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Area- Memory/ Cognitive Aim Hypothesis

Method

Experimental Design IV + How was it operationalised DV + How was it operationalised Extraneous variables Ethical Issues Results

Conclusion

Evaluation - Strengths

Evaluation - Weaknesses

Experiment/Study – Sperling (1960) To investigate sensory memory Participants will remember more letters when a sound tone is played alongside the showing of the letters, than without a sound playing. - P’s showed a chart containing 3 rows of letters for a brief period of time (50 milliseconds), then asked to immediately recall them. - Sperling then got the p's to recall single rows of letters when particular tones were heard (high tone, for top row, medium tone for middle row etc) Repeated measures With or without sound tones How many letters were remembered Eg, how tired the P’s were No major ethical issues. Only consent, and debriefing afterwards. First instance, P's could remember 4/5 letters although they were aware of more. Second instance, P's on average recalled 3 items from the row indicated Although in theory P's should remember more than the average 4 items, it is thought that the image of each item fades during the 50ms and the time it takes to report back recalled items. Lab experiment – high levels of control. Easily replicated. Low ecological validity (because of lab experiment, artificial)


Area- Memory/ Cognitive Aim Method

Experimental Design IV + How was it operationalised DV + How was it operationalised Extraneous variables Ethical Issues Results

Conclusion

Evaluation - Strengths

Evaluation - Weaknesses

Experiment/Study – Peterson and Peterson (1959) To investigate the duration of STM. Asked P's to recall strings of consonants (e.g FBK) selected. Recall delay was set to 3, 6, 9, 12 seconds during which rehearsal was prevented by participants counting backwards in threes from a target number. Each subject was tested a total of 8 times at each of the 6 delay intervals. Controlled lab experiment. Repeated measures How long before recalling consonants How many trigrams remembered Eg, how tired p’s are Consent, debreifing At 3-second intervals, 80% of trigrams were remembered. Recall got progressively worse as the time intervals lengthened. By 18 second interval, less than 10% trigrams were remembered. The information disappears or decays very rapidly from STM when rehearsal is prevented. Repeated measures design – avoids individual differences. Controlled conditions. Trigrams are artificial – lacks ecological validity. Loss of information may be down to capacity limitations than duration. The counting task may have displaced the trigram. Trigrams on earlier trials may have caused confusion, proactive interference, for the participants and so later trigrams are incorrectly recalled.

Proactive interference – where things that have already been learned make it harder to learn new things.


Area- Memory/ Cognitive Aim Method

Experiment/Study – Conrad (1964) To find out about encoding in STM.

Experimental Design IV + How was it operationalised

Controlled lab experiment. Whether letters were acoustically similar or dissimilar. How many letters were remembered in correct order. Eg, how tired the P’s were, how good their STM is anyway. No major; consent + debrief P’s found it more difficult to recall strings of letters that sounded the same, than those which sounded differently. Conrad decided that we must convert visually presented material to an acoustic code in STM. Well controlled. Easily replicated. Artificial; lacks ecological validity. He used students as P’s, so may not be generalisable to the whole population.

DV + How was it operationalised Extraneous variables Ethical Issues Results

Conclusion

Evaluation - Strengths Evaluation - Weaknesses

-showed P’s a random rapid sequence of six consonants. - 1st condition – letters acoustically similar (B, G, C, T, D, V) -2nd condition – letters were acoustically dissimilar (F, J, X, M, S, R) -Immediately after, P’s had to recall the letters in order.


Area- Memory/ Cognitive Aim Method

Experimental Design IV + How was it operationalised DV + How was it operationalised Extraneous variables Ethical Issues Results

Conclusion Evaluation - Strengths Evaluation - Weaknesses

Experiment/Study – Baddeley (1966) To investigate encoding in LTM. -Presented P’s with a random sequence of 10 words, and prevented rehearsal interrupting them. - P’s told to recall after 20 mins. - 4 categories ~acoustically similar (mad, map, mat, cad, cap, cat) ~acoustically dissimilar (pen, cow, pit, sup, day) ~ semantically similar (tall, high, broad, wide, big) ~ semantically dissimilar (foul, thin, late, safe, strong) Controlled lab experiment Type of words (4 categories) How many/ well the words were remembered. Eg, how tired the P’s were, how good their LTM is anyway. No major; consent + debrief Acoustic similarity had no effect on recall. Semantically similar words were poorly recalled. LTM is encoded mainly semantically. Easily replicated Artificial; lacks ecological validity.

MSMM Key Studies  

The key studies needed for the Multi-store Memory Model.

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