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®BHeJFiv&gß

sUr-hay eroberogng i Bn i t i ¥

Kg'-sm∏ar

karpßayrbss ' arBtm · anGgr brU I B˘s˘2548


sUmåTiÊscMeJH vrI bru sExrµ TSgGs' EdlbC U aCvI t i edm I ∫C I ati sasna [manesrP I aBeLg I vj i ! ®BHsgÙEdl®Tgs ' l i dlm ' t i y † T u C Ï nEdlkarJrsaFarNrdEΩ xrµ ng i mt i T † K u t · TSgLay˘˘˘

N eroberogtam‰ksar rbse' lak Ebn " -yt u †i cagha√ gsarNtm · an®bCaCati tamefrdk i a®BHsgÙcas@ ' Cae®cn I Gg elak bN ufl ˆ cnm Ê l u" elak Qm w -sm ufl Gtt I sa®sa† car¥salaVlC I anx ' s ı ' EdlVnrm Y Vtk u mt µ va[ " VrSgElg Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov mkvj i .


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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Garm∏kfaeVHBum®ı KaTI3 mt i G † k ~ GanCaTeI m®t,I enAeBleVHBm u eı lk I T3 I enH xV ¨∆M TVnykeTA®beKn ®BHeJFvi g & ß srU hay Bn i t i ¥ng i bEnm ƒ xH¬ EdlxH√ xat edm I ∫[ I ‰ksarvrI bru sCatm i anPaB®tm w ®tvU eLg I . ®BHeJFvi g & ß srU -hay fe√I bC I abk ' c i k ç arde* ®cn I ke* day ®BHGge B jhÚTy & Cy Y Bn i t i ¥esovePAenH ya" grk I rayCaTb I p M t u . ®BHGgm  anefr:d dk I a mkkanx ' f ¨∆M a «elaksresrlK Ì rY smehy I Etmanxs u xH¬ Gataµ Vneml I mg † ehy I . sm U elakxt i x®M sav®Cav®bvtv†i rI bru sCatei TotcHu cSGataµ Cy Y Bn i t i ¥ ebG I ataµ manlTP Ï aB˘˘˘» ®BHefr:d dk I aenHeF[ √I ct i x † r¨∆M eM Pb I eBk´®k ®s´mnk w eXI jdlC ' nxH¬ EdlEtgEtedrI eBb®Caydls ' a~ ´ddm * anxm w¬ sarenH . xs ¨∆M a† y Nas' sa† yedayCnTSgnH±u mn i ®Bmepe∆I sckE†I kt®mvU …rHi Knt ' amEbbGk ~ ecH dg w esaH eKelgEtesø~ tJlsaman¥lc Y bn ¬ x ' e¨∆M TAvj i . sm U mt i G † k ~ GanCY yBc i arNaeml I pgcHu ! etb I n u" aµ nstvtßre_ ToteTb I eKeVHbgK ' n M t i G®by i enHecal ? eNy ˙I xl Çi Kt i eyg I Kt i EtvrI bru sGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlCanm i t i r† b U ´nvrI bru sExrµ TSgGsV ' nehy I . xm ¨∆M anct i r† eM Pb I Bne' BkNas' enAeBlEdlrdaΩ PV i lelk I zan:eelakCa vrI bru sCatT i 1 I ´nsmy & GaNanK i mVrSg fe√I bx I n Á¬ xV ¨∆M n®beKnzan:eenHdl' ®BHGacar¥mn u ke* day . xm ¨∆M anCeM nOya" gmSfa CnNake* day[EtecHdg w nk w KN u b U kar´nbB u b √ ru s mx u Camn i sabsn U ¥eLy I . CaTG I vsan xs ¨∆M m U bg Y sg Y dlK ' N u bN u ¥®BHrtn®ty & sm U Vrm®I BGgC  Y yTaj®Blg w Exrµ Na EdlkB M g u vegg √ edaytNa˙ k†I ®TB¥sm∫tk † i † I menaKm vC i aÇ k†I [vl i mkkg ¨~ sgm  Exrµ Pa∆ kr' lk w Etmy Y vj i edm I ∫k I sag®beTstammaKa· vrI bru s ®kLaehamKg,' Gacar¥Ehm-ecov, eGov-eks I .l. ng i .l. eLg I vj i . sm U bgbn ËÌ rm Y QamEdlkB M g u rgTk u e≈ vTnaedaysarsÂga m®KbE' bbya" g [VnCb Y Etsx u :t terogeTA . PeM~ Bj´f© 10 kkd ˚ a 1972 Gk ~ eroberog


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C®mabG~kGan ! eBlenHkd * c U CaeBlmn u Edr, ®beTsExrµ eyg I ®tvU Bk Y GaNanK i mVrSgess CHi Can®' tt Y ®tamy Y stvtß KB W q I S~ 1863mkdl1 ' 953 eTb I mhaCneyg I rlasn ' m w dc * ´®gnH±u ecal ecjVn . etEI xrµ eyg I sx u ct i e† dk[VrSg®tt Y ®taTSgGsK ' a~ edayKaµ nkart s®Ufl byT u t Ï bvj i …? eyg I Vndg w mkehy I tamry:eesovePA bNS† ®kLaehamKg' faExrµ eyI gmn i EmneFc µ EPk ~ [breTssgt ˚ s ' gn i˚ eTAtamGeM Bc I t i e† T Km W anEtesc † xH¬ ni gmÂnx †I H¬ eT Edle®cn I EteCOeKarB{nk∫al[VrSgCan' edm I ∫[ I xn Á ¬ eKVnenA ht u Qam®bCara®sE† xrµ teTAeTot . Tk w EPk ~ Edl®skG ' B M k I ar®bml U cg®kg ®bvtn †i g i skmP µ aB´nvrI bru sExrµ enH KC W askP ≈I aBrbsy ' vu Cne®sac®sgC ' ati EdlkB M g u ®byT u ®Ï KbE' bbya" g ®bqSgng w Bk Y eyokkg u , mÂnF †I @ M sy ¨Ì rly Y ng i rl M k w eLg I vj i nvU Gtt I kald* Qc W abc ' k u Qam . K˘s˘1864 ®beTsExrµ ®tvU eFs √I ns Ïi JaÔ Camy Y ®beTsVrSg edayyk eKCaGaNaB¥aVl . lHu mkdlq ' S~ 1884 Exrµ ®tvU Fa¬ kk ' g ¨~ Gns u JaÔ rbsV ' rSgess Edlman esc † neratm † CaGk ~ cHu hteƒ lxadak®' beTsExrµ eTAe®kamGaNanK i mny i mV rSgess . Bq I S~ 1864mkdl1 ' 942 vrI bru sGacar¥sa√ , eJrkeM Vr, Gacar¥lak,' svuI taƒ , ®kLaehamKg,' Bs i e¨ˆ lakQk U ®Bmmy Y Gene¬I day®bCara®sr† m Y pg Vn eFk √I artsy Ufl a" gst √i sa√ j edm I ∫d I eNm †I yk®beTsrbsx ' n Á¬ mkvj i . Et®tvU Bk Y esc † xßb i exßøvng w VrSg [sma¬ bv' rI bru sesh ~ aCatei yg I GsC ' ae®cn I . ema¬" Hehy I esckr†I agcalbnc †i m g † @ ke* TABn Y s mk M© g ¨~ e b H d g U Exrµ [Py & xa¬ c E®kgmane®KaHfa~ kV ' tb ' gC ' vI t i dc U Gk ~ mn u @eTot . karFa¬ kc ' Hu ´n®beTseyg I e®bobVnng w sk w¬ eQ®I CHu cakEmk edaysarGkßrsa®sC † ati ®tvU VrSgham mn i [kn U Exrµ eron eK[eronEtGkßrsa®sr† bse' K e®b®I Vss ' ma∏ r:®®beTseK cabt ' SgBs I eM lokbJ M ke' Lg I eTA . ema¬" Hehy I xrY k∫alExrµ ®tvU vl i vlE' lg eml I eXj I rbsx ' n Á¬ Cadacx ' at . ma~ k@ ' EdlVneFk √I arraCkar …EtGt Y sresrI PasaVrSg exm ıI PasaCat‰ i g sb Ì E' m‰ " gEdlBs i arsa¬ esø¬ ksB M tc ' gk∫n i


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®sLajE' me" KEdllabe®km CkV ' rI esø¬ ksB M tx ' H√ ®kNate' TAvj i ! ®tgh ' w~ gehy I Caml U ehteu F[ √I Exrµ lg © x ' n Á¬ ehAElgæ ! eml I Elgyl' ! karBt i EdleF[ √I ®bCara®sc † k u QamenaH KeW rOgGkßrsa®se† yg I Etmg † . ®beTsVn‰kraC¥Ct i ´mq ∏ S~ enH Exrµ eyg I BT uM ane' Xj I ksagVnGC √ I aeKalcri ksrM ab®' bCaCatei saH eXj I Etelk I temg ˚I PasaVrSgels I BV I rSgenA®tt Y ®taExrµ ®tP I aK . ebeI yg I Kt i [dle' TA mns u ßFa¬ bx ' e¨∆M K Kn M t i vaenAEtxe¨∆M KdEdl mn i ®Bmelk I demg ˚I xn Á¬ ‰g[esn µI g w Catei KesaH . kare®bP I asabreTsCa pvˬ kardeU cH~ ehy I eF[ √I Gk ~ rdk Ω arng i ®bCara®sm † anPaBdac®' syalBK I a~ . d rabNamns u ßTSgBrI ®bePTKaµ nPaBCt i sT i~ n Ï g w Ka~ drabenaHdeM NrI ksagsa FarNrdeΩ yg I mx u Camn i VnseM rcsP u mgl  eTotehy I . Ga®sy & ml U daΩ nhg w~ ehy I EdleF[ √I ebHdg U ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov x®M bw gE®bgeTsnaBn¥lB ' T u b Ï rs i T & lg © e' xA¬ ®k®I k lgs ' aµ rtI [e®kakQreLg I ksagCvI t i edayxn Á¬ ‰g keuM dkpßgsN M ageTAtamyfakmµ . elakxt i xeM F√I karedayKaµ nKt i eBlevlang i CvI t i bg' e®JHelakBG uM acrse' nAe®kamGN M ac Bk Y breTsekt I . deU cH~ kn U esovePAdt * c U enH Kaµ nbN M gGe√I ®kABc I g[ ' BlrdEΩ xrµ Edlmn i Ta nV ' nsa le' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov [sa lE' tbeu" Naˆ HeT . xs ¨∆M m U eKarBvJ i aÔ Nkn ≈ Ï ng i Gnvu tt † amGse' lakvri bru sTSgGs' edayeB jct i C † aTb I p M t u . emagÚsß,I ´fT © 1 I 0 emsa 1971 Kg'-sm∏ar saFarNrdΩ®bCaFibety¥niym


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Twkcit† ®BHGacar¥Ehm-ecov qS~ gVyelaksgÙKeW nAng w ®bCaCn eb®I bCaCnevTna, GtV ' y, ®bCaCn Kaµ nsT i eÏi srP I aB,

eb®I bCaCnenAkg ¨~

zan:C Caxk ¨∆M JHÇ eK elaksgÙkT * Tl Y G Me N a y p l G a ® k k 'E d r

.

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elaksgÙEdlmanPar: e®Vsst√ elak K®W tvU s®†I bedAeF[ √I mns u ßman suI manesø¬ k manesrP I aB kg ¨ ~ ®beT s‰kraC¥ ng i snP †i aBdb * rb i N U · . ‹ Tk w EPk ~ ®bCara®s† KT W k w EPk ~ ®BHsgÙ ‹

( ®sge' cjBs I arBtm · an®bCaCati )


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kfaTm I y Y

Cv I ®bvt´†i nelak®K®U BHVLat' Ehm-ecov mn u ng w sk i ßaBeI KalKn M t i ´nvrI bru snm I y Y @ Cabzmeyg I ®tvU sk i ßaGB M C I vI ®bvts †i egb ≈ rbsJ ' k¥sn i . kg ¨~ eBlenH eyg I nSKa~ sk i ßaGB M C I vI ®bvte†i lak ®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlCamhaefrmy Y Gg® keLkeXj I ®bCara®s† TTl Y Tk u e≈ Tastamzan:x xn Á¬ Camns u ßkg ¨~ GaNanK i m ehy I kg ¨~ smy & enaH (qS~ 1933-1942) eKVnelk I elakCavrI bru smy Y de* qm ~I kg ¨~ pvˬ neyaVy rht U mk dls ' B´√ f© . eteI lakbds i nk Ïi g ¨~ ®tkl U EbbNa ? kg ¨~ TN I a? elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ®bs®U t´fG © ga r qS~ c B˘s˘2440 K˘s˘1898 enAPm U G i rU kn U eTj (ekaNJ &Î )Ô sga˚ td ' b M k U manlkßN_ ®sk u ådg ¨†  extk † M Bgs ' Wı (enAxageCg I Ct i saı nsaƒ ny i rfePg ¬I Vtd ' g w ). “Bk u elakeQaµ H Ehm eFC √I aem®sk u db M k U manlkßN_ . ma† yelak eQaµ HåVsk i a Tv I x®M bg w E®bgeFE√I ®scma˚ reday≤txa¬ chte' nOy . ®Ks Y ar enHmanbgbn ËÌ 5nakK ' W Ehm-l,I Ehm-ecov, Ehm-ht Y , nagEhm-sc u , Eh m-say . bg®bs u elakeQaµ H Ehm-lI eFC √I asaµ k†I (emFav)I e®kaymkeF√I Caem®sk u tB“ I Bk u . kalenABk I m u ar elakVnsa ln ' vU esckl †I V M k®KbE' bbya" g dc U Cakn U ksk i r®k®I kTeU TAEdr KeW lakVnXa√ leKa rkGs u edjcab tamzan:´´nkn U ksk i rCamy Y “Bk u ma† y®Bk w la© crht U dlG ' ay1 u 2qS~ eTb I em®sk u Ehm Ca “Bk u nSykeTA®beKn®BHsgÙstaƒ Cn Y -Nat vtå † Naˆ elam®kg u PeM~ Bj eda yehteu m®sk u Ehm ng i ®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Camt i P † kn †i g w Ka~ ya" gCt i sT i~ Ï . km u ar Ehm-ecov Caekg µ mansl I Fml · EÌ bk ¬ Cagekg µ d´TeTot@ manmat' Jk¥rhs & c∫asl ' as' mansNa† bF ' a~ bs ' mrm¥KrY [Gk ~ pgeBjct i † . km u ar enHmanB¥ayamxaÇ bx ' n ÁÇ lN Ì as' VneronGkßrsa®sk † g ¨~ sN M ak®' BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ tSgGB M d I b M g U rht U TalE' teml I Vn sresrGkßrekt I edaybrb i N U ·. km u ar Ehm-ecov VnenAsk i ßaGbr' k M g ¨~ sN M ak®' BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Cn Y Nat Gsy ' rU qS~ edayVnedrI saı yyam®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Edl®tvU nm i ne† TA eTsnakg ¨~ ®sk u ext‰ † eTot@Cajk w jy . km u ar Ehm-ecov Vnsa† bF ' me· T


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snarbs®' BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Gse' ®cn I qS~ eTb I Caehtn u S[km u ar ecov manesc ke†I qø¬ vqa¬ s yle' htp u lkg ¨~ pvˬ elakpvˬ FmC · ae®cn I ya" gNas' Cakm u arman sd M eI vahare®Jk®VCB ∆ EU kCagkm u ar‰eTot@TSgGs' . kd u Ei dlkm u arsa~ ks ' i kßa st ƒi enAxage®kaymhakd u s i B´√ fe© nH . km u ar Ehm-ecov B¥ayamerons®U t≤teFs √ ®bEhs…xl Çi ®cGs U eT . ku marxeM ronmn i faybm ' n i fa´f© e®JHelakcSbNS† bt i akg ¨~ kalEdl“Bk u nSyk eTATk u kg ¨~ sN M ak´' n®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ fa – - ecov kn U ®bs u sL M aj“ ' Bk u @Kaµ nGE√I ck[kn U eT Km W anEtvC i aÇ enHehy I Edl‰gGacyt W eyag®Ks Y areyg I [xg ı x ' s ı V ' n . mns u ßlg © e' Keml I gay Nask ' n U ! ebk I n U ecH“Bk u ke* cHEdr ! kn U enAPeM~ BjxeM roneLg I ! keuM Qa¬ H®b EkkKa~ Na± ! xs u ®tvU emc † ma† ®tvU ecHGtF ' t µ e' Tb I ®besrI e®JHeyg I Cakn U ks M t' edrI Esg √ rkvC i aÇ dc U Ka~ . deU cH~ ®tvU ecH®sLajK ' a~ eTb I Gk ~ pgsresrI crU kn U cS sP u ast i bru aNmy Y Xa¬ fa «enApHÊ ma† yT´I T eTA´®Bma† yCamy Y » . elak®KU ®BHsgÙstaƒ Gge nH CaGk ~ ®VCe∆ ®CA®CH VnCaGjnSkn U ‰ g m k [ e n A ng w elak ®tvU kn U ‰gxeM ronsF U ¥ykct i T † k u dak[ ' EmnETn . - VTelak“Bk u kn U ng w eKarBtamsd M B I k u lHu ´fs © a¬ b' ! sm U Bk u k®uM By Y V rm[ ∏ esaH ! - leÌ hy I kn U ®bs u “Bk u ! ‰gCatN M QamrbsG ' jehy I ˘˘˘ GjsgÙw mel‰ I g®Kbd ' b' ! - Jk¥enHeF[ √I km u ar ecov cgcSTk u kg ¨~ ebHdg U ≤tman´fe© Pc ¬ . km u ar®s Laje' KarBtam{vaTmatabt i aNas' mn i EdleF[ √I Gk ~ manKN u ®By Y ct i m † g † NaeLy I .

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kfaTB I rI

sagp~Ás vy & 16qS~ kc * l U mkdl' elakem®sk u Ehmng i Pry i aVnCn M K uM a~ GB M k I arbb M Y skn U CasameNr ehy I ml U mtf i a®tvU bb M s Y enAvtå † Naˆ elam ehy I [Kg' sN M aks ' k i ßabrb i tF †i me· nAvtå † Naˆ elamdEdl . lHu bs Y rc Y ehy I sameNrecovTenj Ê ems®U t (ml U evy¥akrNV _ l)I cSya" gsaÊ tC ' n M aj . ´fE© xecHEtkng ¬ Cald M ab˘' ˘˘ sameNr Ehm-ecov GayV u n20qS~ kb * eM Bjåbsm∫Ta CaPk i P ¨≈ av:k kg ¨~ BT u s Ï m I aenAvtl † ga˚ Edlman®BHmhavm i lFmµ efag (cagha√ gsalaVlC I a nx ' s ı m ' n u db M g U ) CaåbCŒay man®BH®Kb U vrvC i aÇ l√I ‰m ng i ®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Cn Y -Nat Ca®Ks U ®U t . enAeBlbeM BjCaPk i e¨≈ hy I elakkV * n®bLgcl U eronsalaVlC I anx ' s ı C ' abd ' c U ct i ®† Vfa~ . karsk i ßacn M n Y 7qS~ enAsalaVlI Canx ' s ı ' eF[ √I elakecHdg w pvˬ elak pvˬ Fm· lm µ e®bk I arVnedayeBjbrb i N U · kg ¨~ pvˬ ®BHBT u s Ï asna . elakCass i ßsN M bm ' y Y rb U ´n®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Cn Y -Nat Edlelak®sLajC ' ageK edayPk i E¨≈ hm-ecovCabBC √ t i Qa¬ s´v rhs & rhn Y ecHKrY smeTAtamzan:C Camns u ßdc U Ka~ . lHu KrM bq ' S~ T7 I elakVn ®bLgyksJaÔ b®& tDb I m ˬ salaVlC I anx ' s ı C ' abe' lx6 xagPasaVlEI d lsmy & enaH Exrµ eyg I kB M g u rabG ' anNas' . enAeBl®bLgecjBs I alaVleI hy I kg ¨~ qS~ 1927 kaleNaHelak ers " ¥m Ë CatV i rSg eFC √I aers " d uI ge' xtk † B M t VnBg w eleI lakemKNvtG † gs  ru PI ehAkenaƒ ®sk u kB M g®' tac [Cy Y rkelaksgÙmy Y Gg EdlmansJaÔ b®& t salaVlC I anx ' s ı ' kg ¨~ kalenaHelak®KeU mKNvtk † enaƒ nm i nm † k‰vtå † Naˆ elam®kg u PeM~ Bj mkBg w ®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Cn Y -Nat sm U nm i ne† lakmy Y Gg EdlmansJaÔ b®& tDb I m ˬ salaVlC I anx ' s ı ' eTAbe®gonGkßrsa®sE† xrµ enA extk † B M t edayehteu lakers " d uI g' ers " ¥m Ë extk † B M tbegt ˚I Ggk  arsk i ßaGkßr sa®sE† xrµ [manrebob®tm w ®tvU eLg I . kalenaH®BH®Ks U gÙstaƒ Vncate' lakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov [eTAbe®gon Gkßrsa®sC † at‰ i extk † B M t ykvt®† kSgdg U ®sk u bnaÊ ymas ng i vtk † enaƒ ®sk u kB M g®' tacCamCŒmNl Î . ®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov VneTAenAbe®gonGkßrsa


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®sC † atk i g ¨~ extk † B M tGs6 ' qS~ Kt W SgBq I S~ 1927dl1 ' 932 eTb I ®tLbm ' kenAPM~ e B j vj i rc Y V n ® b L g C a bC ' asa®sa† car¥enAsalaVlC I a nx ' s ı k ' g ¨~ qS~ enaH ‰g . e®kABeI ma" gbe®gonss i ß elakGac¥arEtgnm i ne† TAeTsnaCajk w jy . eTsnk _ Eng ¬ Nakd * c U kEng ¬ NaEdr elake®cn I EtykBT u P Ï ast i fa vri ei yn Tu kr≈ ect œ i ehy I ng i Gta† hi Gte† na naefa mkGFb i ∫ayBn¥le' lk I åTahrN_ edm I ∫[ I BT u b Ï rs i T & gaysa† bV ' n.

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lk≈N:x¬HEdlKYrdwg elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov mansemg ¬ F®M kGn Y manTk w dmKrY [cgs ' a† b' ehy I sa† be' Tot, manevahaek∫aHk∫ayrGl i eTAmx u Cadrab Bm uM anxn Á Ç Jk¥dEd l@ sm U ∫EI tmy Y ma" tk ' K * aµ nEdr . bEu" ne† lakBs uM vU BEU kxagsresresovePAeT e®JHsm∫rË NJ _ k¥eBcnn _ g i rvlb ' e®goneTsnaeBk . cEM NkdeM NrI eTsnaecjEbbdc U ®KrU bse' lakebHbt i Ks W emc † ®BH sgÙraC Cn Y -Nat (tam®bsasnr_ bse' lak Qm w -sm ufl ) . ®tge' nHVn esckf †I a elak®K®U BHVLate' XasnanaK Ehm-ecov manlkN ≈ mn i xs u BI :m semc † ®BHsgÙraCbn u" aµ neT . ceM JHePø∆ vBne¬W lakTTl Y edayrakT ' ak' ≤ters I mx u faGk ~ manGk ~ ®kGe√I T . CnNaEdlVn®V®sy & Camy Y elakmg † ehy I CnenaHrEngcg®' V®sy & mg † eTot edm I ∫s I a† be' lakGFb i ∫ayEjkEvk GB M ®I Ts w ®†I BHBT u EÏ dldk w nSst√ elak[dle' ®ty I ´nsP u mgl  . r‰ I karbe®gonss i ßvj i BEU kBn¥lx ' agecHeF[ √I ss i ßcl U ct i e† ronNas' sm U ∫EI tsa®sa† car¥enAsalaVlC I anx ' s ı ' km * n i GacGt®' TSsresrI elakV nEdr . ss i ßrbse' lak®sLaje' lak®Kb@ ' Ka~ e®JHCasa®sa† car¥mn i ®bkan' FmG · Kti . ebeI Xj I ss i ßNaxl Çi erons®U t elakEtgeJlceM JHss i ß enaHedaysemg ¬ fm ~ @– - crU elakxeM roneLg I ! kb uM ENt † beNa† ye®JHeyg I CaePTEdlGk ~ pg eKeKarBrabG ' an eKepT ∆I an˘˘˘ Em“ " eyg I enAe®kamkar®tt Y ®tarbsb ' reTs ®BH BT u s Ï asna®tvU cHu Gnf ' yCald M ab' Gkßrsa®se† yg I esrÊI sabsn U ¥eTAehy I KrY eyg I ®bg w E®bgkx uM a¬ cenOyht' edm I ∫eI ®sac®sgm ' atP u m U [ i rc Y Bx I k ¨∆M JHÇ VrS g keuM Pc ¬ xn Á¬ [esaHfa eyg I CaGk ~ bs Y rse' daysar®bCaCncJ i m wç ®tvU Etman ceM NHvC i aÇ e®CA®CH eTb I eF[ √I Gk ~ cJ i m wç eyg I mansTaÏ ®CHfa¬ . cHu ebeI yg I lg © ' exA¬ etd I k w nSeKemc † ekt I ? etn I rNaeKeKarBrabG ' aneyg I ? bJa˙ enHsm U ela kKt i Bc i arNaeml I [EmnETn bN M ace' yg I ecal®sk u ecalE®scma˚ r Em“ " bgbn ËÌ mkeronenATeI nH. eteI yg I mkedm I ∫G I √I ? eyg I sT u EÏ tkn U Gk ~ ®kdc U Ka~ ®† tvU


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Cy Y Ka~ eLg I keuM Fs √ ®bEhs[esaH ®byt & e~ Keml I gayNa± xK ¨∆M aµ nGC √I y Y ela keT manEtceM NHvC i aÇ ds * c Á† esg †I beu" Naˆ H . elak ! karEdlxn ¨∆M y i ayenHmn i EmnCakare®bon®bedAeT KC W akarrl M k w Ka~ eTAvj i eTAmk kg ¨~ fan:C Cakn U Gk ~ E®s ng i Gk ~ bs Y dc U Ka~ eyg I ®tvU EtENnSKa~ edm I ∫EI sg √ rksP u mgl  [®beTseyg I EdlVnVtb ' ge' ®cn I qS~ mkehy I ˘˘˘. Jk¥dase' tOnrbse' lak®KV U Late' XasnaK Ehm-ecov eF[ √I ss i ß salaVlC I anx ' s ı ®' sLaj®' KU ehy I xt i xeM rons®U t≤thafl neFs √ ®bEhs esaHeLy I . mn i ®tm w Et®sLaj' xeM ronbeu" Naˆ HeT EfmTSgmankarQc W ab' ng w Bk Y GaNanK i mVrSgxS¬ geLg I @Cald M ab' eF[ √I mCŒdaΩ nGk ~ esh ~ aCatei kat sresrI ss i ßsalaVlC I anx ' s ı ®' Kb@ ' Ka~ . kg ¨~ eBlenaHehy I EdleF[ √I kt i n †i amrbse' lak®K®U BHVLatE' hm-ecov ®kGb U ®KbT ' s i TI . ®sk u NaPm U N i aextN † a kc * gn ' m i ne† lakeTAsEM dgFm· eTsnaEdr ema¬" Hehy I elakmaneBlsrM aktc i Nas' .

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kfaTb I I

skmµPaBedIm∫ICatisasna lHu cbk ' c i s ç k i ßaehy I elakVneTAeFC √I a®Kb U e®gonGkßrsa®sC † atei nA vt®† kSdg U be®gon®BHsgÙsrM abe' F®√I KU teTA ®bkbeTAedayeCaKCy & CaTb I M pt u . e®kABeI Blbe®gon elakeqø¬ tsk i ßaxn Á¬ ‰geTot edm I ∫eI Qagcaby ' k esckB †I t i mkTn U aµ nxn Á¬ ng i ss i ßans u s i ß ®BmCamy Y Gene¬I dayåVsk åV sk i aEdl®tvU karcge' cHcgd ' g w . enAeBlelakeTsnamatT ' eTelk I db M g U mn i svU manGk ~ sa† be' ®cn I bn u" aµ n eT e®JHExrµ Cane' dm I Tma¬ bE' teTsnt _ amsa®sa† sk w¬ rt w . ema¬" Hehy I cas@ ' xH¬ ®bkanf ' a «Fms · my & feµI Kmn i ecHsa† be' T» . ehtk u arNT _ SgenHBV uM neF[ √I elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ®By Y Vrml ∏ V M kct i G † e√I T edayelakQa¬ s´vkg ¨~ karBn¥lm ' n u db M g U vaEtgman®btk i md µ eU cH~ ehy I ebeI yg I mn i tseUfl T mx u Camn i VnseM rcbN M geLy I . cabt ' SgBeI BlenaHmk ®BHGacar¥EtgeFe√I scks †I i~ Ts Ï a~ lceM JHcas@ ' NaEdlmn i svU cl U ct i s † a† be' laksEmg † Fmm · atT ' eT Ca gGk ~ pgTSgBg Y . mn i yrU bn u" aµ nGk ~ TSgenaHks * a† bV ' n gayyl' EfmTSg semg ¬ Bei raHpg ehy I ®sLaje' lakhs Y ny i ay cg[ ' EtelakGacar¥sM EdgFme· Tsnaral´' fs © l I ng i bN u ¥Tan . enAqS~ enaHehy I Edl®BHsgÙ Exrµ eyg I cabE' ®bs®U tmnB † P I asaVlm I kCaPasaExrµ . kaE®bmk[sa† bV ' n enH eF[ √I Gk ~ Kt i mn i dle' CrtHµ tHi edoldl®' BHsgÙEdlxt i xEM ®bya" gseM bm I rht U dlm ' anbg w† pl † e' TAcl U tl u akarEfmeTot . bEu" ne† sckt †I s®Ufl bg w E®bgeFk √I ar edm I ∫[ I sasnaVnrg u erOgman®beyaC nd _ lm ' haCn edaymn i tbteTAtamGeM BJ I llg © e' xA¬ kc i k ç arenaHkV * nseM rc eCaKCy & Casaƒ Br rht U mkdls ' B´√ fe© nH . mkdlP ' eM~ Bj elajGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnTTl Y fan:C CaGacar¥sala VlC I anx ' s ı ' (sa®sa† car¥) mank´M r®bcSEx50erol lm µ ng w ®T®TgC ' vI PaB[ seM rceTAekt I . elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov mansamNskC †i a®BHVLate' XasnaKrb ss ' emc † ®BHsgÙraC Cn Y -Nat kalelakenACa®BHBT u eÏ Xasacar¥ mx u gar


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feµI nHBG uM acTajkmS¬ gct i e† sh ~ aCatri bse' lak[ePc ¬ VneLy I . elakrg w rt w EtxeM ron xG M anesovePAExrµ breTsEdlsx M an@ ' sG †I B M eI rOgsasna neya Vy esdk Ω c i ç Gkßrsa®s† TsßnvC i aÇ ®KbT ' vi ara®tI ≤tbb I eNa† y[eBlevlakng ¬ pt u edayBV iM neFG √I C √I a®beyaCne_ T . e®kABk I arsk i ßabe®gonss i ß eTsna Bn¥lE' xrµ lt i© lg © ' ®BHVLate' XasnaK Ehm-ecov eqø¬ teBleTA ®V®sy & TakT ' gng w vrCnF@ M Edlesh ~ amatP u m U C i ae®cn I eTot dc U CaelakVc " Sn W , sg W -gk u" faj,' CuM mg Y , nn Y -dg Y ng i sm uw -va" .l. edm I ∫rI Hi rkmeF¥aVy reM daHCat[ i rc Y Bx I V ¨ ∆ M rSg . evla´fm © y Y elaksg W -gk u" faj' VneTACb Y ®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ehI y®beKndN M g w – - elak®K®U BHVLatb ' N M geyg I Ct i VnseM rcehy I ! - Br ! Ct i VnseM rcGeI lak ? ®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ecaTsN M rY edayegOgql © '. elaksg W -gk u" fajj ' jm w bnc †i rc Y bnvW¬ aca – - krN u amaç s' sB´√ fe© nH dc U Caelak®KG U acar¥dg w ®sabe' hy I TahaneCI g®khmng i eCg I exAµ mn i ®tvU Ka~ eT edaysarVrSgecHEtcakr' k u [EbksamKI . ≤LvË enHVrSgVncat[ ' xk ¨∆M rN u a nm i n®† BHsgÙeTsnaBn¥lB ' k Y TahanTSg nH±u , edm I ∫k I [ uM TasK ' a~ eTot . kg ¨~ eBlenH xk ¨∆M rN u asm U nm i ne† lakGacar¥ehI y. - yW ! emc " ke* lakmn i nm i ne† lakGacar¥ Vg " -xat, sU hay pg ? - krN u a xn ¨∆M m i nE† tTSgGsG ' gh  g w~ mn i [sle' T EteFy √I a" gNak[ uM Bk Y vadg w …sgßy & E®kgeTAeTsna…Bn¥le' Tot . - Br karenHmn i fe√I TceM JHrb U Gataµ PaB EtGataµ ®By Y E®kgExrµ eyg I xH¬ cg' VnbN u ¥skB †i V I rSg ehy I ykkarNe_ TA[VrSgvj i ! - krN u avaBt i ehy I Eteyg I mn i ®tvU xa¬ ceT . eyg I ®tvU xB M Hu Jr®Kbå ' bsK eTb I bN M grbse' yg I VnseM rc . - Br®tvU ehy I elak ! Gataµ mn i Edlnk w xa¬ cdle' ®KaHfa~ kG ' p √I aÊ lx ' n Á ¬ eT KW xa¬ cEbkkarsma© tr' bs®' km u bdvi tn † e_ yg I ! Gataµ mn i EmnCaGk ~ neyaVydc U elakeT KC W aGk ~ bs Y ®KanE' teTsnaBn¥lB ' T u b Ï rs i T & [sa l' [dg w [yl' [Gnvu tt † am®BHsmT ¨ı eÏ TetI ! ebs I a¬ be' dm I ∫C I ati sasna Gataµ km * n i tc U ct i E† dr eFe√I mc "† vasnamns u ßva®tvU TTl Y deU cH~ !


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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- ®tvU ehy I elak®Km U aç s' karBt i Edleyg I ®tvU ny i ayenaH eyg I ®tvU Etni yay[®bCara®sd † g w . elgFmn · y i mEGbGb mx u Cara®sl † c i lgd ' Edl . xk ¨∆M rN u asx u ct i b † C U aCvI t i Cn U Cati sasna Gse' hy I Bm uM anxa¬ csa¬ be' T ! e®JHeyg I ekt I mkrEmgsa¬ be' TAvj i CaFmt µ a . xk ¨∆M rN u aKt i sf uM a√ ybgl M asn i ehy I ! - k®uM bjabG ' eJj Ç I eBkelak ! - xk ¨∆M rN u amankare®cn I eTotEdl®tvU eF√I ! cS´fe© ®kay cSCECk[yrU bn†i c. - BrGeJj ÇI cHu elak sm U [Vnsx u ! elaksg W -gk u" fajk ' ®* kabbgl M a®BHGacar¥ vl i eTAleM nAvj i ®bkbeday Tk w ct i r† k I rayCaGenk . ®km u Exrµ Gk ~ Pa∆ kr' lk w ecHEtedrI eXasnabJH¨ç bJl Ë ç ra®s† ®BHsgÙ ®Kb' nK i mCnbT[mankarQc W abe' Lg I . elakVc " -Qn W mannaml∫x I r&Ê xaÊ redayeFC √I acagha√ gsarBtm · an «nKrvt» † manGk ~ GansT u C Ï aGk ~ ®sLajC ' atB i t i ®Vkd . ®bCara®sn † g i ®BHsgÙ VnKS®TsarBtm · anenHya" geBjTh M g w . cEM Nkxag®BHsgÙ Edlxt M sy Ufl a" gst √i sa√ jmn i xa¬ csa¬ be' dm I ∫m I atP u U mri se' naHKW elakGacar¥Vg " -xat ' sa®sa† car¥Pasas®M st w˚ , elak®KG U acar¥ srU -hay ®km u Cn M ®uM BH´®tbd i k, elak®KG U acar¥ exov-CuM Kge' nAvtl † ga˚ , ®BH gacar¥ Ehm-ecov sa®sa† car¥PasaVlI ng i samNss i ßenAsalaVlI Canx ' s ı C ' ae®cn I Gge TotCy Y pg . ®BHsgÙTSgGgG  se' nHehy I EdleF[ √I TahanExrµ Pa∆ kr' lk w ElgeQa¬ HTasE' TgKa~ edayxs u bT . ®km u TahanVrS gkacsahavNas' mn i sa lc ' ∫abT ' ma¬ bG ' e√I saH . bgbn ËÌ Exrµ eyg I sb Ì e' xm ıI mn i [kn U eT . deU cH~ ehy I VnCaGk ~ ®sk u E®scma˚ rhammn i [kn U eFT √ I ahan e®JHxa¬ ceKsb Ì ' rht U dls ' B´√ f© . ®km u TahanTSgenaH cl U eTAdlP ' m U N i a Pm U ei naHmx u Cahn i ehac®TB¥sm∫tm †i n i xan . enHCaneyaVybEM bkbV M k' edm I ∫®I tt Y ®tarbse' car´®BVrSg . K˘s˘1940 . kgTB & Cbn u" kc * l U mkdl' (sm U eml I Kk u neyaVyrbse' lak bN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" ebc I g®' Cabc∫as)' edm I ∫vI aykc M ats ' ®tvU rbsx ' n Á¬ KV W rSg Gaemrk i Sg Gg' eKs ¬ enAkg ¨~ ≤Nc ËÎ n i TSgml U . eBlenaHkgTB & VrSg mankmS¬ gexßayNa se' TAehy I . Exrµ eyg I eXj I deU cH~ kc * l U eTATakT ' gng w Cbn u" edm I ∫[ I eKCy Y


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Bk Y Cbn u" ky * l®' Bmtamescke†I sr~I bse' laksg W -gk u" faj' EdlCaGk ~ tN M a g®km u bdvi tn † _. enAeBleTsnamg † @ ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Vnelk I ykBT u P Ï ast i xx M a n@ ' EdlTakT ' gng w CvI PaB®bCara®s† edm I ∫[ I ®Cabc∫as' Vndg w c∫asn ' vU eKa lbN M g´n®BHbrm®KrU bse' yg I . BT u P Ï ast i TSgenaHKW – ‹ keuM Fm √I ns u ß[cegøÌ telak . ‹ ®tvU Kt i bcb ¨ç ∫n[ ~ Vnsx u Camn u e®JHfaebV I nsx u kg ¨~ bcb ¨ç ∫ne~ hy I G naKtmx u CaVnsx u eTot . ‹ ®tvU xeM Fk √I ar keuM dkpßgsN M ag . ‹ kng ¬ esckT †I k u V ≈ n e®JHB¥ayamxaÇ bx ' n ÁÇ . ‹ manEtxn Á¬ eyg I eT EdlCaTB I n M g w Vn . ‹ bK u l  mn i Kb∫eI sBKbn ' vU mt i d † l * amkTSgLayeLy I mn i Kb∫eI sBKb' nvU bru sdT * abefakTSgLayeLy I

Kb∫eI sBKbE' tng w kl¥amt i T † Sg

Lay Kb∫eI sBKbn ' vU bru sdå * tm † TSgLay (100Kafa) . ‹ mns u ß≤t®VCa∆ rEmgENnSnvU cEM NkEdlmn i KrY ENnS rEmgdk w nS [®bkbkg ¨~ cEM NkEdlmn i CaFru : Camns u ßKeW KENnS …®bedA[Vn leÌ daylV M k kalebeI Kny i ayl@ Ì k®* sabE' t®ceLatxg w , mns u ß enaHmn i ecHdg w vn i y & c∫abG ' e√I Ly I , kri y i amn i Cb Y ®bTH …mn i eXj I nvU mnu sßdc U enaH CakarlÌ (100Kafa) . ‹ bK u l  mn i KrY Ga®sy & Gk ~ d´TcJ i m wç CvI t i eLy I . BT u P Ï ast i TSgGse' nH elakcg[ ' ®bCara®sm † anesrP I aB edayBg w Epk Ì elx I g ~ ‰gCaml U daΩ n, keuM pv∆I asnaeTAeleI sc † EdlCamns u ßeXareXAsb∫a yePc ¬ Cati enaHmn i leÌ T . e®kABeI lk I BT u P Ï ast i elakGacar¥VnTajåTahrNl _ @ Ì B®I beTsnana EdleKecHksagCat[ i Vnrg u erOg®Kbv' s i y & . mi n®tm w EtbNH¨† saµ rt[ I Exrµ e®kakQr®byT u y Ï k‰kraC¥BV I rSgenaHeT elak VnbNH¨† saµ rtk I n U Exrµ [®sLajk ' arsk i ßa [ylt ' ´m´¬ nvC i aÇ EfmeTotpg . mhavs i ßmkalkc * l U mkdl˘' ˘˘ ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Vnnm i ne† TAvtk † eM Nt I edm I ∫s I rY sx u Tk u ejamja ti ng i Pk i s ¨≈ ameNr‰eTotEdlrabG ' anKa~ . enAeBlybe' Lg I mancas@ ' ®sI ®bs u ng i Pk i s ¨≈ ameNrVnmkecameram edm I ∫[ I elakGFb i ∫ayFm… · erOgrav" epßg@[sa† b' . mn u db M g U elakelk I erOgGe√I pßg@Edlman®beyaCn_ eTb I


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elakmanefrdk I amy Y @– - ®beTseyg I mn i dg w eBlNa rc Y Bx I V ¨∆M rSgeT . VrSgmk®tt Y ®ta®sk u eyg I hn i ehac®TB¥sm∫tG †i s' Kaµ nGc √I eM rn I rg u erOgesaH, dc U eyg I ralK ' a~ eXI j®sabe' hy I Gataµ eFb √I N u ¥ral´' f© bg Y sg Y s[ uM Exrµ Vn‰kraC¥mkvj i edm I ∫I k[ uM breTsCHi Cane' yg I teTAeTot . xN:eenaHelaktama~ ke' JleLg I – - krN u amaç sk ' K * t i dc U elak®KG U acar¥Edr Etmn i dg w eFe√I mc " VnQH~ Bk Y V rSgeT . cN M c u enHVneF[ √I Tk w ®BHTy & ®BHGacar¥rk I rayeBk´®k . elakkt * beda ysemg ¬ ®kGn Y ®BmTSgjjm w pg – - BrCakargayeT elakraebeI yg I cgV ' n‰kraC¥ e®JH®BHsmaµ smT ¨ı Ï ®Tgb ' ga˙ jpvˬ [eyg I edrI ehy I fa «escks †I amKI nSmknvU escks †I x u ®Kb' ya" g» . EtkalNaeyg I ®sHu ®sl Y Ka~ eyg I ng w GaceFG √I @ √I ekt I mn i xan . Gataµ s gÙm w fa eb®I bCara®se† yg I ®sHu ®sl Y Ka~ mx u CaQH~ VrSgeBlqab@ ' enHmn i xa n . EtebEI xrµ eyg I mn i ®sbKa~ eT eyg I BG uM acdeNm †I ykesrP I aBenaHmkvj i VneLy I . Gataµ mn i eBjct i n † g w Gk ~ xH¬ EdleKyk®BHBT u s Ï asna edm I ∫b I M Pn ^ m † t®i bCara®s† ehy I eVk®bCara®sC † adacx ' at . elakta ! elakTSgGs' eXj I ®sabe' hy I ®beTseyg I manGk ~ bnx M¬ n Á¬ ekgykk´M rBs I asnasem∫m I Nas' . - krN u amaç s' Bt i ehy I karenH ! karsnn Ê aGB M eI rOgsasnaneyaVy ng i GB M k I arENnS[®bCaCnecH®b kbkargarcJ i m wç CvI t i ®sbtamKng ¬ ®BHsmT ¨ı Ï Vn®b®Bt w e† TArht U Jkk ' Na† lGa®Fa®teTb I Qb' . eBlnm i ne† TA®sk u mg † @ ®BHGacar¥Etgnm i n®† Kbp ' HÊ bgbn ËÌ NaEdl®k®I k CageK . elakeBjct i ®† V®sy & Camy Y CnCB M k U enaH kd * c U CaelakeBjct i † ng w Pm U k i eM Nt I …®BHsmT ¨ı EÏ dr . ❑

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kfaTb I n Y

®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ®tUvVraMgcab'pßwk ®BHGaTt i ¥Ct i Gsg † t  rltr' seµI TAehy I ˘˘˘ semg ¬ ´ry®M Klc Y BeI lc I g u KKrI mkbH" ®tecokbru C I n [®segH®segac exa¬ cpßa esrÊI TbC ' len®tBV uM n . qS~ 1942 CaqS~ Edl®beTseyg I ®tvU Vtb ' gG ' k ~ e sh ~ a C a tm i a tP u m U G i s' Cae®cn I . ®Bt w k †i arNs _ klelak Vntg w EtgCald M ab' . sÂga melakelk I T2 I kp * H¨Ê eLg I . saƒ nkarNk _ g ¨~ ®beTsExrµ mansPaBtg w EtgesrÊI EkElgrc Y e®JH®bCa CnExrµ eyg I hakd ' c U Calgl ' k' edaymn i dg w fa ®beTsGjenAe®kamGN M ac rbsV ' rSgeT . Etebd I g w vj i k®* KanE' t®tm w dg w esrÊI mn i hafl neFs √I kmP µ aBG√I eLy I . eteI daysarG√I ? CnCatEi xrµ EdlVrSgcabx ' n Á¬ Kaµ nvrCn…esc † Na eTAst uM va[ " rc Y xn Á¬ mkvj i eT . eKEbrCaCrM j u [breTssma¬ be' caleTAvj i . ema¬" Hehy I , Gk ~ manceM NHtc i rEmgxa¬ csa¬ bC ' aFmt µ a karPy & xa¬ cke* kt I man eLg I . EtExrµ QamGgr vt† Fa¬ be' FC √I amhaGN M acmy Y ng w eKEdr ke* ®kakQrTaj´dbgbn ËÌ Qamxn Á¬ [ts®Ufl byT u eÏ Lg I . ®km u bdvi tn † V _ ntseUfl Fs √I kmP µ aBrbsx ' n Á¬ ya" gmmajk w edm I ∫[ I Tans ' aƒ n karNs _ klelakEdlkB M g u c∫SgKa~ . eBlenaH®BHgacar¥ Ehm-ecov Etg nm i ne† TAGbr' EM xrµ ®sk u E®sck M arCajk w jy edm I ∫s I k uM aråbtm ƒ B ∏ ®I bCara®s† ®K bm ' eF¥aVyng i ®Kbs ' ma∏ r: . cEM Nk®bCara®sn † g i ®BHsgÙ VnKS®T®km u bdvi tn † _ tSgpvˬ ct i p † vˬ kay ≤tsgßy & eLy I . Epnkarsma© tr' bsE' xrµ bdvi tn † _ Vndg w dl®' ksg Y esb uI Gegt ˚ ´nBk Y breT s . karenHdg w edaysarTahanExrµ eyg I EdlenA®sLajV ' rSg ehy I yk


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karNe_ TA[VrSgedm I ∫x I n Á¬ VnbN u ¥sk & †i (1) . tamesovePAKk u neyaVyrbse' lakbN ufl ˆ cnm Ê l u" EdlCasmaCk i ma~ k´' dsx M an´' n®km u bdvi tn † _ Vnsresrya" gc∫asl ' asf ' a edayBk Y Tahan Exrµ EdlVnmkTakT ' gCamy Y elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ng i elak nn Y -Dg Y enaH, manTahanxH¬ Edl®sLajV ' rSgdHu Esk ¬ g ¨~ xrY dHu mn i ®CHenaH, vanSerOg sma¬ be' nHeTA®VbV ' rSg faelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ng i elak nn Y -Dg Y Caem dk w nSBk Y TahanExrµ [bHeVr®bqSgng w VrSg . TahanExrµ cn M n Y 15nak' ®tvU cabs ' a© t@ ' edm I ∫k I [ u M EbkkarN_ . enA´f1 © 7 kkd ˚ a 1942 ®sabE' teXj I cagha√ gKj i VrSgma~ k' ng i elxa Fk i arExrµ BrI nake' Tot mankans ' N M l uM x i t i my Y dp uM g, VneTACb Y elak Gg uw -GuI naykrdm Ω  n † I ® B m T S g e l a k T a - s a n r d Ωm  n I†® k s Yg m h a ´ p Ên ig F m µk a r ng i mÂn‰ †I eTot . ®KaenaH elak Ta-san VnbJaÇ elak CuM mg Y (kaleNaH eFC √I aelxaFk i are®kambga be' lak) [eTAnm i ne† lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov mk . elak CuM mg Y nk w ®bEhlCamankarFeM hy I kg ¨~ erOgsma© tC ' amy Y Ka~ Etca be' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov eTAng w raldaldlG ' ataµ Gjmn i xan, bEu" nB † T u M an' dg w c∫asC ' aerOgGE√I dr ? edayBh uM afl nsrY eK . elak CuM mg Y ke* TAvtå † Naˆ elam nm i ne† lak®KU Ehm-ecov elakkV * n nm i nC † amy Y Ka~ CabnaÊ n' . tampvˬ , elakV * nsrY elak CuM mg Y Bd I eM NrI Edl elakrdm Ω Ân[ †I mknm i ne† nH . elak CuM mg Y kT * l U elaktamdeM NrI EdlVn eXj I EtBd uM g w CaerOgG√I . elakmanefrdk I afa – ebvI asrY BeI rOgeyg I eyg I eq¬I y®bEkkfa EtBV uM ndg w eTA ! rc Y elakmanefrdk I atmkeTotfa elaksg W gk u" fajV ' npS† fa ebV I rSgvadg w erOg ®tvU [®bjabr' tc ' l U eTA‰mnrÊI kgGavF u htC ƒ bn u" Ca®bjab' eTb I rc Y xn Á¬ ! eyablT ' SgBrI naky ' lf ' a c∫asC ' aVrSgva dg w erOgsma© te' hy I , bEu" nB † V uM nKt i dle' rOgGe√I T nk w fa®bEhlCava®KanE' t ehAsrY sn i Etbeu" Naˆ HeTya" geml I ? lHu elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov eTAdl' ®sabE' telak Ta-san e®b[ I bM ereI TATj i xa1 Gav1 mkehy I bgeM≈ lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov [pa¬ ss ' ∫gc ' I BrBx I n Á¬ ehy I esø¬ kJke' xaGavPa¬ mrc Y VrSgvanSeTAtamrfynv† aVte' TAEtmg † -----------(1) mancas@ ' xH¬ Vnny i ayfa Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov Edl®tvU VrSgcabe' nH mkBIesc † sh I nx u ßb w [ VrSgcab' eTb I VnCaBk Y vadg w . esc † sh I nu xa¬ c®km u bdvi tn † r_ l M ayraCblg ¬ e˚ cal eTb I eFd √I eU cH~ .


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rkEtrte' TA®VbG ' k ~ N a km * n i T a n ' . Kt i e T A Bk Y eKcabe' lakpßk w T S g ≤ t Cn M uM esaH . elak CuM mg Y kanE' tPy & xS¬ gfa Gjc∫asC ' aVrSgvacabx ' n Á¬ eTotCaBx u M an . lHu dle' BlecjBeI Fk √I ar ke* TACrM abelak sg W -gk u" faj' tamdeM NrI . elakk®* Vbf ' a [®byt & x ~ n Á¬ [EmnETn VrSg®VkdCacabe' yg I ehy I . erOgcabe' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ke* pl ÌI eqaeLaeLg I kg ¨~ bNa† Bk Y elaksgÙCans i ßt i ´nsalaVlC I anx ' s ı ' ng i vtn † anakg ¨~ ®kg u PeM~ Bj Edl e®cn I EtCamt i P † k & n †i g i Cass i ßrbse' lak . kg ¨~ eBlCamy Y Ka~ enaH elak nn Y -Dg Y k®* tvU Kj i VrSgeTAcab‰ ' pHÊ Edr . enAeBlEdlVrSgcabp ' ßk w elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov mankarQc W ab' ≤tåbma eF[ √I Tk w en®taelakhrU edaymn i dg w xn Á¬ . elaknk w tc U ct i n † g w Exrµ Ka~ ‰g EdleFF √I eM hy I mn i Cy Y Qq W aÌ lkarJrkt i y †i s®BHsgÙ, EbrCabeNa† y [CnbreTs jSjt I amGeM Bc I t i r† bse' K . elakKaµ nnk w xa¬ cfa VrSgeFT √ I arN u kmG µ e√I T Etelaknk w sa† yKeM ragkarN_ Edlng w Ct i VnseM rcplpl † ' eTA[®bCara®sE† xrµ Edlrsk ' g ¨~ Gng ¬ T ' k u e≈ ®kam®kjSbs i acVrSg ng i esc † ygX ' g ~ Cae®cn I qS~ mkehy I . enAkg ¨~ TX I X uM Sg elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Ggy ¨ smg w¬ tamrnt Ï c U my Y emI leTAemXaEdlmandB uM Bkrsate' ®KOn@ e®bobdc U CadT uM k u p ≈ s u ecjB®I keGA ebHdg U ´n®bCaCnrm Y Cati . ®BHGacar¥eJlEtma~ k‰ ' g TSgTk w EPk ~ s®sak' – - { ! ®beTsGjeGy I ! etk I alNaeTAng w Vn‰kraC¥ sm∫rË sb∫ay dc U smy & mhanKrvj i ! ebm I ÂnF †I @ M sT u s Ï g w lkk ' ∫alya" gdac´' f¬ [VrSg eTAehy I ˘˘˘. - et´I fN © a eTb I Exrµ eyg I e®kakBeI dk ? eTb I Exrµ sa lx ' n Á¬ ‰gCamns u ß dc U sasnd _ ´T ! - { ! ®by i mt i † ! Edlrm Y efm ¬I sb Ufl rˆ CvI t i ≤tsa† y®seNaH edm I ∫s I ®Ufl Kla sx ' n Á¬ [rc Y Bn I m w GaNanK i mVrSgEss ! mt i m † n i dg w Ca®By Y ya" gNaeT ! e®JHxa¬ cEbkkarN_ (Epnkarsma© t)' rbse' yg I ! mt i e† Gy I eTaHbG I aecarGb lkßNT _ SgenaH ykGavF u mkBHu ®Tg U rg U ykefm ¬I xk ¨∆M e* day xm ¨∆M n i eqy ¬I ®Vbn ' vU karNB _ t i TSgenaHeLy I ! xm ¨∆M n i sx u ct i [ † ®beTsxs ¨∆M a¬ bC ' adacx ' at ehy I x¨∆M mn i sx u ct i r† se' dayeXj I ®beTsxk ¨∆M JHÇ eKEdr . {mt i r† m Y sasna ! xs ¨∆M m U bg Y sg Y dlK ' N u bN u ¥®BHrtn®ty & ng i vJ i aÔ N


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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kn ≈ ´Ï nvrI bru sExrµ Edlmanelak®kLaehamKgC ' aedm I Cy Y KSJr[kartsUfl rbse' yg I Vnse®mceCaKCy & kb uM x I an edm I ∫[ I kn U ecArbse' yg I sa ln ' vU si TÏi esrP I aB yt u F †i m· sP u mgl  dc U Gar¥®beTsnana˘˘˘. Tn M j Y de* sakesAenH VnehrI cl U eTAkg ¨~ ebHdg U Exrµ Gk ~ esh ~ aCati [rg w rt w Etka¬ haneLg I CaeTP √ aK . esckT †I k u l ≈ V M krbse' lak EdlVrSgVneF√I TarN u kmy µ a" g´®B´pß edm I ∫s I rY cemy ¬I enaH manvs i alPaBmn i GacBNn · a VneLy I . r‰ I elak nn Y -Dg Y eFk √I arenA®km u Cn M EuM ®b®BH´®tbd i k k®* tvU TTl Y GeM By I g' Xg ~ dc U ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Edr EtvrI bru sTSgBrI rb U enH VnrkßaTk u kt i †i ysExrµ eyg I rht U mkdls ' B´√ f© .

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kfaT®I VM

mhaVtukmµ´f©20 kk˚da 1942 dN M g w VrSgcabp ' ßk w elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov VneF[ √I samNss i ß enAsalaVlC I anx ' s ı ' reM Cb I rC M l Y ya" gxS¬ g ehy I pßayeTA®Kbv' tG † aramng i exte† ®kAedm I ∫rI m Y ®bCK uM a~ eFV √I tk u mt µ va[ " VrSgedaHElgelak®KG U acar¥ Ehm ecov ng i elak nn Y -Dg Y BT I X I X uM Sgmkvj i . mhaVtk u meµ nH brM g u eFe√I nA´fT © 1 I 8 kkd ˚ a Et®tvU Gakx ' aneTAvj i edayenA vtl † ga˚ Cabr' vle' Fb √I N u ¥ceM rn I ®BHCnvµ sßa®BHFml µ x i t i l√I ‰m Cacagha√ g salaVlC I anx ' s ı ' kg ¨~ {kasEdlelakeLg I smNsk & T †i C I a®BHFml µ x i t i . BF i b I N u ¥enHVnbegy ˙I enA´fT © 1 I 9 kkd ˚ a. eBlenaH elak sg W -gk u" faj' VnePosxn Á¬ eTABn Y ‰kary i aly & kgGa vF u htC ƒ bn u" edm I ∫eI Kcxn Á¬ [pt u Bk I Na† b´' dVrSgEss kg ¨~ eKalbN M gdk w nS®km u bdvi tn † k _ g ¨~ karreM daHCat[ i Vnse®mc . karTakT ' grvagelak sg W -gk u" faj' ng i emdk w nSxagVtk u mµ Vn®b®Bt w † eTAya" gskmµ edaymanelak bN ufl ˆ cnm Ê l u" CaGk ~ nSJk¥ eTAC®mabelak Vc " -Qn W EdlCabru sma~ km ' anct i r† g w dc U fµ . ra®t´I fT © 1 I 9kkd ˚ a emdk w nSBk Y Vtk u rVnerobck M ∫n Á eday®km u @ tamkmµ vF i rI bsx ' n Á ¬ Cae®sc . ´fT © 2 I 0 kkd ˚ a kc * l U mkdl˘' ˘˘ ®bCara®sn † g i ®BHsgÙExrµ enAT®I kg u PeM~ Bj ´dkand ' gbda edrI seM dAeTA vm i aneTsaPV i lVrSg enAxaglc i vtP † M~ (Ts I k †I arrdm Ω Ân®†I ksg Y EpnkarsB√ ´f)© ®bkbedayTk w mx u GgG ' acka¬ hanng i xg w pg . enAxagelp I SÊ gbdaenaH mancark i Jk¥esa¬ kfa «eyg I xs ¨∆M m U [edaHElgelak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ni gelak nn Y -Dg Y mkvj i ». Bk Y Vtk u r VneTAdlk ' ary i aly & eTsaPV i lVrSgya" gkHu kr edaycM rHu edayBNe· lOgpg eF[ √I Td i P Ω aBenHKrY KyKn≤ ' tKNna . enAmx u Bk Y Vtk u rrabm ' n uW nak' eK®keLkeXj I elak Vc " -Qn W Qrya" g sga˙ Kaµ n®BeW ramxa¬ cBk Y VrSgygX ' g ~ eFV √I bGe√I Ly I . mn u db M g U elakVc " -


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Qn W Vnray " rab " ®' VbV ' rSgBeI htk u arNe_ pßg@ ng i sC uM b Y eTsaPV i lVrS g EtVrSg[cl U BrI bn I akb ' eu" Naˆ H . ®km u Vtk u rmn i ®Bme®JHxa¬ cBk Y vacab' eTot . eBlenaHedaymns u ß®calcHu ®caleLg I eF[ √I elakVc " -Qn W ®Cu lxn Á¬ cl U kg ¨~ rbgkary i aly & rbsb ' reTs ehy I VrSgkb * T i Ta√ r rc Y vanSemV tk u rtampvˬ e®kayVte' TA . eXj I VrSgcabe' lakVc " -Qn W deU cH~ ®km u Vtk u r®TSmn i Vn kb * HKl i va yKj i VrSg yn Y Ebkk∫alhrU QameLg I . ®BHsgÙedjcabV ' rSgng w dg q®& t e®JHEtxg w eKeFV √I bsa®sa† car¥rbsx ' n Á¬ . cEM Nk®Khseƒ ®bd I f uM µ dM bgng i kn U tg w CaGavF u Edr . karbHeVrvaydeU cH~ eF[ √I xc U KeM ragkarGsr' lg I Edlelaksg W -gk u " fa jV ' nTakT ' g[Cbn u" Cy Y eFG √I nr† aKmn_ eb®I bsn i NaeTsaPV i lVrSgmn i edaHElgvrI CnTSgBrI eT (sm U GanKk u neyaVyrbse' lak bN u" ˆ cnm Ê l u" ) eBlkB M g u vay®bLk Ë Ka~ enaH Bk Y VrSgVnftrb U Vtk u r edm I ∫®I sl Y edrI cab' . ®BHPk i ¨≈ Vg " -xat' ng i ®BHGacar¥ Gk ufl -Ca, elakbN u" ˆ cnm Ê l u " , elak CuM mg Y , Pk i F ¨≈ mV µ l exov-CuM .l. Vnrte' Kcxn Á¬ ya" grhs & . CnNayt W deM NrI k®* tvU Bk Y VrSgcabd ' akK ' k u Gs' . ®BHetC®BHKN u Vg " -xat' eKcxn Á¬ rc Y ehy I EbrCanm i ne† TA[VrSgcab' edayct i k † a¬ hanCaTb I p M t u . elakbN u" ˆ cnm Ê l u" k®* tvU VrSgcabE' dr . r‰ I ®BHGacar¥ Gk ufl -Ca ng i Pk i F ¨≈ mV µ l exov-CuM Vnnm i ne† Posxn Á ¬ eTAkan' ®beTsesomTSgTk w EPk ~ . (®BHGacar¥ Gk ufl -Ca Kge' nA®sk u esomrht U mk dls ' B´√ f)© . cEM Nkelak CuM mg Y kV * neKcxn Á¬ eTAVtd ' b M gEdr . Exrµ Gk ~ esh ~ aCati TSg®BHsgÙ TSg®Khsƒ EdlcabV ' n eKdakk ' g ¨ ~ TI XX uM Sg rc Y bJn ËÇ eTAKk u FP M eM~ BjTk u kate' Tas . cEM Nkesc † sh I nu Kaµ nKt i bJa˙ ®beTsCatei T KK W t i Etsb∫ayng w ®sI jI rSErk eBjcnq Ê aya BC uM y Y Qq W aÌ lBk Y Vtk u resaH EdlCacl U ´dng w VrS geCr®BHsgÙfa «Ga®tegalbs Y bp M a¬ jVy» eTAvj i ehy I EfmTSgham mn i [ss i ßsalaVlC I anx ' s ı e' ®bq I ®& tdgEdkeTotpg . (elaktama~ km ' an ®bsasnf _ a esc † sru a®mt i Vndk w ®Vks ' T u n Ï g i maseTAsk U VrSge®cn I Na s' edm I ∫[ I kn U xn Á¬ VnesayraC¥ . VrSgky * l®' Bmehy I dakx ' sn¥ak[ uM sh I neu Pc ¬ VrSg . deU cH~ ehy I VnCaesc † sh I nn u k w KN u VrSgmn i ePc ¬ .


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V tk u meµ nHBV uM nseM rcdc U e K a l bN M g e T Kh W a kd ' c U Ca®KanE' teF[ √I C a karsakl∫g [Exrµ TeU TAdg w xn Á¬ beu" Naˆ H . e®kaymkGk ~ eTasneyaVy k®* tvU VrSgbJn ËÇ eTA´®BnKrtamkVl " ' edm I ∫k I ate' Tas .

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kfaT®I Vm M y Y

karkat'eTas®bharCIvit n a v a E ® s k l a kB M gE' pPe~M BjbvI m U kT * ma¬ kk ' ny ¨ Ê e hy I eFd √I eM NrI e®KOn@ eTA . enAeln I ava elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov, elakVc " -Qn W , elak nn Y -Dg Y ng i Gk ~ eTas‰eToteCg I Cab®' cvak' smg w¬ eml I kB M l U vtå † Naˆ elam sEmg † nvU esckG †I aelaHGaly & matP u m U i mn i cgX ' a¬ tqa© yeT elaksa† yxanVnrs' enACamy Y Cnrm Y QamCaTeI sh ~ a ! sa† yxaneXj I mx u åVskåVsk i a Ed lEtgBei ®KaHKa~ GB M b I Ja˙ Cati sasna . elakGacar¥ks M te' lk I ´dTSgBrI ®bNmehy I eJlxßb w @– - xm ¨∆M aç ss ' m U fa√ y®BHbgl M aehy I mn i dg w ´fN © aVnCb Y vj i eT ! sm U ®BHVrmC I y Y EfrkßaTl U ®BHbgp M g Tl U bgc M gr' st ' eTAeTotedm I ∫eI ®sac®s g®' beTs Edllc i lge' ®cn I qS~ mkehy I Nas˘' ˘˘. {kEng ¬ dm * enarm¥ ! EdlFa¬ bp ' l † n ' vU vC i aÇ ng i escks †I x u ®KbE' bbya" g ! x¨∆M mn i ePc ¬ Gk ~ eT ! eTaHbG I aecar´®Bsma¬ bx ' ¨∆M kv* J i aÔ Nkn ≈ x Ï e¨∆M hrI mkenATeI nHvj i Edr . sm U Gk ~ GPy & eTasdlx ' ¨∆M Edlmn i Vncl U ladlk ' Eng ¬ e®JHxC ¨∆M a mns u ßmaneTas mn i GacmanesrP I aBeFe√I Ge√I kt I tamct i c † g' ! Etxm ¨∆M n i tc U ct i † eLy I nvU eTaskh M s u EdlVrSgvaecaT edaysarx®¨∆M sLajC ' ati sasna xs ¨∆M a¬ bk ' s * a¬ bc ' Hu [EtCati ! sasnars˘' ˘˘. kVl " e' bk I mkdlm ' x u vSg jS¨ gcn i a† elak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ng i mt i † Pk‰ †i eTot[ekA† eqHql Y hs Y ®bmaN, elaksb ı e' xm Iı Bk Y esc † EdlkaceXar eXA sma¬ bm ' ns u ßKaµ nBc i arNa rkyt u F †i m· Kaµ nKt i ®bCara®s®† k®I k elm ˙ la˙ m EdlBk Y breTssgt ˚ s ' gn i˚ mancn i yn Y VrSgCaedm I . eml I cHu vSg®V saTrbse' KmanrsP µI r¬W naÊ l Gsl ' y u Catri abr' ylan ! cEM NkleM nA®bCa ra®s† rkEtsk w¬ Vg M mn i Ct i Tk w ePø¬ gng i keM dApg ! eKTk u xn Á¬ eKCaGk ~ ®Kb®' Kg ®bCara®s† . EttamBt i Bk Y eKCabkß´n®bCara®se† Tb I ®tm w ®tvU eTb I smng w s kmP µ aBEdleKVn®b®Bt w † . karQc W t i † karPa∆ kr' lk w rbse' lakGacar¥ Ehm ecov mantSgBeI lakenACass i ßsalaVlC I anx ' s ı e' mH¬" . elakCaembdvi t†


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nd _ å * tm † ma~ kE' dleyg I k®mng w VnCb Y . bnc †i e®kaymk navacV M g M dk w Gk ~ eTasenH km * kdlm ' x u salaVlC I an' xs ı ' EdlCaTb I NH¨† vC i aÇ rbse' lak . elaksmg w¬ kB M l U salaedayck u EN n{ra ehy I begt ˚I semg ¬ tamx¥le' TAss i ßks M t' – - {ss i ßCaTeI sh ~ aeGy I ! etG I k ~ Vn®KN U abe®gonGk ~ eTot ! ebx I ®¨∆M tvU breTseKdk w eTA®bharCvI t i deU cH~ ! xm ¨∆M n i cgX ' a¬ tGk ~ eT ! Gk ~ Cass i ß®bkb edayFm· ecH®sLajv' C i aÇ dc U ct i ®† Kb U g " ®Vfa~ ! ´fe© nHxX ¨∆M a¬ tBG I k ~ ehy I ! crU Gk ~ xs M k i ßaCamy Y ®Kf U [ µI EmnETn ebG I k ~ Bt i Ca®sLajE' xrµ Emn ! crU Gk ~ xrM kßa kt i y †i s sasna eyg I k[ uM sabsn U ¥Na± ! xK ¨∆M aµ nGe√I pm ∆I kGk ~ e®kABb I NS† mY yma" te' nHeT KeW bG I k ~ ®sLajx ' ¨∆M Tk u xC ¨∆M a®K®U tvU xeM ron ehy I reM daH®beTs[ Vn‰kraC¥eLg I . CeyasalaVlI ! xl ¨∆M aehy I laTSgmn i VneXj I mx u Gk ~ ralK ' a~ la ehy I kEng ¬ Fa¬ be' ron Fa¬ bC ' n M K uM a~ ! laehy I matP u m U C i aTeI sh ~ aeseµI dayCvI t i ! laehy I ejamjati EdlFa¬ b®' sLajr' abG ' anKa~ ≤tmanhg µ ˘˘˘ laehy I TI ®kg u ks M tE' dl®tvU eKsgt ˚ s ' gn i˚ ! laehy I ®by i m®i tEdlKt i ®beyaCn_ Cati ! xl ¨∆M aTSgGaly & ng i Qc W t i C † aTb I p M t u ! cEM Nkelak nn Y -Dg Y ng i elak Vc " -Qn W km * andT uM k u d ≈ c U Caelak®KU Ehm-ecov Edr . elakVc " -Qn W k†I elak nn Y -Dg Y k†I elak®KG U acar¥Ehm ecovk†I ng i Gk ~ ‰eTotk†I Kaµ nsa† y®seNaHCvI t i eT Etsaksa† yxanVnbn† skmP µ aB edm I ∫rI eM daHCat[ i rc Y Bn I m w EdkGaNanK i mny i mVrSg[rc Y sn i . karKt i Evgqa© ynvU bJa˙ CatT i SgenHehy I EdleF[ √I Clen®tvrI bru sExrµ eyI ghrU edaymn i dg w xn Á¬ . elakTSgenHBV uM nsnn Ê aKa~ enAtamsemg ¬ eT K®W Ka nE' tsnn Ê atamExßEPk ~ beu" Naˆ H . deM NrI navaeTAmx u Canc i ç ≤tKt i dlm ' ns u ßEdlmanTk u e≈ Tashs Y ®BEM d nesaHeLy I . eTsPaBdgTenB ¬ P I eM~ BjeTA´®BnKrmansPaBe®kom®ks M mM© esø© mQg w hakd ' c U CaQreKarBvrI bru sEdlVrSgdk w eTAkate' Tasna®kg u ´®BnKrkg ¨~ eBlxagmx u enH . sPaBsb © s ' a© te' nH rg w rt w EtTaj®Blg w vrI Cn eyg I [reM Pb I ≤tåbma . enAeBlEdlnavaebk I hs Y ®B®M bTlE' dnExrµ elaknn Y -Qg Y Vnbns ¬W emg ¬ eTAkane' lakGacar¥Ehm-ecovedayjr& @ – - ®BHetC®BHKN u eyg I Xa¬ tBm I atP u m U ei yg I ehy I !


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- eGeI lak ! enHCakarFmt µ arbse' yg I eT˘˘˘ sm U keuM TamnsßGI ! - Bt i Emnehy I ! Et®Blg w xv¨∆M amn i ®BmdacG ' aly & BEI xrµ eyg I esaH ! - eGI ! xn Á¬ xk ¨∆M y * ag " enaHEdr ! xm ¨∆M n i GacbeM Pc ¬ Catei yg I VneT eTaHbV I rSg sma¬ be' calke* day xm ¨∆M n i Kt i E d r Kx W a¬ cEt®beTseyg I BV u M n e s rP I aBbu" eNaˆ H . elak nn Y -Dg Y eqy ¬I – - mn i GeI T Exrµ eyg I Pa∆ kr' lk w xH¬ ehy I ®BHetC®BHKN u ! kB M g u snn Ê aKa~ Cabm ' at' ®sabE' tsk & 2 †i VrSgedrI mkCt i ehy I E®sk – - QbC ' ECkKa~ eTA ! erobcx M n Á¬ eLg I dlE' p≤LvË ehy I ! Gk ~ eTasTSgGsk ' e* Ft √ I amVrSgenaH . dl´' ®BnKr rfyn®† Tg u my Y Vnmkdk w Gk ~ eTas ykeTAdakk ' g ¨~ Kk u FM . GeM By I gX ' g ~ enAKk u ´®BnKr kd * c U CaenAKk u FP M eM~ BjEdr . Bk Y Gk ~ cl U fµI EtgTTl Y fS~ xS¬ gBG I k ~ eTas´deqt I esrÊI ®KbK ' a~ . GeM B®I V scakmns u ßFme· nHekt I edaysarBk Y VrSgvabegt ˚I eLg I k[ uM Gk ~ eTas®tvU ng w Gk ~ eTas KC W aneyaVybEM bkbV M k' edm I ∫®I sl Y ®tt Y ®taeTAeTot . Exrµ Gk ~ eTasxH¬ edayVrSgkane' Cg I xn Á¬ ke* Lg I ´d vayeFV √I bCat‰ i gKaµ nKt i mx u Kt i e®kayGe√I saH . eBlcl U eTAdl' elak nn Y -Dg Y Vn®tvU emt®mt Y Kk u ´®BnKrvayFakr' ht U snb ¬ V ' ts ' aµ rtI Elgdg w xn Á¬ enAceM JHGk ~ eTasCae®cn I e®JHEtelakeqy ¬I fa «k∫tV ' rSg» GeM BeI nHeF[ √I kl¥aNmt i e† lakGaNt i esrÊI ePc ¬ saµ rtI . Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov eXj I mt i x † n Á¬ TTl Y TNk Î md µ s * ahavdU ecH~ elakVrmk ∏ g ¨~ ct i x † H¬ Edr edayxa¬ cTTl Y rga√ nG ' ®by i BC I nTy u s · dc U elak nn Y -Dg Y . EtxN:eenaHelaknk w eXj I «enHCakarFmt µ arbsG ' k ~ eTa seT ! enHehy I Casaƒ nnrkelaky i ! Gjmn i ®tvU rj u raeLy I ˘˘˘» bnaÊ bB ' B I k Y yn Y vaeFV √I b elakGar¥ nn Y -Dg Y Gsc ' t i e† hy I CnG®by i enaHkm * kehAGa car¥ Ehm-ecov eTAsrY mg † . elakGacar¥kc * l U eTACt i tamTma¬ be' Kny i mGnu vte† naH edaymn i hafl negb I eml I mx u eKpg . em®tt Y ®take* VHsd M T I SgkeM ral eTAkanG ' acar¥Ehm-ecov – - cHu Gae®Tk I enaHmanerOgGEI dr ? elakGacar¥ke* qy ¬I eTAvavj i – - ®bVT®BHetC®BHKN u maç s' ! xV ¨∆M T®tvU VrSgcabC ' amy Y Ka~ edaysg gßy & faxk ¨∆M ∫tV ' rSg, EttamBt i VrSgeKnm i nx † ¨∆M [edrI eTsnaBn¥lG ' k ~ ®sk u


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Tahank[ uM TasK ' a~ . lHu eXj I Bk Y TSgenaHcl U ct i x † V ¨∆M Te®cn I VrSgPy & xa¬ c xb ¨∆M b M HbeM Vr eKkc * abx ' V ¨ ∆ M Tmk ! - eGm I n i GeI TGa‰grc Y xn Á¬ ! eTAkEng ¬ vj i cHu ! cabt ' SgBc I l U mkenAkg ¨~ Kk u ´®BnKr elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mn i Edl e®bG I akab∫kri y i a®ceLs I ebs I eT, elakEtgny i ayENnSGbr' G M k ~ eTasExrµ ®sLajG ' k ~ eTasExrµ k[ uM ePc ¬ Catx i n Á¬ . mn i ®tm w EtExrµ eyg I eTEdl®sLa je' lakGacar¥ sm U ∫EI tBk Y CabB ' nF Ï naKarCamy Y k®* sLaje' KarBdle' lak CaerOy@Edr . kri y i asP u aBrabsa sd M B I ei raH ct i l † m Ì n i ecHQa~ nHi CnNamY ydc U elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EtgVnTTl Y nvU esckG †I aNt i GasrU BG I k ~ pg Canc i ç . eKVndake' lakTSgBrI enAelG I aKarCanT ' 4 I bnb Ê e' lx3 . Kk u enA ´®BnKrmansPaBsaÌ tsF MÌ T M l U ayCagKk u enAPeM~ Bje®cn I ehy I seM lokbM Jke' satke* lP I eM~ BjEdr . etb I Ja˙ enHmkBG I √I ebeI yg I TSgBrI kJHÇ VrSgdc U Ka~ ? karCn M G uM k ~ eTasExrµ eyg I BrI bd I geTAehy I enAEtmn i Tans ' eM rcfaya" g NaesaH . eXj I Et®BHGacar¥ Vg " -xat' my Y ®tvU rc Y vl i mkPeM~ Bjvj i . «cEM NkGse' lak‰eTotkB M g u nÂi naÊ Kgfa© s CJg wÇ Kt i fa etvI asnaGj ng w Fa¬ kd ' lN ' a± ! Etsk ÌI s * eÌI TAcHu e®JHCvI t i Gj@VnbC U aCn U Catei ®sceTA ehy I » karebC † a∆ ct i E† bbenHehy I EdleF[ √I vrI bru sTSgenaHKaµ ntks ' t ¨¬ G√I esaH . rht U mkdlm ' anGse' lakxH¬ E®skeCr[sk & ®†i VV M rSgfa – - «Bk Y GaErg " cge' FG √I G I jke* Fe√I TAcHu ! Gaecarlc Y ®beTsGj ! Gjexm ıI rs' e®kamkarCHi Canr' bsG ' a‰gNasG ' ahny Ê uM ! Gaks M ak ! sma¬ bG ' jeTA» ´fk © ate' Taskm * kdl' ! e®kayBC I n M C uM rM Hse®mcesckm †I k elaksk & ®†i Vc M agha√ gtl u akarsk w V nkans ' N M euM rOg ecjmkQrenAceM JHmx u Gk ~ eTasExrµ ya" gka¬ han eday manExrµ eyg I ma~ kC ' aGk ~ bkE®bPasaGmpg . CabzmeKehAeQaµ HelakVc " Qn W . elakVc " -Qn W e®kakQrya" gsga˙ rrc Y eqy ¬I – - VT ! - Gk ~ ‰g®tvU maneTas®bharCvI t i bg' ! ‰elakEhm-ecov km * aneTas ®bharCvI t i Edr ! elak nn Y -Dg Y km * aneTas®bharCvI t i Edr ! cEM Nkelak bN u" ˆ cnm Ê l u" maneTasKk u 5qS~ ng i nri eTsmn i [cl U ®sk u 15qS~ eTot .l. kg ¨~ ceM NamGk ~ eTastSgenHmanEtelakbN u" ˆ cnm Ê l u" ma~ ke' TEdlPy &


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xH¬ e®JHelakmanvy & ekg µ CageK . cEM NkelakVc " -Qn W , Gacar¥Ehmecov, Gacar¥nn Y -Dg Y enAmansaµ rtrI g w bg uw dEdl . elakTSgb®I VNjjm w edaykarQc W ab≤ ' tåbma ceM JHkarkate' Tasdl * amkenH . bnaÊ bm ' kelak sk & ®†i VeM naH ke* JlmkkanG ' k ~ eTas®bharCvI t i bg' – - eyg I ng w bJn Ëç sN M euM rOgGk ~ ‰g eTAss uM rM aleTasBeI lakåtm † es ny i ebt " Sg ®bmx u rdaΩ PV i lVrSg edm I ∫[ I elakGneu ®KaHeTasxH¬ dlG ' k ~ ra lK ' a~ . semg ¬ rbse' laksk & ®†i Vc M be' dayesø© msa© t' Kaµ næGk ~ eTasExrµ Na ma~ k' Efg ¬ nvU GN M rKN u esaHeLy I . elaksk & ®†i Vk M N M acenaHkb * JaÇ [Pa~ k' garKk u nSGk ~ eTasvl i mkanT ' X I X u M Sg . rvag2Exe®kay elakGacar¥Ehm-ecov manct i G † aNt i GasrU elakbu" Nˆ cnm Ê l u" ng i mt i ‰ † eTotNas' eday®tvU eKbJn ËÇ eTA[enAKk u ‰ekaH®tLa c . ‰elakTSgbm I n i Tanb ' Jn ËÇ eTAPa¬ m@eT e®JHrgc ' Sescks †I eM rcct i B † å I t† mesny i ebt " Sg sn i .

❑ ❑

drabNaExrµ ElgmanKn M t i kc †i Exrµ drabenaHCatei yg I ng w Vnrg u erOgmn i xan .


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kfaT®I VB M rI

®BHGacar¥Ehm-ecov mrN:k~¨gKukekaH®tLac karrse' nAkg ¨~ Bnn Ï aKarmy Y qS~ e®bobdc U eyg I rse' nAxage®kAmy Y stvtß . elakGacar¥Ehm-ecov cabt ' SgBV I rSgpßk w mk elakmn i EdlTTl Y TanGaharla© ceT . vrI CnenHmn i ® tm w E t mn i Bs i arGaharla© cbeu" Naˆ HeT KeW lakrkßasl i ®Vb M C I abC ' anc i p ç g. Tk w EPk ~ rbse' lakGacar¥ EtFa¬ ke' srÊI ralT ' vi ara®tI edayeXj I mns u ßeTa sTSgnH±u ®tvU eKeFV √I bCagstt √ ri caœ neTAeTot . eBlenaHehy I Edl®BHGa car¥ ykKk u Casalaeron sB †I s I gm  sa®s† . mhabru senHnk w Kt i fa «kg ¨~ elaksnv~i aseyg I enH Kaµ nstN √ aGa®kkC ' agmns u ßeyg I eT ! my Y ´f@ © eXj I Etkabc ' ak' Tat' Fak' dake' xa~ HvaydM ®bharCvI t i Ka~ eday≤t®ta®bNI Ge√I Ly I . eml I cHu ! Gk ~ FeM FV √I bGk ~ tc U ! esc † ht u Qamra®s† sma¬ br' a®s† tamTeM ng I ct i r† bse' K . ®beTstc U tac®tvU mhaGN M acbn ¬ ®' tt Y ®ta ! Gk ~ E®scma˚ reFk √I arB®I Blm w Tl®' Blb' Kaµ nVnrbsG ' q √I a© je' ®kABV I yng i ®bhk u my Y xb ~ e' Ly I . ‰esc † mÂnF †I @ M nayTn u edk®sNk u ss uI T u EÏ tmb Ë˙ qa© j@ ' ! manEtsaƒ nsK Y r· bs' mns u ß ? Kaµ neT®BHeGy I ! manEtsaƒ nnrkGBm √ gl  Etmy Y beu" Naˆ H ! karBt i sgm  mns u ßceM rn I EtGeM BG I yt u F †i m· Gmns u ßFm· ht u QamKa~ ≤tQbQ ' r esaHtSgBEI pndeI nHekt I eLg I ! {bgbn ËÌ rm Y Catei Gy I ! crU Pa∆ ks ' aµ rteI Lg I eTb I eyg I kc M atB ' k Y VrSg …Bk Y GPC i n[vn i assabsn U ¥Vn ! ra®se† nHehy I Edldg w Tk u F ≈ ru :rra®sB † t i ®Vkd keuM cHEteCOsd M eI Vk®Vsr' bse' KnH±u mn i smCaBT u b Ï rs i T & eLy I ®BHGgy  kxn Á¬ eyg I CarB M g w ykG~ kd´TCaBg w mn i EmnCavF i eI TAkane' scks †I x u eT˘˘˘ eyg I ng w nSxn Á¬ eyg I [Fa¬ k' cHu kg ¨~ TasPaBeKmn i xan .


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kg ¨~ valvds † gßardF * eM FgenH Kaµ nG®√I besrI CagkareFx √I n Á¬ eyg I ma~ k@ ' [ma nesrP I aBsm∫rË sb∫ayenaHeLy I cEM Nkxn Á¬ x¨∆M @erb I ®mHmn i rc Y eTtampvˬ kayEttampvˬ ct i v† j i xQ ¨∆M H~ CnkN M acQa¬ nJnenHehy I sm U bgbn ËÌ bnk † c i ç karenHkb uM rI j u ra[esaH eTb I eyg I Vnsx u ebeI yg I xa¬ c…mn i ®sHu ®sl Y Ka~ kar ®byT u rÏ bse' yg I mx u Camn i QH~ ya" gdacx ' at . CvI t i eyg I rsK ' aµ nesrI eteI yI grse' fakTabdc U stt √ ri caœ n ? xeM TAenOymn u ®sNk u e®kay !» . elakKt i mn i ecHcbm ' n i ecHehy I ceM JHesckT †I k u r≈ bs®' bCara®ss † t Ë ¬ ®tg' . rl M gCae®cn I Exmk eTb I eXj I lx i t i rbse' lakebt " Sg ®bmx u rdaΩ PV i l VrSgepm ∆I kcagha√ gtl u akar GnJ u aÔ t[elakTSgbn I ak' enA®tm w CabK ' k u Gs' my Y CvI t i ehy I eFk √I arCaTmn © p ' g . fe√I bk I arseM rceTasya" genHke* day ela kTSgbB I s uM b∫ayct i n † g w GeM BeI nHeT . elakmn i cgr' sT ' Tl Y e®KaHfa~ kE' bb enHteTAeToteLy I ˘˘˘ elakcgs ' ma¬ bx ' n Á¬ [ehy I Etmg † eTA ! Etelakcg' eXj I vasna®beTsng w eTAEbbNa ! Exmf i n u a1943 elakVc " -Qn W , elaknn Y -Dg Y ng i ®BHGacar¥Ehm-eco v ®tvU VrSgbJn ËÇ BK I k u F´M ®BnKreTAKk u F‰ M ekaH®tLac . eKdake' lakTSg3 enAKk u elx4 EdlCakEng ¬ eTaså®kd i G Ω sm ' y Y CvI t i . TeI nHhammn i [Gk ~ e®kAcl U srY sx u Tk u e≈ T . Gk ~ eTas®tvU eFk √I ar®KbE' bbya" g EdlVrSgvat®mvU [eF√I . ekaH®tLac manvs i alPaBdF * eM Fg st ƒi kg ¨~ kNa† lsm®u T . manpHÊ ra bJ ' nx ' g ~ sgt ' ammats ' m®u T˘˘˘ ´®B®bk w ßa®KbelP I M~ KrY [segK √ . dm I anCrI Catl i N Ì as' . eK[Gk ~ eTasdSdN M S®Kbm ' x u . CnEdlmanct i ®† salEtg yn M k w ®sk u keM Nt I esrÊI ral´' f© . Gk ~ eTas®tvU bg[ M≈ eFk √I arCagstJ √ hn : manCnxH¬ rse' nAeleI kaH®tLacVnEtBrI b´I fk © Q * s W a¬ be' TA . enArdvU rgarmg † @ Gk ~ eTasmanesckT †I k u e≈ vTnaseM bm I Nas' edayxn Á¬ Kaµ nGk √I arJr[Vt®' tCakV ' neT . ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ng i elak nn Y -Dg Y Edlmn i svU mansx u PaB®sa bp ' g km * anCmC W© ajk w jy . elakrse' nAkg ¨~ tb M n' dk i -yk u Vnrvag6Ex ®sabE' tmanCmm W© l Y mkrk u rankayCaTmn © ' . Cmk W© anE' tdabNase' TAehy I elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov kb * nv¬W acaeTAkanG ' acar¥ nn Y -Dg Y Cakn U ss i ß– - Gacar¥ Dg Y ?


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- mankarG®I BHetC®BHKN u !˘˘˘ - GakareraKx¨∆M ®bEhlmn i CaeTGacar¥eGy I xs ¨∆M a† yNas' sa† yeday mn i Vnvl i eTACb Y mx u ®bCara®se† yg I vj i ! xm ¨∆M x u Caecalqg w Ì enAekaH®tLac enHCamn i xan sm U Gacar¥‰gtSgsaµ rt[ I EmnETn ebx I s ¨∆M a¬ be' TA ! kt uM ks ' t ¨¬ [ esaH eFe√I mc " sga≈ rmns u ß rEmgsa¬ be' TACaFmt µ a. - ®BHetC®BHKN u ! sm U kT uM anG ' ss ' gÙm w eBk mx u Etng w Cavj i eT˘˘˘ ®KU eBT¥eKkB M g u B¥aVleyg I ral´' f© ! - eKB¥aVleyg I Emn EteKeFe√I saHng w xan eyg I eXj I ®sabe' hy I ma nfS~ G[ I eyg I pk w ! eraKml Y enATeI nHmn i Emn®sl Y eml I dc U enA®sk u eyg I eT K9 W 0%®tvU sa¬ b˘' ˘˘ xr¨∆M al´' fe© dkcSEtsa¬ bb ' eu" Naˆ H . EteTaHby I a" gNake* da y seuM Fc √I t i ®† Begy I keuM kt I Tk u G ≈ c I eM JHrb U xm ¨∆M y Y ˘˘˘. - eyg I BrI nakK ' C W vI t i Etmy Y ˘˘˘ eb®I BHetC®BHKN u sa¬ b' xk ¨∆M s * a¬ bE' dr ! . - vaBt i ehy I Gacar¥ Dg Y eyg I VnbeM rC I atri m Y Ka~ CabK ' k u kr* m Y Ka~ eTot . ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov eJlmkdl®' tm w eNHkG * l Y edrI rkharmatn ' i yayteTAeTotBeuM kt I kT * ajkEnßgCt U Tk w EPk ~ EdlkB M g u remolecjBrI nEÏ P~ kdx * g U katt ' amfaı l®' CvI ®Cj Y ´nrdb Ω ru sGPB & √ . r‰ I elak nn Y -Dg Y fe√I bx I n Á¬ elakmanCmEW© drke* day elakenAEfTSbeM r®I KrU bsx ' n Á¬ ≤thafl nedrI ecaleTA NaeLy I . - ®BHetC®BHKN u kK uM t i e®cn I eBk ! sd M eI lak nn Y -Dg Y ecjTSgrGakr' Gl Y dc U kn U ekg µ ®tvU eKvaydM . elak manåTanvacabne† TAeTot – - ebs I ga≈ reyg I mn i Gs' mn i sa¬ be' T ! eyg I ng w rse' nA ehy I Vnvl i eTA ®sk u EfmeTot . - eGx I s ¨∆M a† bV ' nehy I ! EtBy I bm ' j i enHsb u n i n † m i t i ®† Vbx ' f ¨∆M a «sga≈ reco v‰g®tvU Gse' BlenHehy I !» Gacar¥Dg Y ! - mn i EmneT®BHKN u ! KB W t i Cakar®sem®I s´mrbs®' BHKN u ˘˘˘ s[ u M ®BH e t C ® B H KN u sms M© rM akk[ u M ny i a y e ® cn I e B k n S E t G sk ' mS¬ g≤t®beyaCn_ eT˘˘˘. - Gacar¥ Dg Y eteI lakVc " -Qn W Vndg w faxQ ¨∆M … W eT ? - elakfm I n i dg w ! Bm I ßl i mj i elakVnmksrY sx u Tk u E≈ dr bEu" n®† BHetC


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®BHKN u snb ¬ m ' n i dg w xn Á¬ ! . - cHu bn ËÌ bN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" ? - bn ËÌ ml u" mn i Tanm ' keT ®KanE' tepf ∆I S~ mkng w eK[eyg I famkmn i Tanr' c Y . - xc ¨∆M ge' Xj I mt i e† yg I TSgGsN ' as' mn u ng w laelakenHeTA˘˘˘ semg ¬ enHrg w rt w EteF[ √I ebHdg U Gacar¥ nn Y -Dg Y jabj ' r& Py & ®By Y cM eJHelak®KC U aTeI KarB Etmy Y kg ¨~ elakEdlk®mng w rkVn . Clen®t elakhrU ≤tdg w xn Á¬ . elak®KU Ehm-ecov Taj´delak nn Y -Dg Y mkdak' eleI dm I ®Tg U dc U Cank w xS¬ gNas' . enA‰eleI mX pr lan®' Khm w kanE' trenn ƒi eLg I @ hakd ' c U CacgT ' aj®B lg w Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov [pt u Bd I eI kaH®tLacmy Y reM Bc . emXggt w sb ¨ ¬ x¥ lK ' c Y dB uM BkExrµ edrdas . bnc †i e®kaymk ®BHvrN u kb * gr¨Ì dc U eKcakT ' k w Bk I m Ì EdleF[ √I Gk ~ CmrW© gar esrÊI ®TSmn i Vn . reM BcenaHelakbN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u " kc * l U m k d l ' e Xj I elakGacar¥TSgBrI jr& dc U kn U std √ eU cH~ elakmanct i r† eM Pb I ≤tåbma esrÊI EtrkJk¥ny i aymn i rc Y . TSgbn I akm ' anmx u eCakedayTk w EPk ~ TSgmn i dg w xn Á¬ . - elak®KU ! Vn®sl Y xn Á¬ xH¬ …eT ? - mn i GeI Tbn ËÌ ml u" . elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ®bg w jjm w TSgTk w EPk ~ Ebrmx u eTAkane' lakbufl Nc ˆ nÊ ml u" rc Y bnvW¬ afa – - k®uM By Y Gb I n ËÌ ! rb U xs ¨∆M a¬ bc ' Hu mn i sa† yeT xs ¨∆M a† yEtxanVneTAeXj I va sna®beTseyg I beu" Naˆ H . sm U keuM Pc ¬ karbdvi tn † r_ bse' yg I Na± ! eyg I ®tvU EteF[ √I VnseM rckeuM VHbge' cal ! - VTelak®KU ! dranNaxe¨∆M nArsn ' g w eFt √I ambNS† elak®KrU ht U VnsM erceTb I Qb' . - elakml u" ‰gecHEtVnsx u sb∫ayeT…sB´√ f© ? - Vnsx u sb∫ayeT ! - elakml u" ‰glm µ vl i eTAvj i cHu E®kgeKeFe√I Tas eyg I TSgBrI e®tkGr Nas' EdllbmksrY Cmx W© d ¨∆M eU cH~ ! - VTmn i GeI T ! xc ¨∆M gm ' kEfTSNas' EteFe√I TABeuM kt I !


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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- kK uM t i Evgqa© yeBk enATeI nHmn i EmnpHÊ eyg I eT eyg I VnCb Y mx u Ka~ bu" eNaˆ H KC W asN M agFeM hy I EmneTDg Y ? - ®tvU ehy I ! TeI nHCasaƒ nnrk mn i EmnCamnrÊI eBT¥eT . karsnn Ê aKa~ epßg@Vn®B®Bt w e† TAGsr' y:C Ct i my Y ema" g eTb I elakbN ufl ˆ cnÊ ml u" vl i ®tLbe' TAkEng ¬ vj i . my Y ´fk © ng ¬ mk esc † mcr¨ç aCkm * kpa† cs ' ga≈ relak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov ecalelak nn Y -Dg Y [enAEt‰g®tmg®' temackNa† lekaH®tLac . mha bru srdeΩ nHVnTTl Y mrN:k kg ¨~ Cnaµ y4 u 5qS~ ke* ®JHEt®sLajC ' atm i atP u m U i mn i ®Bmrse' nAe®kamGaNanK i mny i mVrSgEss . BrI ´fe© ®kaymk elakbN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" VnmksrY eTot ®sabE' tVte' la k®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov eXj I Etelak nn Y -Dg Y kB M g u srM ane† dayGss ' gÙm w - bn ËÌ ml u" ! elak®KG U acar¥eyg I sa¬ be' TAehy I ! - elaksa¬ bB ' eI frµI Na ? manpS† Gx √I H¬ eT ? - elaksa¬ bB ' rI ´fe© hy I ! sa¬ be' nAeleI PA¬ rbsx ' ¨∆M ! mn u ng w sa¬ be' lakV nny i ayfa «sm U Gacar¥‰g®Vbm ' t i T † SgLayfa xm ¨∆M n i rse' T» karksagTk w deI FE√I tma~ k‰ ' g BV uM nseM rceCaKCy & Cadacx ' at, ®tvU rm Y Ka~ ®KbC ' anf ' a~ k[ ' Vn e®cn I ehy I ecHEteFt √I eTAeTot ! crU Gse' lakxk M sagCn M s Y rb U xt ¨ ∆ M eTAeTot cHu . xB ¨∆M rEdndm I a~ k‰ ' gmn i rc Y eT˘˘˘ EpndeI yg I TSgGsK ' a~ ˘˘˘ xm ¨∆M n i xa¬ cesck†I sa¬ be' T Etxe¨∆M nAnk w sa† y®tgm ' n i V n e Xj I ®beTskmC ¨ı aVn‰kraC¥m¥" ag beu" Naˆ H . sm U elakenA[Vnsx u kb uM x I an˘˘˘ ebc I g[ ' ®beTseyg I Vnsx u ®tvU erocC M asaFarNrdΩ keuM Pc ¬ Na± ! xl ¨∆M aehy I elak˘˘ ˘» . bNS† dm * a n xm w ¬ s a r e n H e F[ √ I e l a k bN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" kt®' taTk u kg ¨~ e b H dg U rht U dls ' B´√ f© . elakVneTAerobcp M rË~ [vrI bru seyg I ya" gsmrm¥eTot pg . mt i G † k ~ GanCaTeI m®tI ! ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecovVnsa¬ be' nAekaH®tLack* Bt i Emnehy I Et®Blg w rbse' lakehaHehrI mksNt iÏ kg ¨~ xrY k∫alkn U Exrµ Gk ~ esh ~ aCat®i Kb@ ' kal . edaysarvrI PaBrbse' lakenHehy I EdljS¨ g Exrµ eyg I [nSKa~ eFn √I eyaVy edjVrSgxaÊ tecjBm I atP u m U ei yg I rht U dl' VnrbbsaFarNrdΩ . eyg I TSgGsK ' a~

sm U eKarBvJ i aÔ Nkn ≈ rÏ bse' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

33

rdb Ω ru sExrµ ng i kl¥aNmt i e† laklHu dl´' fs © a¬ b' . Gk ~ eroberog

Kg'-sm∏ar

BF i T I Tl Y GdF Ωi atG u acar¥ Ehm-ecov enA´fT © 4 I kkd ˚ a 1972 KC W a´f®© bvts †i a®sf † m µI y Y EdlrdaΩ PV i lVnnS®BH GdF Ωi at®u BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov BeI kaH®tLacmkeFb √I N u ¥enA®beTseyg I vj i e®ka mGFb i tP I aB´nsemc † sgÙTSgBrI KN: ng i elak®bFanaFb i etl I n-' nl' ®BmTS gCnrm Y QamCae®cn I pg . Fatvu rI bru senH Vntml ˚ T ' k u enAvtå † Naˆ elamsB´√ f© .


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

34

bEnm ƒ Bei ss

®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov «ekt I » saCafIµ ‹‹‹ Gk ~ tsEUfl xrµ my Y rb U kg ¨~ ceM NamGk ~ tsC Ufl ae®cn I eTot EdlVnbC U a CvI t i kg ¨~ kar®byT u b Ï rˆ pa† c®' bqSgng w karCHi Cans ' gt ˚ s ' gn i˚ rbsG ' aNanK i m ny i mVrSg ehy I Edl®tvU ®bvts †i a®sC † ati VnbeM Pc ¬ ecalks ¨~ my & raCani ym VnTTl Y kt i y †i srse' Lg I vj i . Kq W g wÌ rbse' lakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Ed leKVnbb M rbgT ' k u ecalenAbreTs®sk u yn Y bNa† l[eBlevlasb uI p M a¬ jbV M tP ' st ¨† agya" ggaybp M t u nvU vrI PaBmy Y eTb I Etng w ®tvU dk w nStamyn† ehaH vl i ®tLbm ' kkanT ' k w dEI dlVnpl † k ' eM Nt I dle' lak ehy I elakV nbgrË˙ Qamedm I ∫t I bsg ~ KN u vj i . kalB®I Bk w ´fG © ga rmßl i mj i (´fT © 4 I kkd ˚ a1972) BF i b I N u ¥tam®b´BNI sasna VncatE' cgeLg I ya" gåLark i edm I ∫p I l † k ' t i y †i sdlk ' artsUfl Edl elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnbC U aCvI t i Cn U Cati .

BF i b I N u ¥enHVneF[ √I ct i †

Exrµ reM Pb I VnG®gnm ' nsk i ar[nk w eTAdls ' EM rkQc W ab' EdlExrµ VnTTl Y dlT ' k w EPk ~ ng i dN M kQ ' am EdlGk ~ esh ~ aCatEi xrµ Vns®mke' daysar®s LajC ' ati xk M arJrCaty i a" gmanH [VnKgv' gß ceM jHkarCHi Canr' bsB ' k Y Ga NanK i mny i m EdlBj uM ejt I ´dng w sma¬ bb ' p M a¬ jbV M t®' km u bJvÔ ne† yg I . elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Vnsa¬ be' calqg wÌ enAkg ¨~ Kk u ‰ekaH®tLac Ed lCamNl Î dakT ' Nk Î mµ eF[ √I TarN u kmd µ lB ' k Y bHeVrenA≤Nc ËÎ n i Edlhafl nts®Ufl bqSgng w GN M acpa† ck ' arrbsG ' aNanK i mny i mVrSg . e®kABeI Qaµ H elak Ehm-ecov eKGacerobrabr' ayeQaµ HGk ~ tsEUfl xrµ de* ®cn I eTot EdlVn TTl Y rge®KaHsa¬ bV ' tb ' gC ' vI t i edaysarsa~ ´dVrSgman ®kLaehamKg,' Ga car¥sa√ , eJkeM Vr Caedm I ng i karXb u Xt i k∫tC ' atri bsE' xrµ xH¬ EdlVnlk' xn Á¬ brˆ pa† cp ' a bc ' t i e† cAha√ ybreTs . kg ¨~ smy & raCny i mskP †i m U i Gk ~ kanG ' N M acEtPy & ®By Y Vrmc ∏ eM JHKn M t i bdvi tn † _ . ehteu nHCvI ®bvt´†i nGk ~ tseUfl dm I ∫C I ati mankar®bqSgng w Bk Y GaNa


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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nK i mny i mCaedm I Vn®tvU eKbeM Pc ¬ ecalbp M a¬ jsa~ ´dbV M tP ' st ¨† ag ehy I xM bb M n " TB M r& ®bvts †i a®s[ † elk I deM kg I vN:ˆ EdlVnTTl Y bB u s √ T i k Ïi g ¨~ karCHi Ca n' ®bvJ & B ç C I t i kq †I a© yk†I el®I bCara®sE† tbeu" Naˆ H . ehteu nHeTot Gkßrsl i ∫_ Catei yg I EdlVnbeM Pc ¬ ecalsn U ¥sg u nvU dN M kQ ' am´nGk ~ EdlVnbC U a CvI t i Cn U Cati KrY Etbp M s u erOgbdvi tn †i r_ bsG ' k ~ esh ~ aCati [VnBs i a† reLg I vj i . kg ¨~ kal:eTs:dl * V M k EdlExrµ eyg I ®tvU B®gg w mnsk i arCat[ i kanE' t Vnrg w bg uw CaGtm i rma edm I ∫G I ayC u vI t i Cati ehy I EdlExrµ eyg I kB M g u elk I deM kI gKn M t i bdvi tn † e_ sh ~ aCatei naH kK * rY Eteyg I ecHrb Y rm Y Ka~ …my Y ecHEckpvˬ Ka~ edrI tamlT®Ïi bCaFb i ety¥ya" gc∫asl ' asm ' y Y ( La vraie démocratie est I d uM eU ca~ HeT karbp M s u mnsk i arCati ®KanE' tbde savoir se diviser ) . ebB eNa† y[®bvts †i a®sf † eµI sc I cG M k edm I ∫b I egt ˚I åNk Î md µ le' yg I EfmeTotbu" eNaˆ HeT . ehy I Kn M t i rbse' lakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdleTb I ng w «rs» ' eLg I vj i enHk†I kn * g w ®tvU sabsn U ¥eTAvj i mn i xan .

nKrFM ecj´fT © 5 I kkd ˚ a 1972 ❑

Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov elakbN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" VneFs √I ma∏ snk _ g ¨~ TrU TsßnE_ xrµ ´fT © 7 I ExenH GB M I GdF Ωi ateu lakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlelakVneTAKasy ' kmkBeI kaH®tLa c edm I ∫y I kmkeFb √I N u ¥Capvˬ karenA´fm © x u . elakBn¥l[ ' eyg I ralK ' a~ Kt i eXj I fa eTaHelaksa¬ be' TACag30qS~ ehy I KgE' tCatm i n i ePc ¬ KN u elak Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlelakVneFc √I eM JHCati . tamelakbN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" ehy I tameyg I Vndg w æxH¬ @mk elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecovc∫asC ' aGk ~ Pa∆ kr' Æ kTm I y Y ceM JHvasnaCatEi mn . eyg I CaBlrds Ω aFarNrdEΩ xrµ manct i C † aExrµ TSgGsK ' a~ KrY cS[c∫asn ' vU Jk¥elakbN ufl c ˆ nÊ ml u" EdlelakVnrl M k w fa ®sk u Nake* day eKEtgmanmns u ßCaKrM U

Edl®tvU ykqayalk & N ≈ m _ kTk u


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

36

pHÊ Cae®KOgska˚ rbC U a. enA®sk u kg ¬i e KTk u KnÏI Camns u ßT1 I EdlBlrdeΩ Kmanrb U Tk u Cavts ¨ƒ ka˚ rbC U a®Kb@ ' Ka~ eKyknarm I a~ kK ' n W ag sandak Edlra®se† nA®sk u VrSg eKTTY lsa lC ' a®BHmy Y rb U Edr ( Sainte Jeann D'Arc ) enA®sk u ‰eTotkm * anmnu sßEdlsa¬ be' TAyrU ehy I EdlrdeΩ Kmn i ePc ¬ sgKN u eLy I . Eteyg I KrY kts ' K M alf ' a mns u ßEdleKKrY eKarB KeW ®cn I Etmns u ßsa¬ b' yrU eTAehy I @ EdlKaµ nnrNaGac ®bEkkVnfamn i EmnCaGk ~ esh ~ aCati eLy I . esc † sh I nV u nebk I qakmn u eK[eKeKarBTSgGs' eyg I VneXj I ehy I fa kareKarBenHVneF√eI TAkg ¨~ karbgt i ≈ b gM ≈ e hy I E d l e sc † enHedrI xs u pvˬ yks®tvU eFC √ I a mt i † y k mt i e† FC √I as®tvU eyg I r a lK ' a~ mn i ® tm w EtElgeKarB e yg I VnTSgkate' Tasesc † e n H f a C a e sc † k ∫ tC ' ati ®tvU maneTas®bhar CvI t i pg .

s≥ s≥ ®sge' cjBd I arBtm · anseÂga HCati ´fT © 1 I 0 kkd ˚ a 1972

Gtb ƒ TTSgBrI xageleI nHs[eXj I fa ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mn i EmnCa mns u ßFmt µ aeT KeW lakBt i CaVnbeM BjmhaBlk i md µ ®* besrI Cn U Cati sas na d≤ * t®bEkkVneLy I . eyg I mankaresaksa† yNas' edaymn i VncHu Gtb ƒ Tsx M an@ ' ´nsarBtm · and´TeTot e®JHk[ uM ®kase' Bk .


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

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®bkasny I b®& t rdb Ω ru sCati VneXj I escks †I eM rcrbsK ' N:rdm Ω Ân†I smy & ®bCuM na´fT © I 22 mn I a K˘s˘ 1972 sB †I k I arTTl Y sa l' ng i kar eprÊ Fateu lakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mkBeI kaH®tLac, VneXj I escks †I eM rcrbsK ' N:rdm Ω Ân†I smy & ®bCuM na´fT © I 14 kkd ˚ a K˘s˘ 1972

tml ˚ t ' emg ˚ I zan:elak

Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov Cardb Ω ru sCati kg ¨~ bcaœ mrN:,

®bFanaFb i tI ´n saFarNrdEΩ xrµ ®bkasfa : VnTTl Y sa ln ' vU GeM Bl I T Ì SgLay rbse' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov

EdlVneFC √I n U ®bCaCatEi xrµ

GgG ' ac kalBrI vag K˘s˘ 1942

Ks W kmP µ aBmHu mt u

edm I ∫d I ass ' tk i n U Exrµ [

®bqSg ng i erb I ®mHecjBn I m w GaNanK i mny i mbreTs . ®bCaCatEi xrµ sm U tml ˚ e' lak®KG U acar¥ Ehm-ecov Tk u Ca rdb Ω ru sCati ng i CaKrM d U å * tm † srM abk ' l u bt u E† xrµ TeU TA .

eFe√I nAPeM~ Bj, ´fT © I 20 kkd ˚ a K˘s˘ 1972 esna®bmx u ln' nl'


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

38

®seNaHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov nB i neÏ dayss i ß eBA-sT u ÏI « Cn U dlG ' k ~ esh ~ aCatEi xrµ ®Kbr' b U »

epm †I

semg ¬ kVl " T ' n U ! Tn U !˘˘˘˘˘

1- sE®mknavalakB M gE' p

eTAmx u ≤tEbrdk w nSCnExrµ Gk ~ esh ~ aCati

Esnck u QamNas' {racegøÌ t laGse' pAjati 2- mx u KrY segK √ e®kamemXbN®· Vk' evTna

xp M g ç G ' Jl ç ®I sdeI Lg I fa

´dCab®' cvak " e' Cg I ®bg w TFakE' sn [Catei xmra

bnrÊ - { ! sd M c I g u e®kaydega˙ yehAExrµ eFe√I mc † rb U elakVnCa®Cl u eCg I

Xa¬ tTSgsasna .

nSKa~ Pa∆ ke' Lg I .

sm U Cy Y EkE®bCat[ i efg ˚I Tk u [rb U eyg I esaksa† y®KbK ' a~ .

3- Ehm-ecov ks M t®' Jtr' b U Vte' TA

Etekre_i† Qaµ HenArn®ÊW keGAeBjelaka

rdb Ω ru s´nCatei xmra

bC U akayaCn U ®beTsCati .

ce®mogenHmt i s † l i ∫krNakG * acykeTAe®cogVnEdr [EtrkßaeQaµ HGk ~ Etg


Ehm-ecov vrI bru sCati

39

{! ekaH®tLac bTePg ¬ -Tn M k u e®cog

e®cogeday

yg " ' Qag

seM nog-ÚTÏI

epm †I - { ! Tk w d´I ®B®Bk w ßanaekaH®tLac

xs ¨∆M m U ep®∆I BHGdF Ωi ateu lak®KG U acar¥

Ehm-ecov ng i Exrµ esh ~ aCat‰ i eTotpg˘˘˘ 1- { ! ekaH®tLac Gacar¥Ehm-ecov xG M J M vnav

ehy I rnt Ï '

cark w edayQam

ehArkkn U Exrµ

2- ekaH®tLaceGy I eCaKCy &

KrY [xa¬ c

EdlVnrl M t' elEI pndI

vJ i aÔ Nkn ≈ Ï

E®skhafl rkeJøç v

Gk ~ bdvi tn † _.

xæ ¨∆M ehy I @scaç

Tk w ct i k † n U Exrµ nasmy &

karJrsasnabnk † arNl _ Hu ®ta saFarNrdΩ

mn i EdlPS¬ gPa¬ t'

ePc ¬ bB u b √ ru såtm † Gtt I eLy I .

GeM NayBeI lakyg " ' Qag Gk ~ nB i nb Ï TePg ¬ ng i Tn M k u e®cog bdvi tn † d _ l * ∫l I ∫aj kg ¨~ saFarNrdEΩ xrµ



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