalamus

4

pineal gland

secretes melatonin

5

mammillary body

eating reflexes

6

optic chiasma

where optic nerves cross

7

tracts that connect the cerebral hemispheres

8

anterior commissure corpora quadrigemina: superior colliculus

9

corpora quadrigemina: inferior colliculus

receives auditory input

lateral ventricles (2)

circulates CSF; shock absorber

11

third ventricle

circulates CSF; shock absorber

12

fourth ventricle

circulates CSF; shock absorber

13

cerebral aqueduct

canal that connects 3rd and 4th ventricles; circulates CSF

14

tentorium cerebelli

separates cerebrum from the cerebellum

15

posterior commissure

tracts that connect the cerebral hemispheres

16

corpus callosum

relays info between the two cerebral hemispheres

17

septum pellucidum

separates left and right lateral ventricles

18

fornix

tracts of white matter that connect hippocampus & hypothalamus

19

gyri:

increase cerebral surface area

20

olfactory bulb

carries smell info from nose to brain

21

sulci:

grooves that separate adjacent gyri

22

olfactory tract

pathway of white fibers that connect olfactory bulbs to other brain structures

23

longitudinal fissure

separates cerebrum into right and left hemispheres

24

optic nerve [CN II]

sends visual info from the retina to brain

24

CN II: optic nerve

sends visual info from the retina to brain

25

dura mater

surrounds and protects brain

26

oculomotor nerve [CN III]

innervates muscles that control eye movement

26

CN III: oculomotor nerve

27

trochlear nerve [CN IV]

innervates muscles that control eye movement innervates superior oblique eye muscle, controls rolling the eye up and down & crossing eyes

10

ventricle model

receives visual input


27

CN IV: trochlear nerve

innervates superior oblique eye muscle, controls rolling the eye up and down & crossing eyes

28

trigeminal nerve [CN V]

controls face and head & motor functions: biting, chewing, swallowing

28

CN V: trigeminal nerve

controls face and head & motor functions: biting, chewing, swallowing

29

abducens nerve [CN VI]

innervates lateral rectus muscle; turns eye laterally or abducts

29

CN VI: abducens nerve

innervates lateral rectus muscle; turns eye laterally or abducts

30

cerebral peduncle

fibers that carry motor info from cerebellum to brainstem

35

choroid plexuses of all ventricles

lined by ependymal cells that produce CSF

36

pia mater

surrounds & cushions brain

37

white matter

38

gray matter

bundles of myelinated axons that transmit info bundles of neural cell bodies that process info from sensory organs and route it to interneurons

39

falx cerebri

dura mater that separates cerebral hemispheres

40

hypophysis (pituitary gland)

secretes endocrine hormones

cavernous sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

42

superior sagittal sinus

absorption of CSF into bloodstream

43

inferior sagittal sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

44

confluence of sinuses

point where sinuses come together; allows blood to drain

45

straight sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

46

transverse sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

47

sigmoid sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

48

superior petrosal sinus

cavity that allows blood to drain

49

cerebral cortex

outer layer of gray matter responsible for thinking & language

50

lateral sulcus

divides the frontal and temporal lobes

51

central sulcus

separates the parietal & frontal lobes

52

precentral gyrus

primary motor area of cerebral cortex

53

postcentral gyrus

primary sensory area of cerebral cortex

54

superior temporal gyri

sensory processing of sounds

55

insula (insular cortex)

sensory processing of taste

56

frontal lobe

conscious motor control

57

occipital

visual processing

58

parietal

sensory processing

59

temporal

sensory processing of auditory stimuli

60

optic tract

sends visual info from eyes to opposite sides of brain

61

thalamus

sensory filter

41

dural sinuses


62

hypothalamus

homeostasis: body temp

63

infundibulum

connects pituitary gland & hypothalamus

64

tectal plate

pathway for auditory and visual reflexes

69

pyramids

descending and ascending tracts

72

interventricular foramen

connects lateral & third ventricles; contain choroid plexus & circulates CSF

73

lateral aperture

2 holes in 4th ventricle that allow CSF to flow into subarachnoid space

75

CN I: olfactory nerve

carries sense of smell info from nose to brain

77

CN VII: facial nerve

innervates muscles of facial expression

78

CN VIII: vestibulocochlear nerve

senses sound; essential for balance & movement

79

CN IX: glossopharyngeal nerve

taste & controls some muscles for swallowing

80

sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate)

81

CN X: vagus nerve accessory nerve (spinal accessory) [CN XI] CN XI: accessory nerve (spinal accessory)

82

hypoglossal nerve [CN XII]

controls tongue movements for speech, & swallowing

CN XII: hypoglossal nerve

controls tongue movements for speech, & swallowing

81

82

innervates neck muscles to move head innervates neck muscles to move head

83

medulla oblongata

cardiovascular & respiratory reflex centers

84

pons

pneumotaxic breathing center

85

cerebellum

proprioception & smooth movement


61 16 4

24

60 63 8

6

9 7

5

30

27

26 77

28 13

30 78

79

29

81

79

82 80 69

80


25

19

21

72

35

51

16

17

42

3

18 61

7

6

8 15

61

4

9 85

62

45

11

64

40

14

12

5 44 1

30

2 13

84 83


25

42

39 18

16

43 4

3

17 4 72

8 7

11 & 61

9

62

64

22

14

6 40

75

15

45 85 44

5

2 12 30

1 84

13 83


51

16

38

17 18 72

11 & 61

15

4

7 3

8

6

64 9

5

30

13

85 1

84 2 12 & 35

83 21

19

18

61

16

17 3

4

72 15 \\ 8 11 & 61

9

7 64

62

85 2

1

12 & 35

13 83

84

30

5

40


53

52 51

50 49

19

56 54

55

59

23 21

57

58


VENTRICLES

10

3

11 73

11 72 (bar)

35

13

12

35


SINUSES

24 40

39

41

48 47

43 14 45

46

44

42


brain models