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PaK 2


esckIþEføgGMNrKuN Cabzm´sUmRkabfVaybgÁM RBHBuT§ RBHFm’ RBHsgÇRKb;RBHGgÁ EdlCamøb;d¾RtCak;sMrab;BuT§sanikCn RKb;rUb nigCamUldæanRKwHd¾sMxan; sMrab;EfrkSakarBarCatiExμrRKb;sm½ykal. ´sUmelIkhtßafVaybgÁM elak«Buk Gñkmþay CaGñkmanKuNd¾elIslub)anpþl;kMeNIteGay´ekItmk CaCatiExμr. sUmeKarBEføgGMNrKuNdl;elakRKU GñkRKU saRsþacarüTaMgGs; Edl)anpþl;cMeNHdwgdl;´ nigkulbuRt kulFItaExμrRKb;rUb RBmTaMgsUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;Gs;elak elakRsI CnrYmCatiExμrTaMgGs; Edl)an GanesovePAenH nigCYy]btßmÖKaMRT. esovePA emdwknaMCatiExμr PaK 2 Edl´cgRkgeLIgenH edIm,I]TÞisdl; RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 nig RBHmhakSRt emdwknaMesñhaCatiExμr vir³CnExμr TaMgGs; EdlxitxMdwknaMRbeTsExμrknøgmkGs;BIkmøaMg kaycitþ edIm,IEfrkSakarBar Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr TWkdIExμr eGay)ansuxsuPmgÁl rIkcMerInrugerOg sMrab;kUnecAExμr RKb;CMnan;rs;enA CaBiess ´sUmbYgsYgdl;vtßús½kásiTi§TaMgGs; EdlmanenAkñúgTwkdIExμrCYy eGayesovePAenH pSBVpSay RCYtRCabdl;citþ KMnit R)aCJa RbCaCatiExμr kulbuRt kulFItaExμrTaMgGs;enARKb;Tws TITaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTs. esovePAenHCakarrYmcMENkd¾tictYcsþÜcesþIg kñúgkarbNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusS pþl;cMeNHdwgbEnßm dl;bgb¥Ún sisS nisSit GñksikSaRsavRCav RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; GMBIKMnitemdwknaMrbs;bNþaRbeTs GPivDÆn_mYycMnYn edIm,ITajykRTwsþIl¥² bTBiesaFn_sMxan;² nigKMnitfμI² mkGnuvtþn_kñúgkardwknaMRbeTsExμreyIg CaBiess tamry³esovePAenH GacbgðajpøÚvdl;GñkesñhaCatiExμr kUnExμr RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; h‘anegIbeLIg karBar rMedaH Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr eGayrYcputBI GaNaniKmn_kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμI nig rbbkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlCab£sKl;bBaðaelIbBaðaTaMgLayEdlkMBugekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr sBVéf¶ edIm,IeGayRbeTsExμr CatiExμreyIgrIkcMerInrugerOgdUcRbeTsdéTenAkñúgBiPBelak. ´sgÇwmfaesovePAenH nwgCYybMPøWdl;bgb¥Ún sisS nisiSt CMnan;eRkay nigGs;elak elakRsI EdlmanbMNgcg;køayCaemdwknaMl¥ sMrab;sgÁmCatiExμr k¾dUcCasMrab;dwknaMtambNþasßab½nepSg²TaMgkñúgÉkCn rdæ nigeRkArdæaPi)al. ´yl;fa karsresrGacminTan;)anRKb;RCugeRCayenAeLIyeT enAmanxVHcenøaH xusqÁg xøH²edayRbkarepSg²Caminxan Et´rIkrayTTYlnUvmtiriHKn;Eklm¥RKb;Ebbya:gGMBIelakGñkGan. cugbBa©b;enH ´sUmpþaMepJIGs;elakGñkGan sUmGanesovePAenHeGaycb;RKb;Gtßn½y edIm,IykmkKit RtiHriHBicarNa TukCabTBiesaFn_ RTwsþI cMeNHdwg ykeTAdwknaMRbeTsExμr eGay)anCaplRbeyaCn_Bit² CUnsgÁmCatiExμr RbCaBlrdæExμr )anrIkcMerIn suxsuPmgÁl rYcBIPaBRkIRk nigmansiTi§esrIPaBeBjeljCaExμr. ´sUmCUnBrdl;Gs;elak GñkGanTaMgGs; eFIVkic©karGIV²RKb;ya:g)ansMerceCaKC½ydUckarb:gR)afña nigCYbEt BuT§BrTaMgR)aMRbkar KW Gayu vNѳ sux³ Bl³ nig bdiPaN³ kMubIXøagXøateLIy. eFIVenAva:sIunetan éf¶TI 09 Ex mkra qñaM 2009 bNÐit s FmμrgSI niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            i

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GarmÖkfa esovePAemdwknaMCatiExμrPaK 2 Edlbgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμrkMBugGanenAkñúgédenH KWCakUnesovePAtUcmYy sMrab;bMPøWpøÚvdl;RBHetCKuN sisS nisSit GñkesñhaCatiExμrRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm nigkulbuRtkulFItaExμr eGay)an yl;dwgbEnßmGMBIkardwknaM edIm,ICYyRCMuERCg kñúgkargarCYyrMedaHRbeTsCatimatuPUmiExμr eGayrYcputBIEpnkar yYnkumμúynisþ ¬\NÐÜcin¦ EdlkMBugEtRtYtRtaTaMgExμreRkam nigRbeTsExμrnaeBlbc©úb,nñ. ExμrRKb;rUbman EtkarQWcab; BImYyCMnan;eTAmYyCMnan; EtkarQWcab;enH enAEtKrelIKMnrTukçRbCaBlrdæExμrdEdl. eday RbCaBlrdæExμr mindwgriHrkviFImYyNa eFIVya:gdUcemþc edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða EdlkMBugEtekItmaneLIgenHeGaycb; nigrYcputBIekñobrbs;kumμúynisþyYn edIm,IeGayExμrTTYl)ansuxekSmkSanþeLIy. ExμreyIgmanEtkmøaMgcitþ EtxVH kmøaMgR)aCJa tamyuT§saRsþelak s‘un s‘U ebIeyIgcg;ykQñHsRtUv eyIgRtUvykQñHxagyuT§saRsþ. ehtu dUecñHehIy GñkniBn§xitxMcgRkgesovePAenHeLIgTukCak,Ünxñat KWkñúgeKalbMNgrYmcMENkpSBVpSay dl;kul buRtkulFItaExμr GñkesñhaCatiExμrBIRKb;mCÄdæan eGay)anyl;dwgxøH² GMBIrebobdwknaM edIm,IcUlrYmcMENk rMedaHRbeTsCatieyIg eGaymanÉkraCüPaB snþiPaB siTi§esrIPaBeBjelj ]tþmPaB rugerOg kñúgnamCaExμr minRBmsøab;dUcBs; rs;dUckEgáb dUcsBVéf¶enHeLIy. kUnExμrTaMgGs;RtUvdwgfa vasnaGnaKtCatiExμr KWsißtenA elIkNþab;édrbs;RBHetCKuNRKb;RBHGgÁ sisS nisSit bgb¥Ún CnrYmCatiExμrTaMGs; EdlmanesovePAGan enAkñúgédenHehIy. ebIelakGñk)anyl;ehIy eXIjehIy sUmrYmcMENk lHbg; KaMRT minfatic b¤eRcIn tam lT§PaBenaHCatieyIgnigrs;esμImuxCatisasn_déT minRBmsißtenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;breTs dUcyYnRtYtRtaExμr sBVéf¶ tamry³ h‘un Esn eRbICa kUnGuk nigykeQμaHesþc sIhnu CarnaMg eGayExμreyIgs¶b;citþ yl;xusfa RbeTsExμrmansuxsniþPaB vaeFIVeGayExμremIleXIj manLan luy vILa CaerOgGs©arü EtKYreGayGaNit GasUrQamExμreBkéRk EdlenAEthUr enAEtRkIRk nigKYreGaysEgVkdl;QamExμrEdl)ansøab; enAelIsmrPUmi nigGñksøab; kñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüknøgmk. CnrgeRKaHExμrsBVéf¶ rs;enArgTukçevTna KμanGñkrkyutþiFm’ KμanGñkykcitþTukdak; EtpÞúyeTAvij yYnsuxcitþbUCaCivit nigeFIVGIVRKb;ya:g edIm,IeKaledAFMbMputrbs;va KWyk TwkdIExμr eRBaHTwkdIExμrsMxan;Cagvtßú nigsmÖar³TaMgGs;enaH KWBYkvaeRbIneya)ayRtCak; mkdeNþImyk plRbeyaCn_BIExμr nigRtYtRtakñúgRksYgsMxan;dUcCa b:UlIs Tahan RksYgkarbreTs ehIyyYnbegIátsmaKmn_ 19 extþRkug nigecjcUlmincaM)ac;manTidæakar edIm,IbBa¢ÚnCnCatiyYnbnþicmþg² mktaMgTIlMenAelITwkdIExμr TIbMput ExμrkøayCaCnCatiPaKticrbs;yYn dUcman cam nig ExμreRkam Ca]TahrN_Rsab;.

3 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            ii

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TsSn³GñkniBn§ ´mankaresaksþay nigxVl;xVayya:gxøaMg cMeBaHvasnaGnaKtRbeTsCati vasnakulbuRtkulFItaExμr CMnan;eRkay sþayTwkdI ekrþ×dMENldUntaEdlxitxMksagTuk buBVbursExμr)anbUCalHbg;QamRss; sac;Rss; edIm,IEfrkSaTwkdITuksMrab;kUnExμrCMnan;enH. RseNaHBUCsasn_ExμrEdlFøab;l,IrnÞWkñúgelak minKYrFøak;kñúgsßanPaB dUcsBVéf¶ RtUvcMNuHbreTs RtYtRtaemIlgayeLIy. lT§plEdlyYn)anGnuvtþl,icklneya)aye)akR)as; cMeBaHCatiExμr BIGtItkal nigbc©úb,nñ edIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatixøÜn nigsMerceKalbMNgcugeRkayrbs;shB½n§ \NÐÚcin KWyYnRtYtRtaTwkdI\NÐÚcinTaMgmUl Edlman Exμr Lav camCaedIm. minEtb:ueNÑaH yYn)aneFIVeGay CatiExμrrgTukçevTna søab;rgÁal KμankIþemtþatamliTi§kumμúynisþ minfaExμreRkam b¤Exμrbc©úb,nñ EdlmanQamC½r ExμrEtmYyeLIy. yYnlabBN’eGayExμrvegVg kab;smøab;RbCaBlrdæExμr eFIVeGayExμrhinehacexøacpSar eday eRbICnBalelμaPGMNac h‘un Esn CakUnGuk. cugeRkayyYnbBa¢ÚnCnCatixøÜnmkrs;enAelITwkdIExμr edayEkøg bnøMxøÜn eFIVCaExμrfμI. edIm,IpþÜlrMelIgCatisasn_mYyeGayexSay yYn)aneRbIRKb;yuT§saRsþ eRbImenaKmn_ kumμúynisþbMBak;bMb:nExμr edIm,IbMpøajFnFanmnusS kab;sMlab;GñkR)aCJ GñkecHdwg bBaØvnþExμr GñkesñhaCati ¬sm½y b:ul Bt¦ edaybnSl;TukenAGñkTn;exSay GñkecHtictYc edIm,IyYngayRsYlbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_ kumμúynisþbEnßm bEgVrTisedAbMerIneya)ay ¬plRbeyaCn_¦ eGayxøÜneTAvij. karsMlab;GñkecHdwg Gñk esñhaCatiExμr edayecaTfaRkumExμresrI ¬briva¦ enHsreGayeXIjfaTaMg sIhnu nig h‘un Esn CaCn Edllg;menaKmn_kumμúynisþ yYn cin ePøcKitfaGñksøab;RbmaNCit 3 lannak; CaCatiExμr manQamC½rCaExμr BYkeKbnþkab;smøab; GñkesñhaCatiExμr KμanseNþasRbNI dUcsRtUvrbs;xøÜnKμanemtþa. kareFIVEbbenH eRBaH sIhnu nig h‘un Esn xøac)at;bg;GMNac raCblø½gÁ EdlyYnelIkeGay. rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH etIExμr)anTTYl plRbeyaCn_GIVxøHBIyYn eRkAEtBImanbBaðaminecHcb;; eFIVTukçbukemñjExμr kab;smøab;ExμrCabnþbnÞab; ecaTExμr GñkesñhaCati edIm,Ismøab; cab;dak;KukCaedIm. BYkeKeFIVdUckalEdl sIhnu ecaTExμr ln; nl; sirImt³ RBab \nÞ sm sarI sIg g:ukfaj; EdlCaGñkesñhaCatiedjyYn faCaGñkk,t;CatieTAvij b:uEnþ cMeBaHCnCatiyYn eBl sIhnu cab;)an ehIyElgeGayRtLb;eTARbeTsyYnvij kalBI sIhnu CYyyYneyokkug¬1964-1970¦ cMENk h‘un Esn GnuBaØat eGayyYncUlmkTwkdIExμr kat;TwkdIExμreGayyYn ¬45 PaKryénépÞdIExμrsBVéf¶ RtUv)aneFIVsm,Tan eGayRkumh‘unyYn EdlmankugRta 99 qñaM¦ eKyl;famink,t;Cati lk;CatieT EteKfavaCa cMNgmitþPaBevotNam km<úCaeTAvij . etITegVIEbbenHcat;TukfaCaemdwknaM eFIVedIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr b¤sMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_yYn ebIeFIVsMrab;plRbeyaCn_yYn eyIgGaccat; TukfaCaCnk,t;CatiExμr)anEdr b¤eT? karRsavRCavcgRkgesovePAenHeLIg eTaHbICaCIvit´RtUvsøab; edayBYk h‘un Esn k¾eday k¾´min xøacsøab; ´suxcitþlHbg;CIvit edIm,ICatiExμrrs; RtUvEtsresrkarBittamkarsikSaRsavRCav BIbNþaRbeTseCOn elOnmYycMnYndUcCashrdæGaemrik nigshKmn_GWrub cin Cb:un kUer: EdlCaRbeTsmhaGMNaceCOnelOn PaKeRcInCaPasaGg;eKøs rYmCamYybTBiesaFn_rbs;´xøH EdlFøab;)anqøgkat; edIm,IEksRmYlCaPasarExμr eGaygayGan sRmYldl;karRsavRCavrbs;RBHetCKuN sisS nisSit nigRbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA. esovePAenHqøúH niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            iii

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bBa©aMgsgÁmExμrbcú©úb,nñ eFobeTA niwgRbeTsdéT mkbgðajpøÚv pþl;CaKtisMrab;RtiHriHBicarNa etIeyIgRtUv edaHRsaybBaðaRbeTsCatirbs;eyIg tamviFINa? edIm,ICYyRbCaCatiExμreGayrYcputBITukçevTna nwgeGayrIkcMerIn dUcRbeTsdéT. ebIeyIgemIleXIjGIVEdlfμI GacEkERbeGayeq<aHeTArkvDÆnPaB enaHeyIgRtUvEtpøas;bþÚrEkERb edayminTukeGayenAdEdlnUvGIVEdleyIgemIleXIjfa eFIVeGayRbeTsCatiFøak;eTAkñúgPaBGnþray søab;Cati )at;bg;siT§i )at;bg;GFibetyüenaHeLIy. GayuCivitRbeTsCati mansar³sMxan;CagGayuCivitrbs;eyIgxøaMgNas; ehtudUecñH GIVEdlCakarRsavRCav cgRkgesovePAenH edaykaremIleXIjsgÁmExμr CatiExμrkMBugEtFøak;kñúgkNþab;édyYn eyIgTaMgGs;KñaRtUv Etha‘nniyay h‘aneFIV nigsamKÁIKñaCaFøúgmYy edIm,ICatiExμr sasna RbCaCatiExμr TwkdIExμr nigkUnecAExμr CMnan;eRkay kMueGayrgTukçevTna dUceyIgbc©úb,nñenH RtUvbreTsemIlgayemIlefakcMeBaHCatieyIg. eyIgman TwkdIkMeNIt manCatisasn_mYyEdr EtRtUvXøatq¶ayBITwkdIkMeNItCaTIRsLaj;rbs;eyIg mkrs;enARbeTseK )ansuxEtmñak;Ég RkumRKYsar EtebIeyIgRkeLkemIleTAkñúgRbeTsExμr CatiExμrTaMgmUl EdlmanRbCaBlrdæExμr rab;lannak; KμansiTi§esrIPaBeBjelj rgTukçevTna Qwcab;BImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶ edaysarEtBYkemdwknaM mYycMnYntUc EdlGtμaniym GviC¢a elμaPGMNac niglaPskáar³ EdlyYnerobcMpþl;GMNaceGay etIeyIgsuxcitþ RTaMemIlTukçevTnaRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;enaH EdlmanQamC½rCaExμrdUceyIg b¤mYyya:gNa. eyIgRtUvKitfa ebIeTaHCaRtUvsøab;edayRbkarNamYyk¾eday k¾søab;edaykIþsb,ayrIkray nigmanemaTnPaB BIeRBaHeyIg)an eFIVKuNRbeyaCn_sMrab;CatieyIgbnþicbnþÜcEdr eFIVedIm,ICatiExμr sMrab;kUnExμrCMnan;eRkay eGayyl;dwgGMBI bBaðaRbeTsCatixøÜn. dUcCasmþIrbs; RbFanaFibtIGaemrikeQμaH cn xinDI )anmanRbsasn_fa {cUrGñkkMuKitfa Cati)anpþl;GIVxøHdl;Gñk EtGñkRtUv Kitfa eyIgmñak;²)aneFIVGIVxøHCaRbeyaCn_dl;CatieyIg ehIyb¤enA?}. cugbBa©b;enH ´sUmpþaMepJIdl;Gs;elakGñkGanTaMgGs; xitxMRsavRCavGanesovePAeGayeRcInCaerog rhUt sþab;viTüúBt’manepSg²RbcaMéf¶ GegátemIlBIRKb;sßankarN_ eronBIRKb;TIkEnøg sþab;BIRKb;mnusS minfa mnusScas;ekμg mitþP½RkeLIy ykmkRtiHriHBicarNa EtRKUTI1Edll¥ KWesovePAl¥. ebIeyIgGanesovePA minRtUvGanEtRkbxageRkAeLIy eyIgRtUvGanGtßn½yxagkñúgeGaycb; l¥itl¥n;eTIbyl;dwgkan;EteRCA. cMENk kareronsURt KWeronKμanTIbBa©b;eLIy eronrhUtdl;cugbBa©b;énCivit. GIVEdleyIgGaceFIV)anenAéf¶enH eyIgRtUv eFIVenAéf¶enH eyIgminRtUvbeNþaycaMéf¶Es¥keLIy. ral;kic©karTaMgLayEdleFIV RtUvEtykKm<Irk,Ünxñat RtwmRtUv mkeFIVCaeKal. ral;eBleFIVGIVmYyRtUvKitBIplcMeNj plRbeyaCn_GtibrmaCanic© etIkic©karenaH manRbeyaCn_ sMrab;xøÜnÉg sMrab;sgÁmCati sMrab;RbeTsCatieyIg nigsMrab;BiPBelakb¤eT?. ebIkic©karNa EdlKμanRbeyaCn_ kMucMNayeBlevla\tRbeyaCn_eFIVvaeTot. RbeTsCatirIkcMerInmYycMnYn eKlHbg;plRbeyaCn_tUc cab;yk plRbeyaCn_FM dUcCaRBHBuT§suxcitþlHbg;esckþIsux GMNacCaesþcEpndI lHbg;kamtNða edIm,IEsVgrkFm’CYy mnusSelakpgEdr. eyIgCaGñkesñhaCatiExμr RtUvKitKUrplRbeyaCn_CatiCaFM xøaMgCagplRbeyaCn_buKÁl ¬tUc¦ mann½yfa plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrTaMgmUl EdleyIgmanedImkMeNIt CaExμr manTwkdI RbCaBlrdæExμr vtßúmantMél epSg²dUcCa éRBeQI Er: R)asaTGgÁrvtþCaedIm.l. TaMgGs;enHmantMélCagCiviteyIgmñak;xøaMgNas; eRBaHfa eyIgekItmkehIyrEmgsøab;eTAvij éf¶NamYyminxaneLIy KμannNamñak;eCosputBIesckþIsøab;eLIy. dUecñH niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            iv

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eyIgminRtUvxøacesckþIsøab;eLIy eyIgRtUvEtnaMKñarYbrYmsamKÁIKñaeLIg eFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatiExμrTaMgmUl edIm,IeGay RbCaBlrdæExμr EdlkMBugrgcaMGñkmanbuNümkCYyseRgÁaH )ansuxsanþedaysareyIg eTIbCatiExμreyIgecosput BIkaremIlgay emIlefak BICatisasn_déT)an. CamYyKñaenHEdr ´sUmGMBavnav dl;Gs;elakGñkesñhaCatiExμrTaMgGs; EdlmanbMNgcg;CYyCatiExμr CYye)aHBumÖesovePAenH b¤ftcMlgEckcaypSBVpSaydl;RbCaBlrdæExμrenAkñúgRbeTs tamlT§PaBEdlGac eFIV)anedIm,IeGayBYkKat;yl;dwgbEnßm manqnÞ³ rYmcMENkCYyCatiExμreyIgeGayrs;eLIgvij. sUmGrRBHKuN nig GrKuN¡¡¡¡¡

3C3

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            v

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matika esckþIEføgGMNrKuN ------------------------------------------------------------------i GarmÖkfa ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii TsSn³GñkniBn§ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii CMBUkTI 1 begIátckçúvis½y I.GgÁkardwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------------------2 1-begIátRkumkargarEdlmanqnÞ³dUcKña ---------------------------------------------3 k-eKalbMNgrYm ------------------------------------------------------ 6 x-tMrUvtamsßankarN_ ---------------------------------------------------7 K-PaBs¥itrmYt --------------------------------------------------------7 X-rwgbwug maMmYn mutRsYc ------------------------------------------------ 8 2-begIátrcnasm<½n§ nigkarEbgEckParkic© tYnaTI -------------------------------------- 9 k-GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþ ------------------------------------------------ 9 x-GMNacEbgEckFnFan ------------------------------------------------ 9 K-GMNacEtgtaMg nig bBaÄb;kargar ---------------------------------------- 9 X-GMNaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMsMerceKaledA --------------------------------10 3-eRCIserIsemdwknaM ---------------------------------------------------------10 4-RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al ------------------------------------------------------ 12 k-kariyal½y nigmuxgarenAkñúgkariyal½y---------------------------------- 12 x-karKUrbøg;kariyal½y ------------------------------------------------ 12 K-Parkic©rbs;GñkTTYlePJov -------------------------------------------- 12 X-Parkic©rbs;elxaFikar ---------------------------------------------- 13 g-c,ab; nig nitiviFI---------------------------------------------------- 13 c-RbB½n§RtYtBinitü ----------------------------------------------------14 q-RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar ----------------------------------------------------14 C-crnþBt’man nig TMnak;TMng---------------------------------------------14 Q-rkSaTuk nigkarBarBt’man --------------------------------------------15 j-dMeNIrkarhirBaØvtßú nigParkic©KNenyü-----------------------------------15 6-ynþkarsMrbsMrYl--------------------------------------------------------- 16 k-KN³kmμkar ------------------------------------------------------ 17 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            vi

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x-karRbCMu --------------------------------------------------------- 17 K-GCJakNþal ------------------------------------------------------ 18 II.c,ab; vin½y RkmsIlFm’ ----------------------------------------------------------- 18 1-begIátc,ab; lkçnþik³ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg ---------------------------------------------19 2-TMnYlxusRtUvRkmsIlFm’ ----------------------------------------------------19 3-témøRkmsIlFm’ nigqnÞ³ ----------------------------------------------------19 4-PaBxøaMg PaBeCOCak; PaBR)akdniym -------------------------------------------20 III.dMeNIrkar----------------------------------------------------------------------20 1-karGnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaM --------------------------------------------------- 21 k-begIátdMNak;kargar------------------------------------------------- 22 x-begIátlkç½x½NÐkargar------------------------------------------------ 22 K-begIátRbB½n§kargar ------------------------------------------------- 22 X-crwklkçN³GgÁkardwknaM -------------------------------------------- 22 2-karbBa¢a --------------------------------------------------------------- 23 k-eKalbMNg ------------------------------------------------------ 23 x-TwsedA---------------------------------------------------------- 23 K-eKaledA ---------------------------------------------------------24 X-ebskkmμ --------------------------------------------------------24 g-karelIkTwkcitþ -----------------------------------------------------24 3-karRKb;RKg -------------------------------------------------------------26 4-karRtYtBinitü-------------------------------------------------------------26 IV.karRbNaMgRbECg ---------------------------------------------------------------26 1-h‘anRbfuy------------------------------------------------------------- 27 2-karvaytMél ------------------------------------------------------------28 3-tRmUvkar ---------------------------------------------------------------28 V.ÉkeTs -----------------------------------------------------------------------29 1-CMnajviC¢aCIv³-------------------------------------------------------------29 2-kareCaKC½y -------------------------------------------------------------29 3-KMnit -------------------------------------------------------------------29 4-karTMnak;TMng ------------------------------------------------------------29 5-CMnaj nigkarbuinRbsBV----------------------------------------------------- 30 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            vii

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6-karBüakrN_ ------------------------------------------------------------ 30 7-karéqñRbDit------------------------------------------------------------- 30 8-GBÖnþr³jaN ------------------------------------------------------------ 31 9-karpþÜcepþIm-------------------------------------------------------------- 31 10-KMnitfμI---------------------------------------------------------------- 31 CMBUkTI 2 sßankarN_RbeTsExμr I>ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrrIkcMerInrugerOg ---------------------------------------------- 33 1-emdwknaMl¥ -------------------------------------------------------------- 34 2-neya)aydwknaMÉkraCü ---------------------------------------------------- 35 3-karRKb;RKgrdæl¥ --------------------------------------------------------- 37 4-sm,ÚrFnFan ------------------------------------------------------------ 38 5-KμankareRCotERCkBIbreTs ------------------------------------------------- 38 6-ExμreGaytMélelICatiExμrxøÜnÉg ---------------------------------------------- 38 7-KitRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagRbeyaCn_buKÁl ----------------------------------------- 38 karsnñidæan---------------------------------------------------------------- 39 II>ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;cuH ----------------------------------------------------40 1-kMesayemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------40 k-neratþm sIhnu -----------------------------------------------------41 x-ln; nl; ----------------------------------------------------------44 K-b:ul Bt ----------------------------------------------------------45 X-h‘un Esn---------------------------------------------------------47 2-neya)aydwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------48 k-sgÁmraRsþniym ----------------------------------------------------48 x-saFarN³rdæExμr ----------------------------------------------------50 K-km<úCaRbCaFibetyü -------------------------------------------------51 X-saFarN³rdæRbCamanitkm<úCa ¬yYnkan;kab;¦ ------------------------------56 g-RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa ------------------------------------------------60 g-1-briyakasneya)ay -----------------------------------------62 g-2-KNbkSneya)ay-------------------------------------------62 g-3-kat;eTasExμrRkhm------------------------------------------64 g-4-CemøaHdIFIø --------------------------------------------------66 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            viii

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g-5-GMeBIBukrlYy -----------------------------------------------67 g-6-R)asaTRBHvihar --------------------------------------------68 3-kareRCotERCkBIbreTs ¬sRgÁam¦---------------------------------------------69 k-karQøanBanrbs;esom------------------------------------------69 x-karQøanBanrbs;yYn -------------------------------------------70 4-ExμrmineGaytMélelICatixøÜnÉg----------------------------------------------- 71 5-KitRbeyaCn_buKÁlFMCagRbeyaCn_Cati ----------------------------------------- 72 CMBUkTI 3 begIátkarpøas;bþÚr I.begIátyuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------------------------74 1-ebskkmμ ---------------------------------------------------------------74 2-eKalbMNg --------------------------------------------------------------75 k-pøas;bþÚremdwknaM nigrcnasm<½n§ ------------------------------------------75 x-pøas;bþÚrneya)aydwknaM -----------------------------------------------75 K-pøas;bþÚrRbB½n§RKb;RKg ------------------------------------------------76 X-bNþúHKMnitCatiniymTUlMTUlay---------------------------------------- 77 g-karBarkareRCotERCkBIbreTs----------------------------------------- 77 c-KitplRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagRbeyaCn_buKÁl -------------------------------- 77 II-eRCIserIsyuT§saRsþ nig]bkrN_ ---------------------------------------------------- 78 k-neya)ay ---------------------------------------------------------------79 x-eXasna ----------------------------------------------------------------79 K-hirBaØvtßú ----------------------------------------------------------------79 X-kgT½B -----------------------------------------------------------------80 g-karTUt ------------------------------------------------------------------80 III.Gnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþ nigkll,ic s‘un sU‘ -------------------------------------------------80 1-eronRbyuT§ ------------------------------------------------------------- 81 2-bgðajpøÚv --------------------------------------------------------------- 81 3-Gnuvtþn_eGayRtUv--------------------------------------------------------- 81 4-sÁal;sßankarN_ ---------------------------------------------------------- 81 5-KitEpnkarcaj; ---------------------------------------------------------- 81 6-begIánel,ÓnedIm,IeCaKC½y ---------------------------------------------------82 7-dutqnÞ³ -----------------------------------------------------------------82 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            ix

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8-eFIVeGayRbesIreLIg--------------------------------------------------------82 9-ÉkPaBKña xitxMrYmKña------------------------------------------------------- 83 10-eFIVeGaysRtUvsgS½yrhUt ------------------------------------------------- 83 IV.vaytMélyuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------------------- 83 CMBUkTI 4 begIátGñkGnuvtþn_tam I.karP¢ab;TMnak;TMng-----------------------------------------------------------------86 1-begðIbBITsSn³------------------------------------------------------------86 2-bgðajckçúvis½y -----------------------------------------------------------86 3-pSBVpSayckçúvis½y --------------------------------------------------------86 4-bgðajeKalkarN_ TwsedA eKaledA --------------------------------------------86 5-bgðajBIviFIsaRsþ yuT§saRsþ EdlnwgsMerceKaledA -------------------------------- 87 6-bgðajBIplRbeyaCn_EdlnwgTTYl)an ----------------------------------------- 87 II>ktþaEdleFIVeGaymnusSedIrtamemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------- 87 1-cat;TukCamnusSsMxan; ----------------------------------------------------- 87 2-ykcitþGñkdéTmkdak;elIcitþeyIg----------------------------------------------88 3-minEkxøÜn lak;kMhus TMlak;dak;GñkdéT -----------------------------------------88 4-sresIrkEnøgsaFarN³ riHKn;CaÉkCn-------------------------------------------88 5-bgðajxøÜneGayeKsÁal;------------------------------------------------------88 6-eRbIkarRbkYtRbECg --------------------------------------------------------88 III>ktþaEdleFIVeGayman\Ti§BlkñúgkardwknaM -----------------------------------------------88 1-karbBa©úHbBa©Úl -----------------------------------------------------------88 2-karcrcar----------------------------------------------------------------89 3-karesBKb; --------------------------------------------------------------89 4-kartMrg;Tws --------------------------------------------------------------89 IV.ktþaEdleFIVeGayeKeCOCak; --------------------------------------------------------89 1-eFIVemdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg------------------------------------------------------89 2-CYyGñkdéTedayKuNFm’ ----------------------------------------------------90 3-GPivDÆn_CMnaj smtßPaBCanic©------------------------------------------------90 4-\riyabfviC¢man -----------------------------------------------------------90 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            x

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V>eKalkarN_bBa©úHbBa©Úl ------------------------------------------------------------91

1-bþÚrrUbragtamkal³eTs³ ----------------------------------------------------91 2-niyayeGaycMbBaðaGñksþab; --------------------------------------------------91 3-manxnþI Gt;Fμt; -----------------------------------------------------------91 4-begIátekrþ×eQμaHl¥ ----------------------------------------------------------91 5-kMuRbEkk tmat; eQøaH-------------------------------------------------------92 6-Tajkarsnñidñan -----------------------------------------------------------92 7-elIkTwkcitþeGaymankarriHKn; ------------------------------------------------92 8-begIátTMnak;TMngl¥ ---------------------------------------------------------92 9-pþl;karshRbtibtiþkar----------------------------------------------------- 93 10-eRbI\Ti§BlRkum --------------------------------------------------------- 93 11-nimitþrUbEdlman ---------------------------------------------------------94 12-minRtUvCECkykQñH caj; Etsþab;ehtupleKniyay ------------------------------94 13-sMueGayeKcUlrYm --------------------------------------------------------94 14-eRbIGñkEdlman\Ti§Bl ¬RKU RbFan Rsuk XMu PUmi Gacarü eGayeKCYyeXasnaeGayeyIg¦---94 15-eRbI\Ti§Bl smaKm GgÁkar shKmn_ edIm,Ieqøot»kaseXasna ----------------------94 16-RtUveKarB eGaytMéleTAelInimitþrUbenAkEnøgenaH edIm,IeGayeKmanCMenO nigTukcitþ --------94 17-bBa¢ak;BIeKalbMNgrYmKña---------------------------------------------------94 18-erobcMKMeragCamun --------------------------------------------------------95 19-niyaysareLIgvij nUveKalsMxan;² -------------------------------------------95 20-eRCIserIsTIkEnøgl¥ nigeBlsmrmü-------------------------------------------95 21-bgðajTWkcitþTaMgsgxag---------------------------------------------------95 22-eqøIycMeBaHkarsaksYrrbs;Gñksþab; -------------------------------------------96 23-ecHeRbI\Ti§BlEdlman nigRbCaRbiyPaB---------------------------------------97 CMBUkTI 5 I.GMNacemdwknaM -------------------------------------------------------------------98 1-GMNacmenayiTi§-----------------------------------------------------------98 2-GMNacKuNFm’------------------------------------------------------------ 99 3-GMNacTMnak;TMng --------------------------------------------------------- 99 4-GMNacbgçitbgçM --------------------------------------------------------- 100 5-GMNacÉkeTs---------------------------------------------------------- 101 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            xi

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6-GMNaceyag ----------------------------------------------------------- 101 7-GMNacRsbc,ab; -------------------------------------------------------- 102 8-GMNacBt’man ---------------------------------------------------------- 102 9-GMNachirBaØvtßú --------------------------------------------------------- 103 10-GMNaceGkULÚsIu ------------------------------------------------------- 103 II>tYnaTIemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------------- 103 1-GñknaMBakü ------------------------------------------------------------ 103 2-Gñkcrcar bBa©úHbBa©Úl ---------------------------------------------------- 103 3-GñkbeRgon hwVkhat; nigGñkelIkTwkcitþ --------------------------------------- 104 4-GñkbegIátRkumkargar ----------------------------------------------------- 104 5-GñkedIrtYtMNagRkum ------------------------------------------------------ 105 6-GñkedaHRsaybBaða ------------------------------------------------------ 105 7-GñkbegIátEpnkaryuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------ 106 8-GñksMruHsMrYl bRgYbbRgYm ------------------------------------------------- 106 9-GñkeFIVsmaFicitþ --------------------------------------------------------- 107 10-GñkerobcMxñatKMrU ------------------------------------------------------- 107 III.ktþanaMeGayman\Ti§BlelIGñkdéT nigkardwknaM ---------------------------------------- 107 1-PaBs¥itrmYt ----------------------------------------------------------- 107 2-kardwknaMeFIVpÞal; -------------------------------------------------------- 107 3-EbgEckeGayc,as;rvag mnusS kargar nigcrwklkçN³---------------------------- 108 4-rkSaBaküsnüa BaküBit Baküsc©³ ------------------------------------------- 108 5-eqøIytbeday\riyabfviC¢man----------------------------------------------- 108 6-bgðajnUvkarRsLaj;rab;GanedayesμaH --------------------------------------- 108 7-snñidæan b¤KitcMNucl¥bMputcMeBaHGñkdéT --------------------------------------- 108 8-EsVgyl;xøÜnÉgCamun eTIbbgðajGñkdéTCaeRkay -------------------------------- 108 9-citþTUlay esμaHRtg; ------------------------------------------------------ 109 10-mankareyaKyl; Gt;eGanGFüaRs½y --------------------------------------- 109 11-RBmTTYlkMhus nig sMueTas ---------------------------------------------- 109 12-eFIVkarebþCJacitþsarCafμInUvGIVEdleFIV ------------------------------------------ 109 13-CYyGñkdéTedayesμaH sb,úrs -------------------------------------------- 109 14-GñkdéTman\Ti§BlelImun------------------------------------------------- 110 15-\riyabfviC¢manRKb;sßankarN_ -------------------------------------------- 110 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            xii

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16-erobKMnitnigcitþ muneBlniyay -------------------------------------------- 110 17-minRtUvman³ ---------------------------------------------------------- 110 18-niyayPasamantkáviC¢aRtwmRtUv nigGarmμN_l¥ --------------------------------- 110 19-pþl;kargarEdlmanRbsiT§PaB --------------------------------------------- 110 20-esBKb;mnusSsMxan;² --------------------------------------------------- 111 esckþIsniñdæan ------------------------------------------------------------------- 111

3C3

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            xiii

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CMBUkTI 1

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            xiv

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begIátckçúvis½y karbegIátckçúvis½yCaktþasMxan;bMputsMrab;emdwknaM eBlEdleyIgcab;epþImeFIVCaemdwknaM cab;epþIm dMeNIrkardwknaMenaH. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvbegIáteGaymanckçúvis½yCamun karbegIátckçúvis½yenH edIm,IeGayeyIg eCOCak; ehIyeFIVdMeNIreq<aHeTAtamTisedAmYyBitR)akd nig)ansMerceCaKC½ydl;eKaledA tamlT§plEdl cg;)an. eyIgCaemdwknaMCatiExμrmñak;²mantYnaTIkatBVkic© CaGñkEfrkSakarBar nigEsVgrkplRbeyaCn_BitR)akd sMrab;RbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA plRbeyaCn_BitR)akdsMrab;RbeTsCati RbkbedaysmFm’ nigyutþiFm’ . karbegIát ckçúvis½yRtUvEp¥kelIkarsikSavaytMélTinñn½y sßankarN_Cak;Esþg viPaKelIRbvtþisaRsþ nigRBwtþikarN_bc©úb,nñ bBaðaEdlkMBugekItman GBÖnþr³jaN esckIþsgÇwm nigkarBüakrN_ sMrab;vasnaGnaKtRbeTsCati. karsikSa BIRbvtþisaRsþ karsikSaBIGtItkal mansar³RbeyaCn_ya:gxøaMg eRBaHGtItkalenHehIy CakBa©k;qøúHbBa©aMg nigCapøÚv EdlbgðajeGayeyIgdwgGMBIcMNucxVHxat cMNucl¥ ktþaeCaKC½y b¤braC½y GaRkk;b¤l¥ KYbpSMnigkar emIleXIjbBaðanabc©úb,nñkal eFIVeGayeyIgGacEsVgrkedImehtu ¬bBaða¦BitR)akd ¬sc©³¦ edIm,IelIkykb£s Kl;bBaðaenaHmkedaHRsayeGay)ancb;CasßaBr. kalNaeyIgdwgBIb£sKl;bBaðaBitR)akd EdlkMBugekItman enAkñúgRbeTsExμr vaCaKnøwHsMrab;eyIgTaMgGs;Kña EsVgrkviFIedaHRsayeGaycMbBaða eTIbbBaðaenaHRtUvbBa©b;. karedaHRsaybBaðaCYyCatienH eRbobdUcCaRKUeBTü EdlBinitüBüa)alGñkCm¶W edaysÁal;emeraKBitR)akd sÁal;eraKsBaØac,as; eTIbRKUeBTüBüa)alGñkCm¶wenaHCasHes,Iy. emdwknaMCatiExμrRtUvRkeLkemIlKMrUdwknaMrbs; RBHBuT§eFobeTAnigkardwknaMsgÁmmnusSnaeBlbc©úb,nñ EdlkardwknaMrbs;RBHGgÁmanckçúvis½ymYyBitR)akd. RBHGgÁsuxcitþlHbg;RTBüsm,tþi yss½ká laPskáar³ RbBn§kUn edIm,IEsVgrkehtuBitR)akd EdlnaMeGay mnusSmanTukç bnÞab;BIRBHGgÁTteXIjeTBnimitþ 4 ya:g KwmnusScas;Cra mnusSQW mnusSsøab; nig GñkbYs. RBHGgÁ)anyagcUléRBedIm,IsikSarkviFImkCYyseRgÁaHmnusSelak eGayrYcputGMBITukçevTnaTaMgenH ¬pøÚvrMlt; Tukç¦ cugbBa©b;RBHGgÁrkeXIjmaKa’mYy KWpøÚvrMlt;esckþITukç. RBHGgÁ)anrkeXIjfa TukçekItecjmkBI GviC¢a. ya:gNamij cMeBaHRbeTsExμreyIgvij ebIeyIgnaMKñaedaHRsaycugbBaða bBaðaenaHmincb;eLIy GIVEdleyIg emIleXIjbc©úb,nñCacugbBaða EdlCapl)annwgkMBugekItmankñúgsgÁmExμrbc©úb,nñ eyIgemIleXIjEtpl ¬GaRkk;¦ etIehtu¬edImbBaða¦BitR)akdenAÉNa? ehtuEdlnaMeGaymanplGaRkk;enAÉNa?. edImehtu KW KMnit edImehtuKW EpnkaryuT§saRsþ dUcenHeyIgRtUvemIleGayeXIjyuT§saRsþrbs;sRtUv edIm,IeGaydwgc,as; GMBIedImcmbBaða EdlekItmanenAkñúgsgÁmExμr minecHcb;. ¬sUmGanehtupledImbBaða GMBIkarviPaKyuT§saRsþneya)ayrbs; kumμúynisþyYn nig h‘un Esn enAkñúgesovePAemdwknaMCatiExμr PaK 1 ¦. GaRs½yehtuenH emdwknaMcaM)ac;RtUv sikSaGtItkaleGay)anc,as; BinitütamdansßankarN_ RBwtþikarN_eBlbc©úb,nñ nignaMeGayeyIgGacBüakrN_ dwgfanwgmanGIVekIteLIgenAeBlGnaKt. müa:gvijeTot ckçúvis½yCaktþaCMrujTwkcitþmYyya:gxøaMg dl;buKÁlwk smaCikGñkeRkam»vaT eGaykan;EtxitxMRbwgERbgeFIVkarRbNaMgRbECgKñaya:gsRsak;sRsaM tMrg;tamTisedA eTArkeKaledArYmEtmYy. srubmk ckçúvis½yKWCaGVIEdleyIgemIleXIjBI GtItkal bc©úb,nñkal nigGnaKt kal. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            1

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I.GgÁkardwknaM (Organization) GgÁkardwknaMRtUvkMNt;ckçúvis½yeGayc,as;las; sMrab;karpøas;bþÚr. eyIgGacpøas;bþÚr eFVIeGaymankar rIkcMerInlUtlas; nigeFIVeGayRbesIreLIg kalNaGgÁkardwknaMmanemdwknaMEdlmanckçúvis½yc,as;las;. GgÁkar dwknaMl¥xøaMg CaGgÁkardwknaMEdlmaneKalbMNgFM ehIyyUrGEgVg. cMeBaHkarbegIátGgÁkardwknaM eyIgRtUverobcM eGay)anc,as;las;BI eKalbMNg eKaledA TwsedA ebskkmμ yuT§saRsþ ]bkrN_eRbIR)as; kll,ic FnFan edIm,IFanakareCaKC½y. kareCaKC½yenH CakmøaMgmYyman\Ti§BlbMputsMrab;GgÁkardwknaMeTAelI\riyabfGñk eRkam»vaT BIeRBaHfa FmμCatiénmnusSEtgEtQrxagGñkQñH KμannrNamñak;cg;enAxagGñkcaj;enaHeT. GgÁkar dwknaMEdldwknaMeTArkPaBeCaKC½y qab;rh½s kan;EtRbesIr EtebIGgÁkardwknaMGUsbnøayyUr vaGaceFIVeGayGñk eRkambgÁab;Føak;Twkcitþ Ebk)ak;épÞkñúg Gs;kmøaMg xatbg;eBlevla RTBüsm,tþi nigGacbraC½y)an. karerobcM eGaymanyuT§saRsþQñHrbs;GgÁkardwknaMenH RtUvpþl;plRbeyaCn_GIVmYyEdlskásmnigsñaédrbs;buKÁlwk eFIV eGaybuKÁlwk smaCikTaMgLayTukcitþ eCOCak; nigmankmøaMgcitþ ebþCJacitþeFIVkic©karenaH edayKμanenOyht;. RtUvcaMfa emdwknaMminGaceFIVGIV²mñak;ÉgsMercdl;eKaledAtamckçúvis½yeLIy ebIKμankarcUlrYmBIGñkeRkambgÁab; b¤KμankarKaMRTcUlrYmBIRbCaBlrdæExμr. karbegIátGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² RkumkargarRtUverobcMdak;eQμaHGgÁkardwknaMenaH eGaysmRsbtamckçú vis½y dUcCa KNbkS rNsirS shB½n§ shPaB shrdæ shCIB sm<½n§ KN³kmμkar KN³kmμaFikar GgÁkar smaKm rdæaPi)al clna.l. erobcMEsVgrknimitþsBaØasMKal;rbs;GgÁkardwknaM EdlmanGtßn½yRKb;RKan; ¬LÚkU¦. eQμaHnignimitþsBaØaenH eFIVya:gNaeGay xøI xøwm c,as;las; gayGan gayyl; gaycaM gayB¤ EbøkBIeK ehIymanGtßn½yRKb;RKan; gayRsYlGacTak;TajcMNab;GarmμN_KaMRTBIRbCaBlrdæTUeTA. bnÞab;mk eyIg RtUvEsVgrkTItaMg TIsñak;kar b¤mUldæanc,as;las;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM edIm,IdMeNIrkarkargar. eyIgRtUvBicarNa fa etIeyIgKYrdak;TItaMgenATINa? kEnøgNa? EdlmaneRbobelIKUrRbkYtRbECgrbs;eyIg manskþanuBl eRbobxag citþsaRsþ eRbobxagneya)ay sMbUrFnFansmÖar³ bec©kviTüa gayTMnak;TMngBt’man gayTak;TajkmøaMgKaMRT mank,ÜnxñatKm<IyuT§saRsþeRcInminecHrIgs¶Üt briyakasl¥ ¬GakasFatu ekþA RtCak; esIm s¶Üt ePøog Føak;Twkkk eRKaHFmμCati¦.l. eyIgRtUvdwknaMRkumkargar erobcMEpnkar edayBicarNanUvsMNYrmYycMnYn etIRtUvbegIát GgÁkardwknaMGIV? maneQμaHGIV? nimitþsBaØaGIV? edIm,IbMeBjebskkmμGIV? maneKaledAGIV? eFIVya:gem:c edIm,IeCaKC½y? GgÁkardwknaMenaHmanmUldæanenAÉNa?. bnÞab;mk emdwknaMnigRkumkargarEdlerobcMGgÁkar dwknaMeFIVya:gNaeGaymanlkçN³ rs;revIk Tn;Pøn; Etrwgbwug Gacbt;EbntamkaleTs³ rhUt)ansMerc tamckçúvis½y . kñúgkarbegIátGgÁkardwknaM emdwknaM b¤RkumkargarRtUvsikSaeGaysÁal;c,as;GMBIKUrRbkYtRbECg nigsikSaeGaysÁal;c,as;GMBIxøÜneyIg sÁal;eGayc,as;GMBIsßankarN_CMuvij munniwgeyIgcab;epþImQaneCIgecj RbkYtRbECg ebIniyayBITahanvij RtUvsikSaeGayc,as;faQñHsin munnigecjc,aMgeFIVsRgÁam. cMENk GñkvinieyaKTunvij RtUvsikSaeGayc,as;fa)ancMeNjsin eTIbeFIVvinieyaKTun. ebIeyIgdwgc,as;faeyIgQñHenaH eyIgRtUvecjmuxeFIVkarRbkYt EtebIeyIgmindwgc,as;faeyIgQñHeT mincaM)ac;ecjRbkYteLIy. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            2

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1-begáItRkumkargarEdlmanqnÞ³dUcKña (Team work with the same willing) karbegIátRkumkargareTA)anluHRtaEtmanckçúvis½y karebþCJacitþ karTukcitþKña eFIVeGayRkumxitxMrYmKña nigmanEpnkaryuT§saRsþBitR)akdedIm,IsMercckçúvis½y. karbegIátRkumenH mincaM)ac;xVl;fa eyIgCamnusSminqøat min)aneronx<s; ehIyKitfaeyIgminGacbegáItRkumkargar)anenaHeLIy EtGIVEdleyIgman KWxøÜnrbs;eyIg nig eKalkarN¾mYycMnYnEdlerobrab;xagelICakareRsc sMrab;karbegáItRkumkargar. karerobcMbegIátRkumkargarRtUv eFIVtamckçúvis½yrbs;GgÁkardwknaM edayeRCIserIsRkumEdlmanlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan;l¥elIseKbg¥s; RkumEdl manÉkeTs ehIyFanafamansmtßPaB eFIVkic©karsMercdl;eKaledAEdl)ankMNt;. RkumEdlmanqnÞ³EtmYy manqnÞ³l¥ CalkçN³RkumemdwknaMEdlxøaMg. karbegIátRkumkargareRbobRbdUceTAnwgRkumkILa)al;Tat;mYy Edl xøaMgBUEkehIymansmtßPaBelgTaMgGs;Kña edIm,IRbkYtCamYyRkumkILa)al;Tat;epSg²eTot mñak;²enAkñúgRkumRtUv xitxMelgTaMgGs;Kña eKaledAEtmYyKt;KW Tat;)al;bBa©ÚlTI. cugbBa©b; ebIRkumNamYymanBnÞúeRcInCag RkumenaH manC½yCMn³ ehIyTTYl)anBanrgVan;. cMENkkardwknaMRbeTsCati RkumdwknaMGgÁkarsßab½nNamYy manlkçN³ dUcKña eTaHCakardwknaMRkumtUc b¤kardwknaMRkumFMk¾eday eGayEtRkumkargarenaH EbgEckkargarc,as;las; maneKalbMNgEtmYy dUckILa)al;Tat;enaH RBmTaMgRkumkargarxitxMRbwgERbgeFIVkargarrYmKña RkumenaHR)akd CaTTYl)aneCaKC½y . dUcenH ebIsinCaeyIgbegIátRkumkargarsMrab;eFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr RkumkargarenaH RtUvkarerIs edIm,ImkbMerI Cati sasna nigRbCaCatiExμr dUcFøab;)anerobrab;enAkñúgesovePAPaK1 rYcmkehIy. RkumemdwknaMenHRtUveGaytMélelICnesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd EdlmanlkçN³RBmCaemdwknaM edIm,ImkdwknaM RbeTsCati CYyrMedaHRbeTseyIg eGayman\sSr³PaB snþiPaB RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd RbCaBlrdæman esckþIsux rYcputBIPaBRkIRk GyutiþFm’ GMeBIBukrlYyepSg². RkumEdlRtUveRCIserIs RtUvmansmtßPaBxøaMgxag neya)ay esdækic© eyaFa c,ab; bec©kviTüa BaNiC¢kmμ ksikmμ eTscrN_ b:UlIs TUrKmnaKmn_ Bt’man .l. buKÁlTaMgenHKWCaGñkEdlh‘anniyay h‘aneFIVskmμPaBRKb;Ebbya:g edIm,ICatirs;kñúgyuT§saRsþrYmEtmYy eRkam GgÁkardwknaMEtmYy eRkamemdwknaMEtmñak;. bnÞab;mkRkumRtUvbegIátTisedA viFIsaRsþ KMnit EpnkaryuT§saRsþ meFüa)ay FnFan edIm,IsMercckçúvis½yenaH. müa:geTot kareFIVkargarCaRkumenH minRtUvecaTRbkan;fa GñkenHxus GñkenaHRtUveLIy EtebICYbbBaða RtUvelIkbBaðamkedaHRsay tamk,Ünc,ab; tameKalkarN_ eday minedaHRsaybBaðatamkareRbIGarmμN_eLIy. RkumkargarbzmEdlpþl;GTiPaB CabuKÁlmanmanlkçN³ 8 cMNucdMbUgdUcxageRkam³ 1-GñkesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd ¬ExμrsuT§¦ 2-esμaHRtg;cMeBaHCati nig GgÁkardwknaM 3-køahan muHmut 4-TTYlxusRtUvral;kic©kar 5-R)akdniym hμt;ct;kargar 6-lHbg;x<s; ¬eBlevla RTBüsm,tþi GayuCIvit¦ 7-smtßPaB ¬cMeNHdwg nig bTBiesaFn_ eTBekaslü¦ niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            3

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8-KuNFm’ ¬RBhμvihaFm’ nig TsBiFFm’¦citþTUlay RkumkargarsMedAelIRkumkargarEdlmaneKalbMNgrYmKña manCMnajepSg²Kña EtGacbMeBjkargar KñaeTAvijeTAmk. eKsegáteXIjRkumkargar EbgEckCaeRcInRbePTepSg²Kña dUcCa RkumkargareFIVtammuxgar RkumkargarEdleFIVkargarcMruHmuxgar RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg RkumkargarkMNt;Etmñak;Ég Rkum kargarq¶ay². emdwknaMminRtUvKitxøÜnÉgfa CaGñkRKb;RKg CaGñkRtYtRta nigcg;eFIVCaemeKeLIy. smaCikRkum RtUvebþCJaya:geRCAedIm,IkarlUtlas;smaCikRkum edayCYyGPivDÆn_KñaeTAvijeTAmk nigkareCaKC½y nigCaRkum kargarmYymanGtßRbeyaCn¾ sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM. 1-1-GtibrimaFnFanmnusSrbs;GgÁkardwknaM (Maximum of Human Resource in the Organization) edIm,IBRgIksmaCikeGaymancMnYneRcIn smaCikcas;²RtUvCYybeRgonsmaCiknImYy² smaCikfμI²rbs; RkumkargareGayecHkargar eGayecHdwknaM nigCYysmaCikd¾éTeTotTaMgGs;eGayrIkcMerInbnþ. KμancMeNHdwg kargar kic©kar nig eKalbMNgNa RbesIrCagcMeNHdwgdwknaMrbs;buKÁlmñak;²enaHeT. KYrkt;cMNaM RkumkargarPaKeRcIn minEmnCaRkumkargarBitR)akd BIeRBaHkarRbmUlpþMúTMnak;TMng EtCamYy nig ecAhVay. buKÁlnImYy²RbNaMgRbECgCamYynigGñkdéTeTotsMrab;GMNac kitüanuPaB nigtMENg min RbkYtRbECg edIm,IsMerceKaledA. karCECkBiPakSa sikSaGMBIbBaða b¤eFIVKMerag minRtUvRbKl;eGaybuKÁlNamYy b¤RkumNamYy EtRtUveFIVkaredayRkumkargarTaMgGs;Kña. RkumkargarEdlkMNt;fal¥bMput KWCaRkumEdlsgÇwm elIskmμPaBrbs;xøÜnÉg Gacbt;EbnlμmEdlGacpøas;bþÚredIm,IeGayeKalbMNgrbs;eKpÞal; KWeKalbMNgrYm )ansMerc. RkumkargarRtUverobcMk,Ünc,ab; kardwknaMedIm,ICYyeGaysMerceKalbMNg nigkarGnuvtþn¾. Rkumkargar RtUvepþatelIkarrIkcMerInkargar nigkareFIVskmμPaB karGnuvtþn_ eRbIRKb;]bkrN_ edIm,IdwknaMTaMgGs;Kña dUcCakar beRgon karRbwkSa nigkarGegátCaedIm . enAkñúgkargar eyIgGaceRbIkarTMnak;TMngFmμta dUcCa bgðajkareKarB EføgGMNrKuN nigelIktMekIgsñaédrbs;eK. GarmμNrbs;emdwknaMRkumRtUvbgðajBIkarebþCaJcitþ PkIþPaB emaTnPaB nigTukcitþenAkñúgRkumrbs;Gñk. eyIgRtUvbegIátsaxatamtMbn;sMxan;² nigpþl;GMNaceGayBYkeKsMerccitþ. CYnkal eyIgRtUvbþÚrevnKña epÞreGaysmaCikxøÜn edIm,IeFIVkarsMrbsMrYl b¤dwknaMGgÁRbCMuepSg². CaFmμta GgÁkar dwknaMvaytémø emdwknaMtamskmμPaB nig\riyabf. b:uEnþ meFüa)ay Edll¥bMputedIm,IvaytémøPaBCaGñkdwknaM enaH GaRs½yelIkarbMpusKMnitBIRkumdwknaMEdlenACMuvijemdwknaM. 1-FatupSMénRkumkargar emdwknaM eKalbMNgRkumkargar karcUlrYmbegIát eFIVskmμPaB edayRkumTaMgGs;Kña 2-kMritRkumkargar eFIVviPaKTan Tinñ½y nigcMeNHdwg rYmcMENkkñúgdMeNIrkarsMerccitþ nig QaneTArkÉkcänÞ eFIVkarsMerccitþ niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            4

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eFIVkic©karsMerccitþkargarEdleKdak;eGay 3-karTMnak;TMng ebIkcMhr esμaHRtg; nigkarbþÚrBt’man manRbsiTæPaBrvagsmaCikRkum. karTukcitþ karebIkTUlay kñúgkarriHKn; nigTukcitþKña KMnitrbs;kmμsiTæ PaBs¥itrmYtedayeKebþCJaedIm,IGaNtþiEdleKyl; nigGtþsBaØaNRkumkargar. 1-2-RkumkargareFIVtammuxgar (Functioning Team) karTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHkardwknaMenH CaFmμtaeKepþatelIemdwknaMpøÚvkar eTaHbICaRkumkargareFIVkarenA kñúgmuxgarCak;lak;enHk¾eday. RkumkargarmankarelIkTwkcitþya:gxøaMg RbsinebIkardwknaMepþatelIeKaledArYm cat;TukeKaledArYmCasar³sMxan;. smaCikeCOCak;faRkummansmtßPaBGacsMerceKaledA. Rkumkargarnig GnuvtþkargarxøaMgCagmun eBlEdlsmaCikRkumdwgtYnaTIc,as; nigmanCMnajc,as;las;Cagmun. karGnuvtþ yuT§saRsþ EdlRkumkareFIV faetImanRbsiT§PaBb:unμancMeBaHkargarEdleFIV?. kardwknaMEdlBak;B½n§nigkarGnuvtþ yuT§saRsþenHmandUcCa eFIVEpnkarBIrebobEdleRbIbuKÁlwk nigEbgEckFnFaneGaymanRbsiT§PaB eFIVEpnkar Gnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþeGaymanRbsiT§PaB cUlrYmCamYyGñkÉkeTsedIm,IeFIVEpnkarRbtibtþikarsMrab;Rkum naMRkum kargareGayeronGnuvtþn_ RbmUlBt’manGMBIyuT§saRsþEdleKGnuvtþn_manRbsiT§PaBBIRkumepSg²eTot. karTukcitþ nigshRbtibtþikargareTAvijeTAmk CaktþasMxan;. eTaHbICaRkummaneTBekaslübiunRbsBV erobcMl¥ya:gNak¾eday k¾GacbraC½y)anEdr ebIsinCaxVHkarTukcitþKña PaBs¥itrmYt nigshRbtibtþikar BIsmaCikenAkñúgRkumenAeBlGnuvtþn_ebskkmμ. CaBiess karshRbtibtþikarmansar³sMxan; eBlRkumtMrUveGay pþl;Bt’man smÖar³ FnFan nigkarCYyKñaeTAvijeTAmk eFIVkarCamYyKñaenAkñúgry³eBlyUr nigkñúgsßanPaBlM)ak. karKaMRTxagneya)ay nigFnFan. karGnuvtþn_RkumeTA)an GaRs½yelImanFnFanEdlcaM)ac;sMrab;eFIVkar. FnFanEdlBak;B½n§enaH manmUlniFifvika ]bkrN_ smÖar³ rbs;rbreRbIR)as;sMrab;eFIVkar. 1-3-RkumkargarEdleFIVkargarcMruHmuxgar (Mixed Function Team) tamkarsegátRkumkargarEdleFIVkarcMruHmuxgar mantYnaTIsMxan;² dUcCa edaHRsaybBaða cat;Ecg KMeragkar b¤begIáteKalneya)ay. tYnaTITaMgenaH manbegIátckçúvis½y erobcM karcUlrYm kareFIVEpnkar. begIát ckçúvis½ypþl;eGaymaneKaledArYmmYy erobcMCYyeGayRkumEfrkSackçúvis½y karcUlrYmBIsgÁm CYyeGayman PaBs¥itrmYtépÞkñúg nigEpnkarxageRkA CYyeGaykarsMerccitþRkumCamYyKUrRbkYtRbECgxageRkA. eyIgGac niyayfaCaRkumkargarma:RTIs RkumkargarenHrYmman Rkumkargar Rkummuxgar kmøaMgkic©kar RkumedaHRsay bBaðaKN³kmμkar nigRkumKMeragkarBiessCaedIm . RkumkargareFIVkic©kar GaRs½yelIkic©RbwgERbgrYmKña. Rkum kargarenHmancMnYntic mansmaCikcMnYn BI 2 eTA 25 nak; kEnøgxøHmanBI 5 nig 9 nak;. CMnajmñak;Gac pþl;famBlenAeBlEdlRkumkargarmanKMnitEbøkKña b¤manKMnitepSgKña nigmanCMnajeRcInmuxdak;bBa©ÚlKañ. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            5

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1-4-RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg (Self Management Team) enHRtUvkMNt;eKaledAeGayc,as; nigGTiPaBedIm,IeFIVkar sMerccitþkargar sMrbsMrYlkic©xitxMRkumkargar TaMgmUl nigpþl;karvaykartMélkarrIkcMerInRkum nigEktMrUvkarGnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþ. kargarRtUvEtCakargarman RbeyaCn_ kargarEdlmann½y mansar³sMxan;. RkumkargarenH CaRkumEdlmanmnusScMnYnticCaGñkeFIVkargar nigmansiTi§sMerckargar. cMENkkarpþl;rgVan;epSg² RtUvpþl;CaRkum ehIytMrUveGaybuKÁlGPivDÆn_CMnajrbs;eK tamRkumtMrUveGayeFIV. RtUvmankarKaMRTBIneya)ay BIfñak;dwknaMxagelI rYmTaMgkarEbgEckFnFan GMNacsmrmü EdlRbKl;eGay edIm,IeFIVkargareGaymanRbsiT§PaB. smaCikRtUveroneGayecHBIrebobsþab; nigrebobTMnak; TMngmanRbsiT§PaB . 1-5-RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;Ecgmñak;Ég (Single Management Team) CaGñkerobcMbøg;kargaredayxøÜnÉg eFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg. CaGñkmanKMnitdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg TaMgkarpþÜcepþIm eFIVskmμPaB skmμbþÚrpþac; edayminrgcaMbBa¢a b¤manGñknaMeFIVenaHeLIy CakardwknaMEdlekIteLIg BIqnÞH. dUcenHcab;taMgBIkarerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ karGnuvtþn_eFIVskmμPaB nigkarGnuvtþn_PaBCaemdwknaM TaMgRsugEtmþg. emdwknaMCaGñkcab;epþImeFIVkic©karTaMgGs; eFIVedayPaBeCOCak; eFIVedaymankmøaMgcitþ. etIemdwknaMRtUveFIVxøHeTot? emdwknaMGacR)ab;GñkepSgGMBIskmμPaBRkum nigsñaéd dwknaMRbCMuviPaKdMeNIrkareRbI nimitþsBaØaedIm,IsMKal;Rkum begIánelIkTwkcitþedIm,IkarshRbtibtþieTAvijeTAmk. 1-6-Rkumkargarq¶ay² (Distanced Team) CaRkumkargarEdlenAtMbn;PUmisaRsþdac;edayELkBIKña ehIykMr)anCYbKñapÞal; EteKGacCYbKñaeday TMnak;TMngtamkMuBüÚT½r bec©kviTüaTUrKmnaKmn_ dUcCa GIutaENt GIuEml vIDIGU TUrs½BÞéd .l. Rkumkargar enHbegIáteLIgsMrab;kargarCak;lak; dUcCakarsMerccitþCayuT§saRsþ edaHRsaybBaðarYmKña eFIVEpnkarelI RBwtþkarN_fμI² sMrbsMrYlskmμPaBkñúgcMeNamGñkEbk)ak;kñúgGgÁkardwknaM RkumkargaenHekItmanedaysarEt bec©kviTüa eFIVeGaymanPaBgayRsYledIm,IcUlrYmtamviFIepSg²EdleKRtUvkar. k-eKalbMNgrYm (Common Goals) bnÞab;BIerobcMRkumkargarEdll¥ehIy RkumkargarRtUvCYbRbCMuedIm,IEsVgrkcMNucrYmmYy EdlmaneKal bMNgrYmKña ÉkPaBKña samKÁIKña sMrab;eFIVdMeNIreTATaMgGs;Kña. eKalbMNgrbs;Rkumkargar CaeKalbMNg rbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)an CaeKalbMNgrbs;CatiExμrTaMgmUl. TaMgemdwknaMRkum TaMgRkumkargar CatMNag eGayRbCaBlrdæExμr CatMNageGayCatiExμr CatMNageGayplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr. eKalbMNgrYmenH eFIVeGay fñak;elInigfñak;eRkammanKMnitdUcKña manqnÞ³dUcKña yl;eXIjdUcKña vaCaktþamYYynaMeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHQaneTA rkeCaKC½yya:gR)akd minfaGgÁkardwknaMenaHtUc b¤FM b¤RbeTsenaHtUc b¤FMeLIy. dUecñH eyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaRbCaCatiExμrRKb;RsTab;énsgÁm man RBHsgÇ nisSit bBaØvnþ yuvCn yuvnarI kmμkr ksikr BaNiC¢kr mRnþIraCkarRKb;RbePT GgÁkarRKb;sßab½n eTaHCars;enATINak¾eday TaMgkñúgRbeTs nig eRkARbeTskþI maneKalbMNgrYmKñaEtmYy KWeFIVya:gNaeGay Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr rYcputBIGaNaniKmn_ niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            6

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kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμI¬lYclak;¦ nig rbbkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn edIm,IeGayCatiExμrTaMgmUlman \sSr³PaB vibulPaB snþiPaB RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd ]tþmPaB dUcRbeTsnanakñúgBiPBelak. x-tMrUvtamsßankarN_ (Adjust to Situation ) sßankarN_CaGñkkMNt;eGayeyIgerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþTaMgLay minEmnEpnkarkMNt;sßankarN_eT. dUcenHGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² RtUvkMNt;erobcMbnÞat;neya)ay erobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþeGayRsbeTAtamsßankarN_ . eyIgCaemdwknaMneya)ay CaGñkTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHGayuCIvit Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr RtUvsÁal; sßankarN_neya)ayGnþrCati neya)aytMbn; nigneya)aykñúgRbeTseGay)anc,as; edIm,IerobcMGgÁkardwknaM eGaymanlkçN³elceFøaeLIgRsbtamsßankarN_enaH nigCakþIsgÇwmdl;RbCaBlrdæExμrRKb;rUb. ]TahrN_dUcCa enAqñaM 1930 CaqñaM Edlmanvibtþiesdækic©BiPBelak edayplitplelIsesckþIRtUvkar eBlenaHelak r:UEsVl CaesdæviTU)anecjmkeFIVCaRbFanaFibtIGaemrik edaHRsayvibtþiesdækic©BiPBelak )aneCaKC½y RbCaBlrdæGaemrik)ane)aHeqñateGayelakCab;CaRbFanaFibtIGaemric 4 GaNtþiCab;Kña EdlCa RbFanaFitI1rUbdwknaMshrdæGaemrikyUrCageK edIm,ICakartbsñgsgKuNelak. enAeBlsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 Cb:un Galøwm:g; GIutalI eFIVsRgÁamedIm,IvatTIRKb;RKgBiPBelak eBlenaH RkummçageTot r:UsIu )araMg Gg;eKøs )aneRbIkmøaMgT½Btbtvij nigRtUvbBa©b;eRkayBIGaemrikcUlkñúgsRgÁam ehIyTMlak;RKab;EbkelITIRkugrbs;Cb:un 2 RKab;enATIRkug hIr:UsIuma: nig Naga:saKI ehIy)anbBa©b;sRgÁamelak. eRkayBIbBa©b;sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 GgÁkarshRbCaCatibegIáteLIg enAqñaM 1945 RbkaseGayRbeTs nImYy²sMerceCaKvasnaedayxøÜnÉg eBlenaHeKeXIjman mhatμak;Kn§I TamTarÉkraCüBIGg;eKøs )ansMercenAqñaM 1947. RbeTsepSg²eTot dUcCa siugkarBYr ma:eLsIu \NÐÚensIu hVwliBinTamTarBI hULg; nig B½rTuykal;. cMENkenA\NÐÚcinvij hU CImij )aneFIVsRgÁamrMedaHxøÜnecjBIGaNanIKm)araMg rhUt)anQñH)araMgenAeDonebonPU )araMgcuHsn§isBaØaRbKl;ÉkraCüenA éf¶TI 20 kkáda 1954 enATIRkughSWENv. GkuslEtExμreRkam RtUvyYn)an RtYtRtabnþ cab;taMgBI)araMgkat;TwikdIeGayyYn éf¶TI 4 mifuna 1949 rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ . kalBIéf¶TI 7 mkra qñaM 1979 Caéf¶EdlyYn)anEkERbneya)ayTmøak;kumμúynisþcas; QøanBanExμr elIkBYYkkumμúynisþfμI eFIVsRgÁamrvagGñkts‘U nig yYn nigRkumGay:gyYn h‘un Esn rhUtdl;mankarekob sgát;BIRbeTsmhaGMNac dUcCa Gas‘an cin nig Gaemrik eGaydkkgT½BecjenAqñaM 1989 eRkayBIemrbs;xøÜn shPaBsUevotRtUvdYlrlM ehIyerobcMeGaymankic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIseLIgenAéf¶TI 23 Extula qñaM1991 Exμrxat yYncMeNj. cMENkbc©úb,nñenH etIeyIgRtUveFIVya:gdUcemþcedIm,IeGayRtUvnigsßankarfμIenH? K-PaBs¥itrmYt (Cohesion) PaBs¥itrmYtrbs;RkumdwknaMenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM s¥itrmYtCamYykargar s¥itrmYtCamYyshesvik Rkum kargarmann½yfa CaRkumkargarmYy EdlsamKÁIKña ÉkPaBKña ecHCYyKña eTAvijeTAmk søab;rs;TaMgGs;Kña minrt; ecalKña ts‘UBüayam Gt;Fμt;TaMgGs;KñakñúgeKalbMNgrYmEtmYy rhUt)aneCaKC½ydl;TIbBa©b;. CaRkummYyEdl sÁal;Parkic© tYnaTIxøÜnÉgc,as; ehIyxitxMeFIVkargartamtYnaTIerog²xøÜn. karTMnak;TMngkargarBIfñak;eRkam eTAfñak;elI BIfñak;elImkfñak;eRkammindac;. eFIVesckþIraykarN_BIlT§plkargar TMnak;TMngkargar Epñkrdæ)al niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            7

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karpþl;Bt’manepSg²dl;KñaeTAvijeTAmk karcuHRtYtBinitü karCYbRbCMuKñaedIm,IbegIátEpnkarEdlmanlkçN³ rs;revIk sVahab; mutRsYc begIáncMNab;GarmμN_sMrab;smaCik smaCika buKÁlwk. eFIVya:gNaeGayemdwknaMkMBUl kNþal nigfñak;eRkam manskmμPaBskmμmindac; minrGak;rGYl nigQb;e)aHbg;kargarecalBak;kNþalTI edIrxus TwsedA nigeKalbMNgrYmCaedIm. PaBs¥itrmYtenH eyIgRtUveFIVya:gNa dUcCa «Buk nig kUn b£dUcCa Rcva:k;. X-rwgbwug maMmYn mutRsYc (Firm and Decisive) GgÁkardwknaM b¤RbeTsCatimYyrwugbwugmaMmYneTA)an GaRs½yelIRbCaBlrdæenaHrwgbwugmaMmYn EdlekItecj mkBI TI 1-emdwknaMl¥ 2-neya)aydwknaMl¥ 3-RbB½n§RKb;RKgl¥ 4-sßanPaBhirBaØvtßúminecHrIgs¶Üt¬esdækic©¦ 5-bec©kviTüaTMenIb 6-sμartIbuKÁlwkrwgbwug eFIVkarecjBIqnÞ³BitR)akd 7-vin½yl¥ nigmanktþabnÞab;bnSMCaeRcIn eTot. edIm,IeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHmanlMnwgeTA)an RtUverobcMeFIVya:gNaeGaymantulüPaBKñarvagGMNacTaMg 3 GñkbBaØtþi GñkRbtibtþi nigtulakar. kalNaGgÁkardwknaM b¤ RbeTseFIVtameKalkarN_c,ab; eKarBc,ab; manyutþiFm’ mansIlFm’ CaRbeTsnitirdæBitR)akd enHCacMNucmYYyrwgbwugmaMmYn. GMNacTaMgbIenHesIμKña dac; edayELkepSgBIKña mineRkamcMNuHGMNacNamYy. kMNt;GaNtþiemdwknaMRtwmEt 2 GaNtþi edIm,Ipþl;»kas dl;GñkepSg²eFIVkarRbNaMgRbECg elIkTwkcitþGñkCMnan;eRkayeGaymanTwkcitþcUlrYm dwknaMtamKMnitfμI²pg. ktþaTaMgenHGaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHrwugmaM)an eRBaHmñak;²xitxMeFIVkaredIm,IbeBa©jsmtßPaBeGayeKeXIj ehIyKitfaéf¶NamYy eKnwgman»kasmkdwknaMdUcKñaEdr. GñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvKitplRbeyaCn_rYm plRbeyaCn_saFarN³ plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrCaFM c,ab;karBar GñkTn;exSay c,ab;karBarplRbeyaCn_RbCaBlrdæ minEmnsMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_buKÁl b¤plRbeyaCn_Rkum dUcsPaKNbkSRbCaCn bMerIEtplRbeyaCn_KNbkS eFIVtambBa¢aCnpþac;kar h‘un Esn Etmñak;ÉgenaHeT. cMENkGñkGnuvtþn_c,ab;RtUveKarBc,ab; RtUveFIVtamc,ab; minRtUveyaKyl; xøacGñkFM GñkmanGMNac eFIV)abEt RbCaBlrdætUctacenaHeT RtUveFIVtameKalkarN_c,ab;EdlmanCaFrman edayKμanelIkElgbuKÁlNamñak;eLIy. RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;mansiTi§esμIKñaenAcMeBaHmuxc,ab; KμannrNamñak;enAelIc,ab;eLIy. GCaJkNþalCaGñk vinicä½ykargar tulakarCaGñkkat;kþIedayÉkraCü RtwmRtUvyutþiFm’ RtYtBinitüdMeNIrRbRBwtþeTArbs;GñkRbtibtþi FanaedaHRsaybBaðavivaT edayEp¥kelIkc,ab; \tlMeGog edIm,IFanakarTukcitþ yutþiFm’enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM eCOCak;BIsaFarN³Cn BIRbCaBlrdæExμr. GgÁkardwknaM b¤RbeTsEdlmanlkçN³rwgbwugmaMmYn eTaHCaGgÁkar dwknaM enaHtUck¾eday k¾GacRbkYtRbECg ykC½yCMnHelIGgÁkardwknaMEdlFM)anEdr eGayEtGgÁkardwknaMenaH manEpnkarl¥ Cak;EsþgdUcCa RbeTsRb‘uyeN EdlmanRbCaBlrdætic TwkdItUc Etrs;enAedayÉkraCü nigsb,Úrsb,ayeTotpg edayKμanRbeTsNaemIlgay QøanBaneLIy. ekaHTIm½rCaRbeTsmYytUc EdlGac erIbMr:HrYcxøÜnecjBIGaNaniKmn_ \NÐÚensIufμI²enAqñaM 2001 . kardwknaMminsMedAelImankmøaMgtic b£eRcIn mankmøaMg FMb¤tUceLIy eGayEtRkumkargar GgÁkardwknaMmanlkçN³rwgbwug maMmYn k¾GacmaneCaKC½yelIGgÁkardwknaMFMEdr. GgÁkardwknaMEdlmanemdwknaMxøaMg eTaHCakUnecAxageRkamexSay k¾GaceFIVeGayGñkeRkam»vaTxøaMg)an EtebI emdwknaMexSay eTaHbIGñkxageRkamxøaMgya:gNak¾eday k¾minGacdwknaMxøaMg)anEdr. ]TahrN_ dUcCam¢úlEdl CavtßúmYytUc EteyIgGacykvamkeFIVCaRbeyaCn_)anCaeRcIn GaRs½yeTAtameTBekaslürbs;GñkeRbIR)as;. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            8

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EteyIgkMuemIlgaymú¢ltUcfaminGacsmøab;stVFM dUcCaeKa RkbI dMrI esHeGayesaH eBlEdlm¢úlenaHmanCatiBis eTaHbICastVdMrIFMb:uNÑa k¾m¢úlGaceFIVeGaydMrIenaHsøab;)anEdr enHCaPaBrwgbwugmaMmYnrbs;m¢últUcenaH. cMENk kaMbitvij eTaHCakaMbitFMmandgeRsabmasb:uNÑak¾eday EtebImuxkMabitenaHminmuteT minGacykeTAeRbIR)as; CaRbeyaCn_)aneLIy eRBaHminGackab;GIVmut EtebIkaMbitmuteTaHCadgeFIVBIeQIk¾eday k¾kaMbitenaHmantMél GacykeTAeFIVCaRbeyaCn_)anEdr edaysarkaMbitenaHmut. ebImnusSvij CabuKÁlEdlmansmtßPaBeFIVGIVmYy BitR)akd. 2-begIátrcnasm<½n§ nigkarEbgEckParkic© tYnaTI (Establish Structure and Delega tion) karbegIátrcnasm<½n KWedIm,IEbgEckkarTTYlxusRtUvkargareGayc,as;las;enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM. ebI eyIgmin)anEbgEckkargarc,as;las; eFIVeGaykic©karmanPaBRcbUkRcbl;enAGgÁkardwknaM eFIVeGaybuKÁlwk minsÁal; Parkic© tYnaTIeFIVkargar GaceFIVeGayEbk)ak;Kña ehIykargarminGacdMeNIrkareTAya:grlUneLIy. eyIgRtUvkMNt;muxgar tYnaTI TMhMkargarkñúgkarsMerccitþ karEbgEckFnFannImYy² dUcCaRbFanmanmuxgareFIVxøH? manParkic©GIVxøH? cMENkGnuRbFan GKÁelxaFikareFIVxøH? smaCiktamkariyal½ynImYy² nigbuKÁlwkepSg²eTot edayerobcMmnusSeGayRtUvkargar tamcMeNHdwg CMnaj bTBiesaFn_ nigeTBüekaslü. karbegIátrcnasm<½n§ RtUvBicarNafa etIRbePTrcnasm<½n§EbbNamYyEdleyIgRtUvykmkGnuvtþn_ edIm,IeGaykargarelOn man RbsiT§PaB l¥RbesIrCagmun. rcnasm<½n§GacEckecjCa rcnasm<½n§EbbPUmisaRsþ¬GñkTTYlxusRtUvtamtMbn; tamTIVb tamtMbn; tamRbeTs tamPUmiPaK tamextþ Rsuk XMu PUmi¦ rcnasm<½nEbbmuxgar ¬tamÉkeTs rbs;buKÁlwk¦ rcnasm<½n§tamRbePTRbCaBlrdæ¬RBHsgÇ nisSit RsþI kmμkr RKUbeRgon mU:tUDub .l.¦ eyIgGacniyayepSgfa rcnasm<½nEbgEckecjCa EbbExSedk¬mñak;TTYlxusRtUveFIVkareRcInmux¦ ExSQr ¬mñak;TTYlxusRtUvEtmYymux BIelIdl;eRkam¦ Ebbma:RTIs ¬bBa©ÚlKña tamParkic© nigtYnaTI¦. k-GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþ (Authorities of Decision Process) edIm,IeGayc,as;las; GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþenH eKRtUverobcMcgRkgenAkñúgc,ab; manc,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØ c,ab;tamRksYgepSg² raCRkwtü Rkwtü Rkm saracr RbkasCaedIm. cMENkÉenAtamGgÁkardwknaMtUc²vij eKEckenAkñúgc,ab;lkçnþik³ c,ab;bBa¢aépÞkñúg b£bMramepSg². etIsßab½nRbtibtþimanGMNacsMerccitþelIGIVxøH? TMhM b:unμan? RbFan GnuRbFan nig GñkTTYlxusRtUvtamEpñknImYy². x-GMNacEbgEckFnFan (Financial Divided Authorities) edIm,IEbgEckFnFaneGaymansmFm’ yutþiFm’ etIGñkNamanGMNackñúgkarEbgEckFnFanenH. etIGñkNamansiTi§sMerckñúgkarcMNayFnFan? etIkarEbgEckFnFanmanKMeragRtwmRtUvb£mYyya:gNa? etIkar EbgEckFnFanenH tamEpnkaryuT§saRsþ KMeragrbs;GñkRbtibtþikar sMeNIrCaGñksMerc? K-GMNacEtgtaMg nigbBaÄb;kargar (Authorities of Assignment and Dismiss) eyIgRtUvEbgEck kMNt;eGayc,as;las;enAkñúgc,ab; dUcCac,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØ c,ab;lkçnþik³CaedIm. etInNamansiTi§eRCIserIs EtgtaMgbuKÁlwk tMeLIgbuNüskábuKÁlwk nignNaCaGñkmansiTi§bBaÄb;kargarbuKÁlwk niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            9

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eBlbuKÁlwkmankMhus b¤RbRBwtþpÞúyBIc,ab; bTbBa¢aepSg²Edl)ankMNt;. karEtgtaMgb¤bBaÄb;kargarbuKÁlwk RtUveFIVCasaFarN³ edIm,Ipþl;dMNwg ENnaMbuKÁlwkenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMeGayTTYldMNwgpg. X-GMNaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMsMerceKaledA (Authorities for Achieving the goals) kareRCIserIskargar edIm,IRbKl;GMNacTTYlxusRtUveGayGñkeRkambgÁab;Gnuvtþn_kargar RtUveFIVtam eKalbMNgrbs;kargar dUcerobrab;CUnsegçbxageRkam. munnwgRbKl;kargareGayGñkeRkambgÁab; emdwknaMRtUv BicarNadUcxageRkam? 1-vaCakic©karEdlGñkeRkambgÁab;eFIV)anl¥CageyIg ¬kargarÉkeTs¦ 2-vaCakic©karEdlRbBaJab; EtminEmnGaTiPaBx<s; 3-vaCakargarEdlTak;TgGaCIBrbs;GñkeRkambgÁab; 4-vaCakargarEdlRsYlpg nig Bi)akpg 5-kic©karBi)aklμm etIeyIgRtUvRbKl;kargarya:gdUcemþc? 1-bBa¢ak;karTTYlxusRtUveGayc,as; 2-FanafaGñkeRkambgÁab;RBmTTYlykkarTTYlxusRtUv 3-pþl;dMNwgdl;GñkepSgeTot ebIeKcg;dwg 4-erobcMeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;TTYlBt’mancaM)ac; 5-pþl;karKaMRT nigCMnYy Etminykkic©karmkeFIVCMnYs 6-kMhusTukCabTBiesaFn_eronsURt 3-eRCIserIsemdwknaM (Choose Leader) kareRCIserIsemdwknaMrbs;GgÁkardwknaMmYy CaBiesskarerIsemdwknaMfñak;Cati manParkic©sMxan;bMput sMrab;GgÁkarsßab½n sMrab;RbeTsCatienaH eRBaHfa ebIeyIgeRCIserIsemdwknaMl¥ GgÁkardwknaMRbeTsCati nwg)ansux snþiPaB suPmgÁl rIkcMerInrugerOg EtebIeyIgerIsemdwknaMxus eFIVeGayRbeTsCatienaHedIrfyeRkay Føak;cuHCaedIm. cMeBaHkarerIsemdwknaMsMrab;dwknaMRbeTsExμr ritEtmansar³sMxan;sMrab;BlrdæExμrTUeTA EdlRtUvEt ykcitþTukdak; BIeRBaHfaemdwknaMCati eRbobbIdUcCaGñkebIkLan EdleyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaRbCaBlrdæExμr rab;lan nak;enACiHxageRkay ebIsinCaerIsemdwknaMxus erIsemdwknaMEdlGatμaniym elaPln;EtGMNac buNüs½ká RTBüsm,tþi eRbobdUcCaerIsGñkebIkLan EdlminecHebIkLan dUcCaBYk h‘un Esn etIvasnarbs;CatiExμr vasnarbs;eyIgCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;KñaeTACaya:gNa? dUcbkSBYk h‘un Esn min)anbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGay RbCaBlrdæExμr min)ankarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr eFIVeGay)at;bg;TwkdI RbCaBlrdæRkIRklM)akevTna GMeBIBukrlYy GyutþiFm’ bkSBYk lYcRTBüsm,tþiCatimkeFIVRTBübuKÁl suxelIKMnrTukçraRsþExμr sb,ayelITwkEPñk RbCaBlrdæExμr etIBYkenHsmeFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr EdlCaEm: Ca« enaH)anEdrb¤eT? h‘un Esn EdleRbI GMNacpþac;kar minbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGay Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr EteRbIEl,gq<inEPñkeGayeKyl;fa RbCaBlrdæExμrCaGñke)aHeqñateGayKNbkSRbCaCn. tamkarBit lT§ple)aHeqñatCakarerobcMbMP½nþrbs;BYk niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            10

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kumμúynisþpþac;kar EdlmanyYnenAeRkayxñgEtb:ueNÑaH. eyIgRtUvdwgfa kareRCIserIsemdwknaM KWCakareRCIserIs tMNagrbs;eyIg edIm,IedIrtYCMnYseyIg karBarplRbeyaCn_ EsVgrkplRbeyaCn_CUnCatiExμrTaMgmUl ehIyEbg EckFnFaneGaymansmFm’ eTAdl;CnrYmQamExμrTaMgGs;. eyIgCaRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;RtUvykcitþTukdak; tamdanTegIVrbs;emdwknaM eyIgRtUvTTYlxusRtUvTaMgGs;Kña cMeBaHkareRCIserIsemdwknaM RtUvsÁal;c,as;fa etI emdwknaMNaEdlmansmtßPaBdwknaMeGayCatirIkcMerIn CaemdwknaMesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd . eyIgRtUvmanlkçNH viinicä½yeGayRtwmRtUv munnwgeyIgerIsbuKÁlNamñak;mkeFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr edayEp¥kelI]tþmKti yutiþFm’ stism,CBaس minlk;]tþmKti edIm,IEtluybuNüs½ká EtecalCatiExμrTaMgmUleGayFøak;cuH. emdwknaMminbMerI plRbeyaCn_Cati k,t;Cati lk;Cati dUcBYk h‘un Esn eyIgRtUvEtedaHdUrecjCadac;xat. kareRCIserIs emdwknaMEdll¥ sMrab;fñak;Cati nigGgÁkardwknaMRtUveRCIserIs nigvaytMélBIRKb;mCÄdæanCMuvij 360 dWeRk dUcCa saFarN³Cn vaytMélxøÜnÉg emdwknaMpÞal; GñkeRkam»vaT shesvikRkumkargar. shrdæGaemrik eKman lkçxNÐsMrab;buKÁl EdlGaceFIVCaRbFanaFibtI)an eKRbkYtRbECgKñaenAkñúgbkSnImYy²sin bkSRbCaFibetyü nig bkSsarFarNrdæ EtmaneKalbMNgrYmKña eFIVedIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatieKdUcKña. kareRCIserIsvaytMélRtUv eFIVtameKalkarN_ edaymin)aneFIVtamEtGarmμN_ edays¥b; b£RsLaj;bkSBYkniymeLIy. BinitüemIlsñaéd EdlecjBIkarxitxMeFIVkargar. KN³kmμkarerobcMe)aHeqñatRtUvmanyutþFm’ ÉkraCü CaGCJakNþal minsßiteRkam \Ti§BlGñkneya)ayNamYyeLIy. eyIgRkeLkemIlkare)aHeqñat erIsemdwknaMenAkñúgRbeTsExμrfμI²vij enAéf¶TI 27 Exkkáda qñaM 2008 RKan;EtkarerobcMqakelçanedIm,IbMP½nþEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμr mtisaFarN³ nigmtiGnþrCatiEtb:ueNÑaH minEmn CalT§plecjBIqnÞ³RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT EtvaCakarerobcMrYcCaeRsceday KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñgRtYtRtaelI. KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn EdlCakUnGukrbs;yYn )aneFIVrebobenH taMgBIeRkayrdæRbharenA éf¶TI 5-6 kkáda 1997 dUcCakare)aHeqñat qñaM 1998 qñaM2003 knøgmk. vaCakarerobcMKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn b:ueNÑaH eRBaHfaKN³kmμkarCatierobcMkare)aHeqñat eFIVtam bBa¢aKN³bkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn RbB½n§eXasnaminÉkraCü. h‘un Esn eFIVtambBa¢ayYn ebIsinCa h‘un Esn mineFIVtamyYn vasnadUc Eb:n suvNÑ EdlRtUv say b‘Ufg h‘un Esn XubXitCamYyyYncab;yk eTAdak;KukenARbeTsyYn Gs;ry³eBl 10qñaM 5 Ex nigvasnadUc can; sIu EdlRtUveKcak;fñaMsmøab; enAelIynþehaH. Rtg;cMNucenH sUmelIk]TahrN_Rbvtþielak Eb:n suvNÑ EdlmineFIVtambBa¢ayYn. tamsMdIelak Eb:n suvNÑ eBleKcab;elakenaHKWman h‘un Esn nig say b‘Ufg. h‘un Esn )anGanesckþIsMerccitþrbs;mCÄwmbkSbdivdþRbCaCnkm<úCadktMENgTaMgGs; edaysarkMhusmYycMnYn dUcteTA³ 1-bgEb:n suvNÑ RbqaMgrbbkumμúynisþ ksagesdækic©TIpSaesrI 2-ykBn§elIeyokNamenARBlanynþehaH RbqaMgnigEpnkarbegIát k 5 3-KMnitCatiniymceg¥otcg¥l;RbqaMgniKmeyokNam minGnuBaØatieGayniKmeyok Nammkrs;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr. enAéf¶TI 13 FñÚ 1981 eL dwkf mkCYb ¬´minniksμanfabgÉgh‘aneFIVGBa©wg h‘anRbqaMgnigeyIg´

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niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            11

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begáItKN³kmμkarRBMEdn bgÉgcg;RKb;RKgRbeTsedayxøÜnÉg eTaHCaeBleRkay minmanTahanyYnk_eday RbeTsExμrminGacegIbeTANarYceLIy ebIGñkNaha‘nRbqaMg ´Rc)ac;eGaym:dæ ¦.

tamsmþIEdlyYnniyayxagelI srbBa¢ak;eGayeXIjfa h‘un Esn minEmnCaemdwknaMCatiExμrBitR)akd eT h‘un Esn RtUvyYnelIkbnþúbmktaMgBIyYnkan;kab; QøanBanTwkdIExμréf¶ 7 mkra 1979emøH edIm,IbkSkumμúynisþ yYnsMercEpnkarshB½n§\NÐÚcinEtb:ueNÑaH. 4-RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al (Administrative system) RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al CaRbB½n§eFIVeGaydMeNIrkarrdæ)alRbRBwtþeTA)anl¥ GacRKb;RKgkargarmanRbsiTi§ PaB. karRKb;RKgrdæ)alCakic©karmYycMnYnTak;TgeTAnigPar³kic©kariyal½y dUcCakargarTTYleP¶ov ParHkic© rbs;elxaFikardæan nig KNenyü karRbCMu nig dMeNIrRbRBwtþieTAkargar bec©kviTüaeTAelIesvakmμnigkarriyal½y kMuBüÚT½r bNþajkMuBüÚT½r GIuntaENt nigRbB½n§Bt’man.l. karTMnak;TMngtameGLicRtUvnic tamRbiysNIy nig tamTUrs½BÞcl½t. karrkSaTukBt’man nig karRKb;RKgÉksareGLicRtUnik RbB½n§sMNMuÉksarRbcaMqñaMCaedIm k-kariyal½y nigmuxgarenAkñúgkariyal½y (Office and Function in the Office) kariyal½ymanmuxgarCakEnøgTTYl nigEbgEckBt’man. karTTYlBt’manBImCÄdæanepSg²TaMgkñúg GgÁkardwknaM nigBIRbPBxageRkA dUcCa TTYlBt’manBIrdæaPi)al TTYlBt’manBIRbCaBlrdæ ¬karbþwgtva:kar sMNUmBr¦ TTYlBt’manBIKUrRbkYtRbECg ¬karvayRbhar ecaTRbkan; karecjesckIþEføgkarN_¦ Bt’mansßab½n hirBaØvtßú ¬GaRtakarR)ak; FanaKar GaRtabþÚrR)ak;¦ RBwtiþkarN_neya)aykñúgnigeRkARbeTs sßanPaBesdækic© dMeNIrkavivDÆbec©kviTüa nigc,ab;TMlab;CaedIm. enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM mankargarCaeRcInEdlRtUveFIV dUcCa eFIVr)aykarN_ eFIVkMNt;ehtuGgÁRbCMu GnusarN³épÞkñúg KNenyücugeRkay nigÉksarépÞkñúgepSg²eTot. x-karKUrbøg;kariyal½y (Office design) erobcMKUrbøg;karriyal½y EdltMrUvtamGgÁkardwknaM etIGgÁkardwknaMRtUvkarerobcMkariyal½y tamRbePT EbbNa? KUrbøg;tamkariyal½yEdlebIkcMhr CarebobEdlbiTTVa nigmanRckrebog b¤karriyal½yEdlman eTsPaBl¥ RbkbedayeRKOgsgðarwm tamrebobFmμCati EdlmantubEtg mankEnøgkMsanþepSg² tam cMNg;cMNUlcitþ dUcCamankEnøgelgkILa TUrTsSn_ manrUbPaBemIlepSg². enAkarriyal½yRtUverobcMeGay man]bkrN_kariyal½ydUcCa ma:sIunftcmøg TUrdak;Éksar sMNMuÉksar mansIune)aHBumÖ ]bkrN_enAelItu kMuBüÚT½r Rkdas .l. K-Parkic©rbs;GñkTTYlePJov (Duty of Receptionist) GñkTTYlePJovRtUvEfrkSakEnøgTTYlePJoveGay)anl¥. enAkEnøgTTYlePJovRtUverobcM eGayman sNþab;Fñab; erobrys¥at hammineGayCk;)arI mankEnøgGgÁúyRsYlsMrab;ePJov manesovePA TsSnavdþI karEst sMrab;GanpgEdr. ebIsinCamanePsC¢³KYrTukenACitédGñkTTYlePJov. GñkTTYlePJovRtUvmanesovePANat;CYb esovePAsMrab;kt;RtaePJov nigb½NÑePJov. manesovePATUrs½BÞ hVak; bBa¢IelxTUrs½BÞEpÞkñúg elxTUrs½BÞsMrab; eBlGasnñ dUcCa b:UlIs GKÁIP½y eBTüCaedIm. RbRktiTin nigtu. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            12

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eyIgCaGñkTTYlePJovcaMfa GñkTTYlePJovCamuxmat;rbs;GgÁkardwknaM sMrab;ePJovcMeBaHkarTak;TgdMbUg. eBlTTYlePJovGñkTTYlePJovRtUvrYsrayrak;Tak;b:uEnþkMueGayxøaMgRCul nigsVaKmn_ePJovCapøÚvkar edayCMrabsYr CaedIm. sVaKmn_edayrIkray bnÞab;mkRtUvRtYtBinitüeQμaH nigsYrfaetIePJovcg;CYbnrNa? ePJovEdlman kt;RtaenAkñúgkarNat;CYb ehIykt;RtaenAkñúgesovePAvtþman. sMNUmBreGayePJovcuHhtßelxa elIesovePA vtþman TaMgecj nigcUl edIm,IkarBarRbugRby½tñTukCamun eBlmanGasnñ EdlekIteLIgCayfaehtu eyIgGac dwgfaGñkNaxøH? cMnYnb:unμannak;enAkñúgGKarenaH. pþl;b½NÑCUnePJov nig ykRtLb;mkvijeBlEdlePJov ecjBIsßab½neyIg. eBlEdlePJovmkdl; GñkTTYlePJovRtUvpþl;Bt’mandl;GñkEdlePJovRtUvNat;CYb. ebIsinCa kñúgkrNIERbRbYl EdlePJovminGacCYbPøam² edaysarkic©karCab;rvl;epSg² GñkTTYlePJovRtUvsMuGP½yeTas cMeBaHkarBnüaeBl ehIyRtUvpþl;Bt’mandl;ePJov eFIVkarNat;sarCafμI ebIsinCaePJovminGacrgcaM)an. Parkic©epSgeTot dUcCa RtUvedaHRsayBakübNþwgepSg² GñkTTYlePJJovRtUvEtecHKYrsm nig suPaB Tn;Pøn; RKb;eBlevla ehIyRtUvsþab;ya:gRbugRby½tñ eBlEdlePJovTUrs½BÞmk nigecosevogkarrMxanepSg² b£sþab;minyl;Gtßn½y. kt;RtaeGay)anBisþaGMBIkarbwþgtva: BaküsmþIrbs;ePJov edayRbugRby½tñ mineqøIybdiesF nig eqøIyRsbcMeBaHkarbþwgtva:rbs;ePJovPøam² TuksMrab;tYnaTIeGayGñkmansmtßkic©Bak;B½n§. eyIgCaGñkTTYl ePJovmanParHCYysMrbsMrYl CYykic©kar b¤bBa¢ak;bBaðaepSg². Par³kic©mYycMnYneTot dUcCa eFIVkarenAkEnøg CUndMNwg eqøIyTTYlTUrs½BÞ ma:sIunEhVk nigsarsMeLg KitluyTUrs½BÞ TMnak;TMngtamTUrs½BÞkñúgRbeTs nig eRkARbeTs CaedIm. X-Parkic©rbs;elxaFikar (Duty of Secretary) elxaFikarKYrEt rYsray rIkray suPaBrabsar Tn;Pøn; nigmansNþab;Fñab;l¥. elxaCaGñkmanÉkeTs xagTMnak;TMngTaMgsresr nigpÞal;mat;. CaGñkEdlgayRsYlkñúgkarTMnak;TMng nigmanÉkeTsviC¢aCIv³RKb; eBlevla. CabuKÁlEdlmanqnÞ³ecHCYykic©karedayminerIskargar nigmanKMnitpþÜtepþImedaHRsaykargar enA eBlmanvibtþi. elxaFikarEckecjCa elxapÞal; CMnYykar CMnYykarCan;x<s; nigGKÁelxaFikar. GKÁelxaFikar mantYnaTIsMrab;eFIVEpnkar nigerobcMkargar eFIVkarNat;CYbePJov erobcMeFIVdMeNIr eRtomerobcMsMrab;karRbCMu nig erobcMsniñsiT. g-c,ab; nignitiviFI (Rule and Regulation) erobcMeGaymanc,ab;TMlab; sMrab;smaCik smaCika buKÁlwkmRnþIraCkar RbCaBlrdæ enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM c,ab;sMrab;RbeTs eGaymansNþab;Fñab; CaRbeTsnitirdæmYyEdlRbCaBlrdæcg;)an. RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs; RtUvmansiTi§esrIPaB esμIrKñacMeBaHmuxc,ab; TaMgGs;KñaRtUvsißtenAeRkamc,ab;. kMueGaymanEtc,ab; EtKμan GñkGnuvtþn_c,ab; KμanGñkeKarBc,ab;dUcrbbRtYtRta h‘un Esn sBVéf¶. c,ab;eFIVeGayGgÁkarsßab½n RbeTsCati manvin½y mansNþab;Fñab; esckþIéføfñÚr . c,ab; nignitiviFIepSg² RtUveFIVeGayRsbeTAtamc,ab;GnþrCati c,ab;CatiénRbeTsnImYy² nigeKarBsiiTi§mnusSCaktþacMbg. c,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØCac,ab;cMbgrbs;RbeTs cMENktam GgÁkardwknaMtUc² c,ab;lkçnþik³ nigbTbBa¢aépÞkñúgmansar³sMxan;sMrab;dwknaMGgÁkardwknaMeGay)anl¥. c,ab;RtUv bMerIplRbeyaCn_TUeTAsMrab;GgÁkardwknaM sMrab;RbeTsCati nigRbCaBlrdæ. GñktMNagraRsþCatMNageGay niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            13

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RbCaBlrdæBitR)akd minEmntMNageGaybkSenaHeLIy dUcenHGñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvbMerIeGayplRbeyaCn_ Blrdæ. edIm,IeGayc,ab;manRbsiT§PaBRtUvmanGñkGnuvtþn_c,ab;manRbsiT§PaBEdr edIm,IbgçMeGaymankareKarB c,ab; ebIc,ab;manEtelIRkdas c,ab;manEtelIbbUrmat;rbs; h‘un Esn enaHminEmnCac,ab;eT EtCaGMNacpþac;kar GMNacéRBEtb:ueNÑaH. dUcenH GñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvyl;eGayc,as;GMBIGtßn½yénc,ab; edIm,IBnül;bkRsayeTA GñkGnuvtþc,ab;eGayyl; kMueGaymankaryl;RcLM b¤bkRsay xuscMeBaHc,ab; cMENkRbCaBlrdæ EdlCa GñkeKarBk¾RtUvyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;EdredIm,IeKarBtam. srubmk xagEpñknitibBaØtþi nitiRbtibtþi nignititulakar RBmTaMgRbCaBlrdæRtUvyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;TaMgGs;Kña. c-RbB½n§RtYtBinitü (Controlling System) edIm,IeGayGñkGnuvtþn_kargar eFIVkargarRbkbedaykarTTYlxusRtUv nigmanRbsiiT§PaBenaH RbB½n§RtYt BiinitümantYnaTIsMxan; edIm,IBinitüemIlfa GñkGnuvtþn_eFIVtamKMeragRtwmRtUv ehIyecjlT§plmkl¥ manKuNPaB TTYleCaKC½y. eTaHbICamankareKgbnøM karminTTYlxusRtUvya:gNak¾eday k¾RbB½n§RtYtBinitüGacTTYlBt’man )anRKb;RKan;. RbB½n§RtYtBiinitüenH begIátsMrab;RtYtBinitüelIkarGnuvtþn_kargar nigkarRbtibtþikargarenAkñúg RbeTsb¤GgÁkarsßab½nNamYy. RbB½n§RtYtBinitüRtUverobcMeGaymancab;taMgBIfñak;yuT§saRsþ fñak;Rbtibtþikar nig fñak;bec©keTs. kalBIdMbUgeLIyRbB½n§RtYtBinitüeKeRbImnusSedIm,IBinitü Etbc©úb,nñenH eKeRbIRbB½n§bec©kviTüa edIm,IRtYtBinitü dUcCa páayrNb kMuBüÚT½r masWunftsV½yRbvtþi Rbdab;RsUbsMelg eRKOgma:sIunCaedIm.l. enAeBlcUleFIVkar eKmanma:sIun vayema:gcUl nig ema:gecjBIkariyal½y. enARbeTsrIkcMerInmYycMnYn eKeRbI ma:sIunftsV½yRbvtþiBinitüemIlRKb;skmμPaBkargarrbs;buKÁlwk nigGñkEdleFIVxusc,ab;edayminGaceKcputBI RbB½n§RtYtBiinitüs½VyRbvtþieLIy. rhUtdl;eKbegIátCaPñak;garesIubGegát b¤Pñak;garcarkmμ edIm,IeFIVkaresIub GegátkargarsMxan;² EdlRbB½n§bec©kviTüaminGacRtYtBinitü)an CaBiessenAkñúgerOgneya)ay nigerOgkgT½B Edlbec©kviTüaminGacdwgBIEpnkarsm¶at;rbs;sRtUv manEtcarkmμeT EdlGacykkic©karsm¶at; b¤Epnkarsm¶at; rbs;sRtUv. GñkRtYtBinitüRtUvEtÉkraCü nigRtUvelIkTwkcitþ edIm,IeGayGñkRtYtBinitümanyutþiFm’ eFIVkarsMerccitþ edayÉkraCü. q-RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar (Planning System) RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar KWCaEpñkmYydac;edayELk EdlsMrab;erobcMEpnkareGaydMeNIrkarRbtibtþikarkargar enAkñúgsßab½nRksYgGgÁkardwknaM. RbeTsCatiGacdMeNIrkarl¥eTAmux rIkcMerIneCaKC½y GaRs½yelIGñkerobcM Epnkar)anl¥ GnuvtþRtwmRtUvtamEpnkar. RbB½n§Epnkar CaGñkerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ EpnkarRbtibtþikar Epnkarkl,yuT§. ebImanEt EpnkaryuT§saRsþ EtKμanEpnkarkl,yuT§eT minGacdMeNIrkar)aneLIy )anRtwmEt Rsém:. karerobcMkmμviFIepSg² erobcMKMeragkargarCaedIm. edIm,IerobcMRbB½n§enHeGay)anl¥ eyIgRtUverIs buKÁlwk EdlmanÉkeTs RtUvnigckçúvis½yrbs;GgÁkardwknaMmkeFIVEpnkar eTIbGgÁkardwknaMenaHGacdMeNIreTA)an. C-crnþBt’man nigTMnak;TMng (Information and Communication System) crnþBt’man nigkarTMnak;TMng mansar³sMxan;Nas;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM. ebIsinCacrnþBt’maneyIgl¥ elOn Tan;eBlevla enaHkarerobcMEpnkarepSg²)anl¥. crnþBt’man KWCakarpþl;Bt’manr)aykarN_ ehtukarN_ niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            14

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bBaðaEdlekItmanenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM b¤ eRkAGgÁkardwknaM. crnþBt’manGaceGayeyIgdwgBIsßankarN_ RbeTs Cati RBwtþkarN_ ehtukarN_GIVEdlekIteLIg. eKGaceFIVkarTMnak;TMngtam TUrs½BÞ sareGLicRtUvnic viTüúTak;Tg karepJIsar karsresrsMbuRt karbBa¢ÚntamPñak;gar.l. crnþBt’manenH CaEPñkCaRcmuHrbs;GgÁkardwknaM. enAEpñkBt’manenHRtUvsikSaGMBIkarRbmUlBt’man viPaKBt’man bBa¢ÚnBt’man pSBVpSayBt’man eGay)an Tan;eBlevla. Bt’manEckecj CaBt’mancMhr nigBt’mansm¶at;. cMeBaHBt’mancMhr CaBt’manEdleK ecjpSayCasaFarN³tam karEst TUrTsSn_ tamvibsay GIuntaENt.l. EtBt’mansm¶at; CaBt’mansMxan; EdleKminpSBVpSay Bt’manEbbenHsMxan;Nas;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaMnImYy²RtUvdwg. eRBaHfa Rtecok EdlxøaMg KWCaRtecokEdlsþab;B£GIVEdleKminniyayecjmk minEmnsþab;B£rnÞH b¤pÁrlan;eLIy. EPñkEdlPøWCa EPñkEdlemIleXIj kñúgTIggwt emIleXIjkEnøgEdleKbiT)aMg emIleXIjGIVEdleKmineGayeyIgemIl minEmn emIleXIjRBHGaTitüenaHeT. GñkEdlxøaMg KWeFIVGIVEdlGñkd¾éTminGaceFIV)an b¤eFIVeGayPñMmYyGacrMkil)an. CaTUeTAdMeNIrkarnigTMnak;TMngBt’manEdlTTYl)an tMrUveGayykmkviPaKBicarNa cMra:j;bEnßm munniwgykeTAeRbIR)as;manRbsiT§PaB nigEckcayeTAkEnøgepSg²eTot etIBt’manenaHcMeNj b¤xatsMrab; GgÁkardwknaM . eKEckmeFüa)ayTMnak;TMngecjCa 4 ya:g pÞal;mat; CYbRbCMuTl;muxKña TUrs½BÞ karRbCMutamvIDIGU sresr sMbuRt r)aykarN_ GnusSarN nig kMNt;ehtu tamsareGLicRtUnic dUcCa karepJIsartameGLIcRtUnic nig karEhVk tamkaremIleXIj dUcCa niyaytamGIutaENt snñisITtamvIDIGU Q-rkSaTuk nigkarBarBt’man (Keep and Protect Information) enAeBlEdlmanBt’man eKRtUvrkSavaTukedIm,IeFIVCaÉksareyag. eKGacrkSvaTuksMrab;RbB½n§RKb;RKg ÉksareGLicRtUnic b¤RbB½n§sMNMuÉksar. Bt’mansm¶at; Bt’mansMxan; KYrrkSaTukeGaymansuvtßPaB l¥edIm,I karBar mineGaybBa©ÚlkñúgTinñin½ybEnßm karEkERbepSg² kuMBüÚT½rRtUvdak;elxsm¶at; b¤cak;esarva. RbB½n§Bt’manCaviFIsaRsþmYysMrab;erobcMTinñin½y nignitiviFI edIm,Icab;ykdMeNIrkar rkSaTuk nigplit Bt’manmanKuNPaBkñúgeKalbMNgeFIVkarsMerccitþ. kMriténkarsMerccitþ EckecjCa 3 KWfñak;Rbtibtþikar fñak; kl,yuT§ nigfñak;yuT§saRsþ. fñak;yuT§saRsþsMrab;yuT§saRsþry³eBlEvg RtUvkarbTBiesaFn_ karvinicä½y GBÖnþrjaN Bt’manxageRkA nigxagkñúgBit. karsMerccitþfñak;kNþal RtUvmanry³eBlmFüm tMrUveGayman karvinicä½yxøH eRbIr)aykarN_BIfñak;RbtibtþikarpÞal; nigBt’manBIxageRkA. karsMerccitþfñak;eRkam Rbtibtþikar RbcaMéf¶ RtYtBinitü nigelIkElgskmμPaBr)aykarN_BImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶. cMeBaHkarepJIrtaméRbysNIy_ eBlEdleKepJIcUlmk RtUvmancuHhtßelxa cuHelxsMbuRtcUl dak;tam RbePTsMbuRt sMbuRtTUeTA sMbuRtÉkCn sMbuRtpÞal;xøÜn Rbjab; sm¶at; . cMeBaHsMbuRtebIkcMhrCaTUeTA GacebIk )an EtsUmkMuebIk ebIsinCasMbuRtepIJCUnbuKÁl CaÉkCn ebIKμankarGnuBaØat. vayRtakalbriecäT eBlebIksMbuRt. BinitüeRsamsMbuRtedIm,IFanafabiT. EckcaysMbuRteTAkEnøgEdlRtUvepJI. kt;RtaesovePAecjcUl. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            15

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j-dMeNIrkarhirBaØvtßú niigParkic©KNenyü (Financial system and Accounting duties) eyIgRtUverobcMRbB½n§RKb;RKghirBaØvtßúeGayc,as;las;. skmμPaBrbs;KNenyü dUcCa rkSaesovePA vik½yb½Rt erobcMkarkt;RtacMNUl nigcMNay esckþIEføgkarsMrbsMrYlFanaKar nigR)ak;ExbuKÁlwk. cMeBaHGgÁkar dwknaMPaKeRcIn manbBaðacMeBaHhirBaØvtßú edaykarRKb;RKgminl¥. cMeBaHRbeTsCativij karRKb;RKgcMNUl rbs;fivikaCatinig karcMNaymantmøaPaB ecosvagGMeBIBukrlYy eKgbnøMfvikarCati . RbeTsExμreyIg GMeBIrBukrlYy manplb:HBal;sMxan; RKb;sßab½nCati EdleFIVeGay)at;bg;fvikarCati kñúgmYYyqñaM 250 landuløa eTA 300 landuløa. edIm,IeGayhirBaØvtßúGgÁkardwknaMenaHl¥ RtUvcMNUleGayeRcInCagcMNay b¤cMeBaHesdækic© RbeTsvij RtUvnaMecjeGayeRcInCakarnaMcUlb¤elIktMekIgplitplkñúgRsuk. etIRbPBhirBaØvtßúrbs;eyIgTTYl)an mkBIRbPBNaxøH? GIVCaskþanuBlsMrab;esdækic©Cati? etIsßanPaBhirBaØvtßúya:gdUcemþc? hirBaØvtßúenHmantYnaTI sMxan;Nas; eFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMGacdMeNIrkareTA)an. ral;karcMNayepSg²RtUvmanvik½yb½Rt Edlecj mkBIRbPBEdlGacTukcitþ)an dUcCavik½yb½RtecjBIma:sIunKitluyCaedIm. ]TahrN_ RbeTsrUsSIedaysarEtneya)ayvatTIrbs;xøÜn enAkñúgTIVbGWur:ub )aneFIVeGaycMNay CaeRcIn elIkgT½BkñúgGMLúgsRgÁamRtCak; rvagRbeTsGaemrik nigshPaBsUevot eRkayBIsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2. eBlEdlRbFanaFibtI kU)aqUv eLIgkan;GMNac eBlenaHsßanPaBhirBaØvtßúrbs;shPaBsUevotFøak;dl;)at ehtuenHehIyeFIVeGay kU)aqUv EkERbneya)ayebIkcMhr nigerobcMrcnasm<½n§sarCafμI RbB½n§esdækic© nig RbB½n§kariyaFibetyü. elak)aneFIVkarTMnak;TMngCamYybs©wmRbeTs shrdæGaemrik edIm,Ikat;bnßykar eRbIR)as;fvikaelIkEpñkeyaFa. cMENkenAqñaM 1997 EdlmanvibtþihirBaØvtßúenAGasIu CaBiessRbeTséf EdlnaMeGayrIkral dalb:HBal;dl;RbeTsmYycMnYnEdleFIVTMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμCamYy dUcCa kUer:xagt,Úg Cb:un r:UsSI ma:eL \NÐÚensIu nighVwliBInCaedIm. . vibtþienHekIteLIgedaysarEt rMelaHrUbiyb½NÑ Edl)anx©ImkvinieyaKelIehdæarcnasm<½n§ sMNg; ehIyTIbMputGñkvieyaK)andkecj nigdkTunecj eTIbeFIVeGayKμanhirBaØvtßú naMeGaymanvibtþienH ekIteLIg. mUniFirUbiyvtßúGnþrCati)aneGaydk DIbUsiud cMnYnBak;kNþal 50 PaKry EdlCacMnYndkeRcInelIseK TaMgGs;. 5-ynþkarsMrbsMrYl (Coordination System) RKb;GgÁkardwknaMEtgEtCYbbBðaa edayeCosminput ehtuenHehIyGgÁkardwknaMRtUvmanynþkarsMrab; sMrbsMrYlenAeBlEdlmanbBaðavivaTekIteLIgenAkñúgépÞkñgú GgÁkardwknaM. ynþkarsMrab;sMrbsMrYlmanbegIátCa GaCJakNþal begIátCaKN³kmμkaredaHRsayvivaTepSg² nigmanc,ab;sMrab;Gnuvtþn_ ehIyKN³kmμkar RtUvÉkraCü. ebIsinCaenAkñúgynþkarsMrbsMrYlfñak;CatiKW xagnititulakar. tulakarRtUvEtÉkraCü yutþiFm’ RtwmRtUv edayminsßimeRkamGMNacneya)ay buKÁlmanGMNacNamYyeLIy. eRkayBIcb;sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 edIm,IerobcMBiPB elakeGaymanreboberobry eK)anbegIátGgÁkarshRbCaCatienAqñaM 1945 EdlmanRbeTs mhaGMNac shrdæGaemrik )araMg Gg;eKøs rUsSI nigcin EdlCasm<½n§mitþRKb;RKgBiPBelak. enAkñúg sRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 3 EdlCaCemøaHrvagkarQøanBanrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ nigBYkkumμúynisþExμrrNbyYn CamYy niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            16

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ExμrRtIPaKI RtUv)ancuHkic©RBmeRBogsn§isBaØasnþiPaBenATIRkugRkug)a:rIséf¶TI 23 tula 1991 edayman RbeTs\NÐÚensIu nig)araMgCaGñkeFIVkarsMrbsMrYlkñúgkic©karenH eRBaH\NÐÚensIu nig)araMgCaRbeTsÉkraCü min Bak;B½n§enAkñúgCemøaHenaH. enAqñaM 1993 RbeTsExμr)anerobcMkare)aHeqñatEdlerobcMRtYtBinitüedayGgÁkar shRbCaCati. dUcenH GgÁkarshRbCaCati edIrtYnaTIya:gsMxan;sMrab;sMrbsMrYl edaHRsaybBaðaCYyBiPBelak eGaymansnþiPaB. cMENkÉkardwknaMkñúgRbeTsmantulakar CaGñkvinicä½y kat;kþInUvRKb;bBaðaEdl ekItman enAkñúgRbeTsdUcenHehIytulakaRtUvEtÉkraCü. ebIenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMtUctac RtUvmanKN³kmμkarÉkraCü sMrab;edaHRsaysMrbsMrYlbBaðaedayyutþiFm’. ynþkarsMrbsMrYlenH ebIsinCamanbBaðavivaTekIteLIg dMNak;kar dMbUg eKeFIVkarcrcarrvagPaKICemøaH bnÞab;mkEsVgrkGaCJakNþal ebIsinCaPaKICemøaHminsuxcitþeTIb Gacdak; bNþwgCapøÚvc,ab;eTArktulakarCYyedaHRsay. k-KN³kmμkar (Committees) karbegIátKN³kmμkarsMrab;; sMrbsMrYlRtUverIseLIgedayÉkraCü CaGñkmanÉkeTsxagc,ab; nigbT BiesaFn_xagc,ab; edIm,IsMrbsMrYl edaHRsaybBaðavivaT. x-karRbCMu (Meeting) karCYbCMuKña CacMNucmYyEdleyIgGacbeBa©jKMnit sikSaKMnit eronsURtBIKñaeTAvijeTAmk nigeFIVeGay manPaBsñitsñalKña. karRbCMueyIgGackMNt;sMrab;ry³eBleTotTat; karRbCMusamBaØ ¬GacmYyExmþg tamkar kMNt;rbs;Rkumkargar¦ b¤ karRbCMuvisamBaØ ¬karkMNt;eBlevlaERbRbYltamkal³eTs³¦ karRbCMuedayRkum kargarBiesstamfñak; karRbCMuFMEdlCakarRbCMuTUeTARbcaMqñaM EdlehAfa mhasniñ)aT. karRbCMuRtUvmankarkt; RtakMNt;ehtuGgÁRbCMueGayc,as;las; erobcMrebobvir³GgÁRbCMu rYcpþl;dMNwgdl;GñkcUlrYmRbCMu ya:gehacNas; 1 s)þah_mun edIm,IeGayGñkcUlrYmRbCMu eKeRtomxøÜnrYcCaeRsckñúgkarcUlrYm. eRkayBIGgÁRbCMusMercGIVmYy eyIg RtUverobcMCar)aykarN_ esckþIEføgkarN_ snñisITkarEst pþl;dMNwgeTARKb;sßanTUt sßab½nTak;Tg bNþaj sarBt’man. edIm,IelIkTwkcitþdl;GñkcUlrYmRbCMu eyIgRtUvbgðajR)ab;BIplRbeyaCn_EdlniwgTTYl)anmkvij sMrab;GñkcUlrYm. enAéf¶RbCMu eyIgRtUverobcMeGaymansnþisux bdisNæakic© karcuHeQμaH nigBiFIkareGay )anRtwmRtUv. eyIgRtUvKitKUrkarcMNayepSg²rbs;GñkcUlrYmdUcCa karcMNayelIéføeFIVdMeNIr sñak;enA mðÚbGahar nigÉksarepSg². eyIgRtUverobcMkmμviFIkalviPaKeGayc,as;las; etImuneBlcUlrYmRbCMuRtUveFIVGIVxøH? eBlRbCMu RtUveFIVGIVxøH? nig eRkayBIRbCMuRtUveFIVGIVxøH. sUmelIk]TahrN_karRbCMu enAéf¶TI 20-23 Ex mkra qañM 2008 sIþBI siTi§CnCatiedImPaKtic enAGasIuGaeKñy_ EdlmanryHeBl 3 éf¶ ehIymankarcUlrYmtMNagnanaénGgÁkarGnþrCati tMNagGgÁkar shRbCaCati mantMNagGgÁkarsiTi§mnusSGgÁkarshRbCaCatimkBITIRkughSWENv tMNagGgÁkarsiTi§mnusSGasIu hVr:ummkBIbNþaRbeTsCag 10 CaedIm. eBlEdlGñkcUlrYmeFIVdMeNIreTAdl;sNæaKarRbCMuenaH eKmanbiT pøaksMrab;;bgðajGMBIbnÞb;EdlRtUvRbCMu . enAeBlEdleTAdl;kEnøgRbCMu GñkcUlrYmRtUvcuHeQμaHenAkñúgbBa¢Ivtþman edaymanTTYlePJov 2 nak;sMrab;ENnaM. eK)anpþl;kmμviFIGgÁRbCMunigENnaMR)ab;BITIkEnøgRbCMu. kaRbCMuman ry³eBl 3éf¶tamrebobvir³GgÁRbCMu. enAeBlRbCMuenaH KwelIkeLIgGMBIbBaðasiTi§mnusSrbs;CnCatiPaKtic niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            17

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EdlRtUv)anrMelaPsiTi§esrIPaBedaysarrdæaPi)al CaBiessKW elIkeLIgrvagGCJaFrevotNamEdleFIVkarrMelaP siTi§CMenO sasna eFIVTukçbukemñj elIbgb¥ÚnExμreRkameyIg nig Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlCa]bkrN_ neya)ayrbs;yYn. enAkñúgeBlRbCMu eKmanerobcMeBlevlasRmak 10-15 naTI edIm,IeFIVkarRss;RsUb TwkEt kaehV b¤nMCaedIm. kñúgeBlsMrakenaH eyIgGaceqøoteBlCECkBIbBaðaepSg²CamYytMNagnanaEdlcUlrYm kñúgBiFIenaH. enAkñúgkic©RbCMuenaH eKerobcMeGaymanGahar 3 eBl eBlRBwk eBléf¶ nig eBll¶ac ehIyenAéf¶ cugbBa©b;eK srublT§plkargarEdlecjmkBIkarRbCMu eKnaMeTATTYlTanGahareBll¶ac edaymankareFIVdMeNIr kMsanþeTotpg . K-GaCJakNþal (Referee) GaCJakNþal CaCnEdlÉkraCü s¥ats¥M esμaHRtg; yutþiFm’ sMrab;edaHRsaybBaða nigCYyrkyutþiFm’ dl;buKÁlwk smaCik smaCika EdlmanbBaða. GaCJakNþalRtUvmancMeNHdwgxagc,ab; nigyl;dwg GMBIc,ab;TMlab;enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM. eyIgRtUvkMNt;GNtþisMrab;GñkeFIVGaCJakNþaledIm,IkMueGayGaCJakNþalGag nigmanGMeBIBukrlYy lMeGogeTArksmaCikepSg² nigGacCMrujeGayGaCJakNþalfμI²beBa©jsmtßPaB RbkYt RbECg ehIyman»kassMrab;mnusSl¥TUeTA. II.c,ab; vin½y RkmsIlFm’ (Rule, Discipline and Morale) edIm,IFanakareCaKC½ykñúgGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² vin½yl¥CaktþasMxan;Nas;. c,ab; nigRkmsIlFm’ eFIVeGay smaCik smaCika manreboberobry manvin½y sNþab;Fñab;l¥RbesIr. ebIcg;eGayBiPBelak mansniþPaB sNþab;Fñab; RtUverobcMeGayRbeTsnImYy²mansnþiPaB reboberobryl¥ sNþab;Fñab;l¥Camunsin. ebIcg;eGayRbeTsCati mYymansnþiPaB reboberobryl¥ RtUverobcMRkumRKYsarénRbeTsnImYy²mansuxsnþiPaB manvin½yl¥sin. ebIcg;eGayRkumRKYsarnImYy²manvin½yl¥ sNþab;Fñab; mansuxsnþiPaB suPmgÁl RtUvGb;rM erobcMKMnitbuKÁlmñak;²eGays¶b; manrebobl¥ . dUecñH muneBlerobcMRbeTsCatieGaymansnþiPaB man sNþab;Fñab;l¥ RtUverobcMcitþKMnitrbs;buKÁlmñak;eGay)anl¥ mansNþab;Fñab;l¥sin eTIbRkumRKYsarl¥ sgÁml¥ RbeTsCatil¥ nigBiPBelakl¥. cMENksßab½ndwknaMtUc²vij RtUvmanGñkerobcMbegáItc,ab; GñkGnuvtþn_c,ab; Gñkvinicä½yc,ab; edIm,IeGayc,ab;manRbsiT§PaB. c,ab;RtUveGaysmaCik smaCika buKÁlwkkñúgGgÁkar dwknaM)andwg ebIsinCac,ab;sMrab;RbeTs rdæaPi)al b¤sßab½nBak;B½n§RtUvpSBVpSay beRgondl;RbCaBlrdæeGayyl;dwg GMBIc,ab;enaH edIm,IeFIVeGaysmaCik smaCika RbCaBlrdæyl;dwg ykeTAGnuvtþn_kñúgsgÁmmanerobry ecosvagmanbBaða mkBIkaryl;GMBIc,ab; . dUcCac,ab;cracrN_CaedIm RbCaBlrdæmaneRKaHfñak;eRcIneday min)andwgGMBIc,ab;cracrN_ edIm,Ikat;bnßyeRKaHfñak;cracrN_ RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;RtUvyl;dwgBIc,ab;cracrN_ EtminEmndUcb:UlIscrcrN_enATIRkugPñMeBj caMsgát;krRbCaBlrdæCMritTaluyenaHeLIy Cak;EsþgenAéf¶mYy eBlEdlesμr CiHm:UtUkBa©as;mYy ma:k qalI eTIbmkBITICnbTdac;Rsyal Rsab;EteBlEdlCiHm:UtU bt;eTAsþaMkac;RCug eTApøÚvneratþm Rtg;eBTüGgÁDYg Rsab;Etb:UlIs mksMLútTarluy dUcCaecarbøn;m:UtU. ´ bg;luyeGayeKGs; Cag 12 000 erol EdlkalenaHb:UlIsTarsMLútykm:UtUeTAb:us nigTaluy 60 000 erol enHehIysgÁmExμrbc©úb,nñ KμanKuNFm’ seNþasRbNI cMeBaHCnrYmQamExμr GñkTn;exSayeT EtmanEtCiHCan; niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            18

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GñkTn;exSayEfmeTot. c,ab;minbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGaymYyRkumtUc b¤c,ab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_eGaybreTs dUcCaBYk RtYtRta h‘un Esn begáItc,ab;pþl;dIsm,TaneGay GñkvinieyaKyYn mkkab;éRBeQI ehIycab;ykdI edayykelsfa vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_ EttamkarBitRkumh‘unenaH)andeNþImykdIRbCaBlrdæ deNþImdIcMkar ekAs‘URbCaBlrdæExμr Cak;EsþgenAextþkMBg;cam enAbwgekt yYn eQμaH Lúg )anrwbGUsykdIcMkarekAs‘U RbCaBlrdæExμrenAbwgekt ehIyEfmTaMgedjkmμkrExμrmineGayeFIVkarenATIenaHeTot edayyYnykEtkmμkr CnCatiyYnKñaeKmkeFIVkarCMnYsvij EfmTaMgminGnuBaØateGayExμrcUlkñúgcMkarenaHeTotpg . ebIsinCaExμreyIg cUleTAkñúgcMkarekAs‘U edIm,IerIsC½rekAs‘U EdlenAelITwkdIExμresaH EteKeGaysnþisuxcMkarekAs‘U)aj;smøab;Exμr RkIRk edayecaTfacUllYcekAs‘UeK. vahak;dUcCIvitRbCaBlrdæExμr KμantMélesμIrnigC½rekAs‘U EdlenA elITwkdIExμrxøÜnÉg edayKμannrNaCYyrkyutþiFm’GIVeLIy. CivitExμrEdlsøab;CabnþbnÞab;enAelITwkdIxøÜnÉg h‘un Esn minEdlykEPñkemIleLIy EtebIeyIgniyayBIerOgyYn hUrcUlmkrs;enAkñúgTwkdIExμrCabnþbnÞab; tamkarGnuBaØatieday h‘un Esn huk LgDI rdæaPi)alRsemalyYn EdlCasmaKmn_TaMg 19 extþRkug eKfaGñkRbkan;BUCsasn_. sUmbgb¥ÚnGs;elak GñkGanCYyBicarNaBI sm½y b:ul Bt rdækm<úCa nig sm½y h‘un Esn \LÚvetIxusKña b¤dUcKña ebIExμrenAEtsøab; ExμrRtUveKbeNþjecj edIm,IdeNþImdIFøI ExμrenAEtRkIRkrebobenH. 1-begIátc,ab;lkçnþik³ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg (Establish Statute and Regulation) karbegIátc,ab;enH CakarbegIátxñatKMrUsMrab;karGnuvtþn_enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM eFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaM mantMél mYyBitR)akd. eyIgsegátemIleragBum< e)aHBum< esovePA b¤e)aHBum<karEst eKRtUverobcMBum<rYcCaeRsc eTIbe)aHBum<CaeRkay. karerobcMc,ab;enHeFIVeGaykargarTaMgLay dMeNIrkareTAelOn manvin½y tamxñat KMrUEtmYy eFIVya:gNaeGayGgÁkardwknaMmantMélmYyrwgmaMEdlbgðajBI eKalbMNg TwsedA ebskkmμ nignitiviFI dwknaM. sMrab;kareFVIdMeNIrmYy eyIgRtUvsÁal;pøÚv manmeFüa)ay maneKaledA nigTwsedAc,as;. ebIsinCa minTan;manpøÚv eyIgRtUvbegIátpøÚvCamun pøÚvRtUvs¥atl¥edIm,IFanasuvtßiPaBeBleFIVdMeNIr eFIVdMeNIrelOn cMNay Gs;FnFantic eBlevlatic. EtebIsinCaeFIVpøÚvmin)anl¥ kareFIVdMeNIrrGak;rGYl CYb]bsKÁ CYnkal minGacdl;eKaledA edaysarpøÚvmins¥at. dUcenH GgÁkardwknaMEdlbegIátc,ab;RtUveFIVeGayl¥ c,ab;ecjBIRkum kargar minEmnecjmkBIbuKÁlNamYyedayFanafa GñkTaMgGs;GacGnuvtþn_)antamc,ab;enaH. c,ab;l¥ eFIVeGay kardwknaMl¥ KμanbBaðaekIteLIg. RKb;RbeTsEtgEtmanc,ab; eTaHCaRbeTskumμúynisþ saFarNrdæ raCaniym b¤esrIk¾eday. EtRKan;Etc,ab;RbeTsnImYy²manlkçN³xusKña tamcrikneya)ayrbs;RbeTsenaH. 2-TTYlxusRtUvRkmsIlFm’ (Responsible for Morale) emdwknaMRtUveFIVCaKMrUnaMmuxeKRKb;Ebbya:g edIm,IeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHeFIVdMeNIreq<aHeTAmux GgÁkardwknaM minGacmandMeNIrkareTAmux)aneT ebIsinCaemdwknaMenArYjraxageRkay minedIrmuxenAxagmuxeK. ebIcg;eGay eKeFIVGIVmYy emdwknaMRtUvGnuvtþn_muneK dUcCastVGeNþIkeBlEdlvaeFIVdMeNIreTAmux vaRtUveGItecjmk eTIb eFIVdMeNIreTAmux)an. dUcenH edIm,IeGayeKeKarBc,ab; manRkmsIlFm’ emdwknaMRtUvelIktMekIgkarGnuvtþn_ ehIyRtUvGnuvtþmuneK eKarBc,ab; elIktMekIgc,ab; elIktMekIgRkmsIlFm’ CaKMrUdl;GñkeRkam»vaTeFIVtam. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            19

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3-tMélRkmsIlFm’ nigqnÞ³ (Morale and Willing) emdwknaMRtUveFIVmun RtUvGnuvtþn_muneK nUvGIVEdlcg;eGayeKeFIV. dUcCakarpþl;tMélelIRkmsIlFm’ RtUv elIktMélbegIátbriyakaseGaysißtesßrtaMgBIedImdl;cb; edaymineFIVtamkarnwkeXIj tamGarmμN_enaHeLIy. begIátsIlFm’ nigviBaØaNsIlFm’ KWCasμartI menaseBa©tna nigsaμrtIrbs;mnusSmñak;². GIV²Edl emdwknaMeFIVGac manplb:HBal;dl;GgÁkardwknaM. emdwknaMKYrEtdwgCanic© nUvskmμPaB nigkarsMerccitþrbs;xøÜnÉg Gacman\TiæBl elIsmaCik buKÁlwkGñkeRkambgÁab;rebobNa. GnuBaØatieGayRkumrbs;elakrYmcMENkkñúgkar eFIVEpnkarkarsMerc citþ nigdMeNIrkaredaHRsaybBaðaepSg². RtUvykcitþTukdak;Rkumrbs;elak eTaHbICaelak minmanRtYtBinitü karrs;enApÞal;xøÜnrbs;eKk¾eday elakRtUvEtmankarxVayxVl;sMrab;BYkeK. karpþl;Bt’man dl;BYkeK bnþkarTMnak; TMng ebIkcMhrgayRsYlTMnak;TMng TukeGaymnusSmankarKitBicarNa RtYtBinitüCIvitrbs;BYkeK. erobcMeGay kargarmansar³sMxan; rePIb nigmankarRbNaMgRbECg. eFIVeGaymnusSmñak;man GarmμN_fa CabuKÁlsMxan;enA kñúgRkumnImYy². mnusSRtUvkarkargarEdlmansar³sMxan; fIVebIvaCakargar EdlenOyht; KUreGayFuj minsb,ayya:gNak¾eday. BYkeKRtUvdwgfavamansar³sMxan; nigcaM)ac;sMrab;karrs;ran énGgÁkardwknaM. pþl;RbwkSamnusSEdl eFIVkic©karRbqMagnig RbqaMgnigeKalbMNgGgÁkardwknaM . 4-PaBxøaMg PaBeCOCak; PaBR)akdniym (Strength, Cofindence and Realistics) GgÁkardwknaMGaceCaKC½y)an edaysmaCik smaCika shesvik enACMuvijmanPaBeCOCak; manTMnukcitþ ehIyxitxMRbtibtþikargarya:gskmμ. eKeCOCak;eTA)an luHRtaGgÁkardwknaMmanPaBR)akdniymdwgc,as;munfa nigsMerceCaKC½ycMeBaHkic©karGIVEdleFIV. GgÁkardwknaMxøaMgCagKUrRbkYtRbECg mann½yfa maneRbobxag yuT§saRsþ Rbtibtþikar bec©keTs hirBaØvtßú ]brkrN_ smÖar³ citþsaRsþ emdwknaM PUmisaRsþ kmøaMgeRcInCag xøaMgCagTaMgsμartI nigbrimaN. EtebIsinCabraC½y RtUvTukCabTBiesaFn_Civit ehIyRtUvgakemIlmkeRkay sikSaBIEpnkarsareLIgvij rkemIlcMNucexSayEdlnaMeGaybraC½y rYcehIyeFIVEpnkarfμIteTAeTot eday minGs;sgÇwmeLIy ebIdYlkEnøgNaegIbedIreTAmuxeTot edayminedIrfyeRkayeLIy. GgÁkardwknaMEdlxøaMg KWbegIátkþIsgÇwmCanic©. kþIsgÇwmekItmanluHRtaEteyIgmanckçúvis½yBitR)akd. III.dMeNIrkar (Process) edIm,IdMeNIrkarkargareGay)anl¥ eyIgRtUvmanEpnkarc,as;las;l¥ ehIynigmanhirBaØvtßúRKb;RKan; bMeBjtamEpnkar . eyIgRtUverobcMFatupSMeGay)anRKb;RKan; FnFansmÖar³ FnFanmnusS bec©kviTüa dI GaKar GñkKaMRT. edIm,IdMeNIrkareGaysUbinkøayCakarBit GgÁkardwknaMRtUvmanGñkerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ GñkRbtibtþi kargar Gñkbec©keTsCaedIm ebImindUecñHeT GIV²)anRtwmEtkþIRsm½yb:ueNÑaH. eyIgGaceRbobeFobdMeNIrkar eTAnigm:UtUmYyEdlGaceFIVdMeNIreTAmux)an. edIm,IeFIVdMeNIreTA)an RtUvmanGñkebIk m:UtU nigsaMgsMrab;cak;m:UtU EtcMeBaHGgÁkardwknaMvijRtUvmanEpnkar emdwknaM nighirBaØvtßú eTIbGacdMeNIrkargareTA)an. dMeNIrkar GgÁkardwknaM RtUvEbgEcktamdMNak;karc,as;las; edayeRCIserIsykdMNak;karmYyEdlmanGaTiPaB mk Gnuvtþn_CabnþbnÞab;. karRKb;RKgdMeNIrkarCaParHrbs;emdwknaMEdlRtUveFIV edayelIktMekIgeGay mankarvivDÆn_ fμI²Canic© karEbgEckFnFan eFIVFnFanmansßanPaBl¥ CaGñkedaHRsaybBaðad¾eqñIm GacBüakrN_ dwgBI niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            20

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vibtþiekItman GacbegIát nigcat;Ecgfvikar GacbegIát nigcat;EcgeBlevla nigEpnkarkargar CaGñkerobcM RKb;RKgKMeragd¾eqñIm GacRKb;RKgvibtþieBlEdlvapÞúHeLIg nigGacvas;EvgdwgGMBIlT§pl. 1-karGnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaM (Practice Leadership) manniymn½yCaeRcInniyayGMBIkarGnuvtþn_PaBCaGñkdwknaM EtsUmelIkniymn½yrbs;kgT½BmUyeKfa PaBCaGñkdwknaM KWkareFIVeGayman\Ti§BlelImnusS edaypþl;eKalbMNg TwsedA nig karelIkTwkcitþ xNHeBl Rbtibtþikar edIm,IsMercebskkmμ nigeFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMRbesIreLIg rIkcMerIneLIg sMerceKaledA. edIm,IeGayGgÁkardwknaM b¤RbeTsCatimYyrIkcMerInnigsMerceKaledA)an RtUvGnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaMCa caM)ac; mann½yfa ktþaEdlnaMeTArkeCaKC½yGaRs½yelIkarGnuvtþn_PaBCaGñkdwknaM minEmnGaRs½yelIbuKÁlNa mñak;Gs©arü b¤k¾GaRs½yemIleXIjfaGgÁkardwknaMenaHxøaMg FM manGMNacsBVRKb;Ebbya:genaHk¾eTEdr. kar GnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaM mann½yTUlMTUlayNas;sMrab;emdwknaMEdlcg;eGayRbeTsCatirIkcMerIn sMerctam ckçúvis½y b¤facMeBaHGñkesñhaCatiExμrEdlmanbMNgCYyRbeTsCatieGaymansiTi§esrIPaBeBjeljenaH. kar Gnuvtþn_PaBCaGñkdwknaMCakarcaM)ac;bMput RtUvelIkTwkcitþCanic©dl;buKÁlwk smaCik GñkeRkambgÁab; edIm,IeGay xitxMeFIVkarsMercdl;eKaledA. karGnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaMRtUvmanEpnkarl¥c,as;las; karerobcMRtwmRtUv kar Gnuvtþn_kic©karhμt;ct; edaymankarRtYtBiinitüRtwmRtUv. BinitülT§plEdTTYl)anBIkarRbtibtþikar braC½y b¤eCaKC½y. ebIbraC½y eyIgRtUvsikSaBImUlehtuEdlnaMeGaybraC½y b¤braC½ymanxatbg;GIVxøH? ebIeCaKC½y etIeCaKC½yrebobNaxøH?cMNayFnFanb:unμan? etIkarcMNayFnFanTaMgGs;TUTat;nigpleCaKC½yenaH etITTYl plRbeyaCn_mkvij smnigFnFan Edl)ancMNayb¤eT?. sUmelIkerOgmYyenAkñúgRBHBuT§sasna KWerOgstVbkSI nig dMrI edIm,IbBa¢ak;GMBIktþaEdlnaMeTArkeCaKC½y minGaRs½yelIfa kmøaMgticb¤eRcIn kmøaMgtUcb¤FM manFnFanb¤Gt; EtktþaeCaKC½yRtUv BwgelIkarGnuvtþPaB CaGñkdwknaM . emdwknaMEdlmanKMnit smtßPaB cMeNHdwg bTBiesaFn_ GaceFIVEpnkarl¥\tex©aH nignaMeGay eCaKC½y. ebIsinCaemdwknaMsÁal;BIFmμCatic,as; rwtEtpþl;kmøaMgcitþya:gxøaMg eGayeyIgxitxMBüayamRbwgERbg eGaydl;eKaledA BIeRBaHfaenAkñúgBiPBelak mnusSekItmkKμanGIVRKb;ya:gdUcKña KWmanEtrUbragkaymk EtcMENk smÖar³epSgeTot CavtßúEdlmnusSbegIátTaMgGs; tamkarsikSaeronsURt BIGñkR)aCJl¥ b¤ekItenA mCÄdæanepSg²Kña eTIbeFIVeGayvasnamnusSepSg²Kña. mnusSGacbegIát)ansmÖar³RKb;ya:g edIm,IbMeBjtMrUv karmnusS. dUcenHeyIg CaemdwknaMminRtUvGs;sgÇwmfa eyIgminGaceFIVGIVekItenaHeT. dUcCaerOgstVbkSI nigstVdMrI ebIeRbobeFobstVdMrI nigstVbkSIxusKñaq¶ayNas; minKYreGayeCOfa stVbkSItUcmYyGaceFIVeGay stVdMrId¾FMGacsøab;)anenaHeT. eBlEdlstVdMrI)anedIrCan;kUnrbs;stVbkSIsøab; edaystVdMrIGag faxøÜnÉgFM mankmøaMgxøaMgCag ehIyemIlgaystVbkSI faminGaceFIVGIVxøÜnekIt edIrCiHCan;eK eBlenaH stVbkSIQWcab; eRBaHEtdMrIedIrCan;kUnxøÜnsøab;. TIbMput stVbkSI)anerobcMEpnkaredIm,Ismøab;dMrIFMenaHxanEt)an. dMNak;karTI1 stVbkSI)anehIreTAcikEPñkTaMgBIr rbs;stVdMrIeGayxVak; bnÞab;mkdMNak;karTI2 stVbkSI)aneTAcrcarTak;Tg CamYystVruy edIm,IeGaystVruyenaH eTABgdak;EPñkdMrITaMgBIreGayxVak;. dMNak;karTI 3 stVbkSIeTATak;Tg CamYystVhIug eGayeTAyMenAelIkMBUlPñM edIm,IbeBaäateGaydMrIyl;RcLMfa TIenaHmanTwk EtpÞúyeTAvij niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            21

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TIenaHCakMBUlPñM eBldMrIenaH)aneTArkkEnøg stVhIugyMEdlenAelIkMBUlPñM edaynwksμanfaCakEnøgmanTwk TIbMputdMrI)anFøak;cuHBIelIkMBUlPñMdl;enAkþIsøab;eTA. enAkñúgerOgenH bBa¢ak;R)ab;fa ktþaEdlnaMeTArkeCaKC½y KWGaRs½yelIEpnkarl¥ dUcCa stVbkSItUcmYyEdl GaceFIVeGaystVdMrId¾FMmYysøab;)an. eyIgminRtUv emIlgay smtßPaBrbs;xøÜneyIgmñak;² faminGaceFIVGIV)anenaHeLIy KWeyIgTaMgGs;Kña RtUvtaMgcitþdUcCastVbkSIenH edIm,I GayuCivitRbeTsCatirbs;eyIg rYbrYmKñaKit rYbrYmKñaeFIV rYbrYmKñaedaHRsay eCOfaKμanGIVEdlCa]bsKÁsMrab;eyIg CaRbCaCatiExμreLIy. k-begIátdMNak;karkargar (Establish Stage) karbegIátdMNak;karkargarCakarsMxan;mYyedIm,IeGayeyIgecHEbgEckkargartamlMdab;lMeday kMueGay EpnkarmanPaBRcbUkRcbl;. dMNak;karTI1 eyIgRtUveFIVGIVxøH? enAkEnøgNa? nrNaCaGñkTTYlxusRtUv? ry³eBlb:unμan? cMNayfvikarGs;b:unμan? etIdMNak;karnImYy²smRsbtamTwsedA? nigeKaledAcugeRkayb£eT? tamdMNak;kalkargarnImYy²begIáteGaycMTwsedA eKaledArYmcugeRkay. Cak;EsþgedIm,IsMercEpnkarRtYtRta enARbeTsTaMgbI enA\NÐÚcin dMNak;karTI1 yYn)anerobEpnkarRtYtRtaRbeTscm,a: bnÞab;mkdMNak;karTI 2 yYn)anerobcMEpnkarRtYtRtaTwkdIExμreRkam dMNak;kalTI 3 CadMNak;kalcugeRkay yYnRtYtRtaelIRbeTslav nig RbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñ. x-begIátlkçxNÐkargar (Working Condition) karerobcMeGaymankic©snüa nigc,ab;bTbBa¢aepSg²edIm,IeGaymanTMnukcitþ. karbegIátlkçxNÐkargar enaH edIm,IeGaymankarTTYlxusRtUvc,as;las;. kalNalkçxNÐkargarl¥ mnusSeBjcitþeFIVkargar kargar rIkcMerIn sßab½nGgÁkardwknaMrIkcMerIn RbeTsCatirIkcMerIn. lkçxNÐkargarenaH KWRtUvmanc,ab;kargar elIk TwkcitþTaMgGñkvinieyaK nigCYyRbCaBlrdæ briyakaskargarTaMgkñúg nigeRkAGgÁkardwknaM karTTYlR)ak;ebovtS eBlQb;sMrak eBlmanCm¶W BiFIbuNü R)ak;bMNac;epSg² karbNþúHbNþal kareRCIserIsCabuKÁlwkCaedIm. K-begIátRbB½n§kargar (Establish Working System) karbegIátRbB½n§kargarenH CaktþasMxan;²sMrab;eGaykargardMeNIrkar)aneTArlUn. RbB½n§kargar dUcCa RbB½n§rdæ)al RbB½n§Bt’man ¬karEckcayBt’maneTAbuKÁlwk smaCik karTTYlBt���manBIsmaCik eGay)an Tan;eBlevla¦ RbB½n§hirBaØvtßú ¬karcMNayepSg²rYmTaMgRbB½n§cMNayelIsmaCik buKÁlwk smÖar³ esvakmμepSg² cMNUl¦. RbB½n§bec©kviTüa RbB½n§RsavRCaveFIVEpnkar kareXasnaCaedIm. X-crwklkçNGgÁkardwknaM Characteristics of Organization) etIGgÁkardwknaMenaH epþatsMxan;elIGIV etIGgÁkardwknaMCalkçN³neya)ay b¤CaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al minEsVgrkR)ak;cMeNj b¤ CaGgÁkarEpñkGb;rMbNþúHbNþaltamÉkeTs esdækic© c,ab; b¤ sgÁmepSg². GgÁkar dwknaMepþatelIeyaFa dUcCa rNsirSrMedaHeyokNamxagt,Úg GgÁkarrMedaH)a:elsÞIn. GgÁkardwknaMEpñkesdækic© dUcCa GUbiuc Gas‘an dab;bilyUFIGU GWur:ub CaedIm. GgÁkardwknaMEdlCacrwklkçN³neya)ayGnþrCati mandUcCa NatU GgÁkarshRbCaCati GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati nigsßab½ntamtMbn; nigGnþrCatiepSg². niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            22

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2-karbBa¢a (Command) edIm,IbBa¢aeGaymanRbsiT§PaB emdwknaMcaM)ac;RtUvsÁal;kargareGayc,as;. emdwknaMCaGñkman bTBiesaFn_cMeBaHkargarenaHya:gc,as;las; eTIbkarbBa¢armWugma:t; hμt;ct; ehIyGñkeRkambgÁab;manTMnukcitþ mankmøaMgcitþeFIVkar. karbBa¢aGacCakarbBa¢apÞal;mat; karbBa¢aedayRbeyalCalaylkSGkSr tamry³sMbuRt tamry³c,ab; saracr b¤RbkasepSg². karbBa¢aenaHRtUvFanafa GñkEdlTTYlkargarenaHyl;dwgkargar c,as;las;. emdwknaMEdlBUEk KWRtUvdak;mnusSRtUvkargar dak;mnusSeGaycMÉkeTsrbs;eK. emdwknaMRtUv ecHRbemIlsßankarN_TaMgGs;Camun. dUcenH karbBa¢amanRbsiiT§PaB RtUvsÁal;sßankarN_ PUmisaRsþc,as; ecHkargarenaH maneKalbMNg TwsedA ebskkmμ eKaledA karelIkTwkcitþ CaedIm. k-eKalbMNg (Goal) emdwknaMRtUvRbmUlGñkeRkambgÁab; smaCik buKÁlwkmkBnül; ENnaMGMBIsßankarN_TaMgGs; EdlnigekIt eLIgeBlRbtibtþikargar CaBiessBI]bsKÁTaMgLayEdlGacekItmanenAeBleFIVkargar b¤faeRKaHfñak;ekIt eLIgCayfaehtuNamYy Bnül;R)ab;BIPar³kic© tYnaTI R)ab;Bt’manTMagLayEdlBak;B½n§. emdwknaMRtUvR)ab; GMBIeKalbMNgeGaysmaCikTaMgGs;)andwg edIm,IdutqnÞ³GñkeRkambgÁab;eGaysÞúHsÞarRbwgERbgeFIVkar karelIk Twkcitþdl;smaCik buKÁlwkeGayBüayameFIVeGay)anl¥bMputedIm,IsMerceKalbMNg. cMENkÉeKalbMNgenaH minEmnCaplRbeyaCn_rbs;buKÁlNamñak; eKalbMNgbuKÁl b¤RkumNamYy EtCaeKalbMNgrYm CaplRbeyaCn_ rYmTaMgGs;Kña CaplRbeyaCn_CatiExμrTaMgmUl. enAeBlEdlR)ab;GMBIeKalbMNgdl;smaCikehIy emdwknaMRtUv sYrbBa¢ak;bEnßmeTot edIm,IFanafa smaCikTaMgGs;yl;c,as; GMBIeKalbMNgenaHTaMgGs;Kña. dUcCaRKUbeRgon mñak;EdleTAbeRgonsisS caM)ac;RKUbeRgonenaH RtUvecHemeronenaHc,as;Camunsin rYcehIyeTIbRKUbeRgonerobcM KMeragemeroneTAbeRgonsisS eGaymansisSyl; ecH caM GacGnuvtþn_)an edayKitfa kñúgmYyema:gEdl xøÜnbeRgonenaH etIGIVEdlCaeKalbMNgFMenAkñúgxøwmsaremeron edIm,IeGaysisSTaMgyl; caM GaceFIV)an eday minEmnRKan;EtniyayeGaysisSsþab;enaHeT. x-TwsedA (Direction) kartMrg;TwsedAeGaycMnigeKalbMNg nigeKaledACakarsMxan;Nas;sMrab;emdwknaMRtUvRbkan;yk. kal NaemdwknaMminedIrtamTwsedAEdlkMNt;enaHeT GaceFIVeGayvegVg ehIycMNayeBlevla FnFan \tRbeyaCn_ minsMercdl;eKaledA nigeKalbMNg. emdwknaMRtUvdwgGMBITwsedAEdlRtUveTA ehIytMrg;eTArkeKaledA Edl kMNt;. CaBiessCYyRtYtBinitüemIl tMrg;TwseGaybuKÁlwk GñkeRkam»vaT eFIVkic©kareGaycMTwsedA. sMrab; TahaneKkMNt;TwstamRtWvis½y CIPIEGs nigmanEpnTI edIm,IeFIVdMeNIreTArkeKaledA etIRtUvkMNt;Twsb:unμan? eRkayBIkMNt;TwsenAelIEpnTIehIy RtUvedIrtamTwsEdlkMNt;enaH ebIedIrxusTwskMNt;enaH eFIVeGayvegVg mindl;eKaledAeLIy. b:uEnþeBlEdlman]bsKÁtampøÚv dUcCamansÞwg manGUr éRBsþúkRkas; eyIgGacbt;vag)an EtRtUvcaMGIVEdlkMNt;TwsenaH eyIgGacbt;Ebn)an emIlTwsenaHedaykMNt;cMNay nigeKaledAbnþeGay cMTwsdEdl. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            23

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K-eKaledA (Objective) GIV²TaMgGs;Etgmankarcab;epþIm nigmanTIbBa©b; cMeBaHkardwknaMdUcKñaEdr RtUvmaneKaledAc,as;las;. dUcCaGñkebIkLanRkugmYy RtUvmaneKaledArbs;eK faetIRtUveTAQb;kEnøgNamYyc,as;las;. cMENkemdwknaM vijRtUvbgðajGñkeRkambgÁab;eGayc,as;las;GMBIeKaledAEdlRtUveTA R)ab;BIpøÚv nigehtukarN_TaMgLay Edl ekIteLIgenAtampøÚv EdleFIVdMeNIrtMrg;eTArkeKaledAenaH. etImanGIVekIteLIgxøH? man]bsKÁGIVxøH? manPaB gayRsYlGIVxøH? cMNayeBlb:unμanema:g? b:unμanéf¶? PUmisaRsþqøgkat;sÞwg GUr PñM val PUmi Rsuk edIm,Idl;eKal edAenaH. enAeBlEdleTAdl;eKaledAenaH eyIgRtUveFIVGIVxøH? eFIVya:gem:cbnþeTot? enAkEnøgeKaledAenaH manGIVxøH?. eKaledAKWcMNucEdleyIgRtUvtMrg;eTArkTaMgGs;Kña vaCacMNucyuT§saRsþmYyedIm,IeFIVeGayeyIgbnþ dMeNIrkareTAmuxeTot)an. enAeBldak;eKaledA eyIgRtUvcgcaMcMNucTaMgGs;enH ³ - BYkeKRtUvEtR)akdniym nigGacrkSaeKaledAenaH)an - BYkeKKYrEtxitxMedIm,IeFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMRbesIreLIg - mnusSTaMgGs;RtUvcUlrYmkñúgkardak;eKaledA - kmμviFImYyRtUvEtmaneKbegIát edIm,IsMerceKaledAnImYy² X-ebskkmμ (Mission) emdwknaMRtUvkMNt;eGayc,as;GMBIebskkmμnImYy² etICaebskkmμGIV² etIebskkmμenaHRsbnigTwsedA b¤Gt;? dUcCaebskkmμRsavRCavRbtibtþikarcitþsaRsþ ebskkmμeXasna ebskkmμvayrMxan ebskkmμvay yksmÖar³xμaMg ebskkmμvaykan;kab;TItaMg ebskkmμvaykMeTcehdæarcnasm<½n§ TaMgesdækic© nigsμartI b¤ebskkmμbeBaäatsRtUveGaycUlkñúgGnÞak; júHjg;sRtUveGayEbk)ak; bMEbkrcnasm<½n§sRtUvCaedIm. ebIcMeBaH GñkdwknaMneya)ayvij ebskkmμedIm,IcuHsYrsuxTukç ebskkmμedaHRsaybBaðaCUnRbCaBlrdærgeRKaH ebskkmμ RtYtBinitüRBMEdn. ebskkmμrbs;GgÁkarsiTi§mnusS cuHCYypSBVpSayBIsiTi§ elIktMekIgsiTi§ karBarsiTi§mnusS CYyCnrgeRKaHCaedIm. g-karelIkTwkcitþ (Motivation) kardwknaM nigkarelIkTwkcitþRtUvedIrTnÞwmKñaenAkñúgkardwknaM. ebIKμankarelIkTwkcitþ k¾minGacbBa¢abuKÁlwk eFIVkarmanRbsiT§PaBEdr. karelIkTwkcitþl¥ buKÁlwkeFIVkarGs;smtßPaBl¥ kargarTTYllT§pll¥pgEdr. karelIkTwkcitþsMedAeTAelIbMeBjtMrUvkarmnusSeGay)antamtMrUvkar edIm,IeGayBYkeKepþatEtelIeFIVkargarEt b:ueNÑaH. karEdlbMeBjtMrUvkarcaM)ac;nUvGIVEdleKcg;)an karCYybuKÁlwkeGaysMerceCaKC½ydl;eKaledA GIVEdl buKÁlwkR)afña ehIyCatMrUvRsbeTAnigTwwsedAsßab½nGgÁkardwknaM. PaBpÞúyKña cMeBaHkardwknaMrebobkumμúynisþ xusKñaBIkardwknaMrebobesrI RbCaFibetyü. kumμúynisþbgçMmnusSeGayeFIVkar mnusSeFIVkarTaMgmineBjcitþ mnusSeFIVkarTaMgP½yxøac plkargarecjmkminsUvl¥ KuNPaBkargarminl¥ edaykumμúynisþ minKitBIsiTi§mnusSeT EtKitEtelITinñplkargar eFIVeGaykarRbkYtRbECgcaj;BYkesrI. BYkkumμúynisþRTwsþIl¥ EtkarGnuvtþmin)anl¥. cMENkBYkesrIvij eKelIkTwkcitþmnusSeGayeFIVkar edaypþl;CaR)ak;Exl¥smlμm rs;enA)anedayesckþIéføfñÚr niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            24

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R)ak;bMNac; KitBIsiTi§mnusS¬suxPaBrbs;mnusS suvtßiPaB¦ nigelIkTwkcitþmnusS eGayeFIVkaredaykarRbNaMg RbECgKñayksñaéd pþl;»kas eGaytMélcMeBaHmnusSTUeTA dUcKña)anbeBa©j sñaéderog²xøÜn. cMeBaHRbeTsrIkcMerIn karbNþúHbNþalGb;rMCaktþasMxan; CamUldæanRKiH PaKeRcIn eKbNþúHmnusSman KMnitesñhaCati RsLaj;TwkdIeGayRbCaBlrdærbs;eK manckçúvis½yFM eFIVkargaredIm,IRbeyaCn_Cati karrIkcMerIn sMrab;Cati. edaysarkarelIkTWkcitþenH eFIVeGaymnusSkøahanmuHmut lHbg;RKb;Ebbya:g edIm,ICati xitxMeFIVkic©kar edIm,IbMerIplRbeyaCn_CatieKTaMgGs;Kña. ebIsinCaeK)ansagsñaéd eFIVGIVedIm,ICatieK enaHCatieK eGaytMél elIktMekIg pþl;emdayCavirCn vIrburs vIrnarI qøak;eQμaHelIRkaMgmas eFIVkEnøgeKarBbUCa eFIVrUbbdimakr edIm,IrMlwknUvKuNUbrdl;virCnTaMgenaH. eBlEdlTahanrbs;Gaemriksøab;kñúgsmrPUmi eTaHbICaeRcInqñaMknøg k¾edayeKykcitþTukdak;xøaMgNas; rhUtdl;edIrrukrkq¥wgrbs;TahanmktMkl;Tuk. CaBiess karelIkTwkcitþmYyeTotenaH KWeBlcuHebskkmμ b¤eBleFIVkargar emdwknaMRtUvmansmÖar³ RKb;RKan; dUcCabec©kviTüa ]bkrN_eRbIR)as; hirBaØvtßú nigkarykcitþTukdak;sMrab;RkumRKYsarrbs;eKCaedIm. eyIgRtUvpþl;plRbeyaCn_eGaysmrmüsMrab;smaCik buKÁlwkNaEdllHbg;xitxMeFIVkar minKitBIGayuCIvit edIm,IRbeTsCati. ebIviPaKBIkILakr)al;Tat;vij eyIgq¶l;fa etIehtuGIV)anCaRkumnImYy²xitxMelg)al;? BIeRBaH eKmankarelIkTwkcitþTaMgpÞal;xøÜn nig karelIkTwkcitþRkum CaBiessxøaMgCageKbg¥s;KWBanrgVan;. eBlEdlRkumNa mYyTat;)al;bBa©ÚlTIQñH eKmaneQμaHl,I nigTTYlplRbeyaCn_epSg² . srubmkkarelIkTwkcitþmnusS GaRs½yelIktþaBIrya:g 1-tMrUvkarBitR)akd 2-karTTYlyknUvkarcat;viFankarBitR)akd nigCYybMeBjtMrUv kar BitR)akd. ]TahrN¾ eBlEdlelakXøan)ay EtelakRtUveFIVkic©karbBa©b; BIeRBaHCitdl;eBlkMNt;. ebIelak XøanxøaMg elaknigTTYlTan. ebIelakXøantic² elaknigbBa©b;kic©karpÞal;édsin. müa:geTot elakman tMrUvkarBIr. elakcg;bBa©b;kic©kar nig elakcg;eTATTYlTanGaharéf¶Rtg;. elakeRCIserIsmYykñúgcMeNamTaMgBIr eRBaHelakRtUvEbgEckGTiPaBrvagtMrUvkarTaMgBIenH. ebIelakeCOfa eKedjelakecjBIkargar elaknigmineTA TTYlTanGahareT elakRbEhlRtUveFIVkic©kareGaycb;sin. ebIelakeCOfa elakKμanbBaðaeT b¤elakKitfa RbEhlbBa©b;kic©karTan;eBl eBlenaHelaknigTMngCaeTATTYlTanGaharsin. mYyeTot ebIelakcg;dak; TNÐkmμ sUmkMudak;TNÐkmμbuKÁlikEdlminGaceFIVkargar EtKYrdak;TNÐkmμcMeBaHGñkEdlmansmtßPaBeFIVkar b:uEnþminman qnÞ³ b¤ kMudak;TNÐkmμebIKμankarelIkTwkcitþedIm,IeCaKC½yvij. ktþaTaMgenHCakarelIkTwkcitþsMxan;²³ 1-R)ak;Exl¥Cak;lak; Tan;eBl plRbeyaCn_eRcIn sniþsuxkargar eKalbMNgrYm. 2-RtUveKarBGμkTaMgenaHCanic© eGaytMél CMenO RkmsIlFm’. 3-eFIVeGaykargarmancMNab;GarmμN_Canic©. 4-pþl;karTTYlsÁal;kargarl¥Canic© tMeLIgbuNüskái 5-pþl;»kasdl;BYkeKkñúgkarGPivDÆn_CMnaj. 6-man»kaseLIgzan³kñúgfñak;dwknaMCan;x<s; niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            25

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7-pþl;rgVan; b½NÑsresIr emday nimitþrUb sMbuRt esckþIEføgGMNrKuN 3-karRKb;RKg (Management) karRKb;RKgnigkardwknaMmindUcKñaeT . kardwknaMeFIVkic©karEdlRtwmRtUv . karRKb;RKgeFIVkic©kareGay)an RtwmRtUv. Parkic©RKb;RKgrbs;emdwknaMRtUvRKb;RKgEpñkyuT§saRsþ RKb;RKgmnusS RKb;RKgdMeNIrkar nig buKÁlwklkçN³pÞal;xøÜn. emdwknaMCaGñkEdlfa GñkRKb;RKg CaGñkRtYtBinitü CaGñkeFIVeGayRtUvtamemdwknaM. karRKb;RKgman Epnkar erobcM Gnuvtþ b¤dwknaMeFIV tMrg;Tws nigkarRtYtBinitü. RKb;EpñknImYy²RtUvRKb;RKg eGayc,as;las;. dUcenH edIm,IRKb;RKgelIkic©kareGay)anl¥ RtUvmanÉkeTskic©karenaH nigRtUvykcitþ Tukdak;elIbec©kviTüaeTot bNþúHbNþalmnusSbEnßm eRBaHkarvivDÆfμI²rbs;sgÁm dUcCakarRKb;RKgBt’man RKb;RKghirBaØvtßú RKb;RKgkarGnuvtþkic©karTUreTACaedIm. CaBiess RtUvbNþúHbNþalerobcMmnusStaMgBIekμg EdlCamUldæanRKiHd¾sMxan;. edIm,IyYnRtYtRtaRbeTsExμr yYnmin)anbNþúHbNþalcMeNHviC¢asMxan;²dl;ExμrenaHeT yYnbeRgonbNþúH bNþalExμreGayecHEtkab;smøab; karBarGMNaceGayyYnEtb:ueNÑaH dUcenHyYnbgðat;beRgonEtkl,iccarkmμ kl,yuT§kgT½B menaKmn_kumμúynisþniymyYn eGayExμrlg;kñúgyuT§saRsþrbs;eK rhUtdl;eBlyYnEkøgePTCaExμr eFIVCacarkmμGs; RtYtRtaTwkdIenARKb;TIkEnøg tamEpnkar shB½n§\NÐÚcin eBlenaHExμrBi)aknigerIrYcBInwmrbs;yYn dUcExμreRkam nigExμrenAsUrinbUrIraM eRBaHyYnkMBugEteRbIneya)aycitþsaRsþ dUcéfeFIVelIExμrsUrinEdr. yYn)andak; bNþajcarkmμ TaMgExμr TaMMgyYn RKb;TwsTI edIm,IcaMXøaMemIlRtYtBinitüya:gm:t;ct; mineGayExμrkMerIkrYc CaBiessBYkvasþab;tamRbB½n§TUrs½BÞ Cak;EsþgRkumh‘unTUrs½BÞyYn 097 EdlkMBugEtEckcayeGaynisSiteRbIeday \tKitéfø edIm,IRKb;RKgBt’mankñúgRbeTsExμr ebIGñkKitKUrRbeTsCati KitKUrTwkdI KitKUrGnaKtkUnecA RtUvva ecaTRbkan; cab;dak;Kuk )aj;smøab; edayKμanRtaRbNIeLIy. 4-karRtYtBinitü (Controlling) karRtYtBinitümansar³sMxan;Nas; edIm,IeGaykargarsMerceCaKC½yl¥tamEpnkar. karRtYtBinitüRtUv manRbB½n§ÉkraCüsMrab;RtYtBinitükarRbRBwtþeTAcMeBaHdMeNIrkarkargar. RbeTsmhaGMNac)anbegIátRbB½n§ bec©kviTüaTMenIbdUcCa páayrNbedIm,IRtYtBinitü RbB½n§kuMBüÚT½r nigbec©kviTüaepSg² edIm,IeGayRtYtBinitükic©kar. CYnkal eKmanPñak;garsm¶at; dUcCa sIuGayeG kareseb nigPñak;sg¶at;tamsßab½nnImYy edIm,IeFIVkaresIubGegát kic©karTaMgLayEdlcaM)ac;. RbB½n§RtYtBinitükic©karRtUvmanc,ab;taMgBIkareFIVEpnkar karerobcM karGnuvtþn_ lT§plCaedIm. sMrab;b:UlIs eKdak;kamara:sMrab;cab;rUbPaBCnTuc©rit enHCaRbB½n§RtYtBinitüsV½yRbvtþi man RbsiT§PaB b:UlIsmanRbsiT§PaBkñúgkarGnuvtþc,ab; mnusSxøacc,ab; eRBaHmnusSminGaceKcecj BIRbB½n§RtYtBinitü enH)aneLIy ebIsinCaeKeFIVxusc,ab;. IV.karRbNaMgRbECg (Competition) karRbNaMgRbECgEtgEtekIteLIg\tQb;QrenAkñúgBiPBelak nigenARKb;TIkEnøgsMrab;karrs;enArbs; mnusS. sgÁmmnusSeRbobdUcCa stVRmwKEdlEtgEtdeNþImplRbeyaCn_KñaeTAvijeTAmk\tRsakRsan. RbeTsFMmhaGMNacmankmøaMgxøaMg eRkbCBa¢k;plRbeyaCn_BIRbeTstUctacTn;exSay edayxøÜnmancgáÚm niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            26

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maneFμjdUcCastVeta stVxøaCaedIm. cMENkRbeTstUctac dUcCastVQøÚsEdlrgcaMEtcMNIrbs;stVFMEtb:ueNÑaH. cMENkmnusSenAkñúgsgÁmk¾dUcCaKñaEdr GñkmanGMNacGñkFMeKgRbv½Ba© deNþImplRbeyaCn_GñktUctacTn;exSay tamRKb;rUbPaB. \LÚvBiPBelakkMBugEtQaneTArkliTi§RbCaFibetyü EdlsiTi§GMNac mantMélesμIrKña CamnusS dUcKña edaymnusSsißtenAeRkamc,ab;TaMgGs;Kña. kardwknaMrebobRbCaFibetyüenH CakardwknaMRtUvriHrkviFI eFIVya:gNaeGaymnusSRbNaMgRbECgKña edIm,IeGaykargarkan;EtmanTinñplkMritx<s;. karRbNaMgRbECgenaH RtUveFIVeLIgedayRtwmRtUvnigyutþiFm’. edIm,IeGaymnusSRbkYtRbECgKña eFIVRbeyaCn_dl;mnusS nigsgÁmCati tamry³eKalkarN_RbCaFibetyü mankarerobcMe)aHeqñatsMrab;eRCIserIsemdwknaMCaedIm CaKnøiHeGaymnusS beBa©jsmtßPaB RbNaMgRbECgKña xitxMeFIVRbeyaCn_sMrab;RbeTsCati. RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;man»kasdUcKña edIm,IeTAdwknaMRbeTs tamry³kare)aHeqñat EdlCakarvaytMélrbs;mnusS. kardwknaMRtUverobcMeGay mankarRbNaMgRbECg eFIVkargardUcCaGñkrt;RbNaMg. mnusSxitxMeFIVkargar edayeKrMBwgfa eKnigTTYl)an plRbeyaCn_GIVmYyBitR)akd. 1-karh‘anRbfuy (Take Risk) emdwknaMeRbobdUcCastVGeNþIk² enAeBlEdlvaeFIVdMeNIr vaRtUveGItk,alecj rYcehIyeTIbvaecjdMeNIr eTA. ehtudUcenH ebIelakcg;eFIVemdwknaM elakGñkRtUvh‘anRbfuy BuHBar]bsKÁRKb;Ebbya:g eFIVkic©karRKb; ya:gEdlGñkdéTminGaceFIV)an eFIVkic©karEdlEbøkcMElkdac;BIeK xusBIeK eRbobdUcstVGeNþIk EdlRtUveGIt kecjsin munnigeFIVdMeNIr. CaBiessRKb;]bsKÁEdlmnusSTUeTAminh‘an eyIgCaemdwknaM køahan h‘annaMmuxeK eFIV minxøacsøab; xøac)at;bg;RbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn xøac)at;bg;GMNacbuNüs½ká EtemdwknaMRtUvah‘anRbfuy lHbg; RKb;Ebbya:g eBlevla RTBüsm,tþi GayuCivit naMmuxeFIVedIm,IplRbeyaCn_rYm edIm,IplRbeyaCn_Cati edIm,I GayuCivitCatiExμrTaMgmUl. eRBaHfa KμanbuKÁlNaEdlecosputBI vivdþrbs;FmμCati ekIt cas; QW søab; )aneLIy mnusSeTogBIsøab;ecosminrYc ehtuenHekItmkmYyéf¶eGay)aneFIVRbeyaCn_mYysMrab;CatiExμr KWmantMél xøaMgNas; CagekItmYyryqñaM dwknaMbMpøajCatiExμr dUcBYkTm,il pþac;kar bMerIyYn h‘un EsneTot. GayuCIvitCatieyIg FMCagGayuCivitrbs;buKÁleyIgmñak;eTot. karh‘anRbfuyenH eTaHCadwgfaeRKaHfañk;ekItman mYyCMhanenAcMeBaHmuxk¾eday b:uEnþedIm,IesckþIsuxrbs;RbCaCatiExμr GayuCivitCatiExμr edIm,IkUnecAExμr CMnan;eRkay emdwknaMRtUveFIVCaKMrUedIrmuxeK. sUmelIk]TahrN_kalEdlsm½ysRgÁamCamYyyYnQøanBan TwkdIExμr emT½BeQμaH ekA Em:n )andwknaMT½BcuHc,aMgenAsmrPUmiTwkdIExμr eBlenaHyYn)ansÞak;vay ehIyeFIVeGay kgT½Brbs;Kat;)anTl;xñgKña nigcMkarmIn Tal;Rck eTAmuxminrYc eTAeRkayminrYc CaehtueFIVeGayKat;Bi)ak kñúgkarsMerccitþ Kat;)anbBa¢aeGaykUnTahanedIrmuncUleTAkñúgcMkarmIn EtKμankUnTahanNah‘anedIrqøgkat;cMkar mIneLIy cMeBlenaHevlayb;eTot. eBlenaHmanEtemT½BpÞal;ecjmuxedIrmuneK Kat;)andwknaMTahan eFIVdMeNIrqøgkat;cMkarmIn rhUt)ansuvtißPaB. enHCakarbBa¢ak;BIvirPaBrbs;emT½BExμr Edlh‘anRbfuylHbg;CIvit edIm,IkarBarRbeTsCatisMrab;kUnExμrCMnan;eRkay.

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2-karvaytMél (Assessment) karvaytMél RtUveFIVeLIgedayyutþiFm’ nigmaneKalkarN_c,as;las;. karvaytMélRtUveFIVeLIg edaymCÄdæan CMuvijKW 360 dWeRk. karvaytMélEdll¥ RtwmRtUv yutþiFm’ eFIVeGaymnusSmankmøaMgcitþeFIVkar karvaytMélxus eFIVeGaymnusS)ak;Twkcitþ. karvaytMél eKvaytMélelIlT§plkargar vaytMélelIsñaéd vaytMélelI\riyabf vaytMélelIlkçN³sm,tþiCaemdwknaM vaytMélelIkarRKb;RKgnigdwknaM. eyIgman taragvaytMélbuKÁlwk vaytMélemdwknaM smaCik smaCikac,as;las; dUcCa vaytMéledayxøÜnÉg vaytMél BIshesvik vaytMélBIGñkeRkambgÁab; vaytMélBIsarFaN³Cn vaytMélBIemdwknaMpÞal; vaytMélBI Rkumkargar. kñúgdMNak;kalvaytMélnImYy²RtUverobcMkarvaytMélenaHeGaymantMél faetIeFIVkarvaytMél enaHedIm,I)anGIVCacMbg eRKOg\sSr³ys tMeLIgbuNüská pþl;rgVan;epSg²CaedIm. RtUvbegIátKN³kmμkar ÉkraCüsMrab;vaytMélkargarTaMgenaH. karvaytémøelIkarGnuvtþn_kargar Ca]bkrN¾elIkTwkcitþmYyd¾man GMNacbMputcMeBaHemdwknaM. karvaytMélmanTisedA 3 dUcteTA³ 1-edIm,IFanakarGnuvtþn_kargareGaymanyutiþFm’ nigcMTisedAcMeBaHtMrUvkarkargar. eFIVeGaysmaCik smaCika buKÁlwk eFIVkarmanRbsiTæPaB edIm,Ipþl;rgVan;sMrab;kic©karrbs;BYkeK nigbuKÁlwkNaKμanRbsiTæPaB RtUvdak;enAkEnøgeFIVkargarEdlexSay minsMxan;. 2-edIm,IbegIánkarGnuvtþn_kargar kñúgeKalbMNgeGaymankarrIkcMerInCak;lak;. ebIsineyIgmindwgfa eyIgenAkEnøgNamYyeT eyIgmindwgfaxøÜneyIgenApøÚvNamYy eyIgeFIVem:cdwgfa eyIgGacsMedAeKaledA EdleyIgRtUveTA? 3-edIm,IGPivDÆn_eKalbMNgGaCIB edIm,ICMrujeGaybuKÁlwk smaCik smaCika GacxitxMRbwgERbgeFIVkar eGaysmRsbnigesckþIRtUvkarrbs;GgÁkardwknaMeGay)ankan;EtelOn . 3-tMrUvkar (Needs) emdwknaMRtUvsÁal;FmμCatimnusSeGayc,as; sÁal;]bnisS½ymnusS sÁal;citþKMnitmnusS edIm,IeGay dwgBItMrUvkarrbs;mnusS. tamelakma:søÚ )anEcktMrUvkarrbs;mnusSecjCa 5 EpñkepSg²Kña EdltMrUvkarTaMgenaH Tak;TgnigjaNTaMgR)aMmYyrbs;mnusS. TI1 mnusSRtUvkarjaMuTwk )ay edIm,ICIvitrs;enARbcaMéf¶ mnusS RtUvsemøokbMBak;CMrk edIm,IbiT)aMgerogkay nigCMrksMrab;sñak;enA. TI2 mnusSRtUvkarbridæanl¥ xül;brisuT§ edIm,IdkdegðImerogral;éf¶. TI3 mnusSRtUvkarsuxPaBl¥ ecosputBICm¶W ehIyebIsinCamanCm¶WRtUvmankar ykTukdak;Büa)al elIkTwkcitþBIemdwknaM. TI4 mnusSRtUvkarsnþisux mansuvtßPaBrs;enA edayKμan )armÖBIeRKaHfñak;epSg² P½yGnþrayekIteLIg. TI5 mnusSRtUvkarmuxmat;kñúgsgÁm cUlrYmkñúgsgÁm dUcCa sñaéd eFIVplRbeyaCn_epSg²CYydl;sgÁmCaedIm. kalNaemdwknaMsÁal;GMBItMrUv karrbs;GñkeRkambgÁab;c,as; ehIy GacbMeBjtMrUvkarenaH)an enaHemdwknaMBitCaTTYlkarKaMRTBIsmaCik RsLaj;rab;GanBIRbCaBlrdæmin xan.

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V.ÉkeTs (Expertise) etIsßab½ndwknaMrbs;eyIgepþatelIÉkeTsGIVc,as;las; cMENkRkumkargarEdlRbmUlpþúMbegIátckçúvis½y enaH CaGñkmanÉkeTs CaGñkmanRbeyaCn_GaceFIVeGaykargarenaHsMerceCaKC½y. ÉkeTsmanCaeRcIn dUcCa ÉkeTsxagc,ab; esdækic© neya)ay eyaFaCaedIm.l. 1-CMnajviC¢aCIv³ (Professional Skills) CMnajviC¢aCIv³ CacMeNHdwgmYyBitR)akdrbs;mdwknaM. eRbobdUcCakaMbitmut EdlGackab;GIV)an eFIVGIV ecjCalT§pl )anRbeyaCn_sMrab;mnusSTaMgGs; eFIVecjCaRbeyaCn_sMrab;CatiTaMgmUl. CMnajviC¢aCIv³ Rtg;cMNucenH emdwknaMecHTaMgRTwsIþnigkarGnuvtþ mansmtßPaBBitR)akd. ebIkalNaemdwknaMKμanCMnaj viC¢aCIv³c,as;las; eRbobdUcCakaMbitEdlminmut minGaceRbIGIV)anCaRbeyaCn_eLIy eTaHCakaMbitenaHmandg eRsabmasya:gNak¾eday. cMeBaHGñksikSaeronsURtvij eTaHCamansBaØab½Rtya:gNak¾eday EtebIsmtßPaB BitR)akdminman etIeyIgGaceFIVGIV)anCaRbeyaCn_xøH edIm,IecjCasñaédBitR)akdenaH. eTaHCaeyIgkan;sBaØab½Rt bNÐitya:gNak¾eday EtebIeyIgminGaceFIVGIVCaRbeyaCn_dl;sgÁmmnusS b¤eFIVGIVCaRbeyaCn_dl;CatieyIg k¾sBaØab½RtenaHmantMélsMrab;EtxøÜnÉg sMrab;ykmkdak;taMg edIm,Ibg¥ÜteKEtb:ueNÑaH. 2-kareCaKC½y (Success) kareCaKC½yCacMNucmYyelIkTwkcitþya:gsMxan;. kalNaemdwknaMEdlEtgEteCaKC½ykñúgkargar em dwknaMEdlFøab;mansñaédl¥²kñúgkargar emdwknaMenaHmingay)ak;TwkcitþeLIy EtgEtmankarrMBwgTukx<s;. kalNaemdwknaMmankarrMBwgTukx<s; emdwknaMEtgmankþsI gÇwm kþIsgÇwmeFIVeGaymanTwkcitþ vaGacnaMeTArk eCaKC½yya:gR)akd. emdwknaMRtUvsÁal;c,as;pøÚvEdlnaMeTArkeCaKC½y mann½yfa emdwknaMmanEpnkarsMrab;QñH rYcCaeRsc. 3-KMnit (Concept) eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvmanKMniteRcIn eRbIKMnitKitKUrBicarNaeRcInCageRbIbec©keTs. KMnitenATIenHsMedAeTA elIKMnityuT§saRsþ. ebIeyIgcg;QñHsRtUv RtUvvaylukxagyuT§saRsþ RtUvykQñHxagyuT§saRsþ. kalNa yuT§saRsþeRkameK eTaHCafñak;Rbtibtþikar fñak;klyuT§QñHk¾eday EtenAEtcaj;eKdEdl. edIm,IeGayeBj smtßPaBCaemdwknaM RtUvecHtaMgBIfñak;bec©keTs rhUtdl;fñak;yuT§saRsþ. QñHKMnit KWQñHGIVTaMgGs;. KMnit)an mkBIkarsikSaBIGñkR)aCJ bNÐit RsavRCavBIk,Ünc,ab;Km<Ir. emdwknaMRtUvsVHEsVgrkKMniteGayeRcInCageK tamry³karsikSaRsavRCav CaBiess KWkarGanesovePAl¥ TaMgTgnigKMnitdwknaMFM² dUcCayuT§saRsþ kardwknaM neya)ay esdækic© c,ab;CaedIm. 4-karTMnak;TMng (Communication) karTMnak;TMngrvagemdwknaMnigGñkeRkambgÁab; CaktþasMxan;Nas;edIm,IeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;sÁal;BI ckçúvis½y. BIeRBaHfa ebIGñkeRkambgÁab;mindwgGMBIckçúvis½y eFVIeGaykardwknaMenaHexSay. emdwknaMRtUvbgðajxøÜn eGayeKeXIj eFIVeGayeKemIlral;kic©karTaMgLay. karTMnak;TMngsMxan;elIbuKÁlwklkçN³pÞal;xøÜnrbs;emdwknaM EdlGacsMrbxøÜn)aneTARKb;sßankarN_TaMgGs; man\riyabfviC¢mancMeBaHbuKÁlTaMgLay. emdwknaMEdlman niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            29

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RbsiT§PaBkñúgkarTMnak;TMng RtUvCaGñksþab;eGaymanRbsiT§PaB karsþab;GñkdéTedayykcitþTukdak; yl;Gtßn½y ehIybeBa©jnUvkayvikar \riyabfviC¢man Caktþal¥sMrab;TMnak;TMng. niyayPasal¥ CaPasaelIkTwkcitþ CaPasaniyaymanGtßn½yxøwmsar manRbeyaCn_dl;Gñksþab; maneKaledA manTwsedAc,as;las;. RtUvKitfa PasaniyayCaPasaKaMRT GBüaRkitüb¤RbqaMg . ebIsinCa karTMnak;TMngtamsMbuRt b£GIuEm:l emdwknaMRtUvRbug Rby½tñcMeBaHkarsresreGay)anl¥ RtUvdwgBIeKaledAEdlRtUvsresr eFIVbBa¢IsresrcMNucsMxan;² RtUvmanKMnit c,as;las;enAkñúgkarsresr erobcMKMnit PsþútagKaMRTKMnit minRtUvsresrRcbUkRcbl; kñúgvKÁnImYyRtUvEjkKMnit sMxan;epSg²Kña eRbIRbeyaKxøImann½yRKb;RKan; c,as; nigCak;lak; eRbIBaküRtwmRtUv vKÁ Xøa karsnñidæan ehIyRtUv BiinitüEktMrUvsareLIgvij. emdwknaMeFIVCaRKUbeRgon eFIVCaGñkbgwVkeK CaviFIgayRsYlTMnak;TMngbMput. karbBa©úHbBa©Úl CaktþasMxan;sMrab;karTMnak;TMng edaybgðajBIehtupl bgðajBIGtßRbeyaCn_epSg² bgðajBI sar³sMxan; nigkar)at;bg;plRbeyaCn_rbs;eKCaedIm. karTMnak;TMngenH eFIVeGaydUcCaRcva:k; kMueGay dac;GarmμN_TaMg 6 eLIy. 5-karbuinRbsBV (Talent) GñkecHdb;minesμIGñkRbsBVmYy. karbiunRbsBVsMedAelIGñkmanbTBiesaFn_ Føab;eFIVkargarenaH eCaKC½y. enHminEmnmann½yfa GñkecHKμanRbeyaCn_enaHeT EtGñkEdlbiunRbsBVGaceFIVkargargayRsYl ehIyl¥Cag elOnCag cMeNjTaMgeBlevla nigFnFan. dUcenHkarbiunRbsBVrbs;emdwknaM EdlCabuKÁlGcäriy mancriklkçN³ eTBekaslürbs;eKBIkMeNItEtmþg . emdwknaMEdlGcäriy manlkçN³RBmCaemdwknaM taMg BIkMeNIt lkçN³sm,tþixageRkA kayvikar criklkçN³ citþKMnit PaBqøatevogév ehIyCaGñkeron qab;ecH qab;caM. CabuKÁlEdlebIkKMnitTUlayTTYlKMnitfμI² mankareKarBrab;GanBIRKb;mCÄdæanmnusSTaMgGs;. 6-karBüakrN_ (Forecast) ÉkeTskñúgkarBüakrN_ mann½yfa emdwknaMGacBüakrN_dwgGMBIGnaKtkal BüakrN_dwgGIVEdlnig ekItmaneLIg. emdwknaMGacBüakrN_dwgfa braC½y b£eCaKC½y . emdwknaMGacemIleXIj GIVEdlenAkñúgTIggwt GIVEdleKlak;)aMgedayeRbIcarkmμeGayykBt’man b¤tamjaNBiess. emdwknaMGacsþab;B¤GIVEdleKminniyay ecjmk. CaBiess emdwknaMGacdwgGMBIEpnkarsm¶at;rbs;sRtUv)an eBlenaHehIyemdwknaMGacBüakrN_)an RKb;ya:g. 7-karéqñRbDit (Creative) KMnitécñRbDit CacMNucsMxan;sMrab;emdwknaM edayminrgcaM b¤gab;RkLacaMEtbBa¢a b¤eFIVtamsPavKti eFIVGIVdEdl²eT. emdwknaMRtUveFIVGIVEdlxøÜnKitfa l¥RtwmRtUv manRbeyaCn_ edaymincaM)ac;sMukarGnuBaØateLIy eRBaHfa karsMukarGnuBaØatBi)akCagBaküfasMueTas. emdwknaMRtUveFIVkic©karedayxøÜnÉg edIm,IsMerceKaledAeday mincaM)ac;sYr b£ENnaMBIGñkd¾éT. karécñRbDitekItecj BIkareronKit eroneFIVedayxøÜnÉg. etInrNamYyEdlnwk sμanfa ExSRTmanEt 2 esaH EteKGacécñRbDitelgePøg )aneRcInrab;minGs;enaH enHCakarécñRbDitrbs;Gñk elg. enARbeTseCOnelOn eKerobcMkmμviFIsikSaeGaysisSeronKit RbDiteFIVkic©karedayxøÜnÉg cab;taMgBItUc niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            30

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dUcCakaeronKUsKMnUr nigbegáItkic©kar sMNYrepSg²Ebøk beRgonmnusScas; b¤enACamYymnusScas;Edlman bTBiesaFn_kargar. eyIgRtUverobKMnitmnusSeGayl¥Camunsin enaHkic©karGIV²nigl¥CaeRkay. 8-GBÖnþr³jaN (Tuition) emdwknaMRtUvmanR)aCJaevogévelIsCnTaMgBYg edayKiteXIjPøam²nUvGIVEdlcg;edaHRsay CaCnEdlqøat qab;ecH qab;caM yl;dwgbBaðaTaMgBYg. emdwknaMmanjaNmYyBiessGacdwgBIehtukarN_fanigmanGIVekIteLIg. jaNenHemdwknaMRtUvrkSaTukeGay)an eRBaHCalkçN³Biess EdlGacdwgsßankarN_munCanic© ehIyenAeBl EdljaNenaHbeBa©jeGayeyIgdwgGMBIerOgGIVmYy eyIgRtUveFIVtamjaNenaH edIm,IeGayjaNenaH enACab;Ca mYyeyIg. kalBIenAekμg² esμrFøab;manbTBiesaFn_enHCaeRcIndg CaBiesseBlEdlenAkMBugsikSa esμrGac TsSTaydwgfa elakRKURtUvecjviBaØasaRtg;cMNucNamYy ehIyCak;Esþg viBaØasarecjcMGIVEdlesμr)anKitTuk. enAqñaMRblgsBaØb½RtbzmPUmi esμr)anebIkesovePAKNitviTüa nigesovePACIvviTüa ehIyjaN)anR)ab;fa emeronenHRtUvecj lMhat;enHnigecjeBlRbLg. esμr)anR)ab;mitþP½RkEtKμannrNamñak;ykcitþTukdak;eLIy EteBlEdlviBaØasarRbLgecjmkdUcebHbiT emeron nig lMhat;Edlesμr)anemIlnigR)ab;mitþP½Rk EdleFIVeGay esμryl;GaceFIV)anRtwmRtUv ehIyTIbMputesμr)anRbLgCab; EdlesμrmankþIeRtkGrya:gxøaMg. 9-karpþÜcepþIm (Initiative) KMnitpþÜcepþImmansar³sMxan;sMrab;emdwknaM eFIVeGayemdwknaMmanPaBskmμ sVahab; eFIVeGaykargar rs;revIk. kalNaemdwknaMmanKMnitpþÜcepþImeRcIn eFIVeGayRbeTsCatirIkcMerIn GgÁkardwknaMenaHrIkcMerInskmμ. ehtudUcenHehIy eTIbeKkMNt;GNtþiemdwknaM BIeRBaHfa ebIsinCaeyIgTukemdwknaMdEdlenaH eGayenAdwknaM eFIVeGaykargarywt kargarminrs;revIk kargarminskmμ BIeRBaHemdwknaMGs;KMnitpþÜcepþIm nigmanqnÞ³exSay kalNaqnÞ³exSay eFIVeGaykardwknaMexSayeTAtamenaHEdr. emdwknaMCaGñkeRbIKMnit dUcenH emdwknaMRtUv manKMnitpþÜcepþImeRcInCageK. emdwknaMKitrkbegIátEpnkarfμICanic© eFIVya:gNaeGayRKb;vis½yTaMgGs;dMeNIr karskmμrIkcMerInTaMgGs;. KMnitpþÜcepþIm CaKMnitEdlecjmkfμI ehIyEbøkdac;xusBIeK EdlGñkdéTminGac niwksμandl;. 10-KMnitfμI (Innovative) emdwknaMRtUvrkKMnitfμImkdak;xøÜnCanic© tamry³karsikSaRsavRCav tambNÑal½y tamGIuntaENt tam ryHkarGanesovePAepSg² tamry³karcUlrYmsikçasala karerontameGLicRtUcnic karerontamsalabnþ karTsSn³kic©sikSatamRbeTsrIkcMerIn.l. karRbwkSaCamYybNÐit GñkR)aCJepSg² edIm,IykCaKMnitmk eFIVkar BicarNa. KMnitfμIminEmnekIteLIgedayÉkÉgenaHeT EtekIteLIgBIkarsikSaRsavRCavbEnßmfμI² b¤bnþkarsikSa eTot. emdwknaMRtUveFIVya:gNaeGayKMnitrbs;xøÜnenAfμICanic©. karsikSaeronsURt RtUvedIrTnÞwmKñanigkardwknaM.

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sßankarN_RbeTsExμr I>ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrrIkcMerInrugerOg (Factors which Become Khmer Empire) RbeTsExμrFøab;CaRbeTsmhaGMNacrugerOgmYykñúgstvtSTI12 EdlGñkRbvtþisaRsþCaeRcIn)ancg RkgTuk CaBiessmanPsþútagdUcCaR)asaTGgÁrvtþ nigR)asaTCaeRcIn Edl)ancarwkTukCaPsþútagsMrab;;kUnecAExμr CMnan;eRkayeGay)andwg eXIj nigmanemaTnPaB faExμrFøab;CacRkPBmYyEdlrugerOgBIGtItkal. GaNa cRkExμr cab;epþImrIkcMerInrugerOgcab;BIstvtSTI 9 kñúgraCü surüvrμ½nTI 2 mkdl;stvtSTI 12 rC¢kalRBH)aT C½yvrμ½nTI 7 eRkayeBlEdlExμr)anTTYlÉkraCüBIRbeTscm,a: nigbBa©b;sRgÁam. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 2 )aneFIV eGayRbeTsmanÉkPaB nigsamKÁIPaBkñúgrgVg;CatiExμrEtmYy Exμr)anrYbrYmkmøaMgKña GPivDÆn_GaNacRkrbs;xøÜn eGayrIkcMerInya:gxøaMg TaMgxagvis½yesdækic© eyaFa nigsgÁmkic©. dMNak;kalrugerOgrbs;GaNacRkExμr manry³eBl 3 stvtS. sm½yenaHcRkPBExμrmanTwkdIFMTUlMTUlay esdækic©CatirugerOg RbkbeTAeday zamBlxøaMgxagEpñkeyaFa nigsil,³sMNg;GgÁr . sm½ymhanKrExμrmanTwkdIFMeFg latsn§wgelIRbeTsExμr bc©úb,nñ ExμreRkam Lav éf eRCayma:LayUCaedIm. kalenaHExμrmanRBMRbTl;xageCIgCab;niwgRbTscin xaglicCab;RbeTs ma:LayU xagt,ÚgCab;smuRT xagekItCab;RbeTsyYn. GriyFm’Exμrnasm½yenaH rugerOg eRbob)andUcCaGriyFm’ Rkic r:Um kalBIsm½ybUraNEdr. R)asaTEdlRbkbedayk,Úrk,ac;rcnaCaeRcIn Cavtßú mantMélkñúgelak )anbnSl;TukCasñaédnigekrþ×tMENleGaykUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkayCasPþútag nigmanemaTnPaB d¾Gs©arüsMrab;CatiExμreyIg. TwkdI R)asaT TaMgGs;enHCakMNb;RTBümhasalrbs;buBVbursdUntaeyIg ksagTuk eGayCatiExμrTaMgmUl CaGcäriyvtßúmYy EdlRbeTsd¾éTminGaceFIV)andUc nigCaemaTPaBbMput sMrab;CatiExμreyIg EdleyIgTaMgGs;Kña CaCatiExμr RtUvnaMKña karBar EfrkSaTuk. emIleXIjsñaédd¾FMeFgenH ebImin)ansag RbeyaCn_GIVmYyCUnCati sUmCYyrkSakarBar EfRbeyaCn_sagsñaéd EdlenAsl;eGayKg;vgS kMueGaybreTs deNþImplRbeyaCn_ RtYtRtaeyIg dUcsBVéf¶ EdleyIgCaCatiExμrrgkarQWcab; BIkarekobsgát;CiHCan; RbCaBlrdæ ExμrCaGñkTn;exSay. etIRBlwgdUnta buBVbursExμreyIg)anesaysuxb¤eT? ebIkUnecAExμrCMnan;enH RtUvrgTukçevTna edaysarEtemdwknaMmYycMnYntUc k,t;;]tþmKti lk;Cati suxcitþbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGaybreTs EdlCasñaéd rbs;dUntaeyIgxitxMksagTukmk. ktþamYycMnYnEdlnaMeGayExμrmanGriyFm’rIkcMerInrugerOgmandUcteTA³ 1-emdwknaMl¥ ¬esñhaCati smtßPaB nigeFIVKMrUnaMmux lHbg;RKb;Ebbya:g¦ 2-neya)aydwknaMÉkraCü 3-karRKb;RKgrdæl¥ 4-sm,ÚrFnFan 5- KμankareRCotERCkBIbreTs 6- karcUlrYmBIRbCaBlrdæExμr ¬ExμreGaytMélelICatiExμrxøÜnÉg¦ 7-KitplRbeyaCnCatiFMCagplRbeyaCn_buKÁl niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            33

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TwkdIExμr kalBIExμrCa cRkPBGgÁr 1-emdwknaMl¥ ( Good Leaders) dUc)anerobrab;enAkñúgesovePAemdwknaMCatiExμrPaK 1 EdlniyayGMBIemdwknaMl¥ emdwknaMesñhaCatiExμr BitR)akd. emdwwknaMEdll¥CaemdwknaMEdlEsVgrkplRbeyaCn_ esckþIsuxsuPmgÁlBit² CUn Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr edayminEmnsuxéf¶enH sMrab;søab;éf¶Es¥kenaHeT RtUvsuxCanirnþ CaCatiExμr . CaemdwknaMEdl manKuNFm’ mansmtßPaBRKb;RKan; mansuxPaBl¥TaMgpøÚvkaynigpøÚvcitþ GaceFIVeGayRbeTsrIkcMerInrugerOg RbCaBlrdæmanesckþIsux suxPmgÁl dUckalkñúgrC¢kalRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 2 RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 nig sUrüvrμ½nTI 2 CaedIm. RBHmhakSRtTaMgGs;enH manlkçN³sm,tþiKb;RKan;CaemdwknaM edayecjBIsmtßPaBxøaMgBUEk man suxPaBl¥ manKuNFm’ TsBitraCFm’ esñhaCatimatuPUmi ha‘nlHbg;RKb;Ebbya:gedIm,IdwknaMRbeTsCati eGayrIk cMerInrugerOg KYrCaTIeKarBbUCa minEmnCaRBHmhakSRtelaPln; GMNac ehIyelIkbnþúbedaybreTsenaHeLIy. RBHraCanasm½yenaH CaBiess RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 2 )aneRbIneya)aybRgYbbRgYmCati ÉkPaBCati samKÁIPaB épÞkñúgRbmUlRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgeGaysißtenAeRkamkardwknaMRBHGgÁEtmñak; . enAelIPñMKUeln RBHGgÁR)arB§eFIVBiFI eTvraC edaycat;TukRBHGgÁCa RBHGaTieTB EtminxøacjejItcMeBaHsRtUv EdlyayIBIxageRkA RBHGgÁegIbbHe)ar CamYycam eFIVsRgÁamvaylukrhUt)anÉkraCü EdlenAkñúgraCRBHGgÁesayraCBIqñaM¬802-850¦. RBHmhakSRt ExμrPaKeRcInkan;liTi§eTvraC RbCaBlrdæExμrcat;TukRBHraCaCaRBHGaTieTB. emdwknaMExμrTukplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr esckþIsuxRbCaBlrdænigplRbeyaCn_saFarN³FMCagGIV²TaMgGs; karBarplRbeyaCn_ CUnCatmatuPUmi ya:g muHmut Gg;Gac køahan mineGayxμaMgsRtUvdeNþImelIplRbeyaCn_Exμr QøanBan rMelaPelIGFibetyüExμr eLIy. RBHmhakSRtExμreFIVCaKMrUl¥naMmuxRKb;Ebbya:g esñhaCatimatuPUmiExμr lHbg; kmøaMgkaycitþ eBlevla GayuCIvit edIm,IkarBarTwkdI BUCsasn_ RbCaBlrdæ nigkarIkcMerInrugerOgrbs;RbeTs edaysißtenAeRkam emdwknaMEtmñak; EdlRbwgERbgrYbrYm ÉkPaBKña mineQøaHRbEkkEhkhYr rvagExμr nigExμr G;teGanGaFüaRs½y RsLaj;Kñaya:gs¥itrmYt minelaPln; muxmat;GMNacpÞal;xøÜneLIy. Cak;Esþg RBH)aT C½yvrμ½nTI7 suxcitþGn; cMeBaHCatiExμr mineQøaH kab;cak;rvagCatiExμrxøÜnÉg edIm,IEtGMNacraCblø½gÁeT EtRBHGgÁsuxcitþrgcaM»kas niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            34

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QøanBanrbs;breTs¬cam¦ eBlenaHcam)aneFIVKt;esþcExμr eTIbRBHGgÁegIbeLIg\txøacjejIt rMedaHExμrecj putBIkarkan;kab;rbs;cam. cm,aMgenAeBlenaHmankMritxøaMgenAmþúMR)asaT)ay½nnig R)asaTbnÞayqμar. RBHGgÁ )anbbYlesþccamc,aMgvayluk rhUtdeNþIm)annKrcm,a:eFIVCacMNuHeTotpg. RBHraCaEdlmansmtßPaBxøaMg man RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI2 C½yvrμ½nTI3 \RnÞvrμ½nTI1 yesavrμ½nTI1 hasSvrμ½n GIusvrμ½nTI2 C½yvr½μnTI4 hsSvrμ½nTI4 racRnÞvrμ½nTI2 C½yvrμ½nTI5 ]TayTitüvrμ½n TI1 C½yvrμ½nTI1 surüvrμ½nTI1 ]TayüTitüvrμ½nTI2 hsvrμ½nTI3 C½yvrμ½nTI6 dara:n; \RnÞvrμ½nTI1 sUrüvrμ½nTI2 dara:n; \RnÞvrμ½nTI2 yesavrμ½nTI2 RTihUva:NaTitüvrμ½n nigRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7. RBH)ansUrüvrμ½nTI2 nigRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 EdlCaRBHraCa )anksagR)asaTGgÁr KμannNadwgBIkalbriecäT c,as;las;eT EttamGñkRsI ma:dwELn sðwtU fa RBH)aTsUrüvrμ½nTI2 esayTIvgÁtcenøaHqñaM 1150 nig 1155 cMENkRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 esayTIvgÁtenAqañM 1201. eBlEdl RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 esayTIvgÁtenaH RbeTsCitxagmin)anTTYlBt’manenaHeT b:uEnþCaeRcInqñaMeRkaymk eTIbeKdwg. eqøot»kasEdlRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 cUlTIvgÁt; edaymanCMnYyBIBYk m:ug eKal esomcab;epþImerIbMr:H egIbeLIgpþac;xøÜnecj begIátCardæÉkraCü suexaT½yeLIgenAstvtSTI13. emdwknaMExμrsm½yenaH mansmtßPaBxøaMgxageyaFa GacdwknaMT½B c,aMgQñH sRtUvQøanBanmkBIRbeTsCitxag. emdwknaMExμreFIVeGaymanÉkPaBCati samÁIPaBmYyya:grwgbwug eGaytémø eTAelIkarBit KW sc©³ eGaytMélelIGñkesñhaCati GñkR)aCJ bNÐit BwgelICMhrxøÜnÉgCaedIm. RBH)aTsUrüvrμ½nTI 2 nig RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 CaRBHraCaEdlykcitþTukdak;cMeBaHsuxTukçRbCaraRsþRBHGgÁxøaMgCageKbg¥s; CaRBHraCa RbkbedayKuNFm’ nigTsBitraCFm’. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 EtgEteFIVsmaFiCaerogral;éf¶ eFIVeGayRBHGgÁman citþRtCak; manmenayiT§i nigmanR)aCJaqøatevogév GacdwknaMRbeTsExμreGay)ansuxsniþPaB Rbkbeday ckçúvis½yEvgq¶ay smøwgeXIjGnaKtc,as;las; dUcCasagR)asaTCaeRcInTukrab;Ban;qñaMsMrab;kUnecACMnan;eRkay CaedIm. eFIVkic©karbc©úb,nñ)aneCaKC½yRbkbedayyuT§saRsþ tamk,Ünxñat Km<Ir RtwmRtUv edayRBHGgÁ)an GnuvtþkardwknaMtam RTwsIþRBHBuT§sasna nigRBhμBaØsasna. emdwknaMExμrnasm½yenaH EtgEtRbEmRbmUl Gñk R)aCJCatiExμrTaMgGs; nigRbeTsCitxageGaycgRkgCaKm<Irk,ÜnxñatedIm,ICapøÚv sMrab;ExμrCMnan;eRkayrab;Ban; CMnan;eTotGnuvtþn_tam EtGkusledayesom)anvayRkuglEgVk nig)andeNþImykKm<Irk,ÜnxñatmkRbeTs eKGs;. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 RtUvRbCaBlrdæExμr fVayRBHnamfaCa RBHmhavir³kSRt ExμrEtmYyRBHGgÁKt; KμanBIr EdlxitxMeFIVeGayvisalPaBExμr l,IxÞrxÞarelIBiPBelak. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 eLIgRKgraCüenARBHCnμayu 60 qñaM ¬ÉksaxøHfa RBHCnμ 56 enAqñaM 1181¦. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 dwknaMRbeTstampøÚvRtUvkøayCamhabursén RbvtiþsaRsþ KμanesþcGgÁNaeRbobesμIr)an. 2-neya)aydwknaMÉkraCü (Independent Politics) k-neya)ayeRkARbeTs (Foreign Politics) GaNacRkExμrCaRbeTsmhaGMNacmYy EdlmanGriyFm’rugerOgdUc RbeTseGhSIb nigRkugr:Um. neya)ayeRkARbeTsExμrkalenaH Exμr)aneFIVsRgÁamvatTITwkdI ykRbeTsCitxagCacMNuH Etcgsm<½n§PaBCamYy RbeTsFM dUcCa PUma cin nig\NÐaCaedIm . RbeTstUc²ykmkeFIVcMNuH tMrUveGaypþl;sYysarGakr mnusS GñkR)aCJeGaymknKrExμr. RbeTsExμrmanTMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμ TMnak;TMngCamYycin \NÐa nig eGhSIb eRBaHkal niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            35

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enaHExμrGacmanplitplksikmμ eFIVERskñúgmYyqñaM 2-3 dg nigGaceFIVsib,kmμeTotpg. RbeTscm,a: nig GaNÑamCacMNuHrbs;nKrExμr. RbeTsCitxagminTan;man»kasmkdeNþIm nigTRnÞanplRbeyaCn_ExμreT. ekaHCVa)anFøak;exSayenAkñúgraCsniþvgS bNþalmkBIsRgÁamCamYyRbeTsGaNaÑm¬yYn¦ . RbeTsCitxagmin Tan;mankMlaMgRKb;RKan;vayluknKrExμrenAeLIy kalenaHcam)ancat;TukyYnCasRtUvTImYyrbs;eK. cMENÉ RbeTsesomenACakulsm<½n§énRbeTscinPaKxagt,Úg tMbn;yYNanénRbeTscin. RbeTsesomnasm½y enaHmin Tan;ekItCardæenAeLIy rhUtdl;stvtSTI13 eTIbekItCardæmYyeLIg EdlesþcExμr rama: )aneFIVkarpþac;xøÜnecj begIát)anCardæÉkraCü suexaT½y. cMENkÉRbeTsyYnminTan;rYcBIGaNaniKmn_RbeTscinenAeLIy dUecñHRbeTs enHminTan;)aneRtomxøÜn erobcMRbeTseGay)anl¥ Cab;c,aMgCamYyRbeTscm,a: mineRbIneya)ayvatTI TwkdIenAeLIy. GaNacRkExμrmanTMnak;TMngl¥CamYyRbeTsmhaGMNac RbeTstUc² xøbxøacsMueFIVCacMNuH ÉRbeTsCVa)anrUbrYmenACMuvijeRkamRBHmhakSRtExμrEtmYyRBHGgÁ. eRkayBIRbeTsyYn)anTTYlÉkraCüBIcin enABak;kNþalstvtSTI10 yYn)ancab;epþImkMerIkeLIg ehIyeFIVsRgÁamCamYYycam rhUtyYnelbykTwkdIRbeTs cm,a:)anenAqñaM 1687. srubmk GaNacRkExμreRbIneya)ayBRgIkTwkdI nigvayykRbeTsCitxag dak;CacMNuH karerobcMkgT½B [)anxøaMgBUEkCakic©karmYycm,gkñúgcMeNamkic©kardéTeTotnasm½yenaH. lkçN³xøaMgBUEk edaymanTahan eRcInnigyueT§abkrN_ bribUN’ehIyl¥²elIssRtUvCitxag. kgT½BCaGñkCYyelIksÞÜyGriyFm’[eLIgx<g;x<s; kgT½Bmanreboberobry k,ÜnyuT§sa®sþ nigTwkcitþesñhaCati EpñkeyaFaxøaMgekItmaneLIg)an k¾GaRs½y edaykarerobcM karhat;hVwkhVWn karGb;rM¬kmμviFIsikSa smÖar³sikSa nigKuNPaB¦ nigKMrUl¥ GMBIemdwknaM ¬EtsMrab;bc©úb,nñ RtUvmanFnFanmnusS yuT§saRsþ nigbec©kviTüa¦. x-neya)aykñúgRbeTs (Local Politics) GaNacRkExμrenAkñúgmhanKrd¾rugerOg Rbkan;neya)aybRgYbbRgYmCatiExμrEtmYy ÉkPaB samKÁIPaB épÞkñúg TaMgemdwknaM nigRbCaBlrdæExμrRtUvykplRbeyaCn_CatiExμrCaFM. karGnuvtþn_neya)ayenH cab;BI GaNacRkExμrerIbMrHrYcBIkarkan;kab;rbs;cam. kalenaHRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI2 enAkñúgstvtSTI9¬802-850¦ )an R)arB§BIFIeTvraCenAPñMKUeln edIm,IRbmUlRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs; enACMuvijEtRBHGgÁmñak; eKalbMNgerIbMr:H ecjBIkarRtYtRtarbs;cam cugeRkayRBHGgÁ)ansuKtenArlYs. emdwknaMnigRbCaBlrdæRtUv)anbNþúHqnÞ³Ca GñkesñhaCatiExμrdUcKña ehIyRbwgERbg erIbMr:H eFIVsRgÁamCamYycamTaMgGs;Kña rhUtTTYl)anÉkraCü. eRkayBI )anÉkraCü putBIsRgÁammk RBHraCa)ancab;epþImerobcMRbeTsCati edayepþatsMxan;eTAelIkarGPivDÆn_vis½yGb;rM suxmalPaBRbCaBlrdæ nigkarGPivDÆesdækic©RbeTs. karGPivDÆn_esdækic©epþatelIksikmμCaktþaGTiPaB nig BRgwgvis½ykarBarCatiedIm,ITb;sáat;sRtUvQøanBanBIxageRkA. kalenaHRbCaBlrdæExμrmancMnYnRbmaN 10 lannak;. kñúgcMeNamvis½yTaMgGs; manEtvis½yeyaFaeTEdlrwugmaMxøaMgCagvis½yepSg²eTot. ExμrmankgT½B eRcIn køahanmuHmut RbkbedayR)aCJa CMnajeyaFac,as;las; hWVkhVWnRtwmRtUv nig]bkrN_swkRKb;RKan; manT½BdMrI esH nigGavuFyuT§P½NÐman sBVsareBI niges,ogmÖÚbGaharbribUrN_. karsamKÁI nigÉkPaBrwugbwug rbs;Exμrcab;epþImmanBI RBH)aT\RnÞvrμ½nTI1 mkdl;C½yvrμ½nTI2. kgT½BExμrnaeBlenaH )anelIksÞÜyeGay niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            36

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manGriyFm’rugerOg nigmanvin½ysNþab;Fñab;erobcMl¥. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 )anelIksÞÜyeGaymansasnaTaMgBIr KW RBhμBaØsasna nigRBHBuT§sasna. karTTYlykeGaymansasnaTaMgBIrenH eFIVeGayRbeTs)ansux RbeTss¶b;KμankarbHe)ar nigminEbk)ak;épÞkñúg. RBHraCasm½yenaHmanGMNacxøaMgNas; GMNacTaMgGs; sißtenAelIRBHraCa KW GMNacnitibBaØti GMNacRbtibtiþ GMNactulakar. RBHraCaCatMNagRBHGaTieTB. karepþatsMxan;elIvis½yksikmμ nigkareFIVBaNiC¢kmμtameqñrsmuRT EdlplitplnaMecjeBlenaH manplitpl éRBeQI dUcCaPøúkdMrI xñayrmas Es,kstV degáarRkvaj xøwmc½nÞ.l. ehIyplitplTaMgGs;enaH manEtGñk enAkñúgéRBeT cMENkGñkRbma:j;)anmkRtUvlk;fVayesþc nignamWunmRnþIEdlCaGñkmansiTi§ nigmeFüa)ay naMecjniglk;ecjeTAeRkARbeTs. KμanGIVEdleKGacplitenAkñúgRkugenAeLIyeT esdækic©sißtenAelIesdækic© FmμCatienAeLIy. emdwknaM)anbegIát RbB½n§FarasaRsþxVat;ExVg CIkRsH CIkRbLayTwkbBa©ÚlERs edIm,ICa kargayRsYldl;dMNaMksikmμGacplitRsUv)anCaeRcIndg TTYl)anTinñplx<s; ehIyelIsBItMrUvkarrbs; RbCaBlrdælk;ecjeTAeRkARbeTs. eKeXIjmanCIk)aray_d¾FMeFgCaeRcIn dUcCa )arayN_Twkføa b¤)aray xaglic )arayN_ \RnÞatdak )arayN_ rhal; )arayN_ yesaFrtdak edIm,IykTwkeGayRbCaBlrdæeRbIR)as; nigedIm,Ipþl;Twkdl;ERscMkar nigdMNaMdaMduHnanapg. eKeXIjmansuPasitExμrmYyniyayfa eFIVERsnigTwk eFIVswk nig)ay eFIVneya)aynigcMeNHdwg. EtkardwknaMRtUvGnuvtþtamRTwsIþfμIRtwmRtUv EdleFIVeGayRbeTsCati rIkcMerIn BitR)akd dUcCakareFIVERs RtUvmanbec©keTsksikmμ bec©kviTüaEfmeTotedaypøas;bþÚrKMnitcas;min rIkcMerInecj. cMENkeFIVswkvij k¾eyIgminRtUvBwgEtelI)aymYymuxEdr KWeyIgRtUvhVwkhat;ÉkeTseyaFa taMgBIfñak;BlTahan dl;fñak;embBa¢akar eGayecHBitR)akd mansmÖar³swkRKb;RKan; es,og nigmanyuT§saRsþRtwmRtUv. 3-karRKb;RKgrdæl¥ (Good Governance) karRKb;RKgnasm½yenaH KW karRKb;RKgrebobmCÄkar GMNacsißtenAelIfñak;kNþal KW esþc. karsMerc kic©karepSg² RtUvecjBIGMNackNþal¬RBHraCa¦. ebIeyIgeRbobeFobmkRbB½n§bc©úb,nñ RbB½n§RKb;RKgEbbenH eKehAfaRbBn§RKb;RKgEbbpþac;kar. kardwknaMykRBHraCaCaFM RBHraCaCaGTieTB EtRBHraCanasm½yenaH KitplRbeyaCn_CatiFM esñhaCati ykcitþTukdak;suxTukçRbCaBlrdæ RbkbedayKuNFm’ nigTsBitraCFm’. rdæ)alépÞkñúgmanemkRnÞajRbcaMextþnImYy² EdlkalenaHExμrmanextþcMnYn 64 ¬kMBUlR)asaT)ay½n 64¦ tMNageGayextþExμr. karrIkcMerInxagesdækic© edayvis½yksikmμ nigxagviciRtsil,³ k,ac;rcna k¾rIkcMerIn xøaMgdUcCaksagR)asaTburaNCaeRcIn R)asaTGgÁrvtþ EdlRbkbedayk,ac;rcna\tex©aH. RbCara®sþExμrman CMenOelIGTieTB nigesþcfaCaGñkmanbuNü. sar³sMxan;énGriyFm’ExμreyIgRtUv)aneKrMlwkeLIgfa CaGriyFm’ mYyl¥CageK munGriyFm’rbs;GaNacRkr:UmaMg EdlenAEtmanlkçN³RbesIrCagGriyFm’énGaNacRkcin. RbeTscinsm½yenaH minTan;GacplitGIV²)anRKb;y:agedayxøÜnÉgenAeLIyeT b:uEnþGaNacRkExμrGacplitvtßú epSg²)anedayédxøÜnÉg)an. mhanKrExμrsm½yburaNrIkcMerInrugerOg manktþaCaeRcInGnueRKaHdUcCa manRTBüsm,tiþ FmμCatibribUrN_¬vtßúFatuedIm stV RTBüelIdIeRkamdI stVRKb;RbePT¦ RbCaBlrdæmancMnYntic Et 10 lannak; rs;enAelITwkdIFMlwVgelIVyRbkbeday]tþmPaB. kalsm½yenaHRBHraCaExμr )anksagrdæFanIGgÁrFM sagsg;pøÚvfñl;sMrab;dwkCBa¢Ún plitplksikmμ sagsg;pÞHsMNak;)ancMnYn 121 nigmnÞIeBTücMnYn 102. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            37

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KμanRbeTsNamYyén]b,TIVbenH GacBRgIkesdækic©)an dUcGaNacRkExμrnasm½yenaHeT eRBaHkarBRgIkesdækic© RtUvkarvtßúFatuedIm. GaNacRkExμrkøayCaCMBUkRbeTsEdlman PUmisaRsþmansßanPaBRbesIr nigkMNt;ya:g twgEtg kñúgkarRbNaMMgRbECgxagmhaGMNac. RbCaBlrdæ)ansßitenAkñúgsniþPaBeBjCaeRcInTsvtSedayKμan kareRCotERCkBIxageRkA CaBiesskñúgsm½yrugerOgdl;kMBUlcugeRkay eRkamkarRKb;RKgRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 CaRBHraCaeKarBFmμaFibetyü mkdwknaMRbeTsCati. 4-sm,ÚrFnFan (Plenty of Resource) FnFanenATIenHsMedAeTAelIFnFanFmμCati nigFnFanmnusS. RbCaBlrdæExμrRbkbeTAedaykaréqñ RbDitx<s; TwkdIFM éRBeQICaTICMrkdl;stVéRBRKb;RbePT dImanTwkdI manCICati manTwkeRsacRsBdMNaMksikmμ bribUN_ sMbUrcMNIGaharstV edaysarePøogFaøk;eCaKCaMRtCak;RtCMudl;pldMNaM manEpøpáal¥. FnFanEr:enARKb;TI kEnøg manmaseBRC Ekvkg R)ak; s<an; Edk nigvtßúmantMélCaeRcIneTot EdlExμreyIgminTan;)anRsavRCavGs;. pøÚvTwk bwgbYr xVat;ExVg eFIVeGaysm,ÚredayRtIenAkñúgbwgTenøsab sMrab;pÁt;pÁg;elIsBIesckIþRtUvkarrbs; RbCaBlrdæ. RbCaBlrdæmanCIviPaBFUrFar sb,ayrugerOg minxVayxVl; nigGIVeLIy. FnFansmÖar³mYycMnYn )anmkBIeGaysYysarGakrénRbeTsCitxag EdlCaRbeTscMNuH. cMENkEpñkxagt,ÚgénrdæenH BwgEp¥kEt elIkardutéRBeFIVcMkardaMRsUvCamUldæan Rbkbrbrb)aj;bRgÁb;hUb. 5-KμankareRCotERCkBIbreTs (Without Foreign Interference) RbeTsExμrmanÉkraCü sniþPaB KμankareRCotERCkBIbreTs KWeRkayBI RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 2 )annaM RbCaBlrdæegIbeLIgbHe)areFIVsRgÁam rMedaHExμreGayrYcecjBIkarkan;kab;rbs;cam. BIeBlenaHmk GaNa cRkExμr mankarÉkPaBmYyya:gTUlMTUlay edaysßitenAeRkamemdwknaMEtmñak; EdlxøaMgBUEk ehIycat;Tuk faCaGñkmanbuNü eTvraC. GaNacRkExμrman»kas ksagRbeTsCatieGayrIkcMerIn TaMgxageyaFa esdækic© ehdæarcnasm<½n§CaeRcIn. karEdlKμanbreTseRCotERCkenH mkBIkardwknaMkalenaH minEmneRbIyuT§saRsþkarBar eT EteRbIyuT§saRsþvayluk. RBHraCaExμrEtgEtelIkT½BeTAvayRbeTscm,:a nig RbeTsGNaÑam edayminTuk »kas eGayeKvaylukmuneLIy. 6-ExμreGaytMélelICatiExμrxøÜnÉg (Raise up Khmer Value) ExμreGaytMélxøÜnÉgenH Rtg;fa ExμrecHRsLaj;Kña CYyKñaeTAvijeTAmk ÉkPaBKña rYbrYmKña minsþab; eyabl;eFIVtambreTs EteGaytMélelIExμrKñaÉg sþab;eyabl;ExμrKñaÉg mineCOBakübreTsxageRkA naMeGayExμr Ebk)ak;enaHeLIy. ExμrsuxcitþbUCaRKb;Ebbya:g edIm,IkarBarCatimatuPUmi ebIkalNasRtUvcUlQøanBanyayI. EtExμrrs;edaysuxsnþiPaBCamYysgÁmRKYsarExμrdUcKña. 7-KitRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagRbeyaCn_buKÁl (Care more about national interest than individual interest)

TaMgemdwknaM kgT½B RbCaBlrdæ)antMkl;plRbeyaCn_CatiCacMbg FMCagplRbeyaCn_buKÁl. plRbeyaCn_sMedAeTAelI TwkdI GFibetyüPaB RbCaBlrdæ neya)aydwknaM rdæaPi)alCaedIm. ebIsin CaktþaTaMgGs;enH )at;bg;plRbeyaCn_ xUcxat RtUvdUrecjEkERbecj. emdwknaM)aneGaytMélelICnesñhaCati niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            38

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matuPUmi sc©³Fm’ yutþFm’ KuNFm’ ehtuenHehIybuKÁlmñak;²xitxMksagsñaéd eFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatimatuPUmi. buBVburseyIgsuxcitþlHbg;QamRss; sac;Rss; edIm,IEfrkSakarBar TwkdI vtßßúmantMélepSg² edayminsux citþenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;breTs b¤ tbtCamYysRtUvQøanBanedayminxøacjejIt edIm,IeGaykUnExμrCMnan; eRkay )anrs;enAya:gsuxsanþelIkMNb;maskMNb;R)ak;d¾mhasalenH k¾eRBaHEtBYkKat;TaMgenaHKitBI pl RbeyaCn_CatisMrab;eyIgCaExμrCMnan;eRkayenHÉg. karsnñidæan (Conclusion) karerobrab;EvkEjkmkxagelIenH min)anl¥itl¥n;l¥eT EtCaRKwHsMxan;² KMnitsMxan;² sMrab;GñksikSa RsavRCav ykeTAsikSabEnßmGMBIGriyFm’GgÁr. RKwHneya)ay ¬KWÉkPaB nigsamKIÁCati rYmedaykgT½BmYyxøaMg ehIyerobry¦ RKwHesdækic© KWneya)ayTwkd¾biunRbsBV ksikmμGtipl sib,kmμ nigBaNiC¢kmμeRkARbeTs ehIyeyIg)anrab;bBa©ÚlkñúgRKwHTaMgenHnUvktþaxøHeTot manktþamrtkBIGtItkal ktþamnusS nigRbCaBlrdæ nigemdwknaM b:uEnþetIeyIgGaccat;TukfaRKb;RKan;ehIyb¤enA ebIeyIgenAxVHktþaCamUldæanmYyeTot KWRKwHvb,Fm’ )anesckþIfakarecHdwgsBVsareBIEdlFmμtaRtUvecj BIkareronsURt nigkarGb;rM BIKm<Irk,Ünxñat BIGñkR)aCJbNÐit nigsasnaCamøb;sMrab;BwgBak;GaRs½y nigCapøÚvedIr. CaBiess RtUvykKMnitécñRbDitrbs;GñkR)aCJExμreyIg eBlenaHEdlsagnKreRBagRBat erobcMEkécñrcnabfbreTsmYycMnYneGaymanlkçN³CaExμr.

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            39

rkSasiTi§


II.ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;cuH (Factor Cause Khmer Failed)

bnÞab;BRI BH)aTC½yvrμn½ TI7 cUlTIvgÁteTA enAqñaM 1219 cRkPBExμr)ancab;epþmI regÁaHregIÁr edaysar kareRCotERCkBIxageRkA esom nigcam karEbk)ak;épÞkúñgsRgÁamsasna sRgÁamdeNþmI GMNac nigktþaepSg² Edlnwgerobrab;xageRkam. GaNacRkExμr)anFøak;cHu dundabCabnþbnÞab; edaysarsRgÁamvwkvrminecHcb; sRgÁam sasna bgáedayRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 8 nigcab;BIrC¢kalRBH)aTniBVanþ)aTstvtSTI 14 rhUtdl;stvtSTI 19 Edl manry³eBl 5 stvtS eFIVeGayTwkdIGaNacRkExμrrYmtUc RbCaBlrdærgTukeç vTna )at;bg;]tþmPaB kitüanuPaB ya:gxøaMgrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH. enAcenøaHstvtSTI14 nig stvtSTI19 GaNacRkExμr)anFøak;cuHdundab ya:gxøaMg KWCasm½ykald¾exμAggwtrbs;Exμr. emdwknaMexSay elaPln;GMNacBwgbreTs mçagBwgyYn mçagBwg esom eFIVsRgÁamEhkhYrExμr nig Exμr edIm,IEtGMNacraCblø½gÁ sþab;breTs tamkarjúHjg;rbs;eK neya)aydwknaM minÉkraCü karRKb;RKgrdæexSay karQøanBanBIbreTs¬yYn cam esom¦ Ebk)ak;épÞkñúg vibtþiraCvgS karminTukcitþExμrnigmineGaytMélExμrKñaÉg .l. ktþaTaMgGs;enaHeFIVeGayExμrFøak;cuH bgávinasskmμ RbCaBl rdæ Exμrsøab;)at;bg;Civit køayCaRbeTsmYyTn;exSayRkIRkCaeKelIBiPBelak. TwkdIExμrEdlFMlwVgelIVy \LÚvenHenAsl;Et 181 035 KILÚEm:Rtkaer:¬manEttYelx¦ EdlRtUvyYnRtYtRta KUsvasneya)ayBIeRkay xñgeTot. 1-kMesayemdwknaM (Poor Leaders) emdwknaMEdlKμanlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan; GaceFIVeGayRbeTsCatiFøak;cuHGnþray edaysarEtkarKitxus eFIVxus KYbpSMneya)aydwknaMKμanÉkraCüsßitenAeRkamKMnabbreTs Caplvi)akmYyya:gxøaMgcMeBaHkarsMerccitþ elIkic©karneya)ayepSg² eFIVeGay)at;bg;TwkdI )at;bg;plRbeyaCn_Catirbs;xøÜn. karRKb;RKgEdlminmank,Ün xñatc,ab;c,as;las; kardwknaMRKb;RKgtamrebobsPavKti minsegátemIlrkKMnitfμItamRbeTsrIkcMerIn. emdwknaM EdlminelIkTwkcitþeGaymankarRbkYtRbECgKña edIm,IeRCIserIsemdwknaMl¥bMputsMrab;RbeTs enHCacMNucexSay énRbB½n§dwknaM RKb;RKgRbeTs. kareFIVsRgÁameRCotERCkBIbreTs nigEbk)ak;épÞkñúgdeNþImGMNacKña eday eRkamyuT§saRsþbreTs breTsCaGñkerobcMEpnkar KUsvasyuT§saRsþeGayExμrlg;kñúg])aykl,. Ca»kas eGaybreTseqøotykTwkdIExμr deNþImplRbeyaCn_BIExμreyIg ebIk»kaseGayeKerobcMRbeTs GPivDÆn_RbeTs rIkcMerInelOnCagRbeTsrbs;eyIg. emdwknaMGtμaniymKitEtplRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn deNþImEhkhYrRTBü sm,tþiCatimkdak;RTBüsm,tþibuKÁl min)aneFIVplRbeyaCn_eGayCati edaykþIvegVgnigGMNac buNüs½ká luykak; RTBüsm,tþienaHCaerOgsMxan;CagplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr ktþaTaMgenHehIyCaedImehtueFIVeGayCatiExμrFøak;exSay. emdwknaMKμansmtßPaB Etcg;)anGMNacRKb;RKgRbeTsCati eFIVeGayEbk)ak;raCüvgS mþgehIy mþgeTot eQøaHRbEkkKña bgsmøab;b¥Ún b¥Únsmøab;bg \tQb;Qr karEhkhYrKñarvagExμr nigExμr edIm,IraCblø½gÁ tamkarlabBN’rbs;breTssgxag EdleFIVeGayExμrEbk)ak; kab;smøab;KñaÉg x©IédExμrsmøab;Exμr eGayEbk)ak; samKÁI Qb;KitKUrsuxTukçlM)akRbCaBlrdæ.. karEbb)ak;épÞkñúgenH Cakarpþl;»kaseGaysRtUv hucdgkaMbit eGaysRtUv begIát»kaseGaysRtUvmankmøaMgxøaMgCag mkCiHCan; eFIV)abdeNþImykplRbeyaCn_rbs;Exμr niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            40

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nigdeNþImykTwkdIExμr. emdwknaMmineGaytMéleTAelICatirbs;xøÜnÉg sþab;breTs BwgbreTsedIm,IGMNac . enAkñúgRbvtþisaRsþExμr )anbBa¢ak;fa Exμrcab;epþImmansRgÁam kñúgrC¢kalRBHraCa RBHnamfa RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 8 min)aneRbIneya)aybRgYbbRgYmCati edaylubecalRBHBuT§sasna ehIykan;EtRBhμBaØsasna CaehtueFIVeGay mankarbHe)areLIg ekItsRgÁambMpøajrUbsMNaksasna RBHBuT§ ekaslubrUbRBHBuT§ecal dUcmankarekaslub cmøak;enAtamsrsrR)asaTGgÁrvtþ EdlCasñaédrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7 CaedIm. edaymanCMnYyBIBYkm:ugeKal esom)anegIbbHe)areLIgpþac;xøÜnecjRbqaMgnigGaNacRkExμr begáItCardæÉkraCümYyeQμaH suexaT½y enAstvtS TI13 edayesþc RsI\RnÞTwtüa ¬1240-1270¦. esom)anbnþeFIVsRgÁamCamYyExμrbnþeTot edayelIkbnþúb emdwknaMfμI EdlminEmnCaBUCBgSvrμ½neTot eQμaHta Rtsk;Ep¥m EdlRbvtþisaRsþExμrRtUv)anlubbM)at; ehIyman erOgniTanmYyekIteLIg EdlminEmnCaRbvtþisaRsþBitR)akd KWerOgtaRtsk;Ep¥m. bnÞab;mkGaNacRkExμrk¾Føak;kñúgsRgÁamvwkvr deNþImraCKña edayesþcBwgelIbreTsCitxag mçagBwgyYn mçageTotBwgesom. esþcExμr)aneTABwgyYneGayCYyc,aMg CamYyesþcExμrGgÁepSgeTot edIm,IRBHraCbl½gÁman dUcCaesþcGgÁsU¬1659-1672¦ GgÁtn; GgÁc½nÞ GgÁnn; GgÁGwm GgÁTg ¬ramaFibtI¦¬1747-1748 nig 1756-1757¦GgÁmuI ¬1834-1841¦ . cMENkkSRtEdleTABwgesomxøHenAeRkam\Ti§Blesom ehIy c,aMgCamYyesþc EdlBwgyYnenaH manesþc RsIsureyaBN’ ¬1602-1618¦ FmμraCaTI 3 GgÁs¶Ün ¬17491755¦ GgÁeGg GgÁGwm GgÁDYg ¬1841-1859¦GgÁeBA CaedIm. eRkaymkeFIVeGayExμrQb;TukcitþExμrKñaÉg edaysarEtsRgÁamdeNþImGMNaccuHeLIgenH eFIVeGay)at;bg;CMenOeCOCak;dwknaMRbeTsedayxøÜnÉgrhUtdl;raC rbs;RBH)aTGgÁDYg. RBHGgÁxVayxVl;GMBIkar)at;bg;RbeTsExμr edaykarelbTwkdI karQøanBan BIRbeTsCitxag minecHcb; RBHGgÁk¾rkmeFüa)aydak;RbeTseGaysßitenAeRkamGaNanIKmn_)araMg EtenAkñúgraCRBHGgÁminTan; )ansMerceT eRBaHkarTMnak;TMngmin)ansMerceRBaHesþcesomcab;sMbuRt EdlRBHGgÁepJIeGay)araMg)an. eTIb mkdl;RBH)aTneratþmCabuRtc,grbs;esþcGgÁDYgeTIbkarTak;TgCamYy GñkpSaysasna)araMg)ansMerc ehIy)an cuHhtßelxaRbKl;eGay)araMgkan;kab; 11 sIha 1863. RbeTsExμr)ansßitenAeRkamGNaniKm)araMg cab;BI eBlenaH rhUtmkdl;)araMg)anelIkbnþúbGtItesþc sIhnu eGayeLIgesayraCüenAqñaM 1941 eBlEdlRBHGgÁ kMBugeronenAéRBnKr. k-neratþm sIhnu (Norodam Sihanouk) esþc neratþm sIhnu RbsURtenAéf¶TI31 Extula qñaM1922 CabuRtrbs;RBH)aT suramRmit nig RBHmataRBHnamkusm³. RBHGgÁ)ansikSaeronsURtenAviTüal½ysIusuvtß nigbnþkarsikSaenAéRBnKr ¬TwkdIExμr km<úCaeRkam¦. eBlRBHGgÁkMBugsikSaenAviTüal½ysasUlU)aéRBnKr )araMgelIkbnþúbRBHGgÁeGayeLIgesayraCü enARBHCnμ 18 RBHvsSaenAqñaM1941. eRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;)araMg mankarbHe)arRbqaMg nigGNaniKm )araMgekIteLIg edIm,ITamTarÉkraCü enAqñaM 1942 edayGacarü Ehm ecov nigeBaFi kMe)ar EdleKehafa sRgÁamq½Rt. )araMg)anbBa¢aeGay esþc sI hnu cab;Gacarü Ehm ecov b‘un can;ml; nigGñkmYycMnYneTot eTAdak;Kuk enAekaHRtLac. enAeBlenaHclnaExμr\sSr³ dwknaMeday sWug g:ukfaj; k¾RbqaMgCamYyRBHGgÁEdr. enAqñaM 1945 eBlEdlCb:uneFIVsRgÁamQñH)araMgenA GasIuGaeKñy_ sWug g:ukfaj;eLIgeFIVCanaykrdæmRnþI niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            41

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EteBlEdlCb:uncaj;sRgÁamelIkTI 2 eBlenaH semþc sIhnu)an GnuBaØateGay)araMgRtYtRtaRbeTsExμrsarCafμI ehIyRBHGgÁ)anRtUv)araMgelIkeGayesayraCüeTot. dl;enAéf¶TI 4 Exmifuna qñaM 1949 )araMg)ankat;TwkdIExμr eRkameTAeGayyYnCapøÚvkarEtmþg. RBHGgÁmanTIRbwkSa PaKeRcInCaCnbreTsdUcCa hSakma:Ey ¬)araMg¦ RBHGgÁ minsUvTukcitþExμrb:unμaneT Cak;Esþg bc©úb,nñRBHGgÁmanGgÁrkSCnCatikUer: b¤cinCaedIm ykRbBn§carkmμ yYn¬m:Unic¦ CaedIm CaBiesskñúgnamRBHGgÁCaesþc RBHGgÁminEdlsresrGkSrExμreT RBHGgÁsresrEtPasabreTsPasa )araMg ehIyKg;enAEtbreTs Kg;enAcin kUer:xageCIg RBHGgÁminEmnCaesþcExμreT RBHGgÁCaesþcbreTs. semþc sIhnu )ankuhke)akR)as;Exμr faRBHGgÁCabitaÉkraCü CaGñkeFIVkaMePøIgeQIedj)araMgecj EttamkarBitRbeTs CaeRcIn)anTTYlÉkraCüeRkayBIsRgÁamelakelIkTI2 )anbBa©b; EtExμrvij)araMg)anRbKl;ÉkraCüeTAeGayyYn EdlCaGñkeFIVsRgÁamQñH)araMg yYntMNag\NÐÚcin bnÞab;BIyYncuHhtßelxa elIsn§isBaØaGnþrCatienAhSwENv éf¶TI 20 kkáda 1954. sUmCYyBicarNaRtg;cMNucenH. eRkayBI)anÉkraCü kñúgnamCaesþcEpndI KμanKMnitdwknaM RbeTsCati RsLaj;GMNac dak;raCüeTAeFIVneya)aybegIátKNbkSsgÁmraRsþniymenAqñaM 1955 dwknaM RbmaN Cag 5 qñaM RbeTs)anFøak;kñúgsRgÁam BukrlYy esdækic©Føak;cuHedaysarcaj;e)akyYn. buKÁlwk lkçN³semþc sI hnu CabuKÁlcecs rwugrUs minsþab;eyabl;Gñkd¾éT CaBiess semþcsgÇraC CYn Nat CaGñkR)aCJ GñkesñhaCati )anhammineGayRBHGgÁeFIVkumμúynisþnaMeGayCativinas Etsemþc sI hnu minRBm eTAcuHhtßelxas¶at;²CamYy yYnpþl;TwkdIeGayeyokkugdak;T½BcMnYn 5 extþ enAEx emsa 1965. b:uEnþeRkaymk semþcsgÇraC CYn NatRtUv suKtedayGaf’kM)aMg. sI hnu CaesþcelμaPRsIeRcIn cUlcitþsb,ay eRcog nigsil,³ Cak;EsþgRBHGgÁman mehsIRsIsñMrab;ry eRcog sEmþgelçan EdlxusBIcriklkçN³emdwknaM. kardwknaMRbeTsKμanEpnkarc,as;las; edayeFIVtamGarmμN_nwkeXIj nigeFIVtamkarKUsvasrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ cin nig yYn. cMNucsegçbGtIt esþc sIhnu mandUcxageRkameTot ³ • RBHGgÁRtUVv)anEtgtaMgeday)araMgeGayeLIgesayraCüenARBHCnμ18 RBHvsSaenAqñaM 1941. • bNþúHbNaþlenARkughaNUy TwkdIkm<úCaeRkam. • RBHGgÁ)anGHGagfaRBHGgÁTTYlÉkraCüBI)araMg b:uEnþKat;)aneFIVmindwgminB¤BIkic©RBmeRBogkat; TwkdIkm<úCaeRkameGayyYn 4 mifuna 1949. • TMnak;TnM gsm¶at;CamYyyYneGayeyokkugcUlmktaMgT½BenAkñg ú RsukExμr EdlRbeTskm<úCakal sm½yenaHCaRbeTsGBüaRkitü¬minQrxagkumμúynisþ nig minQrxagesrI¦. • RBHGgÁ)anGnuBaØateGay s>r>G Tmøak;RKab;EbkenAkm<úCa edayminpþl;dMNwgeGayRbCaCnExμr dwgedIm,I)aneKcq¶ayBIkEnøgTmøak;RKab;EbkenH. • enAedImqñaM1970 neratþm sIhnu )aneFIVButCaQW ehIyyageTARbeTs)araMg b:uEnþtamBit eTARBHGgÁ)aneKcBIbBaðaEdlxøÜnRBHGgÁ)anbegIáteLIg nigminGacRKb;RKgelIevotkugEdl manvtþmanelITwkdIExμr 60 000nak;eTA 80 000nak;.

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            42

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ln; Nul nig srImt³ )aneTA)araMgehIysMueGayRBHGgÁyagRtlb;mkvij b:uEnþRBHGgÁ )anbgçM eTACamYyGKÁmehsIrbs;RBHGgÁvij bnÞab;mkRBHGgÁ)ancUlrUYmCamYyExμrRkhmBIeb:kaMgmk begIátrNsirSrYmCatikm<úCa 23 mina 1970. RBHGgÁCa emExμrRkhm. • karKaMRTyYnrbs;RBHGgÁ)ansMlab;RbCaCnsøÚtRtg;Cag 2 lannak; rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgbBaØvnþ 20° • kare)aHeqñatenAqñaM1993 EdlmankarKaMRT nigRtYtBinitüBIGgÁkarshRbCaCati cMNayfvika Gs; 2>8 ekadiduløa kalenaHRbCaCn 90° )anecjeTAe)aHeqñat eTaHbImankarKMramkMEhg dl;CIvit nigkarbMPitbMP½yk¾eday. b:uEnþmgþ eTot GtItesþc sIhnu)anbMpøajecalsubinþ rbs;RbCaCnedayGnuBaØateGay hu‘n Esn kan;GMNacbnþ ehIyedjGgÁkarshRbCaCati eGayecjBITwkdIExμr. ehtuplenH edaysarRBHGgÁmankarcuHhtßelxasm¶at;CamYyhu‘n Esn CakUnGukyYn enAqñaM1987. • RBHmhakSRtneratþm sIhnu manGKÁmehsICapøÚvkarcMnYn5 ¬pat; kn§úl sIu suvtißBgSmunñI sIu suvtißmunIeksn semþcRBHraC neratþm nrlkSN_ m:m munñIvNÑ nig mñag munic ¬munInaf sIhnu¦ehIynigmanRsIsñMepSg² eTot CaeRcIn RBmTaMgmanbuRtcMnYn 14. • semþc sIhnu )anKaMRT h‘un Esn 100 PaKry elIk h‘un Esn Cavir³burs sarubmkGtItesþc sIhnu CaesþcRkhm Edlgb;gl;menaKmn_kumμúynisþ minKitKUrBIGayuCIvit RbeTsCati plRbeyaCn_RbeTsCatixøÜnÉg edIm,IEtGMNacraCblø½gÁ. RBHGgÁdwknaMRbeTsCatinaMeGayFøak; mhnþray søab;mnusSrab;lannak;kñúgsm½yExμrRkhm RbeTsCatiexÞcxÞIedaysarsRgÁam nig)at;bg;TwkdICaedIm. eyIgsegáteXIjfa GtItesþcsIhnuenH minKitKUrBIsuxTukçrbs;raRsþRbCaeLIy Kg;enAEtbreTs . karEdlbMpus bMpuleGayExμrTaMgGs; cat;Tukfa sIhnu CaGñkmanbuNü sIhnu CabuKÁlGs©arü CaBakübMpusrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ EdlkMBugeRbIedIm,IykeQμaH sIhnu e)akR)as;RbCaBlrdæExμr eGaylg;eCOGIVEdlminBit eCOxül; edIm,ITuk»kas eGayBYkkumμúynisþdeNþImplRbeyaCn_Exμr RtYtRtaExμr sMercEpnkarrbs;eK kñúgkarelbykTwkdIExμr eday viFIRtCak; ¬neya)aycitþsaRsþ¦ TIbMputExμrmanEtsMbkRbeTs ExμrmanEteQμaH ExμrCaCnCatiPaKtic RtUvyYn RtYtRtaRbeTsedayRsYlbMput. tamBakürbs;bNÐitNarBaØKIrITiRt suxcitþeGayGñks¥b;´ eRBaH´niyaykarBit R)ab;Gñk CaCagGñkRsLaj;´ Edl´niyaykuhkR)ab;Gñk. sIhnu minEmnCaemdwknaM BitR)akdeT BIeRBaHGIVEdl Kat;eFIVxus ehIyxuseTot EtKat;minRBmlatRtdagkarBitBIkMhusrbs;xøÜn b¤sMueTas RbCaBlrdæExμresaH kMhussIhnumandUcCa dUcCaKat;dwknaMRbeTseGayFøak;cUlsRgÁam eFIVeGayExμr søab;rab;lan nak; Kat;xitxMlak; kMhusminRBmecjmkTTYlxusRtUv EbCaTMlak;kMhusdak;GñkenH GñkenaHCaedIm. ebIsinCa eyIgmin)ansikSa GMBIneya)ay RbvtþisaRsþExμr nigPaBCaGñkdwknaMeGay)ansIuCMerAeTenaH eyIgminGacvaytMélfaya:gNa cMeBaHsgÁmCatiExμr)aneT? BIeRBaHGñkFMEdlmanGMNacEtgeFIVGIVRtUvTaMgGs; biTsiTi§esrIPaBmineGayniyay karBit biTBt’man mineGayTTYl)ankarBit EtGñktUceTaHCaeFIVRtUv esñhaCatiya:gNak¾eday EtRtUveKTMlak; kMhusdak;ecaTfak,t;Cati ehIycab;dak;Kuk b¤smøab;ecaleTotpg TegIVGs;enH RbeTsCati minGacrIkcMerIn)aneT emdwknaMMCatiExμrCMnan;eRkay² RtUvecosevogcMNucTaMgGs;enaH. cMNucexSayrbs; RBH)aTneratþmsIhnu •

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KWminmanlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan;CaemdwknaM rab;taMgBIsmtßPaB KuNFm’ CaedIm eRBaHGtμaniym eFIVGIVtamGarmμN_ l;g;menaKmn_kumμúynisþyYn cin dwknaMKμanckçúvis½yc,as;las;.

sIhnu nig paM va:n;dug x-ln; nl; (Lon Nol) elak ln; nl; ekItenAéf¶TI 13 Exvicäkar qñaM1913 enAextþéRBEvg. Kat;)ansikSaenAsalaviTüal½ysIusuvtß ehIybnÞab;mkbnþkarsikSaenAshrdæGaemrik. elak ln; nl;manÉkeTsxageyaFa CabuKÁlEdlesμaHRtg; cMeBaHsemþc neratþm sIhnu. Kat;Føab;eFIVCanaykrdæmRnþI nigCaesnaRbmuxenArbbsgÁmraRsþniym. eRkaymk Kat;RtUv)aneKEtgtaMgeFIVCa GKÁnayknKr)al CaembBa¢karkgT½B CardæmRnþIRksYgkarBarCati eFIVCa naykrdæmRnþI. Kat;)aneFIVCaRbFanaFitI eRkayBIeFIVrdæRbhar enAéf¶TI 18 Exmina qñaM1970 kñúgrbbsaFarN³rdæ Exμr. elak ln; nl; KWCaGñkesñhaCatiExμrmYyrUb Edl)aneFIVsRgÁamtbtCamYyyYneyokkug EdlQøanBan RbeTsExμr. eBlEdlKat;eFIVCaRbFanaFibtI Kat;min)aneRtomxøÜnrYcral;kñúgkardwknaMrbbsaFarNrdæ b¤ karerobcM neya)ayRbeTseT BIeRBaHsßankarN_RbfucjúctMrUv. dMNak;kalenaHkumμúynisþGnþrCati kumμúynisþyYn kMBugEtrIkduHdal. elak ln; nl; )anFøak;exSayEpñksuxPaB edaymanCm¶Wsøab;mYycMehogxøÜn ehIy)an eTA Büa)alenA haév: Gs;ry³eBl Cag 2 Ex k¾RtLb;mkRbeTsExμrvij. elak ln; nl;CaGñkeCOelImnþGaKmn_ GUmGam edaycMNayR)ak;CaeRcInelICMenOenH. kardwknaMrbs;Kat; eKsegáteXIjman GMeBIBukrlYyCaeRcIn edaykarerobcMmin)anl¥ eRBaHfamRnþIraCkarmYycMnYnEdleFIVkarenAkñúgsarFarN³rdæ EtKaMRTrNsirSrYbrYmCati km<úCadwknaMeday esþc sIhnu. TIbMput kumμúynisþEdldwknaMedayyYneyokkug QñHenAéf¶TI 17 emsa 1975 ehIy)anbMBak;C½yCMnHenHeTAeGayBYkkumμúynisþExμr EdldwknaMeday sIhnu ehAfaExμrRkhm. eBlenaH elak ln; nl; )anePosxøÜneTAhaév: nab:unμanéf¶munTahan b:ul Bt cUlkan;kab;TIRkugPñMeBj enAéf¶ 17 emsa 1975. Kat;nigRkumRKYsar)aneTArs;enAhaév:rhUtdl; qñaM1979 eTIbKat; )anpøas;bþÚreTArs;enA xlIv:kja: rhUtdl;TTYl mrN³PaBenAqñaM 1985.

elak esnaRbmux ln; nl; niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            44

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K-b:ul Bt b¤ saLuút sr (Pol Pot ) or Salot Sar elak b:ul Bt ekItenAéf¶TI 25 Ex]sPa qñaM1928 enAextþkMBg;FM EdlmaneQμaHedImfa sa Luútsr. Kat;man»kassikSaenAviTüal½yneratþm enAextþkMBg;cam. b:uEnþeRkaymk Kat;TTYl)anGaharrUbkrN_eTA sikSaenARbeTs)araMg BIeRBaH mþaymIgRtUvCaGñkraMr)aM)aeL sñMrbs; esþc sIhnu . enARbeTs)araMg Kat;sikSaEpñk GKÁIsnI EteBlEdlkMBugsikSaenATIenaH Kat;)ansikSaneya)ay edayeBjcitþnigmenaKmn_kumμúynisþ rbs;kal ma:kS ehIy)anRbqaMgrbbraCaniymrbs;esþc sIhnu. eRkaymk semþc sIhnu )ankat;pþac;GarharUbkrN_ ehIyKat;)anRtLb;mkkñúgRbeTsExμrvij edayminTan;)aneroncb;enAeLIy. b:ul Bt )ancUleFIVkarts‘URbqaMg rbbskþiPUmi rbs; sIhnu kñúgGMLúgqñaM 1951. eRkaymkKat;)anbegIátsalabeRgoneQμaHfa km<úCbuRt. Kat; CamnusS EdlmankarKitKUrEvgq¶ay manlkçN³sm,tþirmTmü suPaBrabsabMput nig manR)aCJasÞk; manevaha CamnusSmanrUbrags¥at)atKYreGaycab;citþ BaJjwm rYsray minsUvniyaysIþ EdleFIVeGayKat; manRbCaRbiy cMeBaHnisSitTUeTA. Kat;mandMeNIrrh½srhYn KWCabuKÁlmñak;EdlBUEkTak;TajcitþhVÚgGñksaþb;. eRkayBIman )atukmμekIteLIgenAsMLÚt eFIVeGaysIhnuxJal; bBa¢aeGaysmøab;)atukr xøHRtUvkat;kGs;rab;mWunnak; rdæaPi)al sIhnu )anRbkasedjcab;BYkEdlRbqaMgRBHGgÁman saLútsr exovsMpn h‘U nwm h‘Uyn;CaedIm. saLuútsr )ancUleTACamYybkSkumμúynisþRbCaCnkm<úCaenAqñaM1951 enACamYyTUrsamut EdlenAeRkambkSkumμúynisþrbs; yYn. eRkayBIrdæRbhar 18 mina 1970 b:ul Bt RtUvbgçMcitþedaysar yYn nig cin)aneGay cUlrYmCamYysemþc sIhnu begIátCarNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCaenA éf¶TI 23 mina 1970. eBlenaH b:ul Bt CaembBa¢akarkgT½BrMedaH CYrmux. b:ul Bt CaGñkdwknaMmYyrUbyklMnaMtamrbb haVsIus pþac;kar xVHKuNFm’ EdlTTYlkarerobcMbNþúH bNþal elIkGMNacCUnedayyYnkumμúynisþ éf¶TI 17 Exemsa qñaM1975. TaMgsemþc sIhnu nig b:ul Bt edIrkñúgl,ickl,yYn. b:ul Bt lg;kñúgmenaKmn_viC¢akumμúynisþ rYmCamYysIhnu RbqaMgCamYyBYkesrI EdlCaGñk EdlesñhaCati eFIVeGayxUcRbeyaCn_Exμrya:gxøaMg ePøcKitBIyuT§saRsþ sikSaeGaysIuCMerA KitBIGayuCIvit RbeTsCati plRbeyaCn_Cati GayuCIvitRbCaBlrdæ. enHCasmþIsarPaBrbs; b:ul Bt Edl)anniyayeday mindwgxøÜn lg;eCOyYn eTIbEtPJak;xøÜneRkayBIeBlEdleFIVdMeNIreTACYb eL yn; enAhaNUy. Kat;)aneFIVdMeNIr efμIreCIgGs;ryHeBl 2 ExknøH. eBleTAdl; eL yn; )anpþl;ÉksareGayemIl Kat;emIledayl¥itl¥n; rYcTajsnñidæanfa {´)aneXIjtaMgBIqñaM 1930 dl;qñaM 1965 ÉksarTaMgGs;rbs;bkSkumμúynisþevotNam

)anniyayBIbkSbdivtþRbCaCnkm<úCa niglav dUcCaEmkFagrbs;bkSevotNam. bkSTaMgBIrGnuvtþn_c,ab;maK’a neya)ay nigyuT§saRsþrbs;bkSevotNam. munnig´)aneXIjÉksarTaMgGs;enH edaypÞal;xøÜn´ ´eCOTukcitþ elIevotNam. b:uEnþeRkayBIGanÉksarTaMgGs;enaHeTA ´Qb;eCOelIeKehIy ´eXIjfa eK)ancat;taMgGgÁkar bkSenAkñúgRsukeyIg edIm,IsMercTwsedAyuT§saRsþEtmYy KW shB½n§\NÐÚcin. eK)anbegIátbkSEtmYy edIm,ItMNag eGayTwkdI bBa©ÚlKñaEtmYy.} Rtg;cMNucenH emdwnaMeRkay²RtUvcaMfa Qb;BwgbreTsCitxag RtUvBwgExμrxøÜnÉg eCOExμrKñaÉg. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            45

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eBlEdlyYncUlQøanBan enAéf¶TI 7 mkra 1979 Kat;)aneKcmktamCayEdn ehIyvaytbt CamYyyYnQøanBan. rhUtdl;kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs enAéf¶TI 23 tula 1991. Etmin)ancUlmke)aHeqñateT eRBaHKat;emIleXIjfa yYn)anbgáb;enAkñúgKNbkSRbCaCn enAkñúgTwkdIExμr. ExμrRkhm)aneFIVkarts‘UCamYy KNbkSRbCaCneTotrhUt dl;qñaM 1997 eTIbeFIVsmarNkmμ. elak b:ul Bt )ancUlmrN³PaB enAéf¶TI 17 emsa 1998 enAkñúgxÞmmYy edaysareraKBüaFienAtMbn;Gnøg;Evg.

sa Lútsr ehAb:ul Bt X-h‘un Esn (Hun Sen) h‘un Esn ekItenAéf¶TI 4 Exemsa qñaM1951 ¬1952¦ enAextþkMBg;cam eQμaHedIm Nal; Edlman»BukeQμaH nag ExSRsLay cin kat;yYn nig mþayeQμaH b:uk manRbBn§yYn eQμaH b‘un ehog ERbeQμaHCa b‘un ra:nI sBVéf¶ . h‘un Esn CasisSeronfñak;TI 7. bnÞab;mk)ancUleFIVCaTahanExμrRkhm tamkarGMBavnavrbs;esþcsIhnu. eBlcUleFIVTahanExμrRkhm CaemRkum EdlRtUvyYnkumμúynisþ)an bNþúHbNþal enAkñúgéRBma:KI. eRkayBIkarkab;smøab; ExμreGayclacl yYn)anpøas;bþÚrneya)ayfμI KWyYn)ancUlmk QøanBanExμr naéf¶ 7 mkra 1979 edayelIkbnþúb h‘un Esn sMrab;bMerIneya)ay. enAqñaM 1979 yYn)anelIk h‘un Esn eFIVCardæmRnþIRksYgkarbreTs eRkaymkeBlEdl Eb:n suvNÑ RtUvyYncab;dak;KukenA haNUy nig can; sIu RtUvyYncak;fñaMsmøab;. sUmCMrabfa eKalkarN_erIs bkSCnrbs;yYn eKerIsEtGñkniymcUlcitþyYn. naqñaM 1985 h‘un Esn RtUveKEtgtaMgCanaykrdæmRnþI kñúgrbbsarFarN³rdæRbCamanitkm<úCa EdlCarbbxusc,ab;eRBaH minTTYlsÁal;edayGgÁkarshRbCaCati. enAqñaM 1987 h‘un Esn )aneTAcrcarCamYysIhnu enATIRkug hSakata RbeTs\NÐÚensIu nigeFIVCabnþbnÞab; ehIyQaneTArkkic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs EdlmanGñkRsI mUsuxhYr CaCMnYy kñúgerOgenH. rhUtdl;kare)aHeqñat 1993 erobcMedayGCJaFrbeNþaHGasnñ GgÁkarshRbCaCatisMrab;km<úCa eBlenaHKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn )ancaj;eqñat edayeqñat)anQñHxagKNbkShVwunsiunbiuc dwknaMeday neratþmrNriT§. h‘un Esn)anRbkaspþac;xøÜn eFIVGb,Kmn_enAeRtIyxagekItTenøemKgÁ b:uEnþedayman esþc sIhnu edIrtYrCaGñkpSHpSar begIátrdæaPi)alehIyRbKl;eGayman naykrdæmRnþIBIr neratþm rNriTi§ naykrdæmRnþI TI 1 h‘un Esn naykrdæmRnþITI 2. enAéf¶TI 5-6 kkáda qñaM 1997 h‘un Esn )aneFIVrdæRbhar smøab;BYkGñkesñhaCati GñkRsLaj;RbCaFibetyüenAkñúgKNbkShVinsiunbiuccMnYn 280nak; EdldEgðtamesþckumμúynisþ sIhnu ehIyelIk GMNacÉk]tþm Giug hYt CMnYs. GñkRbCaFibetyü GñkesñhaCatimYycMnYn EdlenAesssl;)anrt;enAtMbn; niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            46

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GUsμac; EtRtUvneratþmrNriTi§ehAcUlmkvij ehIyRtUv h‘un Esn smøab; cab;dak;KukCabnþbnÞab; edayecaTRbkan; nig begIátRBwtþikarN_epSg² edIm,IecaTRbkan;eTot dUcCa sIuEGvEGv KN³kmμkarCMnajTI 14 clnamhanKr CaedIm. h‘un Esn eFIVCanaykmRnþICabnþbnÞab;mk minEmnRbCaBlrdæExμre)aHeqñat ecjBIwqnÞ³BitR)akdeT vaCakaerobcMrbs;KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñg. dUcenHebIeyIgviPaKlkçN³sm,tþi emdwknaMrbs; h‘un Esn minxusnigsemþc sIhnu nig taRtsk;Ep¥mb:unμaneT eRBaHKμanlkçN³RKb;RKan;CaemdwknaM rab;taMgBI suxPaB dUcCaBikarEPñkmçag KμanKuNFm’ esñhaCatixøÜnÉg ehIyRtUvbreTs¬yYn¦ elIkbnþúbGMNac eGaysMrab;bMerIneya)aydUc semþcsIhnu nigtaRtsk;Ep¥mEdr. h‘un Esn Gtμaniym elaPln;GMNac lYcnig lk;RTBüsm,tþiCati ykmkdak;Casm,tþibuKÁl nigeGaybreTs deNþImEhkhYrRTBüsm,tþiExμr edaysuxcitþ sßitenAeRkamGaNaniKmn_yYn. CaBiess CakUnGktBaØÚ eFIVeGaymþaybegIátrbs;xøÜnsøab; edayRcaneGaydYl b:Hk,alnigekAGI Føak;xøÜnQIrhUtdl;mþaysøab; edaysaRKaMRKa . lkçN³sm,tþisegçb h‘un Esn mandUc xageRkam³ 1-yYnelIkbnþúb h‘un Esn eFIVCacarkmμbMerIneya)ayeGayyYn edIm,IeFIVCarnaMgbiT)aMgExμrbMP½nþExμr. 2-h‘un Esn cuHhtßelxakat;TwkdIeGayyYn nigGnuBaØatieGayniKmn_yYnmkrs;enARbeTsExμrtam sni§sBaØa 25 qñaM nigsn§isBaØa 1970 1980 1982 1985. 3-h‘un Esn GnuBaØateGayyYnkab;éRBeQI rwbGUsRTBüsm,tþiExμr. 4-h‘un Esn eFIVtambBa¢ayYn cab;ExμrbBa¢ÚneGayeTAsøab;enAtMbn; k 5 . 5-eRkamelsGPivDÆn_ h‘un Esn cuHhtßelxaeGaydIsm,TaneGayyYncMnYn 99qñaM tMbn;GPivDÆn_ RtIekaNenA rtn³KIrI mNÐlKIrICaedIm ¬dIyYnya:gRsYl¦ . 6-h‘un Esn suxcitþeGayyYnRtYtRtaRbeTsExμresÞIrRKb;vis½y . 7-h‘un Esn BMumansuxPaBRKb;RKan;eT KWCamnusS)at;sésRbsaTeRBaHxVak;EPñkmYycMehog KWCamnusS eqvqav kMeralcUl Ck;)arI nig eRbIeRKOgjan. 8-h‘un Esn CamnusSKμansmtßPaBdwknaMBitR)akd GMNacyYnelIkeGay. 9-h‘un Esn CaCnpþac;karKμanKuNFm’ eFIVtambBa¢ayYn . ¬yYnesom QremIlsb,aycitþ eBlExμreQøaHKña eFIVsRgÁamExμrKñaÉg¦

h‘un Esn niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            47

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2-neya)aydwknaM (Political Leadership) k-sgÁmraRsþniym eRkayBITTYl)anÉkraCüBI)araMgenAéf¶TI 9 Exvicäka qñaM 1953. RbCaBlrdæExμrsgÇwmfa)ansuxsnþiPaB ÉkraCü nigsuPmgÁl eRkamkardwknaMrbs; semþc neratþm sIhnu. KNbkSneya)ayepSg²cUlmkkñúgKNbkS sgÁmraRsþniymEtmYy edayRbCaRbiyrbs;Kat;fa CabitaÉkraCü deNþImÉkraCüBI)araMg eRkayBIsnñisiT§ )an;DugenAqñaM 1955 nigkareRbIhwgSaelIKNbkSRbCaFibetyüCaedIm. enAéf¶TI 21 emsa 1955 sI hnu )andak;raCüeFIVneya)ay edaysnüafamineLIgRKgraCüvijeToteT. sIhnu eLIgRKgraCüsarCafμI b:uEnþéf¶TI 24 ExkBaØa qñaM1993. rbbRKb;RKgGMNacsßitenAelImnusSEtmñak; eRBaHkalenaH RBHGgÁCaRbmuxrdæpgnig CanaykrdæmRnþIpg. sPasißtenAeRkamGMNacrbs;sIhnu enAeBlEdlsPamineFIVtamneya)aysIhnu sPaRtUv EtrMlayecaleRCIstaMgfμI² dUcCakñúgGaNtþirbs;naykrdæmRnþI Eb:n nut eBlEdlRBHGgÁyageTAeb:kaMg enAqñaM 1968 Rsab;Etman)atukmμekIteLIgenATIRkugPñMeBj eBlRBHGgÁyagmkvij RBHGgÁ)anrMlaysPaecal eday ecaTfa dwknaMminekIt. enArbbsgÁmraRsþniym sPaRtUvrMlayecalCaeRcInelIk. sIhnu )andak;raCümkeFIV neya)aybegIátCabkSsgÁmraRsþniymenAqñaM 1955 EdlCabkSmYypþac;kar pþÜlrMlMKNbkSneya)aydéTeTot edaykl,icepSg² kñúgeKalbMNgkan;GMNacpþac;mux CaBiess ykRbCaRbiyPaBÉkraCüBI)araMg Edltamkar BitCaÉkraCü Edl)araMgRbKl;eGayyYn eday)araMgcaj;yYnenA eDon ebon PU eRkaysRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 2 cuHsn§isBaØa RbKl;ÉkraCümkeGay\NÐÚcin enAéf¶TI 20 kkáda 1954. karxitxMts‘Urbs;GñkesñhaCati mYycMnYnEdl)antva:taMgEt BIesþcsIhnuenAkñúgraCbløg½ ÁeRkam )araMgRtYtRta. CMnYykarrbs;esþc sIhnu man 3 nak; sm sarI ln; nl; nig GU FYn. kare)aHeqñatenAqñaM 1955 RbCaBlrdæ)ane)aHeqñateGay KNbkSsgÁmraRsþniym Edlman esþc sIhnuu CaRbmux. RbeTs)ans¶b;KμansRgÁam Gs;ry³eBlCag 10 qñaM . ExμrminTan;rIkcMerInxagbec©kviTüa nigFnFan mnusSxøaMgenAeLIyeT EtyYneyokmij )anbgáb;eFIVskmμPaBs¶at;² enARbeTsExμrcab;taMgBI qñaM 1946 emøH ¬tamcMkarekAs‘UkMBg;cam nigtamsMLÚt¦. bnÞab;mkRbeTsExμr RtUvFøak;kñúgePIøgsRgÁam vinasexøacpSarQWcab; niraRsþRBat;R)as; Em:« bgb¥Ún jatisNþanCaTIRsLaj; søab;)at;bg;CIvitRbCaBlrdæExμrrab;lannak; ¬sRgÁam\NÐÚcinTI 2¦. sm½ysgÁmraRsþniym RbCaBlrdæExμrmanEt cMnYn 6lanknøH ebIeFobeTAnigRbeTsyYnman 40 lannak; nigRbeTsesommancMnYn 30lannak;. enAcenøaH eBlenaHKWCadMNak;kal énsRgÁamRtCak;rvag kumμúynisþnigesrI. cMENkRbeTsExμreRkamkardwknaMrbs; sI hnu )ancab;ykneya)ayGBüaRkitü KWsnñisiT§)an;DugenARbeTs\NÐÚensIu qñaM1955 EdleBlenaHBiPBelak RtUvmanb:Ul 3 KW sUevot cin nig shrdæGaemric. RbeTsExμrRbkasneya)ayGaBüaRkitmann½yfamincUl xagesrI nig kumμúynisþ. EtenAExemsaqñaM 1965 semþc sI hnu )anlYccuHhtßelxas¶at;² CamYyyYnxageCIg ¬ yYnkumμúynisþ¦ CaehtubegIát»kaseGayyYncUlmkdak;T½BenAkñúgTwkdIExμr cMnYn 5extþ eFIVsRgÁamenA elITwkdIExμr lMeGogeTArkkmμúynisþ. sRgÁamcab;epþImeqH enARbeTsExμrcab;BIqñaM 1965 enAeBlEdlyYn kumμúynisþykTWkdIExμreFIVCasmrPUmi TIlanRbyuT§ eFIVeGayExμr søab;rab;lannak;. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            48

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esdækci ©Føak;cuHcab;taMgBITsvtSTI1960 edaysarGMeBIBukrlYy GesßrPaBneya)ay edaysaryYneFIVviecäT kmμesdækic© dUcCae)aHBum<luyEkøgkøaymkTij mðÚbGahar Ggár edayeGaytMéléføCardæ EdleFIVeGay)at;bg; cMNUlfvikardæ GtulüPaBesdækic© begIátvibtþisgÁm elgEl,gkasIuNU EdlsBVéf¶køayCasNæaKar ExmbUDiya: Na. CaBiess yYn)aneFIVeGaysßankarl¥k;kkr bgárCavibtþiépÞkñúgeLIg edaymçagxageyokkug¬ExμrRkhm nig sIhnu¦ nig mçagxageTotExμresrI¬ln; nl;¦. mRnþIraCkarPaKeRcInRbRBwtþGMeBIBukrlYy edayesdækic©cab;Føak;cuH cab;taMgBIqñaM 1960 eRkay BIyYne)aHBum<luyEkøgkøaymkTij eKa nig RsUvGgáreTAciBa©wmT½ByYneyokkug. RbCaBlrdæExμrenAmancMnYntic mancMnYnRbmaN 6>5 lan nak; ebIeFobeTAnigRbeTsCitxag EdlRbCaCn eKman 30 lan eTA 40 lannak;. RbCaBlrdæPaKeRcIncMnYn 90 PaKry CaGñkeFIVERscMkar nigmanCMenOeTA elIRBHBuT§sasna Rbkbrbrksikmμtam TMenomTMlab; RbéBNI BIdUnta dUcCaeFIVERscMkar edayeRbI]bkrN_bUraN mnusS nigstV CaedIm. TinñplksikmμmankMritx<s; nigsm,ÚreTAedaysm,tiþFmμCatiRKb;RbePT eFIVeGay BYkKat;manCIvPaBFUrFar Etmin)ansikSaeronsURteRCARCHeT¬CaBiessRsþI¦. RbCaBlrdæExμrPaKticbMput Edlerondl;fñak;DIbøÚm ehIyk¾CaGñkEdlGs©arübMput. eRBaHfaenAqñaM 1955 RbeTsExμrenAminTan;manskl viTüal½y enAeLIyeT GñkeronPaKeRcIneTAeronenAéRBnKr nigeTAeronenARbeTs)araMg rhUtdl;qñaM 1960 eTIb RbeTsExμr mansklviTüal½y 1 eLIg KW sklviTüal½yPUminÞPñMeBj. enAtamCnbTRsukERs RbCaBlrdæman EtsmÖar³ EtxVHkarcMeNHdwgeronsURtx<g;x<s;. RbeTsExμrCaEdndIsuvNÑPUmi sm,ÚredayePaKRTBüFmμCati dUcCa éRBeQI RtI stVéRB Er: nigFnFansmuRT EdlCacMNIrbs;RbeTsCitxagcg;elbRt)ak;. karEdlsMbUreday FnFan FmμCatienaH)anbgárGMeNaydl;ksipl manTinñplx<s; GacnaMecjeTARbeTseRkA. karsMbUreday vtßúFatuedImenHehIy eFIVeGayeyIggayRsYlkñúgkarrkvtßúFatuedImedIm,Iykmkplit. dIEdlmanCICatipþl;nUv Tinñpl ksikmμya:gx<s;enHehIy eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrmanCIvPaBFUrFar nigKμanxVl;xVay. RbCaBlrdæExμr eRcInEteFVIsMrab;EtRKYsar minEmnplitsMrab;naMecjeRkARbeTs. BaNiC¢kmμnaMecj eRcInCagnaMcUl eFIVeGay esdækic©mankarrIkcMerIn. karEdlmanePaKplFmμCatieRcIn ehIymanRbCaBlrdætic eFIVeGayRbeTsmantMrUv kartic ehIyRTBüsm,tiþhUrehor elIsesckIþRtUvkarenaH begIáteGaymanCIvPaBFUrFardl;RbCaBlrdæ Etkar eFVsRbEhsGMBIkardwknaM nigrbs;emdwknaM kñúgkarEfrkSabI)ac;rbs;;RTBüeGayKg;vgS RtUvyYnerobcMEpnkar vaylukcUlmkkñúgRbeTsExμr kkUrsßankarN_eGayFøak;cUlkñúgsRgÁam. RbeTs)anTTYlÉkraCüeBjelj rYcBIkarykBnæEdlCabnÞúkd¾F¶n;mYy sMrab;RbCaCatiExμr BIGaNaniKmn_)araMg. b:uEnþTnÞwmnigkarsm,Úrsb,ay sniþPaB )anEtcMnYn 5qñaM eRkaymkRbeTsExμrcab;epþImmanvibtþiesdækic©Faøk;cuHnigGMeBIBukrlYyekItmanCa bnþ bnÞab;. karFøak;cuHesdækic©bNþalmkBI eyokkugcUlmktaMgTIlMenAkñúgRbeTsExμr ehIyeFIVeGayExμrGesßrPaB nig yYneyokkug eFIVviecäTkmμesdækic© e)aHBumÖluyEkøgkøay Tij RsUvGgár nigeKaRkbIExμreTAciBa©wmT½Brbs;yYn rYmTaMgmaþyekμk semþc sIhnu CaGñkrksIuCamYyyYn cMeNj 250 duløakñúgmYYyqñaM eFIVeGayesdækic©ExμrFøak;cuH ya:gkMhuk. TahaneyokkugmancMnYn 65000 nak;)anmktaMgTIenAkñúgTwkdI RbeTsExμr PaKxagekIténRbeTs. cab;taMgBIeBlenaHmkRbeTsExμr )anFaøk;cUleTAkñúgePIøgsRgÁam edaysaryYnmindkfyecjBITwkdIExμr EfmTaMg lukluycUleRCAeTA²mkkñúgTwkdIExμr. karEdlsI hnu CYyyYneyokkugCasm¶at;enH KW sI hnu cg;eRbIneya)ay niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            49

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eRbIsBIr cg;niyayfa RtUvCamYyxagkumμúynisþedaysm¶at; EtCacMhr Rbkan;neya)ayGBüaRkitü minkan;xag kumμúynisþ nigesrI. mann½yfa sIhnu KWkumμúynisþ kumμúynisþ KW sI hnu. edaysmøwgeXIjfaBYkesrI minGacQñHkumμúynisþ)aneT TaMgenA\NÐÚcin nigGnþrCati BIeRBaHeBlenaH KWCasRgÁamRtCak; Edlkumμúynisþ kMBugEtrIkraldalya:gxøaMg KW manRbeTscMnYn 97 CaRbeTsRbkan; rbbkumμúynisþtam m:akS elnIn. cMENk sI hnu kan;ykrbbkumμúynIsþEbbcin EdlbegáItsnñisIT)an;Dug enA ya:kata dwknaMedayelak RbFanaFibetyü sI kaNU GMBI sniñsITmincUlbkSsm<½n§¬semþcsIhnu Gn;citþ CamYYyGaemricEdlminykcitþTukdak;. EtcMeBaH snñisiT§)an;Dug CU eGLay s‘UkaNU )anTHédGbGr ya:gkgrMBg. karEdleRbIneya)ayGBüaRkitenH cg;beBa©os sRgÁamrvagkumμúynisþ nigesrI. edaysmøwgeXIjfa kumμúynisþkMBugEtrIkraldal kumμúynisþGacrkSaGMNac bl½øgÁeGayRBHGgÁ eTIbRBHGgÁCYyyYn eyokkug edaysm¶at; edayeRbIl,iceGaysRtUvvayKña. EtpÞúyeTAvij neya)ayenH)anedIreRkamyuT§saRsþ neya)aykumμuynisþyYn Edlfax©IpøÚv edIm,IeLamB½T§ykbUrI¬TwkdI¦. eRBaHfa eBlEdlyYndak;T½BelITwkdIExμr tambeNþayRBMEdnExμr yYnenaHmann½yfa yYn)aneRbIl,icxI©pøÚvExμr edIr. yYn)ancMeNjTwkdI EdlyYndak;T½B ehIyeRbIR)as;ykesdækic©Exμr eFIVeGayExμrGsniþsux bgá mhnþray dl;RbCaBlrdæExμr nig RTBüsm,tiþExμr eFIVeGayTwkdIExμr CaTIlanRbyuT§søab;mnusSGs;rab;lannak;. eBlEdl yYn)andak;T½BelITwkdIExμr eBlenaH yYnmin)andkT½BecjeT RBmTaMgeRCotcUlbnþicmþgmkkñúgTwkdIExμr ehIy hUCImij)ansmøab;xøÜn enAéf¶TI 9 Ex kBaØaqñaM 1969 edIm,IdutqnÞ³eGayRbCaBlrdæeKxitxMeFIVtamEpnkarhU CImij eGay)ansMercdl;eKaledA minEmn hU CImij caj;neya)ay sI hnu dUcBYkcarkmμ kumμúynisþ edIrniyayenaHeT. kalEdl hUCImij søab; KWedIm,IbM)at;snüarvag sIhnu nig hUCImijEdl sIhnu GnuBaØateGayT½ByYntaMg TIenAelITwkdIExμr. dUecñH l,icrbs; sI hnu enAeRkaml,icrbs;yYn. ehtuenHehIy)anCaExμr RtUvvinasGnþray rhUtmkdl;eBlenH. x-saFarN³rdæExμr (Khmer Republics) cab;BIéf¶TI 18 ExmIna qñaM1970 KWCaéf¶cab;epþImsRgÁamrvagBYkkumμúynisþeyokkug EdlkMBugEtratt,at enAelITwkdIExμrPaKekIténRbeTs edaymanT½BRbmaN 60000 eTA80000nak; EteRkayeBlEdl semþc sIhnu begIátrNsirSrYbrYmCatikm<úCaenARkugeb:kaMgéf¶TI 23 mIna 1970 edIm,I biT)aMgGnþrCatieGayeXIjfaenH CasRgÁamsIuvileTAvij ExμrsIhnu b:ul Bt enAxagkumμúynisþEdlmancinCaGñkKaMRTxagkarTUt smÖarHswk nigyYnCaGñkCYybgðat;beRgonklyuT§kgT½B nigmenaKmn_neya)ayepSg² edIm,IeFIVsRgÁamedjBYkesrIecj man ln; nl; esrImt³ EdlKaMRTedayshrdæGaemrik. GñkEdlQrxagesrI Edlmanéf nigeyokNamxagt,Úg CaedIm. dUcenHehIy eyIgeXIjfa Exμrmçagkumμúynisþ ExμrmçagxagesrI vaysmøab;ExμrKñaÉg edayKμanRtaRbNI CaBiessRkumkumμúynisþEdllg;kñúgmenaKmn_kumμúynisþyYn. eyIgsegáteXIjfa sRgÁamenA\NÐÚcinelIkTI 2 nig TI3 suT§EtmankarKaMRTedaykumμúynisþ cin nigr:UsSIú. sRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 1rvagyYneyokmij nig)araMg edIm,IeGayYnedj)araMgecjBI\NÐÚcin k¾cinCaGñkKaMRTyYn. sRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 2 yYn nigGaemrikkaMg k¾ KaMRTedaycinEdr EteBleRkaybBa©b;sRgÁam\NÐÚcinenAéf¶TI 30 emsa 1975 yYn)andUreTArkCMnYy BIshPaB sUevotvij. sRgÁamcab;BIqñaM 1970 ln; ln; QrenAxagesrI smÖar³swk hirBaØvtßúKaMRTedayshrdæGaemrik niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            50

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eFIVsRgÁamCamYyyYneyokkug edIm,IkarBarTwkdI BIkarb:unb:gvatTITwkdIrbs;kumμúynisþyYn EdlcUllukluy TwkdIExμr tamkarGnuBaØatrbs; esþc sIhnu EdlQrenAxagkumμúynisþyYn nigcin . vaCakarlM)akbMputsMrab; ]tþmesnIy_ nl; nl; naeBlenaH BIeRBaHfa karerobcMkgT½BmYyd¾xøaMgehIyrwugmaMPøam² minGaceFIVeTA)an EtKYrCaTIemaTnPaB cMeBaHkmøaMgesñhaCatiExμr edIm,IbuBVehtukarBarTwkdI BIkarQøanBanrbs;yYn RbCaBlrdæExμr RKb;rUbPaKeRcInTaMgnisSit bBaØvnþ eTaHCa min)anhat;eronviC¢akgT½BeGay)ansÞat;CMnajk¾eday k¾køahanegIb eLIgedaymintk;søút c,aMgvaylukedjyYn eyokkug EdlmanbTBiesaFn_xageyaFaya:gsem,Imrab;sibqñaM. virPaBd¾Gg;GackøahanenH CaKMrUEdldk;Cab;enAkñúgRkeGAebHdUgGñkesñhaCatiExμr kUnExμrCMnan;eRkayRKb;rUb eGaymankmøaMgcitþ edIm,IkarBarCatiTwkdIrbs;xøÜn BIkarb:unb:grMelaPQøanBanelICatiTwkdIExμrBIbreTs. karebIk RbtibtþikarswkEdlmaneQμaHfa ecnLa )aneFIVeGaykgT½BsaFarNrdæExμr søab;ya:geRcIn BIeRBaHkgT½BPaK eRcInmin)anhVwkhat;RtwmRtUv ekμgx©I RbyuT§CamYykgT½BeyokkugEdlmanbTBiesaFn_sRgÁamCag 20 qñaMmk ehIyenaH. EtedaykmøaMgesñhaCati karBatiCati matuPUmieTaHCabUCaCIvitk¾minesaksþayeLIy. eKaledA rbs;yYnKWeFIVsRgÁamvatTITwkdI nigsmøab;srsrRTUgExμreGayGs;b£sKl; EdlRsbeTAnigneya)ayGnþrCati EdlmhaGMNackumμúynisþ nigmhaGMNacesrI kMBugEtsßitenAkñúgsRgÁamRtCak; shPaB sUevot EdlCa emkumμúynisþrbs;xøÜnenaH KW yYn)anBRgIk\Ti§BlkumμúnisþenAelI\NÐÚcinEtmþg. yYnkumμúynisþerobcMyuT§saRsþ eFIVeGayRbeTsExμrman PaBvikvr RcbUkRcbl; edaysarePIøgsRgÁamqabeqH esdækic©Føak;dundab mnusS søab;rab; lannak;. b:uEnþesrIminGacQñHkumμúynisþeLIy edaysarkalenaH TaMgkumμúynisþcin sUevot enAkMBugmankmøaMg xøaMgxøa mincg;eGayesrIcUlmkdeNþImplRbeyaCn_enA\NÐÚcineTot cinCaGñkenABIeRkayxñgyYnya:geBjTMhwg kñúgsRgÁamTaMgBIrelIkenaH. Gaemrik)andkkgT½BecjBI\NÚÐcin edaysarnisSit 4 nak;)ansøab;edaykareFIV )atkmμedIm,IeGayGaemrikbBa©b;sRgÁamenA\NÐÚcin. eBlenaHCa»kasrbs;BYkkumμúynisþQñHelIBYksaFarN³rdæ enAéf¶TI 17 emsa 1975. ehIyenAéf¶TI 30 emsa 1975 CasRgÁamrvagyYnxageCIg nigyYnxagt,Úg k¾cb;dUcKña EtExμrmin)ancb;eLIy edayvegVg nigkarkab;smøab;KñaCabnþbnÞab;. eBlenaHmanCMnYyrbs;sUevot mkCYyyYnxageCIg nigCMnYyGaemrikmkCYyyYnxagt,Úg cMENkÉCMnYyrbs;Exμr nigRTBüsm,tþiCaeRcIn RtUv)an yYnRbmUlrwmGUseTARbeTseKTaMgGs;. b:ul Bt KaMRTedaycin cMENkyYnKaMRTedaysUevot EdlCaehtunaM eGayExμrRkhmmçagyYn mçagxagcin)aneFIVsRgÁamCamYyyYneTot BIeRBaH cin nig sUevotk¾man CemøaHenAtam CayEdn. edaymankarKMramkMEhgBI sUevot etsIuveBg )angakeTArkGaemrik. K-rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü (Cambodia Democractic Regime) rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü EdlbgáeGaymanRbCaBlrdæExμrsøab;rab;lannak; edayGyutþiFm’enH eyIgmin GacelIkmkniyayRtwmEtqñaM 1975 enaHeT. EteyIgRtUvEvkEjkbkRsay viPaKRBwtþikarN_neya)ay taMgBIedImkMeNItbkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcinbegIáteLIgna éf¶TI 3 kumÖ³ 1930 EdlCaedImehtueGaykumμúynisþekIt eLIgenARbeTsExμr. neya)ayBiPBelakrbs;RbeTsmhaGMNac kareqøot»kasrbs;RbeTsCitxag CaBiess yYn EdlmanmhicätaelbTwkdIExμr eRbImenaKmn_kumμúynisþbMEbkExμreGayEbk)ak;tamcrnþneya)ayrbs; sRgÁamRtCak;rvagkumμúynisþ¬sUevot¦ nig elakesrI ¬shrdæGaemrik¦ eRkaysRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 bBa©b;. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            51

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dUcenHeyIg RtUvsikSaEvkEjkrkb£sKl;rbs;va tamdMNak;kalRBwitiþkarN_neya)aynImYy² EdlCaedIm ehtunaMeGayekItman rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüenHeLIg. nrNaCaGñkerobcMeGaymanrbbenHeLIg. eyIgeXIj fa ebIsinCaKμansRgÁameyokNamekIteLIg ehIyeyokkugenABaseBjTwkdIExμr EdlykeQμaH sI hnueTAeRbI k¾rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü EdlmanmnusSsøab;rab;lannak; minGacekIteLIg)anEdr eRBaHsmtßPaB b:ul Bt dUcerobrab;xageRkamminGacykC½yCMn³)aneLIy ebIminBwgyYnkumμúynisþenaH. etIktþaGIVxøHEdleFIVeGayman karkab;smøab;enAkñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü?. dMNak;kardMbUg eyIgRtUvsikSaGMBIkumμúynisþevotNam EdleK cat;TukfaCakumμúynisþTMenIb ehIyTTYl)aneCaKC½ysMrab;CnCatievotNam. enAmundMNak;kalénsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 EdlCadMNak;karsßitenAkñúgvibtþiesdækic©BiPBelakenAqñaM 1930 nigkarRbTajRbTg; deNþImplRbeyaCn_ RbNaMgRbECgKña rvagRbeTsmhaGMNacEdldak;GaNaniKmn_ elIRbeTstUctac RbeTsTaMgbIenATwkdI\NÐÚcin)ansßitenAeRkamGaNaniKmn_)araMg eBlenaH RbeTseyokNam CaRbeTsRkIRkmYyEdlmanRbCaCnyYneRcIn ehIyTwkdItUc BMumanskþanuBlesdækic©l¥ sMrab;ciBa©wmCatirbs;xøÜn eGay)anrwgbwugmaMmYn. yYn)ansMLwgeXIjmkPaKxagt,ÚgEdlman TwkdIExμreRkam nigTwkdIExμrCaedIm. CemøaHrvagRbeTsFM² sRgÁamelakelIkTI 1 nigelIkTI2 eFIVeGayb:HBal;dl;RbeTstUc² EdlenAeRkamkar RtYtRtarbs;eK dUcCaRbeTs Exμr Lav yYn CaedIm. eqøoteBlenaH hU CImij )anecjdMeNIrtamk)a:l;rbs;)araMg edayEkøgxøÜneFIVCacugePA edIm,IecjeTAsikSaBIbreTsmkCYyGPivDÆn_Catirbs;eK edaymunniwgecjBIRbeTsyYn eTA)araMg hU CImij )anRbkasR)ab;RbCaCneKfa eKnigeTAsikSaBIbreTs ehIyRtLb;mkCYyeRsacRsg; RbeTsCati nigRbCaCnevotNamvij. hU CImij )aneTAdl;RbeTs)araMg eFIVCacugePAenATIenaH nigsikSaBIRbeTs enaH. bnÞab;mkecjBIRbeTs)araMgeTAeFIVCaGñke)assMramenARbeTsGg;eKøs. hU CImij ecjBIRbeTsGg;eKøs eTAshrdæGaemrik ehIycugeRkayecjmkRbeTsr:UsSIú EdlCakEnøg hU CImij )ancUlCasmaCikbkS kumμúynisþGnþrCatirbs;ma:kSelnInenATIenaH. bnÞab;mk hU CImij cUlmkeFIVCaCagb:Hkg;enARbeTséf nig bYsCaRBHsgÇ ehIyRtLb;cUleTAenARbeTscinvij. enARbeTscin hUCImij )anbegIátclnaneya)ay enATIenaHCasm¶at; Edlman pMava:n; dug v: egVonya:b; CaGñkcUlrYmkñúgbdivtþn_enaH. manclnaCaeRcInbegIáteLIg EtclnaEdlmanRbCaRbiyCageK KWCaclnaneya)ay EdlbegIáteday hU CImij. hU CImij RtUvcincab;dak;Kuk mYyry³enAkñúgRbeTscin. EteRkaymkRtUvcinedaHElgvij eday hUCImij )ansnüa CamYycinfaedj)araMg ecjBI\NÐÚcineGay)an ehIycinCaGñkKaMRT. bnÞab;mkhUCImij)anbegIátbkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcinenAéf¶TI 3 kumÖ³ 1930 enATIRkughugkug. hU CImij maneQμaHTaMgGs; 19 ehIyeQμaHedImeQμaHfa egVog éGkuk. hUCImij)an RbmUlRbCaBlrdætamCnbT eGayKaMRT edIm,IeFIVkarts‘Uedj)araMg bþÚrrbbesþc )av éd ecjenAqñaM1945. kñúgenaHTaMgExμr nigLav )ancUlrYmCamYyyYnkñúgbkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin edayyYn eXasnafa ts‘UedIm,Iedj )araMgecj. ehtuenHehIy eyIgsegáteXIjfa rbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü Edlmankarkab;smøab; ekItecjBIkar erobcMEpnkarBIyYnkumμúynisþ Edlman hU CImij Caemekøagrbs;bkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin eRkayBIsikSaCafμI eBl EdlemT½B eRTOg mijya:g esþc mij ma:g eFIVmin)ansMerc. cMENkExμrkumμúynisþedIrtam CabkSbdivdþRbCaCn km<úCa EdlyYn)anbegáIteLIgenAqñaM 1951 Gacarüman ¬swug g:ukmij¦CaRbFan. bkSenHCasaxaenAeRkam niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            52

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kardwknaMrbs;bkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin. eRkayBIedj)araMgecjBI\NÐÚcin)anTTYlÉkraCü bnÞab;BI)araMgcuHsni§sBaØa RbKl;ÉkraCümkeGay\NÐÚcin enAhSwENv enAéf¶TI 27 kkáda 1954. yYn)an erobcMeFIVsRgÁambnþeTot edIm,IykTwkdIExμr eFIVCasmrPUmi. yYn)ansMuTwkdIExμrPaKxagekIt edaycuHhtßelxas¶at;² CamYy sI hnu enA Exemsa qñaM1965 edayykelsfaeFIVsRgÁamrMedaHeyokNamxagt,Úg ehIysRgÁamcab;epþImeLIgenAExmkra 1959 edayecaTfa ega Dijyim Ca]bkrN_neya)ayrbs;GaemrikkaMg. bkSbdivtþn_RbCaCnkm<úCaEdlyYn bnøMxøÜneFIVCaExμreQμaH swug g:ukmij \LÚvenHkøayCaKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa. enAqñaM 1954enaH TaMg swug g:ukmij TaMgevotmij nigExμr)anesøokBak;ÉksNæanCaevotmij eLIgk)a:l;tamBYkevotmij eTAsikSamenaKmn_BIhaNUy EtExμrEdleTAhaNYynaeBlenaH minfaxøÜneTAeFIVeLIy. smaCikbkSkumμúynisþ eyokmijGs;sgÇwm edayyYn eKniyayfa eBlenHeKQb;eFIVkarts‘UedayGavuFehIy eKeFIVkarts‘Uneya)ayvij. yYnmin)anbgðat;beRgon GIVeGayExμrecHBitR)akdeLIy yYneGayExμrcaMEteFIVtambBa¢arbs;eK dUcBYkh‘un Esn sBVéf¶ Cak;EsþgenA sm½yenaH ExμreFIVCaembBa¢akar Etkic©karsMerc nigcat;EcgTaMgGs;eRsc EtelIyYnEdleFIVGnuembBa¢akareTAvij. l,icd¾EdlenH RtUvyYnykmkeRbI elIExμrCabnþbnÞab;rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH dUcCaGMNacdwknaMneya)ay RKb;RKgBitR)akdedayyYn EtelIk h‘un Esn tMNag taMgeQμaH sIhnu CaExlbiT)aMg. edayemIleXIjdUcenaH TUsamut nigsaLútsr)anrkpøÚvRtLb;mkRkugPñMeBjvij saLútsr )anvilRtLb;mkvij enAtampøÚveday CECkCamYyyYn eQμaH paM va:n; )ar EdlFøab;Gb;rMExμrfa yYnnigExμr dUcCa mat;nigeFμj EteBlenH yYn)an niyayfa {karts‘UGavuFcb;ehIy RtUvts‘Uneya)ayvij EdleFIVeGayBYkGñk ts‘UevotNamGs;sgÇwm.} Rtg;enaH ehIybBa¢ak;eGayeXIjkumμuúynisþExμr TaMg sI hnu nig b:ul Bt KμanyuT§saRsþneya)ayÉkraCü edayxøÜnÉgeT eFIVeLIgtamKnøgyuT§saRsþrbs;yYnCaGñkerobcM edIm,IEtplRbeyaCn_CatieKEtb:ueNÑaH . b:ulBt eTIbdwgPJak;xøÜn eRkayBIeTACYbCamYy eL yn; enAqñaM 1965 . eyIgKYrBicarNaemIl ebIb:ul Bt eTAeFIVCaelxa rbs;TUsa mut EdleRkamkardwknaMrbs;swug g:ukmij cuHrcnasm<½n§ KMnitdwknaMepSg² RtUvedIrtamGñkNa. cab;BIqñaM 1957 b:ul Bt nYn Ca EtgEtCYbCMuKñaenApÞHTU samut kñúgmYyGaTitü 2 b¤ bIdg edIm,IBinitüsPaBkarneya)ay nigeFIVeGay clnakMerIksaeLIgvij. b:ul Bt )anrkviFIedaHédecj begIátneya)aymYyfμIeGayÉkraCü enAqñaM 1960 EdlkalenaH b:ul Bt CaGñkerobcMlkçnþik³ eKalkarN_neya)ayCamYy nYn Ca TU samut ehIyepJIreTAsaxa bkSepSg²rbs;bkS. snñi)aTerIsemdwknaMfμI )anbegIáteLIgelIkTI1 enAqñaM 1960 Edlman b:ul Bt TU samut nYn Ca edIm,IeKalkarN_neya)ayfμI kMNt;yuT§saRsþfμI naMeGaymankarEbk)ak;CemøaH CamYyyYn. eBlenaHb:ul BtCamnusSTI 3 elxabkS. 1960 b:ul Bt )anerobcMbegIátbkSfμIeTotEdl mineGayyYndwg CamYynYnCa nigTU samut enHbgðajeGayeXIjfa yYnlUkcUlya:geRCAenAkñúgkic©karépÞkñúgExμrtaMgmunrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüemøH dUcbc©úb,nñenHEdr mancarkmμyYnbgáb;eFIVkarenABaseBjExμr manCaGaT× sux Kg; cay saMgyun huk LgDI b‘un sm eCIg Ék b‘un ra:nI CaedIm. edaysarehtuTaMgGs;enHehIy )anCamankarsmøab;vikvreBjRbeTsExμr søab;CabnþbnÞab;kñúgrdækm<úCa k 5 rdæRbha 5-6 kkáda )aj;smøab;bnþbnÞab;mk edayKμanrkXatkr eXIjeLIy. kñúgsRgÁamRtCak;rvagkumμúynisþ nigesrI. kardeNþImKñaRtYtRtaBiPBelak )anekIteLIgrIkraldal eFIVeGayRbeTstUctacTTYlrgeRKaH CaBiessRbeTsExμrEtmþg. edayhU CImij manEpnkarrYcCaeRsc hU CImij niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            53

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suxcitþlHbg;CIvitrbs;xøÜn edIm,IRbeTsCatieK edaysuxcitþeGayeKsmøab;enAéf¶TI 9 ExkBaØa qñaM1969 eRkayBIRbCMufñak;dwknaMkMBUl². karsøab;enH hU CImij bgðajBIkarlHbg;CIvit edIm,IbuBVehtuCati dutqnÞ³eGay CnCatiyYnkan;EtmanKMnitesñhaCatiEfmeTot bnþeFIVtamEpnkarrbs;hUCImij. müa:gvijeTot hU CImijeFIVEbb enHedIm,IedaHédecjBIcin EdlFøab;CYyBIeRkayxñg ehIygakeTAP¢ab;TMnak;TMngCamYyshPaBsUevotvij nig edIm,ITukCaemaX³nUvkic©RBmeRBognanaEdlxatplRbeyaCn_cMeBaHCatieK Edl)anekIteLIg eBlEdl hU Cimij cuHkic©RBmeRBog. eqøot»kasenAkñúgsRgÁamRtCak;rvagkumμúynisþnig esrI ¬r:UsIu nig Gaemrik¦ eRkameKal neya)ayfarMedaHeyokNamxagt,Úg yYnkumμúynisþ)ancab;epþImts‘UedayGavuFvij enAqñaM1959 edayyk elsfa ega Dij yim Ca]bkrN_rbs;GaemriksMrab;QøanBan . hU CImij)anerobcMbMEbkExμr TaMgExμreRkamnig ExμrelI edIm,IeGayeFIVsRgÁam sMlab;ExμrKñaÉg edaymçagQrxagkumμúynisþ¬eyokkug¦ nigmçagQrxagesrI eyokNamxagt,Úg ¬ega: Dijywm¦. eyokkugykeQμaH sI hnu eTAR)ab;ExμreRkamfa eFIVsRgÁamcb;edIm,IrMedaH km<úCaeRkammkvij. cMENkExμrenAxagelIÉenHvij mçagxagln; nl; mçagxagsemþc sI hnu nigb:ulBt EdlRbCaBlrdært;cUléRBma:KI tamkarGMBavnavrbs;semþc sI hnu tamviTüúpSayBIeb:kaMgmk. b:uEnþenAeRkayxñg cin yYnTaMgBIr TaMgkumμúynisþ nigesrI enHCaGñkerobcMEl,gneya)ayedIm,IbMEbkExμrCaBIr x©IédeGayExμrsmøab;Kña eQøaHKña EdlplRbeyaCn_ cin yYn CaGñkcMeNj TaMgesdækic© TwkdI eBlRbCaBlrdæExμrsøab; Føak;exSay edaysarEtsRgÁam. eyIgeXIjfaeBlEdlGaemrikdkfyecj BI\NÐÚcintaMgBIcuHhtßelxaenAhSwENv sþIBIkar Qb;)aj;KñaenAqñaM1973 b:uEnþsRgÁameyokNamxageCIg nigxagt,ÚgminTan;bBa©b;eT eyokkugenAeFIVsRgÁam CamYy ExμrsaFarN³rdæ. sRgÁamRtUvbBa©b; 13éf¶eRkaymkKWenAéf¶TI 30 emsa 1975 eRkayeBl EdlyYn)anQñHelIExμrsaFarN³rdæ 17 mkra 1975 ehIyelIkC½yCMnHenaH elIkGMNaceGay sI hnu b:ulBt ExμrRkhm. esadnakmμ)anFøak;mkelIExμr edaysarExμrlg;menaKmn_kumμúynisþEdlyYn )ancab;eTAbNþúHbNþal nigExμreyokmijmYycMnYn bnþkab;smøab;ExμreTot edayePøcKitBICatiExμr QamC½rExμr ¬edaylg;menaKmn_yYnfa BYkbriva BYkRbtikiriya EtQamExμrCaGñkhUr ExμrGñkrgTukç ExμrEdl)at;bg;plRbeyaCn_¦ cMENkyYn Qr»b édemIl caMTTYlplRbeyaCn_BIExμr bnþcUlmkQøanBan kan;kab;TwkdIExμr EtmþgenAéf¶ 7 mkra 1979. rdæaPi)alrbs; semþc sIhnu )anRbkascab; cMnYn 34 nak; EdlkñúgenaHman sa Lútsr pgEdr ehIy sa Lútsr )anrt;ecjBITIRkugPñMeBjtaMgBIéf¶RbkasdMbUg ehIyrt;eTAcUlkEnøgts‘Urbs;rNsirSrMedaHeyokNam xagt,Úg EdlenAtambeNþayRBMEdnPaKxagekIt tMbn;tanij enATIenaHCaéRBEdlKμanBnøWéf¶cUl)an. enAqñaM 1965 KN³kmμaFikarmCÄwm)ansMerceGaybkS eFIVkarTMnak;TMngCamYYybkS kumμúynisþeyokNamvij CamYyeL yn;. sa Lút sr )anrgcaMkaryl;RsbBIhaNUy rhUtdl; edImExemsa eTIbeFIVdMeNIreTAhaNUy tampøÚv lMhUCImij Gs;ry³eBl 2 ExknøH)aneTAdl;TIenaH . b:uEnþ eLyn;minrIkray sb,ayb:unμaneT edaysarkar CYbcrcar CamYysemþc sI hnu rYcehIy. eL yn; )anpþl;ÉksaeGay sa Luútsr emIl ehIyeBlenaH sa Lútsr emIlÉksar ya:gm:t;ct; PJak;xøÜndwgfacaj;e)akyYn ehIyTajesckþIsnñidñanfa {´)aneXIjfa taMgBIqñaM

1930 dl;qñaM 1965 ÉksarTaMgGs;rbs;bkSkumμúynisþevotNam )anniyayBIbkSbdivtþRbCaCnkm<úCa nig lav dUcCaEmkFag rbs;bkSevotNam. bkSTaMgBIrGnuvtþc,ab; maK’aneya)ay nig yuT§saRsþrbs;bkSevotNam . niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            54

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munnig´)aneXIjÉksarTaMgGs;enHedaypÞal;xøÜn´ ´eCOTukcitþelIevotNam. b:uEnþeRkayBI)anGanÉksa TaMgGs;enHeTA ´Qb;eCOelIeKehIy ´eXIjfaeKcat;taMgGgÁkarbkSenAkñúgRsukeyIg edIm,IseRmcTwsedA yuT§saRsþEtmYy KW shB½n§\NÐÚcin . eK)anbegIátbkSEtmYy edIm,ItMNageGayTwkdIEdlbBa©ÚlKñaEtmYy.} sa

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epSgKña RbéBNIepSgKña GtþcrwkepSgKña ¬citþKMnit¦ tamkarBitRtUvbegIátCaRbeTsEtmYyKt; edayminGacbMEbk bdivdþedayELkBIKña)aneLIy . ehtuenH edIm,IRbqaMg niwgsRtUvrbs;bdivdþn_¬EdlrYmkmøaMgEtmYyenAkñúg \NÐÚcinTaMgmUl¦ bkSkumμúynisþ nigRtUveRbIkmøaMg rbs;\NÐÚcinedIm,ITb;Tl; edaysißtenAeRkamkardwknaMrbs; \NÐÚcin.} dUcenH eyIgRKan;EtviPaKtamTwsedAenH nwgRBwtþikarN_EdlekItman eXIjfa yYn)anlUkédya:geRCA

tamEpnkaryuT§saRsþ kumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin mkkkUrkkayépÞkñúgenAkñúgrbbkumμúynisþkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü dUccarkmμ yYnbnøMeFIVenArbb h‘un Esn sBVéf¶ edayykliTi§kumμúynisþCameFüa)ay. kgT½BExμrrMedaH CakgT½Brbs;yYn CaGñkbegIátkgT½BExμrrMedaH PaKeRcInCaGñkenAéRBEvg nigeyokkug EdlBak;rUbesþc sIhnu faCakgT½BsIhnu niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            55

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niym EttamkarBitkgT½BenH TTYlbBa¢aBIhaNUy. cab;BIqñaM 1975 mkRbeTsExμr minTTYl)ansnþiPaBEdr karvayKñarEb:s rb:syYn)anrkelsCMemøaHRBMEdn kalenaHCemøaHRBMuEdnTwk EdlevotNamTamTaeGayExμrEk ERbRBMuEdnsmuRTenAEx ]sPa qñaM 1976edIm,Idak;sm<aF pþl;»sanvaTmkelIExμr. yYn)anrMelaPelIGFibetyü bgáCemøaHRBMuEdnTwk tamBityYn)ancuHhtßelxa TTYlsÁal;elIRBMEdnExSeRbvey: rYcehIyrvag semþc sI hnu rNsirSrMedaHeyokNam xagt,Úg edayeKminKit samKÁIPaB mitþPaB dUcGIVEdl sI hnu nigb:ul BtKiteLIy . EtyYneK bdiesFedaymindUcGIVEdl sIhnu KitBIKuNExμrCYyeKpþl;CMrk eGayeyokkugenAtamCayEdn edayeK niyayfaKμanmUldæanc,ab;c,as;las;. 1 ExeRkay BI»sanvaTsRgÁampÞúHeLIgya:gxøaMgenAtamRBMuEdnsmuRT nig sRgÁamenAtamCayEdnextþRkecH. b:uEnþeKaledAsMxan;sRgÁamrbs;ExμrenAeBlenaH KWkarcrcarsRgÁamenaH k¾edIm,IcrcarkarTUtEdr. enHCaemeronsMrab;Gñkneya)ayExμrCMnan;eRkay eGaydwgBIkardwknaMneya)ay nig mehcätarbs;RbeTsCitxag BaküfamitþPaB shRbtibtþikarbs;yYn CaBakükarTUtEtb:ueNÑaH EteKaledABit R)akdelbRt)ak;TwkdIExμr dak;cMNuHshB½n§\NÐÚcin. eBlEdlmanCemøaHenaH cinCaGñkKaMRTxagrbbkm<úCa RbCaFibetyü edaycinFøab;)anCYyyYn EtyYn)angakeTArkRbeTsrU:sSI ehIybnþsgát;ExμrRkhmeTot eday kalenaH cink¾manCemøaH CamYyshPaBsUevot enAtamCayEdn EdleFIVeGaycingakeTArkGaemrik edIm,I kMueGaysUevotKMramkMEhg. BYkkumμúynisþTaMgyYnxageCIg nigkumμúynisþExμr)anbBa©b;sRgÁam ehIybnþkab;smøab; Exμr GñkesñhaCatiEdlQrxagesrI edayBYkvaecaTfa BYkRbtikiriya RkumesGIuGarCaedIm. Exμrsøab;rab;lan nak;enAkñúgrbbb:ul BtedaymanyYnbgáb;kñúgExμrRkhm. enAeBlEdlExμrmanPaBvwkvredaykar eFIVvT§gSnarbs; yYn nigExμr eyokmij ¬ExμrMedaH¦ EdlbMBak;bMb:nBIhaNUy bBa¢apÞal;BIhaNUy mandUcCa kYy FYn esa Pwm ehgsMrin h‘un Esn CasIum nigCaeRcIneTot )anebIkRbtibtþikarvaylukcUlRbeTsExμr CabnþbnÞab;cab;BIqñaM 1977 mk. edIm,IedaHdUrneya)ayfμI cMeBaHExμrkumμúynisþEdllMeGogcin eGayeTABYkkumμuynisþniymyYn EdlxøÜn)an bNþúHbNþalTuk dUcCa ehg sMrin Ca sIum Ca suT§ say b‘U fg h‘un Esn can;sIu edIm,IeFIVeGay RbeTsExμr cMNuHyYndUcsBVéf¶.l. X-saFarN³rdæRbCamanitkm<úCa (Cambodian People Republic) enAkñúgrbbsarFarNrdæRbCamanitkm<úCa neya)aydwknaMrbs;RbeTs minÉkraCüeT eRBaHRbeTsExμr TaMgmUlsißtenAeRkamkarkan;kab;edaykgT½BeyokNam Edl)ancUlmkQøanBanExμrenAéf¶TI 7 Exmkra qñaM 1979. karsMercneya)ayepSg² sißtenAelIyYnCaGñksMercTaMgGs;. sßanPaBRbeTsExμr nasm½yenaH sißtenAkñúgsRgÁamvwkvr kab;smøab;bnþeTot bnÞab;BIrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyü edayyYn)ancab;ExμreGayeFIV Tahanmkc,aMgCamYYyExμrKñaÉg Gñkts‘UtamCayEdn nigcab;yuvCnExμreGaymkbMerIkmøaMgBlkr Edlehafa 5 søab;rab;Esnnak; enAtambeNþayRBMEdn. RbCaBlrdæExμrxitxMeFIVERscMkar EtRtUvRbmUldak;rYm semahPaB rYcehIy yYnRbmUlykeTARbeTsrbs;va TaMgRTBüsm,tiþrbs;ExμrepSg²eTot. karTMnak;TMng PaKeRcIn Tak;Tg RbeTskumμúynIsþmYycMnYn dUcCa \NÐa shPaBsUevot Kuy)a nig GahÁanIsßan CaedIm. eBlEdlT½ByYn)ancUlmkQøanBanRbeTsExμr edayelIkbnþúbExμrmYycMnYn EdlmanyYnFøab;bNþúH bNþal eGaybMerIneya)ayeGayxøÜn EteBlEdlelIk elak Eb:n suvNÑ Kat;min)ancg;eFIVtamneya)ayEdl niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            56

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kMNt;edayyYnhaNUyeLIy edaycg;e)aHsnÞÚcrMlgPñM eTATak;TgpÞal;CamYysUevot eBlenaH Kat;RtUv)ansay b‘Ufg nig h‘un Esn eFIVtambBa¢ayYncab;Kat;eTAdak;KukenAhaNUyGs;ryHeBl 10 qñaM 52éf¶ eyagtamelak Eb:n suvNÑ EdlsmÖasenAviTüúGasIuesrI. yYnbBa¢ÚnCMnajkarrbs;eKmkeFIVkarRtYtRtaExμr ExμrKμansiTi§sMerckic©kar GIVTaMgGs;rgcaMEtkarGnuBaØatBICMnajkaryYn eRBaHeBlEdlnaykrdæmRnþIbBa¢aeTAfñak;eRkam bBa¢aenaHKμan RbsiT§PaBeT edayrgcaMkaryl;RBmBICMnajkarsin. neya)aycgsm<½n§PaB dUcCa rvagTIRkugPñMeBjCamYy TIRkug hUCImij. extþtaEkv CamYyextétnij eRBaHkalenaHExμrsißtenA eRkamkarRtYtRtayYnTaMgRsug. sUm,Ih‘un Esn RtUvyYnCaGñkesñIreGayEtgtaMgCa rdæmRnþIRksYgkarbreTsEdr. CnCatiyYn)anhUrcUlmkrs;enAkEnøg sMxan;² dUcCa PñMeBj c,arGMeBA ehIyyYn )anrwbGUsRTBüsm,tþi kab;eQIecjBIRbeTsExμr sUm,IEtensaT k¾yYnGUscab;kUnRtIeTARbeTsvaeRscEtcitþ. Exμr)an)at;bg; plRbeyaCn_CaeRcIneTot )at;bg;TwkdI )at;bg; siTi§esrIPaB edaysaRbeTssißtenAeRkamkar kan;kab;rbs;yYn. yYnGagelIRbeTsFM mankmøaMgxøaMgCag RbeTsExμr kmøaMgxagT½B kmøaMgxagcMnYnRbCaBlrdæ Edlman sUevotenABIeRkayxñg eBlenaHyYn)aneRbIcugGavuF QøanBanTwkdIExμr elIkbnþúbRkumbkSbdivtþn_RbCaCnkm<úCa nigeGaycuHhtßelxakat;TwkdIeGayyYn dUcCa sni§sBaØa EdleFIVeLIgeday ehg sMrin nigh‘un Esn CamYy ehVog kUfac; enAqñaM 1979 1980 1982 1983 1985 CaedIm. CaBiess KWkic©snüa 25 qñaM rvag ehg sMrin nig pan; va:n;dug EdlmanRbkarTI4 )anEføgfa

{PaKITaMgBIr suxcitþedaHRsaytamkic©crcaedaysnþiviFI nUvral;TMnas; Cayfaehtu kñúgTMnak;TMng eTVPaKIrbs;xøÜn . PaKITaMgBIr nwgeFIVkic©crcar edIm,IcuHhtßelxa elIsn§isBaØa sMrab;rMlayRBMEdnCatiénRbeTsTaMgBIreday GaRs½yelIRBMEdnnabc©úb,nñ ehIyPaKITaMgBIrsMerc citþmutmaM edIm,IEkERbRBMEdnenHeGayeTACaRBMEdn énsnþiPaB nig mitþPaB sißtesßr rvagRbeTsTaMgBIr. } tamry³kic©snüaenH CabMNgR)afñarbs;yYn EdleFIVtamEpnkar hU

CImij edIm,IsMercshB½n§\NÐÚcin. yYn )ansmøab;Exμr bursExμr EdlCassrRTUvCati TukGñkTn;exSay narIePT pþac;BUCsasn_Exμr edIm,IeFIVyYnnUb nIykmμenA elITwkdIExμrTaMgmUl. karbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþ kab;smøab;ExμreGayenAsl;Et 10 eTA 20 PaKry )ansMerceCaKC½y ehIybnþcUlmkkan;kab;TwkdIExμrEtmþg. RbeTsExμr eRkayéf¶TI 7 mkra 1979 rhUtdl; qñaM 1989 )anFøak;kñúgkumμúynisþyYnRtYtRtaTaMgRsug. GIVEdlyYnelIkbnþúb ehg sMrin Ca sIum h‘un Esn edIm,ICaExlbiT)aMg GMeBIeXareXA QøanBanTwkdI karbøn;ykRTBüsm,tiþExμr nigx©IédExμredIm,Ibnþkab; smøab;Exμr KñaÉgbnþreTotEtb:ueNÑaH. TahanyYnmancMnYn 40 000nak; nig RbCaCn 2lannak;. yYnmanEpnkar erobcMeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrkøayCaRbCaBlrdæPaKticrbs;yYn dUecñHehIyyYn)an dak;RbCaCnExμrmYynak; yYn R)aM nak; enAkñúgCnbT nig yYn 5 nak; Exμr 1 nak;enAtamTIRkug TIRbCMuCn nigtMbn;esdækic©. cMNucmYyeTot Exμr)anrgeRKaHbnþeTot enaHKWEpnkar k 5 EdlyYn)ancab;bBa¢Ún ekNÐRbCaBlrdæExμr enAqñaM 1984 eTAqñaM 1987 RbtibtþikarsMrab;elIkTMnb; eFIVCarbgenAextþtamRBMuEdnCab;esom dUcCa )at;dMbg eBaFisaFi ]tþrmanC½y nigxagkñúgRbeTsdUcCa kMBg;FM esomram kMBg;s<W CaedIm. BlkrsMrab;kab;éRB tambeNþaypøÚv Edk bwg b¤Tenø. nigelIkTMnb;CIkRbLay EdlmanRbEvg 800 Km tamRBMEdn esom nig RBMEdnlav. eFIVrbg eFIVCBa¢aMgtamyuT§saRsþ h‘MuB½T§RbeTsExμr edaykalenaH RkumnImYy²manmnusSBI 60 000 eTA 100 000nak;. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            57

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EdlsßanPaBxøaMgCagrbbExμrRkhmeTot eRBaHmnusSRtUveFIVkarya:gticbMput 10 ema:g kñúgmYyéf¶ edaymankar XøaMemIlBIkgT½B mðÚbGaharminRKb;RKan; xøHsøab;edaysarRKab;mIn CaBiess søab;edaysarCm¶WRKuncaj; Edlelak eGmIra:l;da luysüÚlI )anpþl;CatYelx ya:gehacNas; manmnusS 50 000nak; )ansøab;. cMENktYrelx EdlRKUeBTüRbKl;eGayenaH KW BI 5 PaKry eTA 8 PaKry sMrab;RkumnImYy ¬km<úCakñúgTIXMuXaMg TMB½r 40-43. enAeBlenaH manekIt clnats‘UeRBagRBateLIg tamCayEdn manCMrMGanesH bkSIcaMRkug RBMuvit GMBil Ngcan GUbuk EdleKEbgEckCa 3 FM²mkKW hViun sIunbuic dwknaMedayKg;sIulas; EteRkaymkRtUvepÞr eGaysemþc sIhnu ehIyenAqñaM 1982 k¾epÞreGay neratþm rNriT§ CaGñkdwknaMvij. km<úCaRbCaFibetyü EdldwknaMedayexovsMpn. rN³sirSCatirMedaHRbCaBlrdæExμr dwknaMeday elak sWn san. clnats‘UTaMg enaHExμrRkhmmankarKaMRTBIcin cMENkrN³sirSrMedaHRbCaBlrdæExμr RtUv)anyYnvaysm¥at tamCayEdn edayRbtibtþikarrdUvR)aMg enAqñaM 1984 eFIVeGayGñkts‘U)anrgeRKaHya:gxøaMgBIkarvayRbharenH. enAqñaM1982 eTIbExμrTaMg 3 PaKIbegIátCardæaPi)alnireTseRkARsuk Edlmanéf nigcin CaGñkKaMRT. éfKaMRTBIeRBaHykExμr eFIVCarbgkMueGaykumμúnisþcUlmk cMENkyYnvijbnþsmøab;ExμrrhUtExμr)anePosxøÜnmkdl; RBMEdnsayFU enAqñaM 1986. cMNucenHminxusKñakalBIsRgÁamqñaM 1970 EdlyYn)anx©Iéd eGayExμreRkamsmøab;ExμrKña edaymçagxag eyokkug mçagxagyYnesrI. bnÞab;BIExμrmçagenAxageyokkug ExμrRkhm nig ExμrmçagenAxagesrI eKeRbIviFId¾Edl edIm,Ismøab;Exμr RKan;EtdUrrUbPaBEtb:ueNÑaH ExμrxagyYn dUcCa ehg sMrin h‘un Esn ExμrGñkts‘UxagsWn san rNriT§. dl;qñaM1993 eKeFIVCacrcarsnþiPaB cab;ExμresñhaCatiEdlenA kñúgRTugRsab;smøab;tamkarecaTRbkan; epSg². Etdl; qñaM1987 eTIbmankarCYy BICMnYyBIshrdæGaemrikcMnYn 5 landuløa edaysikSaBIcMNuc exSayGñkts‘U EdlxVHbec©keTs nigyuT§saRsþkñúgkareFIVsRgÁamCamYyyYn eTIbcab;epþImeFIVkarhwVkhat;kgT½B enAkøaMg dug TwkdIRbeTséf . ehIyeFIVkarvaylukeTAelIyYnenAelITwkdIExμrvij. edayGñkts‘UmaneRbobTaMg karTUt maneRbobTaMgkmøaMgT½B elIkgT½ByYnenAkñúgRbeTsExμr CaBiess eBlEdlshPaBsUevot)andYlrlM caj;shrdæGaemrik shPaBsUevot)anQb;pþl;CMnYydl;yYneTot eRBaHshPaBsUevotCYbnigvibtþiesdækic© Gs;hirBaØvtßúBIkñúgTunbMrugeTot CaehtueFIVeGay kU)aqUv )andUryuT§saRsþgakeTArkshrdæGaemrikvij. RbeTsyYn )anenAÉkekaBIqakGnþrCati edaymankarekobsgát;karTUt BIcin BIGas‘an nigshrdæGaemrik eRBaHyYn )anQøanBan)anelIkT½BcUlmkluyRbeTsExμr Edlxusc,ab;GnþrCati sþIBIkarrMelaPGFibetyüPaB ÉkraCüPaB rbs;RbeTsExμr. RbeTsyYnRtUv)aneKh‘uMB½T§esdækic© edayshrdæGaremric nigRbeTselakesrI EtRbeTsyYn manshPaBsUevotenABIeRkayxñg nigpþl;CMnYyRKb;Ebbya:g. shPaBsUevotxatcMeBaH neya)ayenA elITwkdI\NÐÚcin EtsUevotcMeNjBIxagGwur:ubxagekIt edIm,ITrUTat;nigkarxatbg;enH. shPaBsUevot)andk GaNaniKmn_rbs;xøÜn ecjBiIRbeTsGakanIsßan cMENk\Ti§Blkumμúnisþ)anFøak;exSay CabnþbnÞab;enAelIBIPBelak ehIy\Ti§BlkumμúynisþyYn)anFaøk;exSayenAelITwkdIExμr Edlmanrdækm<úCaCarbbmYYyxusc,ab;. eBlEdlyYn emIleXIjcaj;eRbobxagkarTUt nigesdækic© yYn)anbþÚr\riyabf dUryuT§saRsþfμI edaysnüadkT½BecjBI RbeTsExμreGayGs;enAqñaM 1988 edayminGnuBaØateGayGgÁkarshRbCaCati RtYtBinitüeLIy eRkamels niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            58

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famkCYyExμr. EdleBlenaH yYn)aneFIVrUbragdUcdkkgT½B EtyYn)anTukT½BEdlesøokBak;sIuvilenAkñúg RbeTsExμrbnþeTot ehIyeRbIeGay h‘un Esn CakUnGukmkeFIVkarcrcarCamYy sI hnuenA hSakata )a:taya: EdlbgðajeGayeXIjfaCasRgÁamsIuvil dUcyYncin eFIVkalBIqñaM1970 . yYnGacedaHédya:gRsYlBIkar efáaleTasfaQøanBanExμr. PaKITaMg bYn EdlmansaFarN³rdæRbCamanitkm<úCa tMNageday h‘un Esn húVinsiunbiuc tMNageday sI hnu km<úCaRbCaFibetyü tMNagedayexovsMpn rN³sirSCatirMedaHRbCaBlrdæExμr tMNageday elakta swn san QaneTArkkic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs éf¶ 23 tula 1991 Edlman RbeTs\NÐÚensIu nigRbeTs)araMgeFIVCashRbFan nigmanRbeTscMnYn 19 CahtßelxI. EdlGacQaneTArk kare)aHeqñatmYyEdlerobcMeLIgeday GCJaFrbeNþaHGsnñGgÁkarshRbCaCatisMrab;RbeTsExμrenAqñaM1993 GMNacenAEtFøak;elIBYkkumμúynisþdEdlrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶ ehIyyYnenAEtkan;kab; RtYtRtaBIeRkayxñg dUckal BImundEdl. sI hnu nig h‘un Esn CaTIemagsMrab;eFIVtamEtExSjak;rbs;yYnEtb:ueNÑaH. dUcenH ebIGñk neya)ayExμrenAEtedIrtamKnøgdEdl² eRkam\Ti§BlbreTs CaBiessGñkCitxag ehIyKμanKMnitdwknaMeday ÉkraCüxøÜnÉgeT RbeTsExμr Cati sasna RbeTsCatiExμr nigKμanesckþIsux suPmgÁl BitR)akdeLIy eRBaHfa yYnminEdlmanKMnitl¥eGayExμreyIg)ansuxeLIy. ebIisinCaGs;elakGñkGanTaMgGs;cg;c,as; sUmcuHeTAsikSa emIlsßanPaBCak;EsþgenAkñúgRbeTsExμrenaHBitCadwgR)akdCaminxan.

sI hnu

neratþm rNriT§i

exov sMpn

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            59

h‘un Esn

sWn san

rkSasiTi§


g-RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa (The Kingdom of Cambodia) cab;BIqñaM 1993 RbeTsExμr)anpøas;;bþÚrmuxmat;fμI bnÞab;BIsRgÁamCag 2 TsvtS rvagRkumclnats‘U nig rbbrdækm<úCa edjyYnecjBIRbeTsExμr EdleKehAfasRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 3. kic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIs)an CMrujeGayyYndkkgT½BecjBIRbeTsExμr nigmankarerobcMkare)aHeqñatmYYy EdlmankarRtYtBinitüBIGgÁkar shRbCaCati EtxagPaKIkm<úCaRbCaFibetyümin)ancUlrYmkñúgkare)aHeqñateT edaysMGagfamanT½ByYnenAkñúg RbeTsExμr. lT§plénkare)aHeqñatenH)aneCaKC½yelIKNbkS hVú‘nsIunbiuc EdlmanRBHGgÁma©s; neratþm rNriT§ CaRbFan EtKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa Edlman h‘un Esn CatMNag)anTTYlbraC½ykñúgkare)aHeqñatenH. h‘un Esn )aneFIVkartva:RbqaMgeTAniglT§plénkare)aHeqñatenaH edaybegIáttMbn;GPiKmenAextþEb:kxagekItTenøemKgÁ EdlkalenaH manneratþmcRkBgS CaGñkdwknaMbegIáttMbn;GPiKmn_enH. karminyl;RsbcMeBaHlT§plénkar e)aHeqñatenH h‘un Esn )aneFIVeGaymankarraMgsÞHcMeBaHkarerobcMrdæaPi)almYy EdlminGacedaHRsay)an eRBaHGagkgT½ByYnbgáb; . sIhnu CaRbFan]tþmRkumRbwkSaCatiCan;x<s;)anecjmkeFIVGnþraKmn_ eday)anedj GgÁkarshRbCaCatieGayecjBIRbeTsExμr edIm,IRBHGgÁedIrtYrpSHpSarCati EdlpSHpSarEckGMNaceGayBYk kumμúynisþ RbeTsmYymannaykrdæmRnþI2 neratþmrNriTi§ naykrdæmRnþITI1 h‘un Esn naykrdæmRnþITI2. rdæFmμnuBaØénRbeTs)antMrUveGayRbeTs CaRbeTsraCaniymGaRs½yrdæFmμnuBaØ LayRBhsßelxa enAéf¶TI 24 ExkBaØa qñaM1993. RbeTskm<úCak¾kaøyCa RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa EdltamrdæFmμnuBaØ RbCaFibetyü esrIBhubkS ¬raCaniym GaRs½yrdæFmμnuBaئ. karEdl sIhnu edjGgÁkarshRbCaCatiecj ehIyEckGMNaceGay KNbkSRbCaCnenH edIm,Ibnþ»kaseGayBYkkumμúynisþrs;ranbnþeTotenAelITwkdIExμr eRBaHfa sIhnu k¾CaCn kumμúynisþ Kat;KitEteFIVya:gem:ceGayraCblø½gÁenAKg;vgS ehIybiT)aMgkarBitnUvral;kMhusqÁgrbs;RBHGgÁ knøgmkEtmin)anKit KUrdl;plRbeyaCn_RbeTsCatisMrab;eBlGnaKtfaya:gNaenaHeLIy. ebIsinCaTuk eGayGgÁkarshRbCaCati edaHRsayeBlenaH ExμrRtUvman»kaspøas;bþÚrneya)ayeTACaRbeTsesrI EdlerIput BI\Ti§Blrbs;kumμúynisþyYn nig Epnkarrbs;yYnEdlcg;elbykTwkdIExμr ehIyRbeTsExμrnig)ansuxsnþiPaB rIkcMerIn eRBaHfa sRgÁamEdlekIteLIgenAelITwkdIExμrtaMgBITsvtS 60 mk sI hnu minEdlnwkeXIjxøac RbCaBlrdæExμr Edlsøab;CabnþbnÞab;enaHeT b:uEnþ sI hnu suxcitþCYyyYn eFIVtamcin eGaybgásRgÁamvinas hinehac. luHdl;eBlEdlExμrRtUv erIxøÜneGayrYcBIyYn EbCa sIhnuecj mkkarBarkumμúynisþyYn nig h‘un Esn eTAvij. edaysaremIleXIj sI hnu CakUnGukya:gsMxan; sMrab;kumμuynisþTaMgBIr KWcin nig yYn sMrab;eRbIR)as; ehtudUcenHehIy TaMgyYnTaMgcin)aneRbIR)as; sI hnu CaerogrhUtmkedIm,IplcMeNjTaMgcitþsaRsþneya)ay dUcEdl)an sikSaviPaKknøgmk. eyIgeXIjfa neya)ayrbs;semþcsI hnu taMgBIsgÁmraRsþniymrhUtmkKWKμan EpnkarGIVc,as;las; eFIVtamEtKnøgyuT§saRsþrbs;kumμúynisþyYn nig cin EdleKKUsvaseGay edayKμancMeNjGIV )anplRbeyaCn_GIVdl;CatiExμreLIy manEteGayExμrevTnaedaysarkumμúynisþyYnbnþRtYtRtaeTAeTotrhUtmk dl;sBVéf¶ EdlsMerctamEpnkarshB½n§\NÐÚcinrbs;hUCImij. ebIkalNaRBHGgÁTukeGayh‘VúnsuIn biucerobcMrdæa Pi)alEtmñak;Ég enaHmann½yfa RBHGgÁhuckaMbiteTAeGayxagesrI bkGaRkatRBHGgÁ edIm,ImineGayRBHGgÁ maneQμaH CamhavIr³kSRt RBHbitapSHpSarCati b¤ÉkraCüCaedIm eRBaHenAkñúgKNbkShViunsiunbiuc manGñk niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            60

rkSasiTi§


esñhaCatiCaeRcIn ehtuenHehIy)anCaBYkkumμúynisþrkviFIsmøab;CabnþbnÞab;mkeTot edayeFIVrdæRbharsmøab; GñkTaMgenaH enAéf¶TI 5-6kkáda 1997 EdlPaKeRcInCaGñkesñhaCati Gñkts‘URbqaMgyYntaMgBIqñaM 1979 dUcCa hU sux ecA sm,tþi RkUc eyOm Ca riT§IQut nigmYycMnYneTotsarubCag200nak;eTot. RtUvdwgfa RBHGgÁCa Cnkumμúuynisþ cMENkKNbkSh‘VúnsIunbiucPaKeRcInCaGñkesrI nig RbCaFibetyü EdlmanGñkxøHeKniyayfa emTa EtbeNþIrkUnman;. karEdlRbmUlGñkts‘UeGaycUlkñúgRTugtaml,ickl,crcarenH Gñkneya)ayesñhaCatiExμr TaMgGs;RtUvcg;caMTukfakumμúynisþyYn nigBYkGay:g eKminKitfa eyIgCaExμr manQamC½rCaExμr KitKUr plRbeyaCn_CatieT EtelμaPGMNac lg;menaKmn_yYnTaMgenaH eFIVtamEtRKUyYnrbs;va edIm,IeGayEtGMNac enAKg;vgSEtb:ueNÑaH. cab;BIeBlEdlG‘untak;dkecjeTA GñkesñhaCatidUcCa stVenAkñúgRTug EdlRtUvema:g eKsmøab;eBlNaeRscEtcitþ edayecaTTmøak;kMhusdak;tamEtl,icrbs;BYkva. semþc sI hnu nig h‘un Esn)an RbmUlGñkesñhaCatieTAsmøab;ya:gRsYlTukeGaykumμúynisþrwugbwug yYncUlcUlmkRbeTsExμr eFIVkarkñúgCYrb:UlIs Tahan eRkampøak KNbkSRbCaCn nigmanesþcCaKMrb edIm,ICYylak;)aMgGMeBI]Rkidæ sI hnu h‘un Esn nigBYkkumμúynIsþeFIVknøgmk nigrYcputBIkarefáaleTas. etIvasnaGnaKtTwkdIExμr vasna Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμrnigeTACaya:gNaenAeBlxagmux. eRBaHkMhusrbs;kumμúynisþEdleFIVeGayExμrsøab;rab;lannak; kalBIrbbkm<úCaRbCaFib etyü nigExμrsøab;edaysarsRgÁamCabnþbnÞab;enAkñúgrbb h‘un Esn EdlyYnkan;kab; enAEtKμannNamYy h‘anecjmklatRtdagenAeLIy eRBaHBYkkumμúynisþCaGñkQñH ehIyenAkMBugEtman GMNacral;éf¶ EtsUmkMuePøcfa RbvtþisaRsþkMBugEtkt;RtaBYkemdwknaMEdlGsmtßPaB elμaPGMNacTukeGay kUnecAExμr)andwgB¤Caminxan. dUecñHehIyeyIgsegáteXIjfa kare)aHeqñateRkay²mk CakarerobcMqakelçanrbs;KNbkSRbCaCn km<úCa edIm,IbMP½nþeGayeXIjfa mankare)aHeqñatEdlRsbeTAniwgeKalkarN_RbCaFibetyü lT§plminEmn CalT§plecjBIqnÞ³rbs;ExμreT CalT§ple)akR)as;. eyIgGacsegátemIlRbB½n§Bt’mank¾minÉkraCü tulakar minÉkraCü edaysßitenAeRkamGMNac h‘un Esn EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñg. mankarkab;smøab; manEt bBaðaekIteLIgminecHcb; bBaðaekItmanBImYyeTAmYy dUcCaGMeBIBukrlYy niTnþPaB tulakarGyutþiFm’ kar kat;eTasExμrRkhm TMnas;dIFøI TMnijeLIgéfø CemøaHR)asaTRBHviharCaedIm edIm,IbEgVkarcab;GarmμN_ rbs;RbCaBlrdæ bBaðaekItmanminecHcb;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr EtKμandMeNaHRsay. dUcenHetIIb£sKl;bBaðaBit R)akdenAÉNa? dUc)anerobrab;CUnxagelImkehIyfa b£sKl;bBaðaenaH KW shB½n§\NÐÚcin ¬kumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin¦ EdlyYnCaGñkerobcMEpnkaredIm,IRtYtRtaenA\NÐÚcinenHÉg EtRbCaBlrdæExμr CaGñkrgeRKaH rgTukçevTna RkIRk QWcab;karCiHCan; GyutþiFm’epSg²kñúgsgÁm. karbegIátbBaðaEdlCacitþsaRsþneya)ay edIm,IbEgVkarcab; GarmμN_rbs;RbCaBlrdæ enHminEmnCaqnÞ³neya)ayBitR)akdeT. neya)ayRbeTsExμreRbobdUcCaGñkCm¶W eGds_ Rtdrrs;edIm,IesckþIsøab;nigmkdl;Etb:ueNÑaH. dUcenH esμrsUmelIkykbriyakasneya)ay nigbBaða mYycMnYn mkviPaKCaKMnitdUcteTA³

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            61

rkSasiTi§


g-1-briyakasneya)ay

(Political Environment)

karRKb;RKgsßankarN_ nigyl;dwgTaMgGs;GMBIRBwtiþkarN_neya)ay EdlkMBugekIteLIgenAkñúgRbeTsExμr b¤eRkARbeTs CaBiess dMeNIrvivDÆn_neya)ayenAkñúgRbeTsExμr. bc©úb,nñenH ebIeyIgemIlRbeTsExμrBIsMbkeRkA eyIgeXIjKNbkSRbCaCn EdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñg kan;GMNackumμúynisþpþac;kar EtyksMbkRbCaFibetyü mkBak;pøakbnøMRbCaBlrdæExμr. tamkarBitdMeNIrkarneya)ay nigRbB½n§RKb;RKgTaMgGs;EbbCakumμúynisþ EdlsßiteRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;yYnBIeRkay. tamkardkRsg;ecjBIvibsay yUFUb (Youtube) h‘un Esn niyay sarPaBpÞal;fa {´niyayRtg;Etmþg KWfa´Gay:gyYn \LÚvmanTahanyYnCasIuvil 100 000 nak; enAkñúg RbeTsExμr}. karEdlyYnerobyuT§saRsþeGaymanRBHmhakSRt KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn nig sasnaRBHBuT§ enHRKan;EtktþacitþsaRsþneya)aymYy sMrab;eFIVCaKMrbbiT)aMgExμr edIm,IeGayExμrGs;citþfa GIV²TaMgGs;Carbs;Exμr ExμrÉkraCü ExμrmansnþiPaB k¾b:uEnþ plRbeyaCn_CatiExμr TwkdIExμrTaMgmUlnwgRtUvFøak;elIkNþab;yYn CatiExμr nwgsøab; eRbobdUcCadgáÚvdYgvacUlsIurUgdl;bNþÚleQI ehIyTIbMputeQIenaHRtUvsøab;ÉgEtmþg. yYncUlmk RbeTsExμrrs;enAeRscEtcitþ rhUtdl;fμI²enHyYnmincaM)ac;manTidækar deNþImplRbeyaCn_Exμr RtYtRtaExμr eFIVevecäTkmμepSg² kab;smøab;Exμr edaybnøMeFIVCaExμr manGtþsBaØaNb½NÑCaExμr nigmansiTi§e)aHeqñat EtExμrenA elIdIxøÜnÉg ExμrmYycMnYnRtUv eK)aj;smøab;edaysaredIrerIsC½rekAs‘U edIm,IciB©awmCivit hak;dUcCaCivitBlrdæ ExμrKμantMélesμIrnigC½rekAs‘UeLIy. RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akd RkIRk rehmrham sMuTaneK ehIyxitxMeFIVkar Ca´bMerIeK CakmμkrsMNg;epSg² TTYlR)ak;ExtictYc min)anRKb;RKan; xøHeTotrt;mksMuTaneK xøHeFIVCakmμkrenA eRkARbeTseTotpg.

RbeTsExμrsißteRkamGaNaniKmn_kumμúynisyYn Edlman KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn nig esþc CarnaMgbiT)aMg

g-2-KNbkSneya)ay (Political Parties) KNbkSRbCaCn KWCaKNbkSEdlyYnCaGñkbegIáteLIg manry³eBl 57 qñaMmkehIy dMbUgyYn)an dak;eQμaH bkSbdivtþRbCaCnExμr enAqñaM1951 b¤sKl;rbs;vaekItecjBIbkSkumμúynisþ\NÐÚcin EdlyYn hU CImij begIáteLIgdUcerobrab;bkRsayxagelI. ehtudUcecñH KNbkSRbCaCn CaGñkbMerI nigeFIVCaGay:gGnuvtþtam neya)ayrbs;yYn. BYk h‘un Esn bMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayyYn edIm,IGMNaclYcCati lk;CatiÉg Etb:ueNÑaH. BYk h‘un Esn Ca sIum nig ehg sMrin enHCamnusSrbs;ynY Edl)anelIkbnþúbeGaykan; GMNackalBITsvtS 1980 eBlEdlyYncUlmkQøanBanTwkdIExμrenAkñúgsRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI3 ¬GMLúgeBl sRgÁamRtCak;¦. ebIsinCa h‘un niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            62

rkSasiTi§


Esn mineFIVtamneya)ayyYn vasnarbs;BYkenH nwgdUc can; sIu ¬cak;fñaMsmøab;elIynþehaH¦ Eb:n suvNÑ ¬yYncab;eTAdak;Kuk enAhaNUy¦ Caminxan. ehtudUecñH ehIy )anCayYnbegIát CaeKalkarN_neya)ay mitþPaB snþiPaB nigshRbtibtiþkarrvagyYn nigExμr edIm,IbMP½nþRbCaBlrdæExμrfa yYnCaGñkmanKuNelIExμr. EttamBit ExμrenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;yYn. yYneRbIl,ic smøab;TaMgExμreRkam TaMgExμrsBVéf¶ ExμrminmanÉkraCü ExμrKμan siTi§esrIPaBeBjelj Exμr)at;bg; plRbeyaCn_CaeRcIn dUcCa kat;TwkdIeGayyYn cuHhtßelxa sn§isBaØa bMeBjbEnßmCamYyyYn enAéf¶TI 15 Extula qñaM 2005 elIsTi§sBaØaxusc,ab; qñaM 1979 1980 1983 1985. ExμrKμansiTi§kñúgkarniyay sþIeBjelj GMBIRbeTsCati RtUvyYneRbI h‘un Esn KMramsmøab;tamRKb;meFüa)ay TaMgesdækic© sμartI nigGayuCIvit. CnCati yYn cUlmkrs;enAkñúgTwkdIExμrKRKwkKeRKg begáItsmaKm 19 extþRkug begIátKNbkSneya)ay ¬KNbkS cMerInExμr KNbkSRbCaFibetyü¦CaedIm. yYn)aneRbIBYkyYnEdlecHExμr b¤eRbIExμrxøHeGayTijdI deNþIm dIedayRsbc,ab; BIRbCaBlrdæExμreRkamelsfa vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_. kar )at;bg;dIFøIenH )aneFIVeGayb:HBal;dl; CIvPaBRbCaBlrdæExμrya:gxøaMg BIeRBaHfa RbCaBlrdæExμrsgwÇm elITwkePøog nigmandIERscMkarbnþicbnþÜc EdlCaqñaMg)ayedIm,IciBa©wmRkBH. eBlEdleKrMelaPKMram deNþIm dIFIørbs;Kat;ehIy etIRbCaBlrdæExμr)anGIVsMrab;ciBa©wmCivit cMEGtRkBH edIm,Irs;teTAeTot. dUecñH BYkCn kumμúynisþ vaBUEkxag PUtPr kuhk bMP½nþEPñkeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr yl;RcLMvegVgNas;. eRBaHvasmøab;Gñk ecHGs;ehIyenAsm½yb:ul Bt GñkEdlenArs;CaGñkEdlmin)ansikSaeronsURteRCARCH ehIyRtUvlg;kñúg menaKmn_rbs;yYn EdlvaerobcMmk. vaeFIVGIVRKb;ya:gtameKalkarN_neya)ayrbs;yYn c,ab;eFIVeLIg edIm,I karBarGMNac nigplRbeyaCn_GñkmanGMNac minEmnkarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiExμreT. c,ab;manEtelIRkdas EtvaminGnuvtþtameLIy niyayeGaycM ebIGñkesñhaCatiExμrNaEdlh‘anRbqaMgneya)ayyYn BYkvaRtUvbBa¢a eGaykUnGukva KW h‘un Esn tamcab;bRgáabsmøab;Pøam ]TarhrN_dUcCa Ca viC¢a RBHetCKuN sM b‘uneFOn GñkkarEstExμr KIm sMbUr RBHsgÇExμreRkam smaCikKNbkSsmrgSI nigsmaCikKNbkSsiTi§mnusS edayKμan rkXatkreXIjeT rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ. EtebIyYnsøab;enAelITwkdIExμrvij h‘un Esn nigbkSBYkERskEkþg² tamRbdab;bMBgsemøg xVayxVl;xøaMgNas; eGayrkXatkr ykmkpþnÞaeTaseGay)an. cMENkKNbkSneya)ayepSg² EdlCaGñkesñhaCati nigGñkRbCaFibetyü yYnvabBa¢aeGay h‘un Esn rkvIFIsmøab;tamviFIepSg² tamrebobPavrkmμ bMEbkbM)ak;ExμrexÞcxIÞ Cak;EsþgdUcCa RBwtþikarN_EdlBYkkumμúynisþ h‘un Esn )anRbDiteLIgedIm,Icab;TMlak;kMhuselIExμrGñkesñhaCatienAéf¶ 2 mkra 2009 dUcCacab; elak esam Ék nigGñkesñhaCatimYycMnYneTot. h‘un Esn elμaPGMNac nigRTBüsm,tiþ lg;menaKmn_kumμúynisþyYn ePøcKitGMBICatiExμr nigQamExμrdUcKña eFIVtamyYneRbIl,icdUc sm½y b:ul Bt Edlva)an smøab;Exμrrab;lan nak;knøgmk. eFIVya:genH KWeFIVeGayExμreyIgTn;exSay RKb;Ebbya:g taMgBIesdækic© R)aCJa nigsμartI ¬Xøan exøA xøac¦ edIm,IgayRsYlyYnRtYtRta deNþImplRbeyaCn_Exμr ehIyTIbMputyYnelbykTwkdIExμrTaMgmUl edayviFI RtCak;bMput. yYnRKan;EtelIkbnþúbBYk elμaPGMNac buNüs½ká muxmat; smÖar³ BYklYcCati edIm,IplRbeyaCn_xøÜn eGayeFIVCaKMrbbiT)aMg CatiExμr RbCaCatiExμr nigGnþrCatiEtb:ueNÑaH. dUecñH KμannrNaGacCYyExμr eRkABIExμrCYyExμr

xøÜnÉgeLIy.

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            63

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KNbkSRbqaMgTaMgGs; RtUv)anKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn eRbIl,ickumμúynisþbMEbkCaKNbkStUc² EdlminGacykC½yCMnHelIKNbkSrbs;va)aneLIy eRBaHKNbkSRbCaCnmankgT½B TahanyYn nigRbCaCn yYnsMrab;CYy. KNbkSRbCaCnmaneRbobxagesdækic© xageXasna edaysarBYkvalk;Cati niglYcBICatiExμr CaeRcInqñaMmkehIy. RbB½n§Bt’mansißtenAeRkamGMNac nigkarRKb;RKgrbs;BYkva Bt’manminÉkraCü Bt’man eFIVtamneya)ayrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ. BYkeK)anbiT)aMg RbCaBlrdæExμrmineGaydwgkarBitbiTsiTi§esrIPaB RbCaBlrdæExμrmineGaytva:CaedIm. dUecñHebIeyIg viPaKelIKNbkSdéTeTot minGacykQñHelIKNbkSRbCaCn EdlbMerIneya)ayeGayyYneT Etvak¾Gacbg¥ak;dMeNIrneya)ayyYn nigCYyeGayExμrPJak;rlwkmYycMnYnEdr. ebIsinCaKNbkSNamYyQñHeqñateRkABIbkSRbCaCn k¾yYnbBa¢aeGay h‘un Esn eFIVvT§gSnaeday mankarGnþraKmn_CMnYyBI esþc sI hnu b¤rdæRbhar dUckalBI h‘un Esn caj;eqñatkalBIqñaM 1993 ehIy)aneFIVrdæRbharsmøab; GñkesñhaCatiExμr enAéf¶TI5-6 Exkkáda qñaM1997 bnþeTottamEpnkaryYn. ehutenH KNbkSneya)ayepSg²eTotenaH begáIteLIgRKan;EtsMrab;cMeNjneya)ayyYn nig h‘un Esn eGayRbCaBlrdæExμremIleXIjfa CaRbeTsÉkraCü manRbCaFibetyü snþiPaB Etb:ueNÑaH. b:uEnþebIeyIgCa GñkesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akdrYbrYmKñaCaFøúgmYy eTIbeyIgGacQñHyYnkumμúynisþ. eRbobdUcTwkhUrrYmBIéd TenøepSg² cUlsmuRTEdlKμanGIVmkraraMg)aneLIy. ebIKNbkSNa b¤GñkesñhaCatiExμrNacg;eFIVneya)ayenARbeTsExμr RtUveFIVitamKMnUsneya)ayrbs;KNbkSRbCaCn eRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;yYn Edlvas;kMriteGayniyay eGayGnuvtþ. eRBaHyYnmanEpnkar tamyuT§saRsþminGacTukeGay KNbkSNaykC½yCMnHelIva)aneLIy. eyIgemIleXIjya:gc,as;fa RbeTsExμrsBVéf¶ CaRbeTskumμúynisþ sißtenAeRkamGaNaniKmn_yYnEbbfμI. dUecñHehIy vasnaGnaKtCatiExμr nwgdUccm,a: nig km<úCaeRkamminxaneLIy ebIeyIgmints‘UerIbMrH. ,

RbFanbkS smrgSI

RbFanbkS siTi§mnusS

RbFanbkS neratþmrNriTi§ KNbkS RbCaCnkm<úCa

g-3-kat;eTasExμrRkhm (Khmer Rough Tribunal) salakþIExμrRkhmenH begIáteLIgRKan;EtCaEl,gneya)ayrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ Edlman h‘un Esn KNbkSRbCaCnCakUnGuk ehIylak;)aMgkMhus sI hnu TukeFIVCarnaMg sMrab;eKaledAcugeRkayrbs;yYn Edlcg; elbykTwkdIExμrb:ueNÑaH. varwtEteFIVeGayExμrkan;EtvegVgeRCAeTA minGacrkXatkrBitR)akdeXIjeTotpg. EteyIgCaCnrgeRKaHExμrRKb;Kñadwgc,as;fa XatkrBitR)akd KWBYkkumμúynisþyYn ¬\NÐÚcin¦ Edl)anerobcM nigbMBak;bMb:nlTi§enHeLIgeGayExμr ¬Rkhm¦ eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrsøab;rab;lannak; TaMgExμreRkam nigExμr bc©úb,nñ ehIyyYnbBa¢ÚnBlrdæxøÜnmkCMnYs eFIVCaExμrfμIelITwkdIExμrvij. sI hnu nig h‘un Esn CaCnkumμúynisþ niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            64

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bMerIneya)ayeGaykumμúynisþ edIm,IGMNac nigplRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜnÉgnigbkSBYkEtb:ueNÑaH EtCnkumμúynisþ TaMgenH min)anbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayCatiExμr nigRbCaBlrdæExμreT. ehtudUecñH kMusgÇwmfa salakþIExμrRkhm nigTTYl)anyutþiFm’BitR)akd eRBaHfa salakþIenHedIrkñúgKMnabneya)ayrbs;KNbkS RbCaCnEdlman yYnCaemekøag. yYnvamincg;rkyutþiFm’eGayCnrgeRKaHExμrBitR)akdeT. b:uEnþ salakþIenH CayuT§saRsþ neya)ayrbs;BYkkumμúynisþyYn CaGñkcMeNjb:ueNÑaH ¬ 1-ExμrenAEtEbk)ak;Kña QWcab;nig Exμr ¬Rkhm¦ b:ul Bt 2-dwgKuN 7 mkra yYn h‘un Esn 3-RbCaBlrdæExμr enAEtmindwgkarBit fanrNaCaXatkrBitR)akd 4-ebIk»kaseGayyYnkumμúynisþRtYtRtaExμrbnþ ¦. salakþIenHekIteLIgehIy EtGUsbnøayBnüaeBl vaRKan;EtCafñaMbnSabeFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr EdlCa CnrgeRKaHGs;citþTaMgGyutþiFm’b:ueNÑaH eRBaHkarBitenAEtmin)anlatRtdageGayRbCaBlrdæExμr dwgc,as; eLIy fanrNaCaXatkrsmøab;Exμr mann½yfakaMbitminGaccitdgxøÜnÉgeLIy. éf¶ 17 emsa 1975 KWBYkkumμúynisþ EdlyYnelIkGMNaceGayExμr ¬Rkhm¦ dUcKñanig éf¶ 7 mkra 1979 EdlBYkkumμúynisþ yYnQøanBan elIkbnþúbGMNacExμr h‘un Esn Ca sIum nig ehg sMrin Edr cMENkÉ sI hnu EdlFøab;eFIVCaemExμRkhm begIátExμrRkhm k¾minh‘anecj mksarPaBTTYlkMhuseTot. dUecñH salakIþenHeFIVeGaycMeNjneya)ay 7 mkra rbs;yYn EdlEtgEtelIkeLIgfa yYnmkCYy rMedaHExμr nigrwtEteFIVeGayExμrvegVgkan;EteRCA kñúgGnøg;menaKmn_kumμúynisþ. RbeTsExμrenAEtsißtenAeRkam kNþab;édrbs;BYkkumμúynisþ EdlmanyYnCaemekøag. cMENkGnþrCatiEdlcg;;rkyutþFm’eGayRbCaBlrdæExμr nigcg;bM)at;niTnþPaB )ancMNayluy\tRbeyaCn_mkeGayBYkCnBukrlYy. CnTTYlxusRtUvkMBUlCafñak; dwknaMExμr ¬Rkhm¦BitR)akd min)anykmkpþnÞaeTaseT eFIVLb;ELr e)akR)as;RbCaBlrdæExμr eGayrgTukçevTna edayrbbkumμúynisþ EdlyYnelIkbnþúbdak;elIRbeTsExμr taMgBIrbbExμrRkhmrhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ. srubmk eKaledAplRbeyaCn_cugeRkayénlTi§kumμúynisþ KWcMeNjeTAyYn Edlcg;elbykTwkdIExμr dak;RbeTsExμr CacMNuHrbs;yYn.

ebIcg;rkyutþFm’eGayExμr RtUvkat;eTas b:ul Bt nig sIhnu h‘un Esn yYn cin Edr

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g-4-CemøaHdIFIø (Land Conflict) edIm,IeGayCatiExμrFøak;exSayTaMgxag esdækic© eyaFa neya)ay nigekrþi×eQμaHsMrab;eFIVeGay yYngayRsYlbMeBjeKaledA kñúgkarkan;kab;RtYtRtaelbykTwkdIExμr)an yYnEtgEteRbIyuT§saRsþ vaylukRKb; meFüa)aymkelIRbeTsExμreyIgCabnþbnÞab; dUcCayYncab;epþImduteGaymansRgÁam enAelITwkdIExμrenAqñaM ¬1964-1975¦ eFIVeGayExμrkab;smøab;claclenAcenøaHqñaM ¬1975-1979¦ cUlmkRtYtRtaQøanBan TwkdIExμr bøn;RTBüsm,tþiBIqñaM¬1979-1991¦ edayyYn)anRtYtRtaExμr tamrUbPaB xøaBak;Es,kla . yYnyk GavKNbkSRbCaCn RbCaFibetyü esþcBak;bMP½nþEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμrrhUtdl;bc©úb,nñ. yYneRbI h‘un Esn bnþdak;bBaðamkelIExμr CabnþbnÞab;minRBmedaHRsay dUcCa bBaðaCnGenþaRbevsnþyYn bBaðaBukrlYy TMnijeLIgéfø karsmøab;mþgmYyCabnþbnÞab; rwbGUsdIFøI nigkab;éRBeQIykeTARsukyYnCaedIm. yYnykluy mkCMritTijdIRbCaBlrdæExμrEdlRkIRk edayykeQμaHRkumh‘un Caelsfa vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_. bBaðaTaMgGs; enH BYkRtYtRta h‘un Esn minRBmedaHRsayeT TIbMput TwkdIExμrTaMgenHnwgkøayeTACakmμsiTi§yYn cMENkExμrman Etsm,kRbeTs eQμaHfa km<úCa Etb:ueNÑaH. yYnmincaM)ac;eFIVsRgÁambgðÚrQamdeNþIm ykdIExμrdUckalmun² eToteLIy enHehIyeKehAfa neya)ayRtCak;. tamRTwsþI s‘un s‘U GñkEdlBUEk xagyuT§saRsþ KWminEmnGñk

Edlc,aMgQñH sRtUvrab;rysmrPUmienaHeT EtKWCaGñkQñHsRtUvedaymincaM)ac; RbyuT§ b¤QñHsRtUvedayKμan QamhUrmYydMNk; b¤QñHsRtUvedayminxUcxatsmÖar³GIVbnþicesaHeLIy.

edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrlk;dIeGayyYn yYn)aneRbIyYnEdlecHExμr b¤ExμrEdlbMerIva ykluy duløamkTijdI dMeLIgdIeGayéfø eFIVeGayGñkmanGMNacrwbGUsdIksikrRkIRk ykeTAlk;eGayBYkva ebIeTaHCamin cg;lk; k¾BYkvaeRbIl,icepSg² edIm,ITij dUcCaKMrameGaylk; ebIminGBa©wgeT varwbGUsykTeT². tamyuT§saRsþkumμúynisþyYn vakat;pþac;es,og kat;pþac;hirBaØvtßú luy nigkat;pþac; smÖar³ BIsRtUv ¬Exμr¦ edIm,IeGayExμrexSay. ebIRbCaBlrdæExμr minlk;dIeGayBYkva Kat;xøac)at;bg;TeT ehtudUcenH Kat;lk;TaMgsþay TaMgcitþexøacpSar eRBaHdIenHehIyCaqñaMg)ayrbs;Kat;. yYneRbIl,iceRkamrUbPaBepSg²eTot eFIVeGayExμr FujRTan; edaybgábBaðaepSg²dUcCa eKTijdIEdlh‘MuB½T§CMuvij dIrbs;Kat;ehIy eTIbeKbgçMeGayKat;lk; ebIminlk; Kat;KμanpøÚvcUleTAdIKat; beBaäateGaypþiteméd faGeBa©HGBa©úH rYcehIyBYkeK)anelseqøIyTMlak;kMhusfa RbCaBlrdæCaGñklk;dIeGayvavij b¤vabgáreGaymanCemøaHerOgra:vCaedIm. ExμrRtUvpøas;ecjBItMbn;sMxan;² dUcCa tMbn;esdækic© BaNiC¢kmμ neya)ay eTAkEnøgEdldac;Rsyal kab;éRBrs;enAtamTICnbTCaedIm b¤ BYkvaecaT KMramtamcab; tamsmøab;eGayrt;ecalRbeTsCatiCaedIm. RbCaBlrdæExμrEdlmancMnYn 85 PaKry Caksikr kan;EtRkIRkya:b;yWun ERskehArkGñkCYyrkyutþiFm’ EtBYk h‘un Esn minedaHRsayCUnExμreLIy. Cak;Esþg RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgekμgcas; )anedIrtaMgBIextþ)at;dMbgmkpÞH h‘un Esn enAtaexμA extþkNþal edIm,IeGayCYy EtTIbMputRtUvGgÁrkS h‘un Esn vayeFIV)abEbkk,al cMENkÉ h‘un Esn vij EbeTAkarBarBYkQμÜj vinieyaKyYnvij edayniyayfa kMuniyayerOgdIFøI BIeRBaHxøacb:HBal;erOgCati. karEdldIeLIgéfømkBImankMeNInRbCaBlrdæ b:uEnþtamBitkMeNInenaH vaminEmnCakMeNIncMnYn RbCaBlrdæExμreT KWkMeNInCnCatiyYn EdlvacUlmkenAkñúgtMbn;sMxan;² dUcCaesdækic© bwgTenøsab PñMeBj

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RkugRBHsIhnu kMBg;cam mat;TenøemKgÁ esomrab e)a:yEb:t EdlCaebHdUgExμr. BYkvaeron PasaExμreGayecH vapøas;bþÚrBIkEnøgmYyeTAkEnøgepSgeTot eFIVCaGñkcMNUlExμrfμIedayExμreyIgRsukERscMkarmin)anyl;dwgBIbBaða enHeLIy. cMENkRbeTsExμrmanRbCaBlrdæticRsab; vaeRbIneya)aypSBVpSayeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr eyIgBnüa kMeNIteTAvij. enHehIyCa neya)ayyYnnUbnIykmμ enAelITwkdIExμr. g-5-GMeBIBukrlYy (Corruption) GMeBIBukrlYyCaCm¶WmYyya:gsahav EdlkMBugratt,atkñuúgsgÁmExμrbc©úb,nñ eRBaHCnpþac;kar kBa¢HbreTs h‘un Esn elμaPGMNacbMerIplRbeyaCn_yYn KμanqnÞ³edaHRsaybM)at;GMeBIBukrlYyeGayGs;kúñgsgÁm ExμrTal; EtesaH. Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn KμanectnaedaHRsaybBaðaEdlkMBugRbQmmuxcMeBaHsgÁmExμreT EfmTaMgbegIát bBaðaeGaykan;EteRcIneTotdUcCa kardeNIþmdIFIøRbCaBlrdæRkIRk ectnaeFIVdUcenH KWeKmanbMNgeGay RbCaCatiExμrkan;EtRk nigexSayeTA² gayRsYl h‘un Esn bnþkan;GMNac bMpøajCati lak;)aMgkMuhus emdwknaM mYycMnYn EdleFIVxuscMeBaHCatiExμrknøgmk CaBiess h‘un Esn manectnarkSakarBarrbbkumμúnisþeRkam \Ti§BlyYneGaysißtesßrenAelIRbeTskm<úCaCaGmt³. GMeBIBukrlYyenHCab£sKl; eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrsißtenAkñúgPaBRkIRk ehIyGñkRkkan;EtRkeTA² CaBiess GñkRsukERscMkarkan;EtmanCIvPaBRkIRk KμanlT§PaBeronsURteRCARCH mansμartITn;exSayeTA² KitEterOgCIvPaB lg;eCOkare)akR)as;rbs;BYkpþac;kar h‘un Esn Edl)annwgkMBugbMpøajplRbeyaCn_Cati dUcCYyBRgwgGMNaceGayCnpþac;karEfmeTotb:ueNÑaH. GMeBIBukrlYyCaTunmYysMrab;BRgwgGMNacbkSBYk h‘un Esn eGaykan;EtruwgmaM nigmanCIvPaBFUrFar EtRbCaBlrdæExμrkan;EtRkIRkeTA )ak;s,atminGacegIbeLIgRbqaMgtTl;nigkareKobsgát; rbs;BYkmanGMNac EdlykkardwknaMtamrebobkumμúynisþ eRkamGaNaniKmyYn. GMeBIBukrlYyeFIVeGay)at;bg;fvikaCati kñúgmYyéf¶rhUteTAdl; 1 lan duløa ehIyebIKitkñúgmYyqñaM CamFümRtUv)at;bg;cMnYn 250landuløa eTA300landuløa. etIluyGs;TaMgenaHCarbs;nrNa? luyTaMgenaH Carbs;CatiExμr minEmnCarbs;bkSBYk h‘un Esn enaHeT etIeKmanR)ak;Exb:unμan ? )anCaman Lan vILa nig RsIyYn cMENkmRnIþraCkar elakRKU GñkRKU kmμkr EdlminEmnbkSBYk h‘un Esn R)ak;ExtictYc minRKb;RKan; ehIykan;RkIRkeTAvij. rdæaPi)alpþac;kar h‘un Esn TTYl)anCMnYy nigxI©breTsrab;landuløakñúgmYyqñaM² etIluyTaMgenaHBYk h‘un Esn ykeTANa? luyTaMgGs;enaHCaluyrbs;CatiExμr b¤Carbs; h‘un Esn Etmñak;Ég )anCanaMKña lYcykRTBü sm,tþiCati ykeTAdak;enAFanaKareRkARbeTsrab;landuløa EtTukçevTnaRtUvFøak;elIRbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA CaGñksg vij. dUecñH RbCaBlrdæExμrRtUvCMBak;bMNulbreTs y:agehacNas; 1500 duløakñúgmñak;. bBaðaTaMgGs;enH KWCaKMnitd¾exμARkxVk;rbs;Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn bMerIyYn manectnaeFIVeGayCatiExμr Rk nig exSay edIm,IbnþGMNacpþac;karbMpøajCati nigbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayyYnEtb:ueNÑaH.

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g-6-R)asaTRBHvihar erOgR)asaTRBHviharEdleTIbekIteLIgfμI²enH tamBiteTA vaCacitþsaRsþneya)ay EdlerobcMedayyYn eGayKNbkSRbCaCnbegáIteLIg edIm,IbEgVGarmμN_RbCaBlrdæExμreGayePøcerOgRkIRk TMnij eLIgéfø deNþImdIFøI BukrlYy GyutþiFm’epSg² edIm,IeGaymtiCati nigGnþrCatiyl;RcLMfa kardak;R)asaTRBHviharcUlebtikPNÐ BiPBelak eFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrKaMRTe)aHeqñateGayQñH edIm,IbnþGMNac h‘un Esn KNbkSRbCaCn teTAeTot EtvaCakarerobcMrbs;KNbkSRbCaCnEtb:ueNÑaH. tamkarBitR)asaTRBHvihaenH salakIþTIRkugLa eG)ankat;kIþeGayExμrQñHesom éf¶ 15 mifuna 1962 dUcenHR)asaTRBHviharCakmμsiT§iExμrrYceTAehIy. b:uEnþ sux Gan )ancuHhtßelxakat;dIeGayesom eFIVEpnTIfμI bgáCaCemøaHenHeLIg. karbegáItCemøaHerOgR)asaT RBHviharrvagExμr nigesom Edlesomdak;T½BQøanBanTwkdIExμr edIm,IeGayExμrePøcyYnPaKxagekIt EdlcUl mkeBjRbeTsExμr RbmaNCag 4 lannak;. yYneFIVeGayExμrRcbUkRcbl; manbBaðaminecHcb; x©IédExμreGay bgársRgÁam GñkEdlrgeRKaHKWCatiExμr GñkEdl)anplRbeyaCn_ KWyYneTAvij. tamkarBiteTATaMgyYn nigesom taMgBIGtItkal EtgEtelgEl,gq<inEPñkdak;Exμr edIm,IEtplRbeyaCn_CatieKb:ueNÑaH. eyIgCaExμrRtUvBinitü sikSaRbvtþisaRs��ExμreGayc,as; eyIgminRtUvBwgBak;TukcitþelICatisasn_déT CagCatisasn_xøÜnÉgeLIy. RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;Kña sUmkMuePøcplRbeyaCn_FM dUcCaTwkdIExμrTaMgmUl EdlyYnkMBugEtRtYtRtasBVéf¶ R)asaTGgÁrvtþ EdlyYn sux Kg; kMBugEtekIbluyykeTAeGayrdæaPi)alyYnCaedIm. sUmeyIgBicarNafa eBlEdlesomQøanBan etIGas‘an b¤GgÁkarshRbCaCati CYyedaHRsaybBaða eyIgb¤eT? dUcenHkMusMGagfamanGas‘an Exμrmin)at;bg;plRbeyaCn_ )at;TwkdIenaH eRBaHEpnkarGIVRKb;ya:g eKeFIVRsbtamsßankarN_TaMgGs;. cMENkkarcrcar nigkardak;T½B vaCaEl,gneya)ayq<inEPñkExμreT KμancMeNj GIVdl;Exμr eRkABIExμr )at;TwkdI Exμrclacl Gsnþisux nig P½yxøacb:ueNÑaH.

R)asaTRBHviharExμr

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4-kareRCotERCkBIbreTs¬sRgÁam¦ k-karQøanBanrbs;esom (Siam Invasion) karcab;epþImratt,atrbs;BYkmugeKalcUlmkcin. esom)anrYbrYmCamYykulsm<½ntUc² dUcCa lav nig GaNÑam EdlmanCMnYyBIm:ugeKalkMBugEteFIVkarratt,atenAGasIuGaeKñy_. RBH)aT\RnÞvrμ½n kan;RBHBuT§sasna ehIy)anRbKl;ÉkraCüeTAeGayRbeTscm,a:. RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 8 KWCaesþcEdlkan;sasnaRBhμBaØ ehIyrMlay RBHBuTæsasna EdlCaehtueFIVeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;enAkñúgvibtþisRgÁamsasna. eqøoteBlEdlExμrkMBugEt manvibtiþépÞkñúg kareRCotERCkrbs;breTsnaqñaM1220 RbeTscm,a:)anvaylukcRkPBExμr Etmin)ansMerc edaymanCMnYyBIBYkm:ugeKal RbeTsesom)anvaylukRbeTsExμr nigRbkasÉkraCüehAfa suexaT½yenAstvtS TI13 . s®gÁamsasnaenAkñúgraC RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI8 Edl)anbþúÚrBIsasnaRBHBuTæeTAsasnahiNÐÚ enAqñaM 1283. kgT½Bmu:gehÁal)anvayc,aMgtamRBMEdn cRkPBGgÁreRkayBIRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI8 RtUv)andeNIþm raCedaykUnRbsarrbs;RBHGgÁ ehIy)andUreTACasasnaRBHBuTævij. kalEdlminGackarBarnUvRbB½n§FarasaRsþ nigminGackarBarTwkCMnn; nigminmanTwkRKb;RKan;kñúgrdUvraMgs¶Üt eFIVeGayplitplrbs;ksikmμFøak;cuH esdækic© k¾Føak;cuH nigCakarFøak;cuHéncRkPBGgÁr. tMhyRbCaBlrdæbNþalmkBIkarsøab;edaysarsRgÁam nig søab;eday sar Cm¶WepSg²dUcCa RKuncaj; RKunQamCaedIm. enAqñaM1352 raCaNacRkesom)anRbkaseTACaGayuFüaeday ra:ma:FitI 1. enAkñúgGtItkal cam)anbnþredIm,Idak;karKMramkMEhgeTAelIRckRBMuEdnPaKxageCIgénRbeTsrwt EtF¶n;F¶reTAeTot KWclnalUtlas;eq<aHeTAxagt,ÚgénRbCaCnesom Edlqøak;CardæfμImYyenAkñúgTwkdIEdl Exμrkan; kab;. dUecñH suexaT½yenAemNamxagelI)anRbkasÉkraCürbs;xøÜnÉgrYcputBIkarRKb;RKgrbs;ExμrenAqñaM 1219 ¬ÉksaxøH 1201¦ KWCaqñaMEdlRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7cUlTIvgÁt;. eRkaymkenAstvtSTI13 GñkRKb;RKgmu:g ehaÁlrbs;RbeTscin)aneFIVeGayGMNacExμreyIgexSay edayCMrujCnCatiesomeGay pøas;bþÚreTAkñúgGasIu GaeKñy_ RbEhlCamankareqøIytbeTAnigkarKMramKMEhgenH kgkmøaMghñwg)anbnþeFIVkarRbqaMgCMTas;GMNac ExμrTUTaMgRbeTskñuúgry³eBlénkarsuKtrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI7. RbeTscamenAPaKxagekIt nig RbeTsesom enAPaKxaglic)anykbMENkmYyya:gFMénGaNacRkExμr. enAkñúgqñaM1431 GgÁrxøÜnÉgRtUv)anRKb;RKgeday CnCatiesom nigExμr)anTTYlsareLIgvijnUv rdæFanIBIGtItkalsMrab;ry³eBld¾xøI. b:uEnþenAkñúgqñaM1434 Exμr)ancakecj BITIRkugGgÁrnig begIátrdæFanIfIμmYyeTotEk,rTIRkugPñMeBj. karpøas;bþÚrTIRkugmanCabnþbnÞab; ecjBIRkugGgÁrmkekaHekr enAqñaM 928-944 ecjBIekaHekreTARkugGgÁrvijenAqñaM 1431 . ecjBIGgÁrqñaM 1431 eTATYl)asanqñaM 1431-1434. ecjBITYl)asaneTAPñMeBj qñaM1434-1505. ecjBITIRkug PñMeBjeTA ]tþúgÁ 1505-1515 ecjBI]tugÁeTAeBaFisat; qñaM1515-1528. rYcecjBI eBaFisat;eTAlEgVk 1528-1566 . rYcehIyRtLb;eTARkugGgÁrvij qñaM1566-1576. rYcecjBIRkugGgÁrRtLb;mklEgVkvij 1576-1594. ExμrcuHGn;exSaycab;taMgBI esþccam)anbBa¢ÚnkgT½BQøanBanExμr enAqñaM 1177 ehIy)ansmøab; RbCaBlrdæExμr Gs;rab;lannak; dutbMpøajsalaeron pÞHsEm,g mnÞIreBTü vtþGara:m rtn³vtßúepSg² nig RbmUlykePaKRTBüExμrya:gsnw§ksn§ab;eTARbeTscam. cMENkRbeTsesomEdlrs;enAtMbn;yUNan edayman niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            69

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karKaMRTBIBYkm:ugehÁalpg )aneFIVkarbHe)arpþac;xøÜnecjenAGaNaextþsuexaéf KWenAqñaM 1290 esþcesom eQμaH R)a rYg )anelIkT½BmkvaykMcat;Exμr enAGaNaextþ suexaT½y rYcmkbegIátCardæÉkraCüesomenAtMbn;enaH. RbvtþisaRsþéfcab;epþImekItmaneLIg enAstvtSTI 13mk. cab;BIeBlenaH esom)anykTMenomTMlab;tamExμr PasaExμr ehIymankarEkERbCabnþbnÞab;mk. enAkñúgrC¢kalRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 8 RbeTsExμrRtUvBYkm:ugehÁalelIkT½BmkQøanBanenAqñaM 1282 EtedayExμryl;RBmRbKl;sYysarGakr eTIbBYkenHdkT½BecjBIRbeTsExμr. edaysarkarcaj;sRgÁam enAextþesomrab esom)ancBa©wmcitþsgswkExμrCanic©enAqñaM 1295 esom)anelIkT½BmkvayRkugGgÁrmþgeTot EtRtUvbraC½y. enAqñaM 1297 esom)anelIkT½BmkeTot EtRtUvbraC½y ehIysRgÁamnaeBlenaH sahaveXaeXA CageBlNa²TaMgGs;. enAqñaM 1312 esom)anTak;Tgya:gCitsñitCamYYycam esomvaylukExμrBITisxaglic ÉcamvaylukExμrBITisxagekIt. b:uEnþBYkenHRtUvTTYlbraC½yral;elIk. enAqñaM 1351 esom)anelIkT½B mkratt,atExμrmþgeTot esþcesom eQμaH ra:man: hIuiBiTI EdleFIVeGayExμrvinashinehacya:gF¶n;F¶rbMput edaykgT½Besom)aneLamB½T§RkugGgÁrcMnYn 16 Ex ehIycab;ExμrCaeQøIycMnYn 90 000nak;. enAqñaM 1420 esom)ancUlmkratt,atExμrelIkTI 6eTot. Etedaykarts‘UsiVtsVajBIemdwknaMExμr sRtUv kTTYlbraC½y. edaysarsRgÁamQøanBanBIesomCaeRcInelIk bnþekIteLIgenAextþesomrab. edaysar erOgTwkCMnn; xøaMgeBkBIbwgTenøsab eFIVeGaylicRkugGgÁr CaehtueFVIeGaygaycaj;sRgÁam bBaðaesdækic© karEbk)ak;samKÁIKña kardeNþImraCüKña nigbBaðasasnapgEdr eTIbkñúgraCüRBH)aTBBaaya:t sMerccakecal RkugGgÁrenAcugqñaM 1432. enAqñaM 1587 esom)anelIkT½BmkvayRkug]tþúg EtRtUvbraC½y eRBaHbnÞaylEgVk mandaMedImb¤sSIya:g Rkas;B½T§CMuvij nig )armIrbs;RBHeKa nigRBHEkv Edl)anKg;enAkñúgbnÞayenaH CaehtueFIVeGayesomTTYlbraC½y. enAqñaM 1593 esom)anerobcMkgT½Brbs;eK edIm,IvaylukbnÞaylEgVkmþgeTot EtRtUvbraC½y. munnigdkT½BBYk kgT½Besom)an )acR)ak;dYg eTAkKum<b¤sSI EdlB½T§CMuvijbnÞaylEgVkenaH rYcehIyeKdkfyeRkayvij. eBlEdlesomdwgfaExμrkab;qáarb£sSIerIsR)ak;dYgGs;ehIy esom)anelIkT½BmkvayRkuglEgVk)aneCaKC½y yk Km<Irk,Ünc,ab;ExμrenAkñúgRBHeKaRBHEkveTARbeTseK eTIbesom)anerobcMRbeTseK rIkcMerInrhUtmk. x-karQøanBanrbs;yYn (Vietnamese Invasion) enAkñúgraCüRBH)aTC½yeCdæaTI 2 qñaM 1630 RbeTsExμr)anFøak;kñúg\Ti§BlyYn. edayRBH)aTC½yeCdæaTI 2 )anerobGPieskCamYykUnRsIesþcyYn eQμaH kU CInCIn. kU CInCIn )annaMmknUvjatisNþan kgT½B Gñkbec©k Ts tulakar vb,Fm’nigGriyFm_mktaMgTIlMenAenAelITwkdIExμr. yYn)aneRbIli,c ykRsIeFIVnuyedIm,IrMlay BUCsasn_Exμr nigcam. esþcyYn)anbBa¢ÚnebskCn eTAcrcarCamYyesþcC½yeCdæaTI 2 edIm,IkMueGayykBn§Gakr elICnCatiyYn EdltaMgTIlMenAenAtMbn;éRBnKr bc©úb,nñRtUvdUreQμaHeTACaRkug hUCImij. eRkayeBlEdlRBH)aTC½yeCdæaTI2 cUlTIvgÁteTAenAqñaM 1626 PaBRcbUkRcbl; deNþImGMNacKña)an begIátCasRgÁam enAkñúgPaBRcbUkRcbl;enaH kU CIn CIn )anbBa¢ÚnkgT½BmkbRgáabBYkbHe)ar ehIyykTIk dIéRBnKr)anenAqñaM 1698. BIqñaM 1660 eTAqñaM 1672 kñúgraCüRBH)aTbrmraCaTI 4 ExμrsßitenAeRkam niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            70

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begIátkarpøas;bþÚr I>begIátyuT§saRsþ (Establish Strategy) ebIsinCaKμankarcaM)ac;pøas;bþÚreT KMnitPaBCaGñkdwknaMKWKμann½yeT. PaBCaGñkdwknaMminEmnGrUbIeT tamKMnitelak )øatug vaKwCaskmμPaBGnuvtþn_ EdlmaneKaledACak;lak;enAkñugKMnit. karpøas;bþÚrenAkñúgGgÁkar dwknaM eRbobdUcCakarebIkLaneTAmux EdlmaneKaledACak;lak;sMrab;eTAEdr. emdwknaMCaGñkeFIVeGayman karpøas;bþÚrmYyy:agsMxan; b:uEnþeKminGaceFIVvaEtmñak;Ég)aneT eKenAEtmankarcaM)ac;karnUvCMnYyBIGñkd¾éT mann½yfa emdwknaMKWCaGñkbegIátGñkedIrtam kic©karrbs;emdwknaMKWRtUvCMrujmnusSeGayeFIVkargar. ebIKaμnGñkedIr tameT KWKμanemdwknaMeT. edIm,IeFIVCaemdwknaM nigpøas;bþÚreTA)anGaRs½yelIsßankarN_ emdwknaMl¥enAkñúg kal³eTs³ b¤sßankarN_mYy minGaceCaKC½ykñuúgkal³eTs³b¤sßankarN_epSg²eLIy . elak Winston Churchil EdlmankareCaKC½ydwknaMkñúgeBlsRgÁam nigbnÞab;mkbraC½yenAkñuúgeBlmansniþPaB edaykarcaj; eqñatCaTUeTA. emdwknaMRtUvbegIátsßankarN_ begáIt»kas minrgcaMsßankarN_enaHeLIy. 1-ebskkmμ (Mission) kñúgnamCakUnExμrmñak; EdlmanesovePAenHGanenAkμúgéd eyIgRtUvmansμartIPJak;rlwkdwgGMBIkatBVkic© Parkic©sMrab;xøÜneyIgCaExμrmñak;² faetIeyIgRtUveFIVGIVCaRbeyaCn_cMeBaHCatimatuPUmieyIg? eyIgmañk;²RtUvmankatBV kic©TTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHRbeTsCatieyIgenAdMNak;kalenH edayminbeNþayeGaybuKÁlNamñak; RkumNamYysMerc vasnaRbeTsCati eFIVGIVmYyEdl)at;bg;plRbeyaCn_Cati b:HBal;GayuCivitRbeTsCati tamEtcitþenaHeLIy. eyIgRtUvEtdwgKuNdl;buBVbursExμreyIg eyIgRtUvEtsgKuNTwkdIExμr eyIgRtUvEtRsLaj;karBar CYyCatiExμr minbeNþayeGayrlay)at;bg; edaysarEtbuKÁlGviC¢a BalelμaPGMNac lYcCati lk;Cati mñak; b¤ mYYyRkum enaHeLIy. BIeRBaHfa CatiExμr mann½yfa RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;enHehIyCaGñkkarBarEfrkSaCatirbs;xøÜn minEmneXIj emdwknaMEdlyYnelIkbnþúb dUc h‘un Esn EdlbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayyYn TukRbCaBlrdæExμr EdlQamC½rCaExμr eGayrgTukçevTna ehIyeyIgenAnaMKñaQr»bédemIlfaCaGñkxøaMg GñkBUEkqøattammenaKmn_va enaHeLIy. RbCaCatiExμreRbobdUcCaRkdass minEdl)aneFIVGIVmYyeGayb:HBal;dl;plRbeyaCn_Cati )at;bg; plRbeyaCn_Cati k,t;CatiExμreLIy b¤ eyIg)andwknaMRbeTsnaMeGayExμrsøab;mnusSrab;lannak; b¤dwknaM RbeTsFøak;Gnþray dUc sIhnu nigh‘un Esn eLIy. EteTaHbICa sIhnu h‘un Esn eFIVxusF¶n;F¶r ya:gNak¾eday k¾emdwknaMTaMgenHminEdlTTYlxuseLIy EtgEtTMlak;kMhusdak;Gñkd¾éT minTTYlxusRtUv cMeBaHkardwknaMrbs;xøÜn EfmTaMgGYtxøÜnfaCaGñkmanbuNü GñkxøaMgeTot. dUecñH eyIgRtUvrYbrYmKñaeLIg samKÁIKña eLIg eGayÉkPaB CatiExμrEtmYy edIm,ICatiExμrrs;. kñúgdMNak;kard_RbkbedayeRKaHfñak; EdlRbeTsCatienHCitdl;eRCaHmrN³ eyIgminGacQreGab édemIlrhUtRbeTsExμrRtUvFøak;eTAkñúgkNþab;édyYnTaMgRsug dUcExμreRkamenaHeT eRBaHeyIgeXIjfa yYneRbI neya)aycitþsaRsþ edayviFIRtCak; nigedayviFIekþA bMP½nþExμreyIg edayeyIgemIlEPñkTeTmineXIjeLIy yuT§saRsþeK edIm,IRtYtRtaelbykTwkdIExμrtamEpnkaryYnhUCImij edayExμreyIgmanEteQμaHfa km<úCa niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            74

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Etb:ueNÑaH EtplRbeyaCn_RKb;ya:gRtUvyYnCaGñkrwbGUsyk yYnCaGñkRtYtRtaExμr eFIV)abExμrtaml,icRKb;Ebb ya:g. dUecñHebskkmμd¾FMeFgsMrab;eyIgTaMgGs;Kña RtUvEtnaMKñaeRkakeLIg cgRkgKñaCaFøúgmYy edIm,IrMedaH RbeTsExμrsBVéf¶enH ¬Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr¦ ecjBIGaNaniKmn_kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμIenH eGayCatiExμr man ÉkraCü RbCaFibetyü siTi§esrIPaBeBjelj karBarCatimatuPUmiExμreGayenAsißtesßrKg;vgS sMrab;kUn ecAExμrCMnan;eRkay. eyIgTaMgGs;KñaminRtUvlg;eCOtammenaKmn_yYn KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn edayKμan karsikSaRsavRCav RtiHriHBicarNaeGayyl;BI ehut nig pl BitR)akd emIleXIjyuT§saRsþyYnenaHeT ¬ebImin)ansikSaRsavRCavGMBIyuT§saRsþneya)ayeGaysIuCMerAeT eyIgminGacyl;dl;kll,icexμARkxVk; rbs; kumμúynisþyYn nigkUnGuk sIhnu h‘un EsneLIy¦. yYnykKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa h‘un Esn CakUnGuk eFVItamyuT§saRsþva ehIyesþc sIhnu CaExl nigBak;GavRbCaFibetyü snþiPaBEkøgkøayeGayExμr eyIgemIleXIjnigEPñkfaExμrmanÉkraCü mansnþiPaB manRbCaFibetyü eRkayBIyYneRbIl,icerobcMEpnkar smøab;Exμr bM)ak;sμartI sm½y b:ul Bt mk. EtebIeyIgsikSaRsavRCav emIledayR)aCJa eXIjfaExμrenA RkIRk rgTukçevTna P½yxøac tamkarerobcMEpnkarfμIrbs;yYnEtb:ueNÑaH. ehtuGIVExμrenAEtRkIRk ebIeyIgmanRbCaBldæ tictYc ehIysm,ÚredayRTBüsm,tþieBjRbeTs dUcCa Er:t,Úg mas eBRC éRBeQI RtIsac; dImanCICati tMbn;eTscrN_ nigR)asaT. ehtuGIV)anenAEtmanGMeBIGyutþiFm’ BukrlYy kab;smøab;Exμr. ehtuGIV)an CayYncUlmkrs;enAeBjTwkdIExμr TaMgsIuvil nigTahan manGtþsBaØaNb½NÑ mansiTi§e)aHeqñatelITwkdI ExμreRsc Etcitþ. ehtuGIVyYnmansiTi§ebIk smaKmn_ 19 extþRkug edIm,IGIV? yYneFIVkarenAkñúgRksYgsMxan;²rbs;Exμr dUcCa b:UlIs Tahan RksYgkarbreTsCaedIm. 2-eKalbMNg (Goal) RbCaBlrdæExμr eyIgTaMgGs;KñamaneKalbMNg cg;pøas;bþÚrsgÁmCatiExμreGaymanÉkraCü mansiTi§esrI PaBeBjelj manRbCaFibetyüesrIBitR)akd CYyRbCaBlrdæExμreGayrYcputBIPaBRkIRk P½yxøac GyutþiFm’ nig GMeBIBukrlYyepSg² edIm,IeGayRbeTsCatimansuxsnþiPaBBiitR)akd rugerOg]tþúg]tþm esμIrmuxRbeTsnana elIBiPBelak. k-pøas;bþÚremdwknaM nigrcnasm<½n§ (Change Leader and Structure) kardwknaMEdlmanlkçN³RbNaMgRbECgKñaedayesrI nigyutþiFm’ KWCadMeNIrkarEdlGacQaneTA rkkarrIkcMerIn eRBaHfakareFIVEbbenH vaGaceGayemdwknaMmñak;²xitxMRbNaMgRbECgKña eFIVl¥cMeBaHCati ykcitþTuk dak;cMeBaHsuxTukçRbCaBlrdæ tMkl;plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrCaFM xitxMGPivDÆn_RbeTsCatieGayrIkcMerIn. eyIgmin GacTukemdwknaMcas;d¾Edl² eFIVCaemdwknaMrhUtenaHeT eRBaHKμanKMnitfμIsMrab;EkERbfμIeGayRbeTsrIkcMerIneLIy eRbobdUcCaeyIgminRtUveRbIeKaRkbIcas;²eBkeT eRBaHvaGs;kmøaMg famBl TaMgR)aCJa sμartI KMnitfμI KμaneCOn elOneTAmuxeToteT. eyIgRtUvEtpøas;bþÚrfμI edIm,IeGaykargarRbeTsCatidMeNIrkarelOnqab;rh½seTAmux dUceyIgmankuMBüÚT½rcas;pøas;kMuBüÚT½rfμI kargarrIkcMerInelOn ehIymanRbsiT§PaBx<s;Cagmunya:gdUecñHEdr . eyIgCaRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;Cam©as;GMNac EdleRCIserIsdMNagrbs;xøÜn edayecjBIqnÞHBitR)akdrbs;xøÜn niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            75

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edIm,IykmkbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayeyIgTaMgGs;Kña minEmnerIsmksMrab;CiHCan; KMramkMEhg deNþImdIFøIeyIgeT eyIgerIsbuKÁlNa EdlykRbeyaCn_RbeTsCatiCaFM sMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_eyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaCatiExμr. eyIgRtUv eRCIserIsykemdwknaMEdll¥bMput The King of the King or The best of the best.. x-pøas;bþÚrneya)aydwknaM (Change Politics) CakarBitehIy kardwknaMneya)aysMrab;CatimYy RtUvEtKitplRbeyaCn_sMrab;CatienaH CaCagpl RbeyaCn_rbs;buKÁl b¤ minEmndwknaMneya)ayedIm,IbMerIplRbeyaCn_CatidéT dUcBYk h‘un Esn )annwg kMBugeFIVenaHeT. eTaHCadwknaMneya)aytamEbbkumμúynisþ b¤ tamEbbesrI RbCaFibetyü tamEbbraCaniym k¾eday k¾neya)aydwknaMenaHRtUvEtÉkraCü sMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_Catirbs;xøÜnÉgEdr. RKb;RbeTsnanaenA elIBiPBelakeRkayBIsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 RtUvEtmanÉkraCürag²xøÜn sMercvasnaRbeTsedayxøÜnÉg dUcCa RbeTsenAGaRhVik \NÐÚcin¬Exμr lav yYn¦ \NÐa maeLsIu siugkaBU hiVlIBin PUma Rb‘ueN nigfμI²enH TIm½rxagekIt kUsUvU: tamsn§isBaØaGnþrCati. eTaHCaGuIRsaEGl TIm½rxagekIt Rb‘uyeN CaRbeTstUcmYyk¾eday k¾RbeTsTaMgenH kan;neya)aydwknaMCMhrÉkraCü edayminsßitenAeRkamKMnabRbeTsNamYy dUcRbeTsExμreLIy. GkuslEt RbeTsExμr minRtwmEt)at;bg;TwkdIExμreRkam TwkdIExμrelIeT EfmTaMgneya)aydwknaMrbs;RbeTsExμrbc©úb,nñ enAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;kumμúynisþyYneTot. karEdlneya)aydwknaMeRkam\Ti§BlyYnenHehIy EdleFIVeGay CatieyIgKμanÉkraCü kñúgkarsMerceCaKvasnaRbeTsCatiedayxøÜnÉg tamsn§isBaØaGnþrCati b¤karR)afña cg;)an rbs;RbCaBlrdæExμr EdlrgTukçevTna\tElð BImYyCMnan;eTAmYyCMnan;. dUcenH eyIgcaM)ac;RtUvEtpøas;bþÚrneya)aydwknaMrbs;BYk h‘un Esn eGayeTACaneya)aydwk naMCatiExμr EdlÉkraCü mansiTi§esrIPaBeBjelj tamEbbesrIRbCaFibetyü edIm,IbMerIplRbeyaCn_Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμrvij. K-pøas;bþÚrRbB½n§RKb;RKg (Change Regime) karRKb;RKgtamRbB½n§kumμúynisþ minrIkcMerInelOndUcRbB½n§RKb;RKgBYkRbCaFibetyüesrIeLIy. kumμúy nisþbgçitbgçMmnusSeGayeFIVkar edayepþatelIkic©kareRcInCagsuxmalPaBmnusS mnusSeFIVkarTaMgP½yxøac KuNPaBkargarminsUvl¥ TinñplkargarTab esdækic©exSay. dUcenH tamkaremIleXIj kumμúynisþmin KitKUrdl;siTi§mnusSeT edayKitKUrEtrdæb:ueNÑaH. cMENkesrIvij ykcitþTukdak;elIsiTi§esrIPaB suxmalPaB mnusS RbCaBlrdæCaFM mnusSsb,aycitþeFIVkar eBjcitþkargar KuNPaBkargarl¥ niyayBit eFIVBit Tinñpl kargarx<s; esdækic©rIkcMerIn. eyIgRtUvpþl;siTi§GMNacdl;fñak;mUldæan edIm,IeFIVkarsMerccitþerIsemdwknaM nigeFIVkic©GPivDÆtMbn;EdlxøÜn rs;enAedayxøÜnÉg minEmnecjBIGMNacmnusSEtmñak; b¤sMercEtBIfñak;elI dUcBYkRkum h‘un Esn eT. ral;bBaða ekIteLIg fñak;PUmi XMu k¾ h‘un Esn CaGñkedaHRsay cuHemPUmiemXMu manParkic©eFIVkic©karGIVxøH? )anCaTukeGay naykrdæmRnþIeFIVkarCMnYsvij mann½yfa naykrdæmRnþIdeNþImkargaremPUmi emXMu KμankarEbgEck Parkic© tYnaTI karTTYlxusRtUvc,as;las;. ral;smiTi§plTaMgLayeFIVeLIgeday h‘un Esn Etmñak;Ég cuHÉNaeTA RTBüsm,tiþCatiExμr . eyIgRtUvpøas;bþÚrRbB½n§RKb;RKgBI kumμúynisþ eTARbB½n§RKb;RKgRbCaFibetyüesrIvij. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            76

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RbB½n§RKb;RKgEbbesrI b¤ RbCaFibetyü KW GMNacsißtenAelIRbCaBlrdæ RbCaBlrdæmansiTi§esμIrKña enAcMeBaHmuxc,ab; KμannrNamñak;enAelIc,ab;eLIy. GMNacTaMgbI nitibBaØtþi nitiRbtibtiþ nititulakar dac;eday ELkBIKña esμIrKña. RbCaBlrdæmansiTi§TTYlBt’manBIRKb;mCÄdæan Gb;rMkMritdUc²Kña e)aHeqñatedayesrInig yutþiFm’. RbB½n§sarBt’manÉkraCü niyaykarBit minlMeGogeTAbkSneya)ayNamYy ÉbkSneya)aynImYy² eBlCab;CardæaPi)al RtUveFIVRbeyaCn_sMrab;CatiExμrTUeTA minEmnRbkan;bkSenH bkSenaHeLIy. CaBiess sgÁmRtUveKarBc,ab; manyutþiFm’ elIktMekIgGñkesñhaCatiBitR)akd nigGñkmansmtßPaBBitR)akd eGaydwknaM RbeTs. X-bNþúHKMnitCatiniymTUlMTUlay (Open-Mined Nationalism) eyIgRtUvEkERbpñt;KMnitExμreGayecHRsLaj;CatixøÜnsareLIgvij edayeGaytMélCatixøÜnÉg eCOelICati ExμrxøÜnÉg sþab;eyabl;CatiExμr rYbrYmExμrsareLIgvij Qb;BwgBak;GñkdéT¬breTs¦eRBaHEtGMNacplRbeyaCn_ pÞal;xøÜn ecHCYyExμreTAvijeTAmk mankarseNþasRbNI emtþakruNa nigha‘nlHbg;RKb;Ebbya:g edIm,IkarBar plRbeyaCn_Cati eFIVeGayCatirIkcMerInrugerOg. eyIgmuneFIVGIVmYy RtUvdMkl;plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrCaFM EteyIgRtUv manshRbtibtþikarCamYyRbeTsCitxag GnþrCati b¤mhaGMNackñúgelak kñúgzan³CaCatimYyesμIrKña mitþPaBl¥ cMeBaHCatisasn_déTkñúgnamCamnusSCatidUcKña mansiTi§esμIrKñacMeBaHmuxc,ab;. edIm,IbgðajnUvsμartIesñhaCati rbs;eyIg buKÁlwmñak;RtUvelIkTwkcitþExμr eGaytMélGIVCarbs;ExμrtamRKb;rUbPaB cab;BIkarCYyTijplitplTMnij ExμreLIgeTA. CatiExμrman TwkdI RbCaBlrdæ rdæ rdæaPi)al GFibetyüPaB ÉkraCü CaedIm. edIm,IbNþúHeGayExμr manÉkPaBCati rwgbwug samKIÁKña ksagRbeTsCati eGayrIkcMerIndUcRbeTsnana. eyIgRsLaj;karBarCati EteyIgRtUvsMLwgemIlneya)aytMbn; nigBiPBelak EdleFIVdMeNIreq<aHeTAmuxTan;RbeTsrIkcMerInnana eTotEdr. g-karBarkareRCotERCkBIbreTs ¬eRkam\Ti§BlbreTs¦(Foreign Interfere Protection) karEdleyIgGackarBarBIkareRCotERCk deNþImplRbeyaCn_BIbreTs)anenaH luHRtaEt RbCaBlrdæ rbs;eyIgxøaMg TaMgfamBl TaMgR)aCJa TaMgsμartI eTIbeyIgGackarBarplRbeyaCn_Cati)an GPivDÆCatieGayrIk cMerInrugerOg ehIyeyIgGaccMeNjplRbeyaCn_BIKñaeTAvijeTAmk edIm,IeKaledA suPmgÁl suxsnþiPaB TaMgGs;Kña. eyIgRtUverobcMRbB½n§karBareGay)anrwugmaM RbB½n§karBar manTaMgBIr EpñkxageRkA ¬karBarCati¦nig Epñkxagkñúg ¬sniþsuxCati¦ nig kmøaMgR)aCJasμartIrbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;. RbvtþisaRsþ)anbeRgoneyIg ya:gc,as;GMBIkareRCotERCkBIbreTs nigExμrEdlBwgBak;breTs mçagBwgesom mçagBwgyYn rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ enH RbvtþisaRsþenaH)anvilmkrkeyIgvijdEdl EdlsBVéf¶ h‘un Esn sßitenAeRkam\Ti§BlyYndUcRbvtþi GtItkal. c-KitplRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagplRbeyaCn_buKÁl (National Interest Much more than Individual) RbeTsEdlmanPaBrwugbwug nig rIkcMerInrugerOg EtgEtbNþúHbNþalRbCaBlrdæeGayxøaMgTaMgR)aCJa sμartI CaBiess Gb;rMeGayRbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;ykcitþTukdak;eFIVplRbeyaCn_CUnCatiCaFM KitplRbeyaCn_CatiFMCag plRbeyaCn_buKÁl mann½yfa RbCaBlrdæRtUvKitKUreFIVRbeyaCn_edIm,ICatiTaMgGs;Kña esñhaCati edIm,IeGayCati rIkcMerInrugerOg. eyIgman]TahrN_Rsab;ehIy RbeTsEdlkMBugCamhaGMNac nigRbeTsrIkcMerInmYycMnYn niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            77

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dUcCa shrdæGaremrik cin Cb:un G;geKøs éf yYn CaedIm. ktþaTaMgenH ebIeyIgRkeLk emIlsßankarN_RbeTsExμrvij eXIjfa edIrbRBa©asTwsnigRbeTsrIkcMerInTaMgGs;enH CaBiess emdwknaM dUc h‘un Esn nigmYycMnYnkñúgKNbkSRbCaCnkm<úCa KitEtGtμaniym lYcCati lk;CatiykmkeFIVCaplRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn edayTukeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrPaKeRcInrs;enARkIRk evTna rgTukç BIGñkmanGMNac. cMNucEdleRKaHfñak;bMputKWfa TahanenATYlRksaMgPaKeRcIn kMBugEtQøk;vegVgnigRsIs¥atyYn EdleKbBa©ÚleGayeFIVCaRbBn§cugrbs; emTahanenaH ehIy)anrkerOgElgRbBn§cas;EdlCaExμrecal. EdlmanemT½ByYn RbcaMkarenAtMbn;TYlRksaMg enaHeQμaH eCIg Ék CaCnCatiyYnsuT§saF. cMENkPariyarbs; h‘un Esn eQμaHedIm b‘un ehog k¾CaCnCatiyYnEdr EteRkaymkdUrmkdak;eQμaH b‘un ra:nI vij. enHCabBaðaeRKaHfñak;sMrab;RbeTsCatixøaMgNas; cMeBaHkareRCotcUlrbs;carkmμyYn edIm,IRKb;RKgenAkñúgsßab½nsMxan;² ehIyplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr CatiExμr nig)at;bg;mþgbnþic² tamyuT§saRsþrbs;eKerobcM etIeyIgCaExμrEdlkMBugGanesovePAenHenAkñúgéd etIeyIg beNþayeGayCatieyIgTaMgmUl RtUv)at;bg;edaysarneya)ayd¾RtCak;enH? b¤ eyIgTaMgGs;KñaTukplRbeyaCn_ CatiFMCagplRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn GayuCIvitCatiFMCagGayuCiviteyIg ebIeyIgBicarNaRtg;cMNucenH eyIgeXIjfa CnCatiyYneKbNþúHbNþalmk TaMgRbus TaMgRsI lHbg;RKb;ya:geFIVya:gNa edIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatieK KWdeNþImplRbeyaCn_ExμrtamRKb;rUbPaB CaBiess hU CImij dIExμrmYydMu KW dMu eBRCmYydMu. dUcenHehIy eyIgmñak;² EdlBak;páay Bak;s½ká manLanvILa mansBaØab½RtbNÐit GnubNÐit briBaØab½Rt KYreGayxμas RbsinebIeyIgmin)aneFIVplRbeyaCn_CUnCatimatuPUmiExμreyIg nwgKμanKMnitkarBar Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμreyIg suxcitþ»nk,albMerIKNbkSRbCaCn EdleRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;kumμúynisþyYn enaHGn;CagRsIebsüayYnxøaMgNas; EdleKlHbg;RKb;Ebbya:gmkelbykdIExμredIm,ICatieKrugerOg. II-eRCIserIsyuT§saRsþ nig ]bkrN_ (Strategic Choice) edIm,IsMerceCaKC½ytameKalbMNgxagelI EdlRbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs;cg;)anenaH eyIgRtUverIsyuT§saRsþ mYyd¾RtwmRtUvsmRsbeTAnigbriyakasneya)aykñúgRsuk tMbn; nig GnþrCati. b:uEnþ CarYmmkeyIgRtUvman neya)aykñúgRsuk neya)aykarTUt esdækic© eXasna kgT½B edIm,IeFIVikic©karenHeGay)ansMercdl;eKaledA. GIVCaskþanuBlsMrab;CatisMrab;CYykñúgebskkmμenH rYmmanRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;BIRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm sasna CnCatiPaKtic Catiniym RbCaFibetyü nigsiT§mnusSCaedIm. ktþaTaMgenHKWeyIgeFIVya:gdUcemþc edIm,IrYbrYm RbCaCatiExμr BIRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁmEdlenARKb;mCÄdæan eGayman ÉkPaBKña samKÁIKña edIm,IbuBVehtu rMedaH karBar EfrkSa Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr eGayrYcputBIGaNaniKmn_kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμI nigCnpþac;kar h‘un Esn edaysMerceKaledAcugeRkay KW RbeTsExμrman\sSrPaB ÉkraCü GFibetyüPaB RbCaFibetyüeBj elj. enHRKan;EteKalyuT§saRsþEdlelIkykmkniyay edayminbriyayeGay)anl¥itl¥n;enaHeT. ktþaEdl naMeTArkeCaKC½yGaRs½yelI Epnkarl¥\tex©aH EdlmanCadMNak;karCabnþbnÞab; edaymankarcUlrYmBI RbCaCatiExμrBIRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm EtGñkniBn§min)anlatRtdag eGayl¥itl¥n;eLIy. BIeRBaHfa EpnkarRtUvEt manlkçNHsm¶at; minRtUveGayKUrRbqaMgdwgeLIy. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            78

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müa:gvijeTot eyIgkMuePøpøÚvEdlRBHBuT§ RBHbrmRKUéneyIg)anKUrbBa¢ak;TukeGayeyIgeRbIR)as;enaH Kw GgÁmaK’aTaMg 8 KW karKitRtUv kareFIVRtUv karRbkbrbrcBa©wmCIvitRtUv karBüayamRtUv karPJak;rlwkRtUv karsmaFiRtUv karseRgÁaHRtUv nig>>>cUreyIgykKtienHmkGgÁúyKitBicarNaTaMgGs;KñaenaHeyIgR)akd CarkRck ecjrYcCaminxan. k-neya)ay (Politics) eyIgRtUverobcMeGaymanGgÁkardwknaMneya)ay emdwknaMneya)ay eKalkarN_neya)ay yuT§saRsþ neya)ay GñkKaMRTneya)ay nigktþaepSg²eTot. GgÁkarneya)ayRtUverobcMeGayman menaKmnviC¢a neya)ay ¬raCaniym Catiniym RbCaFibetyüesrI sPaniym kumμúynisþ sgÁmniym pþac;kar¦ citþsaRsþneya)ay. eyIgRtUvdwgGMBIRbvtþisaRsþ¬Cati tMbn; BiPBelak¦ RbvtþisaRsþneya)ay TsSn³viC¢a neya)ay viTüasaRsþneya)ay karviPaKneya)ay RBwtþikarN_neya)ayfμI² nig PUmisaRsþneya)ayeTotpg. eBlEdlecHGMBIneya)ayenH ehIyeyIgerobcMeGayneya)ayrbs;eyIgeGay)anl¥ eFIVya:gNaeGaymankar cUlrYmKaMRTBIRbCaBlrdæTaMgGs; TaMg sasna CnCatiPaKtic nig EpñkRkumplRbeyaCn_sMxan;² dUcCa kmμkr BaNiC¢kr nisSit ksikr .l. eyIgRtUvsikSarkcMNucrYmmYyEdlRbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;cg;)an ehIydak;ecj CaeKalkarN_neya)ay. x-eXasna (Propaganda) kareXasnaEdlmanRbsiTi§ KWeFIVskmμPaB Edlpþl;plRbeyaCn_BitR)akddl;RbCaBlrdæ. karkarBar plRbeyaCn_Cati plRbeyaCn_rYm. karesμaHRtg; Caneya)ayl¥bMput. karniyayBit eFIVBit¬sc©³¦ CaeXasna manRbsiT§PaBbMput. CaBiess karedaHRsaybBaðaEdlmanry³eBlEvg edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæTTYlsux suPmgÁl Catiman]tþmPaBesμIrmuxelIelakCaedIm. kareXasnaenH RtUverobcMEpnkareXasnaeGayRtwmRtUv edIm,IsarBt’manpSBVpSayeGaydl;RbCaBlrdædl;Gñksþab;. manviFIeRcInNas;kñúgkareXasna tamryHkar eFIVskmμPaBepSg²dUcCa xitb½NÑ bda viTüú TUrTsS TUrsa eGLicRtUvnic GIuntaENt Evbsay bNþaj eXasna.l. kareXasnaTak;TgnigkarcMNayetIlT§plmkvijmanRbsiT§b:uNÑa emdwknaMEdlenAs¥itrmYt CamYyRbCaBlrdæ CacMNucmYyman\Ti§BlxøaMgbMput.¬sUmGanesovePA yuT§saRsþeXasna¦ Cak;EsþgmuneBle)aHeqñatfμI² enAéf¶TI 27 kkáda 2008 knøgmkenH. h‘un Esn )anerobcMerOgfμI dUcCa erOgR)asaTRBHvihar edIm,IbEgVGarmμN_eGayePøcerOgcas;² EdlminTan;edaHRsay edIm,IeGayExμr ePøcyYn PaKekIt Etcab;GarmμN_éfPaKxaglicvij. éfQøanBanTwkdIExμrCabBaðaEdlKYreGayQWcab; EteyIgRtUv RkeLkemiIlkarQøanBanrbs;yYnPaKxagekIt taMgBIqñaM 1979 EdleKniyayfa yYnmkCYy nigeFIVtamrUbPaB eRbIGay:g h‘un Esn CamitþPaB edIm,IQøanBanTwkdIExμredayRsbc,ab;enaHpg. K-hirBaØvtßú (Finance) edIm,IdMeNIrkarGgÁkarneya)aymYyeTA)an hirBaØvtßúCaktþasMxan;sMrab;bMeBjtamKMeragnImYy². ehtu enHeyIgRtUvmanRbPBhirBaØvtßúeGayc,as;las;. karcUlrYmviPaKTanrbs;smaCikCamUldæanCaRKwHd¾rwugmaMrbs; niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            79

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GgÁkarneya)ay. KYbpSMnigkarEsVgrkkarKaMRTepSg² nig begIátCaRbPBhirBaØvtßúdUcCa shRKas nig Rkumh‘un epSg². X-kgT½B (Military) edIm,IBRgwgkgT½BmYyeGayxøaMg)anTamTareGaymankarhVWkhat;eGay)anhμt;ct;RtwmRtUv edIm,IeGay TahanmanCMnajc,as;las; mankmøaMgeRcIn mansmÖar³ es,og nig]bkrN_ eRbIR)as;TMenIb ¬kaMePøIg nigRKab;¦ mnÞIreBTüTahan bec©kviTüaepSg². TaMgGs;enH minTan;RKb;RKan;eT vaGaRs½yelIembBa¢akar sßankarN_ sßanPaB PUmisaRsþ KuNFm’emdwknaM nigvin½yTahaneTot. vaTak;TgPaBv½yqøatrbs;emdwknaM EdlmanÉkeTs erobcM TaMgEpnkaryuT§saRsþ yuT§viFIepSg²enAsmrPUmiBitR)akd. emT½BEdlxøaMgRtUvecHtaMgBIbec©keTs kl,yuT§ Rbtibtþikar yuT§saRsþ RbkbedaybTBiesaFn_elIsmrPUmiBitR)akd. g-kaTUt (Diplomatics) edIm,ITTYlkarkaMRTBIGnþrCatieyIgRtUvyl;GMBIc,ab;GnþrCatieGayc,as;. ehIyeyIgRtUvBinitüemIl sßankarN_neya)aykñúgRbeTsedIm,IelIkykmkbgðajGnþrCati edaymanPsþútagc,as;las;. EtRtUvcaMfa ebIGñkGgÁúykEnøgNa GñkeRkakkEnøgenaH. enHbBa¢ak;fa GnþrCatiRKan;Et CaKMrbeyIgEtb:ueNÑaH minGaceFIVeGay q¥in)ay)aneT ebIsinCaeyIgmindutePIøgeGayekþAdl;tYrvaenaH tYekþAeTIb)an)ayq¥in ehIyvaRtUvnigBakü rbs;RBHBuT§brmRKUéneyIg Gtßahi Gtßena naefa xøÜnTIBwgxøÜn ya:genaHEdr. GIV²GaRs½yelIxøÜneyIgCaGñkkMNt; GñkeRkACYyeyIg)ankñúgRKaGasnñmYyRKab:ueNÑaH. III>Gnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþ nigkll,ic s‘un sU‘ (Implement the strategies and Tactics of Sun Zue 1-eronRbyuT§ (Learn to fight) eronRbyuT§enATIenH mann½yfa eyIgRtUvrkkl,l,ic yuT§viFIRKb;ya:g RbkYtRbECg eFIVya:gNaeGay QñHédKUr QñHsRtUv. eTaHCaeyIgtUc b¤FM RtUvmanKMnitRbNaMgRbECgCanic©. eFIVya:geGayRbeTseyIg rIkcMerInlUtlas;l¥CageK. eFIVya:gNaeGayGgÁkardwknaMrbs;eyIgxøaMgCageK TaMgxagEpñk kmøaMg R)aCJa sμartI smÖar³ nig bec©kviTüa edIm,IvivDÆn_eGayTan;sPaBkarN_rbs;tMbn;nigBiPBelak. BiPBelakeRbob dUcCastVRmwK EdldeNþImplRbeyaCn_Kña stVNamankmøaMg cgáÚmxøaMgCagEtgEtQñHstVtUcKμancgáÚm dUceta nig xøaEtg eRbIcgáÚmrbs;xøÜn edIm,IKMramkMEhgstVtUctac. ehtuenHehIy stVQøÚsrgcaMEtcMNIrbs;stVmancgáÚm. CaBiess ekItmkCamnusS minRtUvrYjra xøac rgcaMesckþIsøab;dUcCastVQøÚsenaHeT RtUvEth‘anRbQmmuxRKb;]bsKÁ RtUvEth‘antTl;cMeBaH sßankarN_Edlbgámhnþraydl;eyIg dl;CatieyIg eTaHCaeyIgtUc exSayCagsRtUv k¾eday Etya:gehacNas; eyIgminrgcaMesckþIsøab;enaHeT eyIgRtUvEteFIVedIm,IkarBarplRbeyaCn_Cati kMuTukeGayeKmkbMpøajplRbeyaCn_CatiCiHCan;CatieyIg edayKμankartbtenaH. ebIeyIgrs; ekItCaCatiExμr ehIy eyIgmin)aneFIVGIVCaRbeyaCn_Cati eTaHCaeyIgrs;manGayurab;Ban;qñaM k¾KμantMélKμanRbeyaCn_ sMrab; CatimatuPUmieyIgEdr. EtebIeyIgrs;enAmYYyéf¶ ehIyeyIgeFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatiExμr karBarRbeyaCn_CatiExμr CYyCatimatuPUmi CYyRbCCatiExμr eTaHCasøab;eTAk¾CatiExμrenAEtcgcaMeQμaH cgRkgTukCaRbvtþisaRsþ sMrab; kUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkay ykmkeFIVCaKMrUEdr. eyIgRkeLkemIlRbeTsTIm½rtUcmYy EtTIm½rxitxMerIbMr:HBIRbeTs niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            80

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\NÐÚensIu)aneCaKC½ytaMgBIqñaM 1979 Etmkdl;qñaM 2001 eTIbTTYl)anÉkraCüeBjelj. cMENkÉTIRkug hugkug k¾TTYl)anÉkraCüBIRbeTsGg;eKøsenAqñaM 1997 Edr. 2-bgðajpøÚv (Show the way) emdwknaMEdlxøaMgKWCaGñkbgðajpøÚv CaGñkR)ab;pøÚvEdlRtUvedIreTAdl;eKaledA. CaemdwknaM Edldwg RKb;sßankarN_ erobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ kareRbImnusSeGayRtUvCMnaj kargar nigsßnkarN_. CaGñkdwknaMmun nUvral;ehtukarEdlxøÜn)anerobcMeGayeFIV fabraC½y b¤eCaKC½y. emdwknaMEbbenH kMrrk)anNas; eyIgeRbob RbdUcemdwknaMEbbenHeTAtYrGgÁ xug eb:g enAkñúgerOgsamkuk EdlmanPaBévqøatdwgBIRKb;sßankarN_ vaytMél sßankarN_ erobcMEpnkar yuT§saRsþykC½yCMn³elIsRtUv)an. 3-Gnuvtþn_eGayRtUv (Do the right thing) karxitxMeFIVkic©karrbs;xøÜneGay)anl¥bMput GnuvtþeGayRtUvtamTwsedAEdlkMNt; eFIVtamEpnkar edIm,I sMercdl;eKaledA. ebIeyIgniyayGMBIGgÁmaK’arbs;RBHBuT§vij KW karKitRtUv karniyayRtUv kareFIVRtUv karBüayamRtUv karPJak;rlwkRtUv karRbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvitRtUv karsmaFiRtUv karseRgÁaHRtUv . eyIgRtUvcaMfa karniyaygayCagkareFIV ehtudUcenH ebIeyIgdwgRTwsIþehIy eyIgcaM)ac;dak;vacUlkñúgkarGnuvtþn_ edIm,IeGayeyIg dwgBIlT§plBitR)akd. CYnkalRTwsþIl¥ EtkarGnuvtþn_minGaceFIVtamRTwsIþ 100 PaKryeT. 4-sÁal;sßankarN_ Know the circumstance sßankarN_CaktþasMxan;Nas;sMrab;emdwknaM edIm,IkMNt;EpnkarepSg². emdwknaMRtUveQøosév RbemIl emIlsßankarN_ sÁal;sßankarN_eGayc,as; ehIyecHbt;Ebntamkal³eTs³. karRbemIlemIlsßankarN_enaH eyIgRtUvKitemIlfa etIGIVEdleyIgnigeFIVGacsMerceCaKC½ytamkareRKagTukb£braC½y. eyIgCaemdwknaMdwg sßankarN_munCanic© fanigmanGIVekIteLIg. karsÁal;sßankarN_mun eyIgGacerobEpnkaredIm,ITaj cMeNjBI sßankarN_enaH b£eyIgGacbeB©aosnUveRKaHfñak; ehtukarN_EdleFIVeGayxatRbeyaCn_epSg²)an. ehtuenH ehIy emdwknaMRtUvtamdanBt’man erobcMeGaymanbec©kviTüaRtYtBinitüsßankarN_ RtUvmanPñak;garBt’man nigcarkmμsMrab; pþl;Bt’mansm¶at;rbs;xμaMg edIm,IeGayeyIgdwgsßankarN_munCanic©. 5-KitEpnkarcaj; (Prepare for the lose) kareFIVEpnkareyIgminRtUvKitEtEpnkarQñHb:ueNÑaHeT eyIgRtUvKitEpnkarcaj;pgEdr. eyIgRtUvKit eGay)anl¥itetIeBlEdleyIgQñHeyIgTTYl)anplRbeyaCn_GIVxøH?eqøIytbeTAnigkarcMNaykmøaMg eBlevla cMNayFnFanenaH etIkartbsñgmkvijelIsGIVEdleyIgcMNayenaHb¤eT?. eyIgRtUvKiteRtomcaj; ebI eyIgmin)aneCaKC½yetIeyIgdkfytampøÚvNa? ehIyeyIgTTYl)anGIVxøHBIkarcaj;enaH. Epnkarcaj; eyIgmin RtUvxUcxatkmøaMg smÖar³ sμartIrbs;GñkeRkambgÁab;rbs;eyIgeLIy. Cak;EsþgEpnkaryYnEdleFIVsRgÁam \NÐÚcin elIkTI 2 nigelIkTI 3 plRbeyaCn_rbs;eKTTYl)ansMrab;EpnkarQñHenaH KW TwkdIExμr ehtudUcenHehIyeTaH CaeKRtUvcMNayGIVk¾edayk¾eKRBmEdr EtebIeKcaj;eKvij eK)aneFIVCaesdæI edayeKRbmUlRTBüsm,tþirbs;Exμr RbmUlCMnYy BIxagcin r:UsIS nig GaemrikeTARbeTsrbs;eK. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            81

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6-begIánel,ÓnedIm,IeCaKC½y (Speed up to success) karBnüaeBlkñúgkareFIVsRgÁam kardwknaMEdlmanry³eBlyUrehIymindl;eKaledA eFIVeGayeyIgCYb braC½y edaykgT½B b£GñkeRkambgÁab;mankarht;enOy Gs;kmøaMgcitþ kmøaMgkay cMNayeBlevla nig RTBüsm,tþieRcIn EdlCakarxatbg;sMrab;kardwknaM eFIVeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;Elgsþab;emdwknaM )at;bg;rebob vin½y. ehtuenHehIy edIm,IrkSaTwkcitþrbs;GñkeRkambgÁab;enaH emdwknaMRtUvbegáInel,OneGayelOnbMput tamEt GaceFIVeTA)an. karbegIánel,OneTA)an luHRtaGgÁkardwknaMenaH manlkçN³RBmRKb;RKan;. 7-dutqnÞ³ (Burn the bridge) eyIgCaemdwknaM RtUvecHdutqnÞ³ RkumkargareGayxitxMeFIVkic©kar edIm,IsMerceKaledArYm eGay)anCadac; xat. RtUvecHdutqnÞ³GñkEdlKaMRTeGaycUlrYmya:gskmμkñúgkargar. kardutqnÞ³ KWeFIVya:gNaeGayGñkTaMgenaH manqnÞ³xitxMeFVIkic©kareGay)ansMerc tamryHkarelIkTwkcitþCaedIm. b:uEnþcMeBaHTahanvij eKeRcInEt eRbIviFIkat;s<anecal CMerIsmanEtmYyrbs;kgT½B KWRtUvRbyuT§eTAmux mann½yfa Tahanmkdl;smrPUmiehIy ebIvileTAeRkayk¾min)an ehtudUcenHmanEtsMrukvaylukeTAmux EdleFIVeGaykmøaMgenaHeCaKC½y)an. GñkEdl ecHdutqnÞ³ KWCaGñkcitþsaRsþ EdlsÁal;sßankarN_c,as;las; edayeyIgcg;eGayxwg cg;eGayQwcab; cg;s¥b; cg;eGayRsLaj; cg;eGaybHe)ar cg;eGayRbwgERbgkargar eyIgGaceFIV)anTaMgGs;. enAeBlEdleKcg;eGay sgÁmmYyEbk)ak; eKRtUvbM)at;GIVmYyEdleKkMBugEteKarBbUCa manCMenOxøaMg dUcCakñúgraCRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 8 eKbM)at;RBHBuT§sasna bnÞab;mkmankarbHe)areLIg ekItmanCasRgÁamsasnaeLIg. mYyeTot enAeBlEdlyYn erobcMeGaymankar bHe)arenARbeTscm,a: edayeFIVeGayRbCaBlrdæcam)anbHe)arRbqaMgCamYyesþcxøÜnÉgenaH edaysaresþccameFIVtamRKUTay EdlCacarkmμyYn enAkñúgvaMgCamYyPariyayYnenaHÉg. edIm,IeGayeKeCOCak; emdwknaMEtgEts,f b¤ b:gsmøab;xøÜnCaedIm. CaBiess hU CImij Edl)ansøab; CakardutqnÞ³GñkeRkambgÁab; rbs;eK dutqnÞ³RbCaBlrdæ eGayman KMnitesñhaCati xitxMeFIVsRgÁameGay)aneCaKC½y bnþtamEpnkar edIm,IRtYtRtaelbTwkdIExμreGay)an. dUceBlbc©úb,nñenH eKdutqnÞ³eGayExμr QWcab;nigéf EdlkMBugQøanBan EteKmin)anniyaydl;yYnEdlenABaseBjTwkdIExμr TaMgsIuvil TaMgTahan kat;TwkdIeGayyYn yYnbegIátsma Kmn_ 19 extþRkug yYnCaemdwknaMkñúgsßab½nCatisMxan;²dUcerobrab;kñúgesovePA PaK1. h‘un Esn minEdl niyaydl;yYnkat;k,alExμrdaMEtGug CIkERBkvijet bMpøajvtþGara:m erobcMeGayman rbb b:ul Bt tMbn; k5 EdlyYn)aneFIVmkelIExμreLIy eRBaH h‘un Esnxøacb:HBal;mitþPaB CaBiess buNüskáiGMNacEdlyYn elIkbnþúb eGay. 8-eFIVeGayRbesIreLIg (Make it better) kareFIVeGaykan;EtTMenIb eFIVeGayenAfμICanic© cab;taMgBIEpnkar karerobcM Gnuvtþn_ nig bec©keTs CaedIm. smÖar³brikça RtUvEterobcMeGaymanlkçN³fμICanic©. mann½yfa GIV²minRtUvenAdEdl RtUveFIVeGay rIkcMerInlUtlas;eTAmux RbkbedaycIrPaB. eRbob)andUcCasmÖar³EdlplitfμI² tamqñaMCabnþbnÞab;Canic©. dUcCardUvkal EdlmanEt 4 EtRtUvvilcuHvileLIgminecHcb; RtUvecHEkécñeGaykan;EtEbøk kan;EtTMenIbCanic© minRtUveRbIl,icdEdl² RtUvqøas;cuHeLIg dUcyb;nigéf¶. eRkayBIbBa©b;sRgÁam\NÐÚcinelIkTI 3 ¬1979niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            82

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1993¦sRgÁamsIuvil¬1993-1996¦ Føak;cUlmksRgÁamRtCak;¬1996-2003¦ Et\LÚvenH eKeRbIneya)ay citþsaRsþvij¬neya)ayRtCak;¦. 9-ÉkPaBKña xitxMrYmKña (United) edIm,IeGaymankarÉkPaBKña xitxMrYmKña luHRtaEtkardwknaMmanckçúvis½yc,as;las; nigmaneKalbMNg rYmmYy EdlplRbeyaCn_sMrab;GñkcUlrYmTaMgGs;Kña. dUcenaH edIm,IdwknaMRkumNamYy eyIgRtUvEsVgrkpl RbeyaCn_rYmrbs;Rkum karBarplRbeyaCn_sMrab;RkumenaH. ebIkalNaemdwknaMmaneKalbMNgrYmehIy GaceFIV eGayRkum ÉkPaB samKÁIPaB minmankarEbk)ak;Kña enaHkardwknaMGacnaMeTArkeCaKC½y. eyIgGacniyaymüa:g ÉkPaB kñúgkardwknaM ÉkPaBkñúgCYremdwknaM kuMeGaymankarEbk)ak;KñaedaysaerOgtUctac EdlminEmnCapl RbeyaCn_FMrbs;Cati. TaMgfñak;elInigfñak;eRkamRtUvxitxMrYmKña edIm,IeGaysMerceKaledA. dUcCaenAsRgÁamGIura:k; EdlkgT½B TaMgGs;sißtenAeRkamembBa¢akarEtmñak; edIm,IxitxMrYmKña eCaKC½yelIsmrPUmiCaedIm. 10-eFIVeGaysRtUvsgS½yrhUt (Keep them guessing) karbMP½nþsRtUveGaymanRbsiTi§PaB CaktþasMxan;bMputkñúgkll,icsRgÁam. eFIVeGaysRtUvmindwg c,as;las; sgS½y edayeKmindwgEpnkarc,as;las; karrkSaEpnkarsm¶at; eFIVeGaysRtUvyl;xus. karlYYcvay sRtUv edayminecjmux. karrMxansRtUvedayeRbIkarjúHjg; karbeBaäatsRtUveGaycMNaykmøaMght;ehv enOyNay cMNayeBlevla smÖarH ]bkrN_ eBlsRtUvsMrakRsYl. karjúHjg;eGayEbk)ak; eBlsRtUv mansamKÁIPaB. karjúHjg;eGayxwgRceLat eBleyIgdwgsRtUveqvqav. cUrRkeLkemIlRbvtþisaRsþ d¾CUct; rbs;ExμrenA sm½yb:ul Bt EdlyYnerobcMEpnkareGayExμrmankarsgS½yrhUtmkdl;eBlenH enAEtyl; faExμrRkhmCaGñksmøab;ExμrenaH eFIVeGaypñt;KMnitrbs;RbCaBlrdæExμr PaKeRcInenAEtsgS½y edaymindwg c,as;fa nrNaCaXatkrsmøab;Exμr . ebItameKalkarN_lkçnþik³bkSkmμúynisþ EdlEcgya:gc,as;fa TisedAKW eFIVkarts‘Uya:gmWugma:t;dac;xat edIm,IkMeTcGaNaniKmniym)araMg cRkBtþiGaemrik nigbrva. cMNucRtg;enaH bBa¢ak;faExμrsøab; KWBYkenH KitfaCabrvaGaemrik edayminKitBIQamC½rCaExμrdUcKñaeT enHehIyEdlExμrmYycMnYn lg;kñúgmenaKmn_kumμúynisþEdlbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_mk edIm,Ismøab;Exμr eFIVeGayExμryl;xus eFIVxus ehIy sgS½yKñaeTAvijeTAmk minecHcb;. IV >vaytMélyuT§saRsþ (Strategic Assessment) karvaytMélyuT§saRsþenH eyIgcg;dwgfalT§plcugeRkayénkarGnuvtþn_EpnkaryuT§saRsþenaH etInig TTYl)anplRbeyaCn_GIVxøH?. karQñHsRtUvedaykarTUt edaymincaM)ac;RbyuT§ CaC½yCMnHl¥RbesIrCag GIVTaMgGs; b¤faQñHedaykarTUt. mYyeTot eyIgniyayfakarQñHsRtUvedayyuT§saRsþ CaC½yCMnHBitR)akd. dUcenH eyIgRtUvvayluk b¤karBarelIsRtUv RtUvvaylukxagyuT§saRsþ. edIm,IeGaydwgfayuT§saRsþ EdleyIg erobcMmanplRbeyaCn_GIVxøH? TMhMb:unμan? eyIgRtUvvaytMélyuT§saRsþrbs;eyIg edayKitfaebIeyIgQñH eyIg)anplRbeyaCn_GIVxøH? ebIeyIgcaj;eyIgxatbg;GIVxøH ?. bnÞab;mkeyIgRtUveRbobeFobyuT§saRsþrbs;eyIg CamYy yuT§saRsþsRtUv etIyuT§saRsþrbs;eyIgQñHyuT§saRsþsRtUv 100PaKry b¤yuT§saRsþeyIgcaj;yuT§saRsþ sRtUv ebIeyIgdwgfaeyIgcaj;sRtUvehIy eyIgmincaM)ac;eFIVkarRbkYtRbECg b¤tTl;CamYyeKeLIy cUrsikSa niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            83

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GMBIyuT§saRsþTwk rbs;elaksMerag éRC ¬emdwknaMCatiExμr PaK 1¦. kareRbobeFobyuT§saRsþ eyIgRtUv eRbobeFob kmøaMg sμartI ÉkeTs smÖar³ es,og hirBaØvtßú emdwknaM TItaMgPUmisaRsþ vin½y dMeNIrkarGnuvtþyuT§ viFIrbs;eyIg eFobeTAkmøaMg rbs;sRtUvdUcEdlerobrab;mkenH.

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CMBUkTI 4

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begIátGñkGnuvtþn_tam I.karP¢ab;TMnak;TMng (Connected Communication) emdwknaMminGacdwknaM)aneLIy ebIeyIgenAEtmñak;Ég b¤ ebIsinCaemdwknaMminsißtenACab;nigsßankarN_ b¤enArYmsux rYmTukçCamYyRbCaBlrdæ. karP¢ab;TMnak;TMngCamYyRbCaBlrdæenaH KWeyIgbeBa©jTsSn³rbs;eyIg pSBVpSay ckçúvis½ydl;RbCaBlrdæ edIm,IeGay)andwg dUcCaRBHBuT§ eBlEdlRBHGgÁEsVgrkpøÚvrMlt;TukçeXIj ehIy RBHGgÁ)annimnþedIreR)asstV mann½yfapSBVpSayGIVEdlRBHGgÁrkeXIj edIm,IeGaymnusSTaMgLaj Gnuvtþtam. enACab;CamYysmaCiksmaCika RbCaBlrdæ edIm,IdwknaMpÞal; CYyedaHRsaybBaðaepSg² sÁal;tMrUvkar nigTwkcitþ KMnit sμartIbuKÁlwk. 1-begðIbBITsSn³ (Open Viewpoint) eyIgRtUverobcMBiFIeGay)anRtwmRtUv edIm,IRbmUlRbCaBlrdæmksþab;GMBITsSn³yl;eXIjrbs;eyIg. CadMbUgeyIgRtUvpþl;dl;GñkEdlmannisS½y GñkEdlKaMRTTsSn³rbs;eyIg GñkEdleBjcitþCaedIm edIm,IeGay BYkeKCYypSBVpSayt²KñaGMBITsSn³enaHeTAGñkdéTeTot. eBlEdlBYkeKyl;eXIjtamTsSn³rbs;eyIgehIy eKsμ½RKcitþedIrtamTsSn³rbs;eyIg eTIbeyIgerobcMkmμviFIeGayc,as;las; edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs; cUlrYmtamdMeNIrkarrbs;eyIg dUcCaRBHBuT§ eR)assav½kTaMgR)aMrbs;RBHGgÁEdr. 2-bgðajckçúvis½y (Show Vision) eRkayBIsμ½RKcitþedIrtammaK’aeyIgehIy eyIgbgðajckçúvis½y edIm,IGñkTaMgenaHyl;c,as; ecHcaM rhUtdl;Gnuvtþtam ehIyTTYlpleCaKC½ydUcGIVEdleyIg)aneFIV edIm,IeFIVeGayeKeCOCak; nigCYypSBVpSay nUvGIVEdl eK)anGnuvtþn_enaH. ckçúvis½yenaHRtUvbgðajGIVEdleKmin)andwgBIGtItkal bc©úb,nñkal nigGIVEdl niwgekItman eLIgeBlGnaKt. 3-pSBVpSayckçúvis½y (Advertise Vision) eBlEdlGñk)anGnuvtþn_tamckçúvis½yenaH manRbsiT§PaBtamkaryl;eXIjehIy emdwknaMRtUverobcM pSBVpSayckçúvis½yenaHeGaydl; skmμCn RbCaBlrdæ edayeRbIviFIsaRsþepSg²kñúgkarpSBVpSay Edlman RbsiT§PaB eRbIviFIsaRsþEdlKYreGaycab;GarmμN_ tamry³bNþajpSBVpSay bNþajsarBt’man nigGñknaMBakü emdwknaMepSg². 4-bgðaj eKalkarN_ TwsedA eKaledA (Show the Goal, Principle and Objective) karpSBVpSayenH edIm,IBnül;bgðajRbCaBlrdæExμr yl;GMBIeKalkarN_dwknaMrbs;GgÁkarneya)ayxøÜn nigeGayRbCaBlrdæExμremIleXIjGMBIeRKaHfñak;rbs;RbeTsCati. yYnkMBugeRbIyuT§saRsþ dgáÚvDYg EdlkMBug sIurUgépÞkñúgRbeTsExμrsBVéf¶enH TIbMputCatiExμrRtUvsøab;. emdwknaMCatiExμrRtUveFIVya:gNaeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr KaMRT b¤cUlrYmCamYyeyIg edaylHbg;TaMgeBlevla smÖar³ kmøaMgkay citþ edIm,IeGaysMerceCaKC½ytam eKalkarN_enaH. minfasRtUvenaH tUc b¤ FM b:uNÑaeLIy k¾eyIgCaGñkesñhaCatiExμr GacykQñHsRtUv)anCanic© eGayEteyIgmanEpnkarl¥bMput (The Best Plan). emdwknaMRtUv bgðajbkRsay GMBIeKalkarN_ nigeQμaH niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            86

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rbs;GgÁkardwknaM eFIVmenaKmn_neya)ay sRgÁamneya)ay citþsaRsþ tamskmμPaBepSg² EdlxøÜnman smtßPaBGacerobcM)an. RtUvelIkykeKalkarN_rbs;GgÁkarneya)aymkbkRsay nigbgðajdl;saFarN³Cn edIm,IeGay eKdwg TTYldMNwgykeTApSBVpSaybnþ CaBiess RtUvelIktMekIg nigsesIr GMBIeKalkarN_rbs;GgÁkar neya)ayxøÜn. BIeRBaHmanEtGgÁkarneya)ayenH EdlCaGñkesñhaCati nigKitKUrerOgGayuCivitRbeTs CatiBitR)akd. RtUvpSBVpSayelIktMekIgeKalkarN_rbs;GgÁkarneya)ayeyIg edayFanacMeBaHRbCaBlrdæfa BitCaGacdwknaMRbeTsCatieGaymankarrIkcMerIn dUcGIVEdlRbCaBlrdæcg;)an. cMNucsMxan;énkarbgðajenH RtUverIscMNucEdlxusKñaBIsRtUvnigmaneRbobelIGgÁkarneya)aydéT dUcCa emdwknaM yuT§saRsþ eKalkarN_ GgÁkarneya)ay karerobcMRbeTs nigcMNucEdlnaMeTAeyIgTTYl)aneCaKC½yCaedIm. eyIgRtUveFIVkar eRbobeFobrvageKalkarN_rbs;GgÁkarneya)ayxøÜn nigGgÁkarneya)ayrbs;Gñkd_éT EdlCaeKaledAkñúgkar RbkYtRbECg. RtUvbkRsayGMBIGIVEdlGgÁkarneya)ayenaHman dUcCa LÚkU eQμaH BaküeBcn_ Gtßn½y xøwmsar nigskmμPaBrbs;emdwknaMepSg².l. 5-bgðajBIviFIsaRsþ yuT§saRsþ EdlnwgsMerceKaledA (Show the strategy) edIm,IeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;mankmøaMgcitþ manTwkcitþeFIVkic©karenaH luHRtaeKemIleXIjfa pøÚvenaHnaMeTA rkeCaKC½y sMercdl;eKaledAEdr EtebIeKKμanrMBwgKitfanigTTYlC½yCMnHenaH eFIVeGayeKKμankmøaMgcitþeT. karEdlKμankmøaMgcitþnaMeGaybraC½y)an. eyIgeRbobeFob eBlEdleyIgeLIgCiHLanRkugmYy edI,m,I sMedAeTArkeKaledAEdleyIgcg;eTA ebisinCaeyIgmindwgc,as;fa LanNamYynaMeTArkeKaledA EdleyIg cg;eTAenaHeT eyIgnigvegVg nigmineCOCak;fadl;eKaledA EtebIeyIgdwgc,as;enaH eyIgeLIgCiHLanenaHeday KμanxVl;xVayeLIy eRBaHeyIgdwgya:gR)akdfa BitCadl;eKaledAya:gR)akd. 6-bgðajplRbeyaCn_EdlnwgTTYl)an (Gain The Interest) eBlEdlGñkedIrtampøÚvrbs;RBHBuT§ enaHGñknigTTYlsMercniBVan rYccakputTukçTaMgLayEdlekItman TaMgLay. cMENkkardwknaMrbs;eyIgdUcKña eyIgRtUvR)ab;BIRbeyaCn_EdleKTTYl)an eBlEdlGnuvtþn_tam kic©karenaH etIplRbeyaCn_GIVEdlnigTTYl)anmkvij?. II >ktþaEdleFIVeGaymnusSedIrtamemdwknaM (Factor Cause the Followers to follow the Leaders) 1-cat;TukCamnusSsMxan; (Important Person) emdwknaMRtUveGaytMéldl;GñkeRkambgÁab; RtUveKarBGñkeRkambgÁab; edaycat;TukeKCamnusSsMxan;². ebIsinCaeyIgeFIVcMeBaHxøÜnÉgya:gem:c eyIgRtUveFIVcMeBaHGñkdéT nigGñkeRkambgÁab;ya:gdUecñHEdr. eyIgRtUveFIVkar ykcitþTukdak;cMeBaHsuxTukçGñkeRkambgÁab; eFIVeGayeKmanGarmμN_fa eKCamnusSsMxan;. eyIgRtUvcgcaM GIVEdl eKeFIVeGayeyIgminmankareBjcitþ eyIgminRtUveFIVcMeBaHGñkd¾éT b£GñkeRkambgÁab;. eKnigedIrtameyIg ebIsin eyIgTukeKCamnusSsMxan; EteyIgminRtUvcat;TukxøÜnÉgCamnusSsMxan;enaHeLIy. ebIeyIgsMerccitþeFIVCa emdwknaM eKenaH eKminedIrtameyIgeLIy. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            87

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2-ykcitþGñkdéTmkdak;elIcitþeyIg (Friend in Need) ebIeyIgRsLaj;xøÜneyIgb:unμan eyIgRtUvRsLaj;GñkdéTdUcKñaEdr. eyIgeFIVsMrab;xøÜnÉgya:gNa eyIg RtUveFIVcMeBaHGñkdéTdUcKñaEdr. eyIgRtUvRbemIlemIlGarmμN_GñkdéTCamun RtUvsMLwgemIlcitþGñkdéT etIeKman GamμN_ya:gdUcemþc?. RtUvykcitþTukdak;RbCaBlrdæExμr ykcitþTukdak;GñkeRkambgÁab; dUcCa «Buk nig kUn. 3-minEkxøÜn lak;kMhus TMlak;dak;GñkdéT (Not Blame Others) cUrkMuBüayamTMlak;kMhus sþIbenÞasGñkeRkambgÁab; eBlEdlkargarbraC½y. GñkeRkambgÁab;eFIVkar min)aneCaKC½y minRtUvTMlak;kMhusrbs;xøÜnelIGñkeRkambgÁab; eyIgminGacCaemdwknaMyUrGEgVgeLIy ebIeyIg BüayamTMlak;kMhuselIeK. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvTTYlxusRtUvnUvskmμPaBrbs;eyIg eyIgRtUvTTYlsÁal;karBit. 4-sresIrCasaFarN³ riHKn;CaÉkCn (Praise in Public, Criticize in Private) eyIgCaemdwknaM minRtUvkMNaj;nUvBaküsresIrcMeBaHbuKÁlwkeT. BaküsresIrCakarelIkTwkcitþsMxan; Nas;. karelIksresIrenAkEnøgsaFarN³RtUveFIVCalkçN³TUeTATaMgGs;Kña. EtebIeyIgcg;riHKn; eyIgRtUveFIVCa lkçN³ÉkCnEtBIrnak; edaylkçN³riHKn;enaHRtUvCalkçN³riHKn;sßabna. ebIeyIgcg;riHKn;cMeBaHbuKÁlNamYy eyIgRtUveFIVPøam EtRtUveFIVCaGaf’kM)aMg. kMuBüayamtamcab;kMhusGñkeRkambgÁab;. 5-bgðajxøÜneGayeKsÁal; (Being seen) karEdleyIgedIremIlkargar edIremIlbuKÁlwk pþl»; kaseGayGñkeRkambgÁab;)anBiPakSa pþÚreyabl; karCECk karelIkTwkcitþbEnßm. karcMNayeBledIremIldMeNIrkarRbRBwtþeTAénkargar edIm,ICYsCulGIVEdl eFIVxus. eyIgRtUvbgðajeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;sÁal;eXIjeyIg. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUveFIVkarGs;BIkmøaMgkaycitþ eGayGñkeRkambgÁab;emIl. 6-eRbIkarRbkYtRbECg (Competition) mnusScUlcitþRbkYtRbECg ehtuenHeyIgeRbIkarRbkYtRbECgCaEl,gkñúgkarsMerceKaledAkñúgkardwknaM. edIm,IeGaysisScUlcitþGanesovePA eyIgRtUveFIVkarRbkYtRbECgEpñkcMeNHdwgepSg² edIm,Ipþl;rgVan;dl;Gñk Edl BUEkecHcaM. edIm,IeGaysisSxitxMeron manKuNPaB RKU)anerobcMeGaymankarRbLg erobcMkic©karRsavRCav eGaysisS edIm,IbegIánKuNPaB. cMENkkardwknaM minxusKñaeT emdwknaMRtUvKitBIkareRbIkarRbkYtRbECg edIm,I eGaymnusSxitxMeFIVkargar. III>ktþaEdlman\Ti§BlkñúgkardwknaM (Factor that influence in Leadership) 1-karbBa©úHbBa©Úl (Persuasion) kareRbIviFIbBa©úHbBa©ÚlenH eyIgRtUveRbIsMrab;GñkEdlman\Ti§BlRsedogKña b¤GñkEdlman\Ti§Bl CageyIg. kñúgkrNIenH eyIgRtUvecHbgðajehtupl PsþútageGay)anc,as;las; eFIVya:gNaeGayeKKaMRT yl;Rsb tamKMnitrbs;eyIg. bgðajGMBIeKalbMNgnigTwsedArbs;eyIgEdlRtUveFIV. karbeBa©jTsSn³ eyabl; pÞal;xøÜnCaedIm eGaymanlkçN³tkáviC¢a LÚsIuk. kareRbIviFIbBa©úHbBa©ÚlmanRbsiT§PaBluHRtabuKÁlenaH man eKaledAkargardUcKña ehIyRtUvBnül;ehtupleGay)anek,aHk,ay EtebIsinCaBnül;ehtuplmin)an ek,aHk,ay niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            88

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eT b¤KμanPsþútag Éksar edIm,IKaMRTKMnitenaH karbBa©úHbBa©ÚlnigGacTTYlbraC½y. mYyvijeTot karbBa©úHbBa©Úl EtcMeBaHbuKÁleKaledA eyIgRtUvBnül;GMBIsMeNIsMu b¤KMeragesñIrsMu Edlpþl;GtßRbeyaCn_dl;buKÁlenaH dUcCa GtßRbeyaCn_EdlTak;TgnigGaCIBrbs;eK edIm,IeGayeronCMnajfμI² edIm,ICYbmnusSsMxan;² b¤edIm,IeXIjGIVEfm eTot nigTTYl)anekr×þeQμaHeTot. CaBiess eFIVeGaykargarrbs;buKÁlenaHkan;EtRsYl nigKYreGaycab; GarmμN_. edIm,IeCaKC½yenH GaRs½yelIGñkEdlbBa©úHbBa©Úl RtUveFIVeGayeKTukcitþ. cMENkÉ karbBa©úHbBa©Úl tamEbbGMBavnavvij RtUveFIVTak;TgGarmμN_ nigtMélCamUldæan EdlpÞúyBIkareRbIdUcviFIehtu pltkáviC¢adUcEdl )anniyayxagelI. eKalbMNgKWeGaymankarGbGrsaT nigkarebþCJacitþ edaymankarepþatGarmμN_xøaMg Edl Tak;TgeTAnigkþIsgÇwm tMél ]tþmKti sMeNI b¤KMeragsMeNIrbs;buKÁlenaH. ]tþmKtimYycMnYn EdlGacrab;bBa©Úl )andUcCa esñhaCati esμaHRtg; esrIPaB karbMeBjkatBVkic©xøÜnÉg yutþiFm’ RtwmRtUv esμIrPaB esckþIRsLaj; emtþa mnusSFm’ nigrIkcMerIn. ]TahrN_TahanEdleKbBa¢ÚneTAkEnøgEdlmaneRKaHfñak; edayeKbBa¢ak;GMBIkar esñhaCatimatuPUmi. 2-karcrcar (Negotiation) kareRbIviFIcrcarenH enAeBleKman\Ti§BlesμIrKñanigeyIg dUcCamitþP½Rk b¤GñkEdlmanGaCIBdUcKñanigeyIg CaedIm. müa:gkarcrcarenHeRbIenAeBlEdleyIgmanplRbeyaCn_tictYceGayeK. karcrcarenHGaceFIVeLIg cab;BIbuKÁlBIrnak;eLIgeTA. karcrcarRtUvepþatelIplRbeyaCn_ minRtUvepþatelItMENgrbs;xøÜn GagfaGMNac epþatelI\riyabfbuKÁleLIy. sMrab;GñkEdlmansmtßPaBRbhak;RbEhlKña. 3-karesBKb; (Involvement) kareRbIviFIesBKb;sñiTsñal CaviFIEdlman\Ti§BlCageKbg¥s;. kareRbIviFIenH eFIVeGayeKeCOCak; Tukcitþ nigTTYl sÁal;GMeBIl¥rbs;eyIg. karesBKb;enH luHRtaeyIgCamnusSl¥ RbRBwtþnUvGMeBIsucrit RbkbedayKuNFm’ ecHCYy KñakñúgRKaGasnñ nigesμaHRtg;. karesBKb;enH CakarelIkTwkcitþxøaMgbMput eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvpþl;KMnit RbwkSa eKalbMNg nig TwsedA. 4-kartMrg;Tws (Direction) kareRbIviFIenH sMrab;eyIgman\Ti§BlelIeK dUcCaeyIgCaRKUbeRgon «BukmþayCaedIm b¤ eBlEdleKcaM)ac;RtUv BwgBak;elIeyIgTaMgRsug. CaBiess enAeBlEdleyIgmankMrityuT§saRsþxøaMgelIeK eyIgRtUvdwknaMeKeFIVEtmþg. eRbIviFIenaH enAeBlGñkeRkamEdlmansmtßPaBTabCageyIg b¤CaGñkEdleyIgman\Ti§BlelI. IV.ktþaEdleFIVeGayeKeCOCak; (Factor that Cause Some one Confidence) 1-eFIVemdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg (Act like a leader by one-self) eyIgRtUveroneFIVCaemdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg edaymincaM)ac;eKEtgtaMgeGayeFIVCaemdwknaMeLIy. GñkEdl BüayamsikSaeronsURtCaemdwknaM GñkEdlmanlkçN³CaemdwknaM EtgEtmanqnÞ³sikSaeronsURtCaRbcaM eRBaHkar eronsURt nigkardwknaMRtUvedIrTnÞwmKña. eyIgRtUvBinitüemIlsßankarN_ehIybegIátsßankarN_enaH sμ½RKcitþeFIVCa emdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg. emdwknaMmancriklkçN³taMgBIkMeNIt EteyIgGacerobcMxøÜneyIgeGayeTACaemdwknaM)an edaycab;epþImGnuvtþn_tamRTwsIþ cab;BIeBlenHteTA. emdwknaMminEmnCaGñkFMGagGMNac eTAekobsgát;eK niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            89

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faemdwknaMenaHeT emdwknaMminsMedAeTAelIGgÁúyelIekAGItMENgFMfaemdwknaMenaHeT emdwknaMKWCaGñkmanckçúvis½y eFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCati eFIVRbeyaCn_CUnRbCaCatiExμrBitR)akd. emdwknaMEdlbgðajnUvcriklkçNHxøaMgenaH mankar CMrujfamBl cMeBaH\riyabfbuKÁlwk smaCik smaCika emdwknaMRtUvman ckçúvis½y karebþCJacitþ vin½ypÞal;xøÜn qnÞ³ KuNFm’ sñaéd nigesckIþkøahan. emdwknaMEdlmancriklkçN³EbbenHGacdwknaMGñkedIrtam)an. b:uEnþcMeBaH emdwknaM EdlmanlkçN³exSayminlkçN³dUcerobxagelITaMgGs;enHeLIy. 2-CYyGñkdéTedayKuNFm’ (Help others honestly) eyIgCaemdwknaM minRtUvKitBIplRbeyaCn_xøÜnÉg Gtμaniym kMNaj;sVitenaHeT. emdwknaMCaGñkEdl mancitþTUlay ecHCYyGñkdéT edayTwkcitþsb,úrs edaymincg;)ankartbsñgsgKuNGIVmkvijeLIy CaGñkCYy Gñkd¾éT CaCnrYmQamdUcKñaedaycitþbrisuT§. ebIeyIgecHCYykarBarplRbeyaCn_eK elakCYyrkplRbeyaCn_ eGayeK eKnigmkrkelakeGayeFIVCaemdwknaM. 3-GPivDÆn_CMnaj smtßPaBCanic© (Keep Learning Always) eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvbNþúHbNþal GPivDÆn_CMnajrbs;eyIg nigGñkEdlenACMuvijxøÜneyIgCanic© CaBiess RtUvbNþúHbNþalRbCaBlrdæTaMgmUleGaymansmtßPaB kalNaRbCaBlrdæmansmtßPaBxøaMg eyIgCaemdwknaM k¾xøaMgEdr kalebIRbCaBlrdæexSay emdwknaMk¾exSayEdr. dUc)anbriyayxagelI kareron nigkardwknaMRtUvedIr TnÞwmKña eronKμanTIbBa©b; kardwknaMk¾KμanTIbBa©b; BIeRBaHkarrs;enArbs;mnusSRtUvkarRbkYtRbECgKñaedIm,I plRbeyaCn_KμanTIbBa©b; eyIg CaemdwknaMRtUv eFIVeGayKMnitfμI smtßPaBkan;EtxøaMgeLIgCanic©. 4-\riyabfviC¢man (Positive attitude) eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvman\riyabfviC¢manCanic© \riyabfGacsMrbxøÜneTARKb;sßankarN_TaMgGs;. eyIgCa emdwknaM RtUvmansμartIKitGIVCaviC¢man RtUvmanKMnitsuTidæiniym RtUvGanesoePAEdlmanKMnitl¥mkdak;kñúgKMnit edIm,IeGayeyIgmanKMnitl¥KMnitviC¢mandak;kñúgKMnit eFIVeGayKMniteyIgmanKMnitviC¢man manKMnitl¥ eFIVeGay \riyabfrbs;eyIgviC¢manl¥Edr. eyIgminRtUvbeBa©j\riyabfGviC¢man dak;GñkeRkambgÁab;eT b¤eyIgminRtUv bdiesFeday\riyabfGviC¢manEdr. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvsm¥atcitþeGays¥at kat;eGaydac;nUvcitþEdlCab;CMBak; nigGarmμN_TaMg 5 eTIbeyIgGacsMrbxøÜntamRKb;mnusSTaMgGs;)an. emdwknaMEdlxøaMg³ ¾ RtUvmanCMnajxagsmtßPaBc,as;las; ¾ RtUvmanKuNFm’ nigRkmsIlFm’kñúgkardwknaM ¾ RtUvsÁal;ktþaTaMg 4 ya:g dUcCa GñkedIrtam GñkdwknaM karTMnak;TMng nigsßankarN_ ¾ RtUvsÁal;BIxøÜnÉg dUcCa cMNucexSay nigxøaMg criklkçN³ cMeNHdwg nigCMnaj ¾ RtUvsÁal;BIFmμCatimnusS ¾ RtUvsÁal;BIkic©karrbs;elak ¾ RtUvsÁal;BIGgÁkardwknaMrbs;elak ¾ eFIVKWeyIgRtUvR)ab;TwsedA dUcCa kardak;eKaledA karedaHRsaybBaða karsMerccitþ nigkareFIVEpnkar niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            90

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eFIV KW karGnuvtþ dUcCa karTMnak;TMng karsMrbsMrYl karRtYtBinitü karvaytémø ¾ eFIV KW karelIkTwkcitþ V>eKalkarN_bBa©úHbBa©Úl (Principle of Persuasion) 1-bþÚrrUbragtamkal³eTs³ (Flexible and Comonflage) karecHbt;Ebntamkal³eTs³ karecHEkøgePTtamFmμCati edIm,IkMueGayeKsÁal;eyIgc,as; edIm,IeFIVkar bBa©úHbBa©ÚleGaymanRbsiT§PaB eFIVeGayeKeCOCak;. ebIsinCaeyIgeXasnabBa©úHbBa©ÚlenAkñúgmCÄdæansisS nisSit eyIgRtUvbþÚrrUbragCalkçN³nisSit edayeyIgcab;yknisSitEdlman\Ti§BlkñúgkarbBa©úHbBa©Úl. eyIgsißt enAsßanPaBNa eyIgRtUveFIVRsbkñúgsßanPaBenaH. dUcyYneKbþÚrrUbraglkçN³mkCaExμr tamrebobcarkmμ edayeronPasaExμr TMenomTMlab;Exμr RbvtþisaRsþExμr edIm,IdeNþImplRbeyaCn_BIExμr nigelbTwkdIExμr tamviFIcitþsaRsþ. müa:gvijeTot RbCaBlrdæExμrElgeCOCak;elIGñkneya)ay s¥b;Gñkneya)ay edaysarkar e)akR)as;rbs; emdwknaMneya)ay)annigkMBuge)akR)as;Kat;mþgehIymþgeTot. ehtuenHehIy eyIgminRtUvsMEdg xøÜnCaGñkneya)ayedIm,IbBa©úHbBa©ÚleLIy EteyIgGacniyaykñúgnamExμrCatiExμr EdlxVl;xVay BIGayu RbeTsCati. 2-niyayeGaycMbBaðaGñksþab; (Target Audience Problems) karbBa©úHbBa©Úll¥ RtUvniyayBIbBaðarbs;Gñksþab;. RtUvcaMfa eKmincg;sþab;erOgpÞal;xøÜnrbs;eyIg bBaðarbs;eyIgeLIy b:uEnþKat;cg;sþab;nrNaEdlGackarBarplRbeyaCn_eGayBYkKat; b¤GñkEdlCYyedaHRsay bBaða GñkykplRbeyaCn_mkCUnKat; CaBiess Kat;cg;sþab;erOgEdlTak;TgnwgerOgrbs;Kat;. dUcenH eyIgCaGñkeXasna RtUvelIkykbBaðarbs;Gñksþab;ykmkniyay nigeFIVkaredaHRsayCUnKat; . b:uEnþ eyIgminGacsnüa GIVEdleyIgminGaceFIV)anenaHeT. 3-manxnþI Gt;Fμt; (Patience) eyIgCaGñkbBa©úHbBa©ÚlRtUvGt;Fμt;RKb;ya:g Gt;Fμt;cMeBaHeBlevlaeTaHyUr b¤qab;k¾eday Gt;Fμt;RKb; eBlevla RKb;TIkEnøg eGayEteyIgsMerceKaledAEdlRtUveFIV. Gt;Fμt;cMBaHBaküriHKn;epSg² Gt;Fμt;cMeBaH karemIlgay Gt;Fμt;cMeBaHkarRbqaMgepSg² Gt;Fμt;cMeBaHGñkEdlyl;eXIjxusBIeyIg. Gt;Fμt;cMeBaHkargar rbs;eyIgEdlkMBugeFIV edayBüayameGayGs;BIsmtßPaB. Gt;Fμt;cMeBaHbuKÁlEdleyIgTak;Tg cMeBaH saFarN³Cn cMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ. karGt;Fμt;enaH edayeyIgCaemdwknaMminRtUvxwg Gn;citþ mineBjcitþ cMeBaHTegIVTaMgLayEdleKminKaMRTeyIgCaedIm. 4-begIátekrþ×eQμaHl¥ (Good fame) eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvbegIáteGaymanekrþ×eQμaHl¥ Casvagekrþ×eQμaHminl¥ dUcCaCnBukrlYy lYcsm,tþiCati lk;sm,tþiCatiedIm,IRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn nigRkumRKYsar. CaCnRbRBwtþiGMeBIBalaGava:Es xVHesckþIéføfñÚr dUcCa elgEl,gsIusg pwksIu RsIjICaedIm CaBiessKWeyIgKitRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜn CagRbeyaCn_Cati eFIVeGay eyIgKμanRbCaRbiy. karb:HBal;plRbeyaCn_GñkdéT b¤plRbeyaCn_RbCaBlrdæ edaykarCiHCan; kibeKg ¾

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XubXitbkSBYkniymCaedIm. ehtudUcenH edIm,IbegIátekrþ×eQμaHl¥ eyIgRtUvRbRBwtþiGMeBIl¥ ecHCYyGñkdéT eFIVRbeyaCn_CUn Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr nigGnuvtþPaBCaemdwknaMEdlmankñúgesovePAPaK 1 nig PaK 2 enH. 5-kMuRbEkk tmat; eQøaH (No quarrel) eyIgCaemdwknaM b¤ CaeXasnik EdledIrtYsMrab;bBa©úHbBa©ÚlCnrYmCatiExμrd¾éTeTot eGayemIleXIj GMBIeRKaHfñak;RbeTsCatidUceyIg eyIgminRtUvRbEkkykQñHcaj; eQøaHKña tmat;KñaeTAmkenaHeT. ebIsinCa manlkçN³EbbenH eyIgminEmnCaemdwknaM b¤CaeXasnikd¾l¥enaHeT. eTaHCakaryl;eXIjxusKñaya:gNakþI EteyIgRtUverIsykehtuplNamYyEdleKGacTTYlyk)an edayeCosvagkarRbEkkKñadUcniyayxagelI. 6-Tajkarsnñidñan (Positive Conclusion) karTajsniñdæaneGaymanlkçN³smehtupl manPsþútagRtwmRtUvBitR)akd nigP¢ab;eTAnigsßanPaB Cak;Esþg. karTajesckþIdæanenHeGaysmRsbeTAnigkaryl;dwgrbs;RbCaBlrdæ nigGñkEdleyIgTMnak;TMng CamYy karTajsniñdæan EdlxusBIkarBit eFIVeGayeKmineCO xVHPaBeCOCak; CaktþabraC½ykñúgkarbBa©úHbBa©Úl. 7-elIkTwkcitþeGaymankarriHKn; (Feedback) elIkTwkcitþeGaymankarriHKn;EklMGr eRBaHCakBa©k;qøúHbBa©aMgnUvskmμPaBrbs;eyIg. karelIkTwk citþeGaymankarriHKn;enH eFIVeGayeKsb,aycitþ cUlrYmskmμPaBCamYyeyIg edayeKmanemaTPaB cMeBaHGIVEdl eK)anrYmcMENk edIm,IeFIVeGaymankarrIkcMerIn. CaBiess enAeBlEdleyIgTTYlykKMnitenaHeTAGnuvtþn_ nig EkERbCafμI. eFIVeGayeKmanGarmμN_fa sñitsñal ehIyeCOCak;eTotpg. 8-begIátTMnak;TMngl¥ (Good Communication) bBaðaCaeRcInekIteLIgedaykarTMnak;TMngEdlmankMhus ehIybBaðaenHGacnaMeGaymankarRcLM nig eFIVeGayEpnkarbraC½y. TMnak;TMng KWCakarpøas;bþÚr karbgðÚrB½t’man nigKMnitBImnusSmñak;eTAmnusSmñak;eTot. vaBak;B½n§GñkbBa¢ÚnB½t’man nigGñkTTYlB½t’man. TMnak;TMngmanRbsiT§PaBekIteLIg luHRtaEtGñkTTYl yl;B½t’man nigKMnitBitR)akd rbs;GñkbBa¢Únmanectnacg;bB¢Úan. karsikSadMeNIrTMnak;TMng mansarsMxan; BIeRBaHelakbeRgon sMrbsMrYl RbwkSavaytMél nigRtYtBinitü tamryHdMeNIrkarenH. TMnak;TMng KWCaGIVEdl eyIgBüayamedIm,IeFIV niyaycMeBaHGñkEdlenACiteyIg. dMbUgBt’manmanenAkñúgKMnitGñkbBa¢Ún KMnitenHGacCaKMnit eyabl; Bt’man nigGarmμN_. dMNwgRtUv)aneKbBa¢ÚneTAGñkTTYltamry³ BaküsMdI nigCanimitþsBaØa. cugbBa©b; GñkTTYlbkERbBaküsMdI nignimitþsBaØaCaKMnit b¤Bt’man EdleKGacyl;)an. karTak;Tg KWCaviFIEdleKbBa¢ÚndMNwg nigRtUv)aneKsÁal;Ca Pasa EdleKrab;bBa¢ÚlTaMg sMelg EPñk Pasakayvikar kayvikaréd nigsPaBlkçN³GarmμN_ xøac xwg minR)akd mineCOCak;. tamBiteTA eyIgTukcitþ PaBc,as;las;rbs;\riyabf CagkarEdlRKan;EtniyaypÞal;mat; . karTMnak;TMngman]bsKÁmYycMnYndUcCa vb,Fm’ Pasa BIeRBaHenARbeTsepSgKña tMbn;epSgKña eRbIR)as;PasaepSg²Kña EdlBi)akyl;enAkñúgkarTMnak;TMng edayminyl;Gtßn½y. CYnkalmkBIxøÜneyIg EdlmanelsepSg² sMelgGU‘GrrMxan eRBaHKμankarcab;GarmμN_ sþab;min)an FujRTan; minyl;CaedIm. brisßan niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            92

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edayenAkEnøgq¶ayBIKña kEnøgggwt b¤kEnøgEdlmanmnusSG‘UGreRcIn manGakasFatuekþA ePøogxøaMg xøins¥úy . karekobsgát; EpñkGarmμN_ nigeRkam\Ti§BlGIVmYy EdlBi)akkñúgkarniyay nig TMnak;TMng. karbegIátTMnak;TMngl¥sMrab;mnusSTUeTA. vaGacRbRBwtþieTA)anGaRs½yelIbuKÁlwklkçN³pÞal;xøÜnrbs; eyIg. eyIgRtUvecosvagkñúgbgáTMnas; begIátsRtUv sUm,IEtmñak; EteyIgRtUvBüayambegIátmitþeGay)aneRcIn tamry³begáItTMnak;TMngl¥. karbegIátTMnak;TMngl¥enH RtUvmaneKalbMNg eKaledAc,as;las; manEpnkar c,as;las; ehIyRtUvmanplRbeyaCn_TaMgsgxag. eKnigsb,aycitþCamYyeyIg kalNaeyIgman dMNwgl¥ plRbeyaCn_eGayeK eKnigminsb,aycitþebIeyIgnaMbBaðadak;eGayeK. edIm,IeGaykarTMnak;TMngl¥ eyIgRtUv CaGñkskmμ Gñksþab;d¾l¥. Baküfa B¤ nigsþab;mindUcKñaeT. karsþab;EbgEckCaBIrRbePTskmμ nigGkmμ. Gñksþab;skmμ manlkçN³dUcteTA³ 1-cMNayeBlsþab;eRcInCagniyay 2-kMubBa©b;RbeyaKniyayrbs;GñkdéT ¬niyaykat;¦ 3-kMueqøIysMNYredaykarsYrtbeTAvij 4-dwgBIkarlMeGog 5-GIVEdlminc,as;kMuniyay b¤kMukan;ykKMnitrbs;eKniyayBImun mkniyay 6-Tuk»kaseGayGñkepSgeTotniyaypg. kMueGayniyayRKbsgát;elIeK ¬niyayEtmñak;Ég¦ niyay vayRbhaeKGñksþab; KMnitRbqaMgeday\riyabfGviC¢aman. 7-eFIVEpnkareqIøytbeRkay eKniyaycb; minEmneqøIytbenAeBlBYkeKkMBugniyay. 8-pþl;Rbtikmμtb b:uEnþkMuniyaykat;minQb;minQr. 9-viPaKedayRkeLkemIlktþaBak;B½n§TaMgGs; nig sYrsMNYr ebIkcMhr. 10-eFIVeGaykarsnÞnaenAEtbnþGIVEdlGñkniyay minEmnGIVEdleFIVeGayeKcab;GarmμN_. kt;cMNaMxøI² CaerOgsMxan; edIm,IepþatelIGIVEdleKniyay. 9-pþl;karshRbtibtiþkar (Cooperation) eyIgRtUvcUlrYm nigpþl;karyl;RBmshcMeBaHkarsMeNIbs;eK b:uEnþebIsinCaeyIgbdiesFeyIg RtUvecH eRbIPasakarTUt edayminbdiesFRtg;Etmþg. karshRbtibtþkarkargarCamYy vaCaktþaCH\Ti§Bldl;citþsaRsþ ya:gxøaMg edayeyIg)anCYyeFIVRbeyaCn_eGayeK nigmanPaBsñiT§sñal sÁal;citþeføIm. karpþl;FnFancaM)ac; b¤CMnYycaM)ac; ebIsinCabuKÁlenaHnigeFIVkaresñIrsMu nigGnum½tyl;RBmsMeNI. Rtg;cMNucenH EtgEtmankarpøas;bþÚr plRbeyaCn_KñaeTAvijeTAmk. 10-eRbI\Ti§BlRkum (Use Influence of Team Work) eyIgRtUveRbI\Ti§Blrbs;Rkum edaybgðajBIeQμaH LÚkU eKalkarN_ yuT§saRsþepSg² emdwknaM nig skmμPaBEdl)aneFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatiknøgmk. eyIgRtUvbgðajGMBIcMNucxøaMgrbs;Rkum niglkçN³xusKñaBIkar dwknaMepSg²eTot. munnigmanRbsiT§PaB eyIgRtUvCasmaCikrbs;RkumenaHsin eTIbeyIgyl;BIeKalkarN_ nigkic©karepSg² ehIyeTIbeyIgGaceRbI\Ti§BlenaH)an. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            93

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11-nimitþrUbEdlman (Symbol) etIeyIgmanGIVCasBaØasMKal; manlkçN³GIVCasMKal;sMrab;RkumeyIg. etInimitþrUbenaHmann½yxøwmsar ya:gdUcemþc?. nimitþrUbenH GacCarUbstV EdlmanGtßn½ytamlkçN³rbs;stV ehIyeGayGñkd¾éTgayyl; gaycaM gayykmkeRbI)an. 12-minRtUvCECkykQñH caj; Etsþab;ehtupleKniyay (Effective Listen) karCECkKña eyIgminRtUvmanKMnitCECkykQñHcaj; eFIVeGayGñkd¾éTGama:s; cg;eGayeKelIksresIrxøÜn GMNYtfaxøÜneyIgxøaMg xøÜneyIgCaGñkBUEkenaHeT EteyIgRtUvEsVgrkehtuplRtwmRtUv mkbkRsay eFIVya:g NaeGayTsSn³rbs;eK emIleXIjdUceyIg yl;dUceyIg bkRsayeGayeKyl; nigRBmTTYlykGIVEdl eyIgniyaybkRsayenaH. 13-sMueGayeKcUlrYm (Appeal for participation) eRkayBIeKcab;GarmμN_ yl;RsbKaMRTtamKMnitrbs;eyIg eyIgRtUvENnaMeGayeKcUlrYmenAkñúg skmμPaBrbs;eyIg edIm,ICaplRbeyaCn_sMrab;sgÁmCati plRbeyaCn_RbeTsCati. karsMueGayeKcUlrYmenH eyIgRtUvR)ab;BIplvi)akkargar plRbeyaCn_kargarEdlTTYl)aneGayc,as;las; R)ab;BIParHkic©kargarEdlRtUv eFIVeGayc,as;las;. 14-eRbIGñkEdlman\Ti§Bl (key communicator) enAkñúgsßankarN_xøH eyIgminGacsMrbeTAtamsßankarN_)anRKb;TaMgGs;)aneLIy eyIgRtUveRbIviFIeRcot cUledayeRbIR)as; Tak;TajbuKÁlEdlman\Ti§Bl ¬ RKU RbFan Rsuk XMu PUmi Gacarü eGayeKCYyeXasna eGayeyIg¦ enAkñúgsßankarN_enaH ykmkbNþúHbNþaleGaysÁal;kic©kar nigeKalkarN_rbs;kardwknaM ehIyeGayeKCYypSBVpSaynig dwknaMbnþenAkñúgtMbn;enaH. 15-eRbI\Ti§Bl smaKmn_ GgÁkar shKmn_ edIm,Ieqøot»kasbBa©úHbBa©Úl (Key Organization) GIVCaRbeyaCn_dl;Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr eyIgRtUveRbI\Ti§Bl smaKm GgÁkar shKmn_ edIm,Ieqøot »kasbBa©úHbBa©ÚleGayRbCaBlrdæ eFIVGIVEdlCaRbeyaCn_dl;sgÁm eFIVRbeyaCn_sMrab;mnusSCatiTUeTA eFIVGIVEdl CaRbeyaCn_dl;Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr. 16-RtUveKarB eGaytMéleTAelInimitþrUbenAkEnøgenaH edIm,IeGayeKmanCMenO nig Tukcitþ Raise Value

CMenO sasna TMenomTMlab; nimitþrUbEdl RbCaBlrdæenATIenaHeKeGaytMél eKeKarB eyIgRtUvEteKarB eGaytMéltamRbCaBlrdækEnøgenaHEdr. kalNaeyIgeKarB eGaytMélGIVEdlRbCaBlrdæeKeGaytMél enaH eyIgnigTTYlkarKaMRT ehIyRbCaBlrdæenAtMbn;enaH eKmanCMenOTukcitþ . kalNaeKmanCMenOelIeyIgehIy eyIgniyayGVVIk¾eKGacsþab;tam nigeCOeyIgEdr. 17-bBa¢ak;BIeKalbMNgrYmKña (Confirm Goal) dUc)anniyayenAkñúg yuT§saRsþTwkrbs;GñkesñhaCati rbs;elak sMerag éRC ebIsinCaTwk nig Twk gaycUlKñaNas; EtebIsinCaTwknigeRbgminGaccUlKñaedaygay)aneT. cMENkGñkesñhaCati k¾dUcKñaEdr niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            94

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RKan;EtbegIðbBIerOgRbeTsCatiPøam manKMnitdUcKña RtUvKña cUlrYmeFIVkarCamYyKña edIm,IeKalbMNgrYmKña KWedIm,I GayuCivitRbeTsCati edIm,IplRbeyaCn_Cati edaymincaM)ac;eKniyay bBa©©úHbBa©ÚleRcIneLIy niyayeGay cMGñkesñhaCatiBitR)akd h‘anlHbg;GIVRKb;ya:g eFIVkic©karBitR)akd edIm,IRbeTsCati edaymincaM)ac;rg caMGñkdéTmkdas;etOneLIy KWTwkEtghUrrkKña rt;rkGñkesñhaCatidUcKña. EtminEmnCaGñkesñhaCatiEkøgkøay EdlniyayEtmat; EtpÞúyeTAvij BukrlYy lk;Cati KitRbeyaCn_pÞal;xøÜneRcInCag RbeyaCn_Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμrenaHeLIy. 18-erobcMKMeragCamun (Plan first) karcab;epþImeFIVkic©karGIV²k¾eday edIm,IeGayc,as;las; eyIgRtUverobcMeGaymanKMeragmun kmμviFIerobcM eGayc,as;las;. KWeyIgKiteGay)anl¥itl¥n; RtwmRtUvc,as;las; KNnaeGay)aneRcIn sarcuHeLIg edIm,I ykKMeragenaHeTAGnuvtþn_eGaysMerc TTYlEpøpáaCaviC¢man. 19-niyaysareLIgvij nUveKalsMxan;² (Repeat the important point) cMNuceKalsMxan;² EdleyIgRtUveGayeKyl; cg;eGayeKcaM eyIgRtUvrMlwksareLIgvij edaybegIát CasMnYr b£ begIátCakmμviFIedIm,IeGayeKGnuvtþ cMeBaHeKalsMxan;²enaH edIm,IeGayeKgaycaM nigyl;Gtßn½y eKalsMxan;²enaH. eyIgRtUveXasna sacuHsaeLIg nUvcMNucsMxan;enaH. 20-eRCIserIsTIkEnøgl¥ nig eBlsmrmü (Choose appropriate location) edIm,IeFIVkarbBa©úHbBa©ÚleGaymanRbsiTi§PaB eyIgRtUveRCIserIskEnøgl¥ Ebøk nigeBlsmrmü. TIkEnøg sMedAeTAelIkEnøgEdlmanpasuxPaB kEnøgEdlmansnþisuxl¥ TIkEnøgEdlcMNaysnSMsMéc Etsmrmü sMrab;Tak;Taj GñkcUlrYm dUcCa sNæaKar ePaCnIydæan kEnøgRbCMu TIlan sMxan;².l. eBlevla sMedA eTAelIeBlEdlGñkcUlrYmGaccUlrYm)anedayTwkcitþrIkray Kμanb:HBal;plRbeyaCn_ b:HBal;kargareK cMeBl sMrak cMeBlTMenrBIkargarCaedIm. 21-bgðajTwkcitþTaMgsgxag (Do with Willing) eyIgeFIVGIVedaykþIesμaHRtg; edayecjBITwkcitþBitR)akd edayminEmn hutTwksmøwgkak KWCamnusS minEmnEtsMedAemIleXIjplRbeyaCn_Etb:ueNÑaH eyIgRtUvbgðajBITwkcitþrbs;eyIgcMeBaHeK edaykþIRsLaj;Bit GaNitGasUrBitR)akd. 22-eqøIycMeBaHkarsaksYrrbs;Gñksþab; Immediate Response eyIgRtUveqøIytbcMeBaHGñksYreGaysmRsbtameKalkarN_ nigcMeNjneya)ay edaymankarKaMRT BImtisaFarN³Cn mankarKaMRTBIRbCaBlrdæ. munnigeyIgeqøIytbeyIgRtUvsþab;sMnYreGay)anc,as; nigsþab;BI eKalbMNgénsMnYrrbs;eK. ebIisinCasMnYrNaEdleyIgminGaceqøIy)aneT eyIgRtUveqøIyedaymanviFIbEgVsMnYr b¤ viFIkarcab;GarmμN_eTAepSg b¤eyIgsMuGP½yeTas edayminGaceqøIy)anCaedIm. 23-ecHeRbI\Ti§BlEdlman nigRbCaRbiyPaB Use what Enable eyIgRtUvecHeRbI\Ti§Blrbs;eyIgEdlman dUcCaeyIgCaRKUbeRgonEdlman\Ti§BlelIsisS RBHsgÇ RKb;GgÁEdlman\Ti§BlelI])ask ])asika nayksalaman\Ti§BlelIelakRKU GñkRKU saRsþacarüCaedIm. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            95

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ecAhVayRsuk XMu PUmi eRbI\Ti§BlelIRbCaBlrdæeGayecH eFIVGIVEdlCaRbeyaCn_dl;sgÁmCati. \Ti§BlenaH RtUveFIVeGaycMTwsedA edIm,IplRbeyaCn_RbeTsCati minEmneRbI\Ti§Blrbs;cg;)anlaPskáar³ buNüs½ká GMNacenaHeT.

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            96

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CMBUkTI 5

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GMNacemdwknaM GMNacemdwknaM emdwknaMmanGMNacTaMgGs; 10 y:ag EdlmanGFib,aydUcxageRkam ³ 1-GMNacmenayiTi§ GMNacmenayiTi§CaGMNacFmμCatiEdlemdwknaMmantaMgBIkMeNIt. lkçN³RBmrbs;emdwknaMmantaMgBI kMeNIt kaysm,Ta kayvikar citþKMnit PaBQøasév. Rtg;cMNucenH emdwknaMRtUvykQñHxøÜnÉg RtUvyk QñHFmμCati CaBiessRtUvykQñHcitþrbs;xøÜnCamunsin. emdwknaMGacRKb;RKgGarmμN_TaMg 6 ehIyGac eFIVEbbenH cMeBaHbuKÁldéTGacTTYl)aneCaKC½yedaygay. RBHBuT§manBuT§dikarfa QñHbuKÁl1000 nak; minesIμnigQñHxøÜnÉgmñak;eLIy. karEdlykQñHelIGarmμN_rbs;xøÜnÉg CakarkRmmYy BIeRBaH mnusSeyIgekIt mkedaytNða tNðaekIteLIgBIGarmμN_TaMg 6. b:uEnþeTaHCaya:gNak¾eday ebIelakGñkcg;køayCaGñk dwknaMmYyrUbd¾eqñIm elakGñkRtUvEtxitxMhat;eronBt;lt;dMGarmμN_rbs;GñkrhUtdl;GñksMercCasßaBr. ebIeyIg eFIV)an eyIgnigmanGarmμN_RtCak;nigs¥atbrisuT§RbkbeTAedaybBaØaevogév ¬sIl smaFi bBaØa¦. kareFIVrebob enHmankarlM)akbMput eRbobdUcCaykePIøgmkdutkMedAkñúg»ra:rbs;Gs;elak ehIyvarwgCagfμ citþmanlkçN³ esμaKeRKaKdUcCalUTwks¥úyGBa©wg citþeyIgCavtßúEdlrwgbMputenAelIEpndIeyIgenH. citþenaH KWGarmμN_rbs;Gs; elakGñkenaHÉg EdlEtgEtelatcuHeLIgRKb;vinaTI ebIelakGñkGaceFIVeGaycitþrbs;elaksUnüehIyenaH KWelak GñkGacykQñHxøÜnÉg)an ehIyelakRtUvrkSavaeGayenARtg;cMNucsUnüenaHCaerogrhUt. eRBaHfa citþeyIg eRbobdUckuMBüÚT½rEdleRbIR)as;ehIyvamanemeraKcUlmkEdr ehtuenHeyIgkMuePøcsMGatvaeGays¥at Caerogral;éf¶ tamviFIeFIVsmaFi ebIminGBa©wgeT emeraKnigcUlmkeBjeTotdUckMuBüÚT½rminxaneLIy. ebIelakGñkQñHcitþrhUtdl; cMNucsUnüehIyenaH elakGñknigman esckIþkøahand¾Gg;Gac manGarmμN_l¥RKb;kal³eTs³ mansmaFi manmenayiT§i mankareCOCak;elIxøÜnÉg esckIþesμaHRtg; eFIVGMeBIl¥ manKuNFm’ senþasRbNIdl;mnusSCati RbCaBlrdæTn;exSay. dUcenH ebIelakGñkcg;køayCakMBUlemdwknaM elakGñkRtUvh‘anlHbg;GarmμN_TaMgR)aMmYy eGay)anTaMgGs;Camunsin. I.

etIeFIVdUcemþ:c edIm,IlHbg;GarmμN_TaMg 6 enH)an?

elakGñkRtUvEtxitxMEsVgrkviC¢amkdak;xøÜn nigGb;rMGarmμN_rbs;xøÜnCaerogral;éf¶ tamry³karGanesov ePAeGayeRcIn edaymincaM)ac;eFIVtamGarmμN_EdlbBa¢aeGayeyIgeFIVeT EteyIgRtUvbBa¢aGarmμN_rbs;eyIgvij eGayeFIVtamkarkMNt;rbs;eyIg dUcCaeBlEdleyIgXøan edIm,IbMeBjtamGarmμN_rbs;GNaþt eyIgRtUv Gt;Fμt;kMueFIVtamva eyIgjaMumaneBlevlaema:gkMNt;c,as;las;. sþab;tamkarbMeBjGarmμN_rbs;Rtecok eyIgminRtUveFIVtamGarmμN_Rtecoksþab;cMerogtamcMNg;rbs;eyIgeT EteyIgmankmμviFIkñúgkarsþab; eBlNa sþab;cMerog eBlNasþab;Bt’man.l. kMubMeBjGarmμN_rbs;EPñk ebIEPñkrbs;eyIgcg;emIlGIVEdlxUcGarmμN_ eyIgkMuemIltam kMubMeBjGarmμN_rbs;RcmuH dUcCakarhitkøinRkGUb eRbIeRKOgRkGUb CaedIm. kMubMeBj GarmμN_rbs;Es,k dUcCab:HBal;CamYyePTxusKñanaMeGayGarmμN_ekþACaedIm. dUcenH tamryHGarmμN_TaMg 6 niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            98

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eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvhat;eronbBa¢aelIGarmμN_rbs;xøÜnÉgrebobenH eFIVya:gticbMput 10 qñaM eTIbelakGñkGac ykQñHelIxøÜnÉg)an RKb;RKgelIGarmμN_rbs;xøÜn)an. 2-GMNacKuNFm’ (Reward Power) GMNacKuNFm’ CaGMNacEdl)anmkBIkareFIVGMeBIl¥ EdlmanRBhμvihaFm’ karseNþasRbNI nig TsBiFFm’dl;GñkeRkambgÁab; nigRbCaBlrdæ. dUcCa«BukmþayciBa©wmbI)ac;kUnEfrkSakUntaMgBItUcmk enHCa GMNacKuNFm’rbs;«Bukmþay EdleyIgTaMgGs;KñaCabuRtFItaRtUvEttbsñgKuN«BukmþayeyIg EdlCaGñkman KuNdl;eyIg. RBHBuT§EdlsMEdgnUvFm’l¥dl; BuT§sanikCn eGay)anesckþIsuxsMrab;sgÁmmnusS enHCa KuNFm’mYyEdleFIVeGay])ask ])asika eKarBbUCarhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶. elakRKUGñkRKU EdlxitxMCYybgðat; beRgon kUnsisSCaedIm EdleFIVeGaykUnsisSeKarBeGaytMéldl;RKU)arGacarü. TanGIVminesμIrnigFmμTan. KuNGIVminesμIrnigKuNFm’eLIy. cMeBaHbuKÁlEdlCYyseRgÁaHGñkd¾éTedaysb,úrsCaedIm EdleFIVeGayCnrg eRKaHrMlwkKuN minePøcBIKuNUbkar³rbs;eK. dUcenH Kb,IeyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvykGMNacKuNFm’enHmkeRbI edIm,IeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;manesckþIsux suPmgÁlnigsnþiPaB. mYyeTotGMNacenHsMedAelIbuKÁl EdlRKb;RKg kan;kab;FnFansMxan;² RKb;RKgFnFankRm CaGñkEdlmanGMNacEbgEckFnFan nigpþl;rgVan;epSg². EtGMNacenH sMrab;EtGñkEdleFIVkarenAkñúgGgÁkarsßab½nCamYyKñaenaHeT. GMNacenHmancMeBaHbuKÁl Edlman smtßPaBGaceFIVtamkarsnüa)an EtvaKμanRbsiT§PaBcMeBaHbuKÁlEdlminTukcitþ dUcCaRbPBFnFan nigrgVan;. GMNacenH eKeRcIneFIVsMrab;GñkeRkambgÁab; eKmineRbIsMrab;GñkEdlman\Ti§BlelI dUcCa emdwknaMxagelIeyIg eLIy. etIeyIgeRbIGMNacKuNFm’eBlNa? eyIgeRbIenAeBl ³ ƒ RtUvpþl;rgVan;GIVEdlmnusScg;)an ƒ pþl;rgVan;EdlRtwmRtUv yutþiFm’ nigmansIlFm’ ƒ kMusnüapþl;GIVelIsBIGñkRtUvpþl;eGay ƒ Bnül;BIlkçxNÐEdlRtUvpþl;rgVan;enaH ehIyeFIVCalkçN³smBaØ ƒ pþl;rgVan;tamkarsnüaebIsinCatMrUveGaybMeBjtamtMrUvkar ƒ eRbIrgVan;CanimitþrUb kMurgVan;EdlminGacTukyUr 3-GMNacTMnak;TMng (Communication Power) ebIeyIgenAEtmñak;Ég min)anTMnak;TMngmnusSkñúgsgÁmenaH KμannrNamñak;sÁal;eyIg KμannrNamñak;dwg BIckçúvis½yrbs;eyIgeLIy dUcenHemdwknaMcaM)ac;RtUveFIVTMnak;TMngmnusSsMxan;²kñúgsgÁm edIm,IeGayeyIgman tMéltamenaHEdr. karTMnak;TMngenH eyIgRtUvTMnak;TMngcMeBaHbuKÁll¥ buKÁlEdlmanskþanuBlxagGIVmYy buKÁlmanRbCaRbiy eKcUlcitþeRcIn buKÁlEdlmanskþanuBlkñúgsgÁmCaedIm edIm,IeGayxøÜneyIgmanskþanuBl tam enaHEdr. eyIgGacTMnak;TMngeTAsaFarN³Cn tamry³sñaédrbs;eyIgEdleFIVGIVmYyCaRbeyaCn_dl;Cati RbeyaCn_ dl;sgÁmCaedIm. karTMnak;TMngenH edayeRbItamviFI karesBKb; karbBa©úHbBa©Úl karcrcar nig tMrg;Tws dUcGFib,ayxagelI. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            99

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4-GMNacbgçitbgçM (Coercive Power) GMNacenH mancMeBaHemdwknaMelIGñkeRkambgÁab; eBlEdlemdwknaMeRbIGMNacdak;TNÐkmμelIbuKÁlwk EdlmanRbePTepSg²Kña eTAtamGgÁkarsßab½ndwknaM. GMNacbgçitbgçMenH eKeRbIenAkñúgrbbpþac;kar kumμúynisþ EdlPaKeRcInenAkñúgeyaFa nig GñkdwknaMneya)aykalBI 3 TsvtSmun. ]TahrN_ dUcCa edjbuKÁlwkecal eBlEdleFIVkic©karminl¥ TahanRtUveKsmøab;BIeRBaHTahanmineKarBbTbBa¢aeBlRbyuT§CaedIm. kñúgkrNI emdwknaMBwgBak;sMGagelI GñkeRkambgÁab; eFIVkic©karsMxan;² eBlenaHGñkeRkamGacmincUlrYmshRbtibtþikar)an ebIsinCaemdwknaMminRBmeFIVtamsMeNI. cMENkenARtg;cMNucxøH GñkeRkambgÁab;GaceFIVeGayxUcekrþ×eQμaH emdwknaM bþwgtva: kUdækmμ )atukmμ CaedIm. GMNacenH eRbIsMrab;RBman KMramdl;buKÁlEdlminRBmeFIVtamsMeNI c,ab; nigeKalneya)ayepSg² ehIybuKÁlenaHnigCYbplvi)ak. Etbc©úb,nñenH eKhammineGayeRbIGMNacrebobenH enAkñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn. eyIgeFVIenAeBlEdleKBwgBak;eyIgTaMgRsug cMeBaHkic©karGIVmYy eyIgCaGñkman\Ti§Bl elIeK eyIgGaceRbIGMNacenH)anEtebIeyIgKμan\Ti§BlelIeKeT eKminBwgBak;eyIgeT eyIgminGaceRbIGMNac enHeT. kareRbIGMNacenH dUcCakarRBman karKMramkMEhg karTamTad¾Edl karRtYtBinitüjwkjab; edIm,IeGay buKÁlenaHeFIVeGayRsbsMeNI. eKeFIVcMeBaHGñkEdlx¢il CagGñkEdlCMTas;. enAkñúgcMNucenHCakardak;sm<aF rwgpg nig Tn;pg. eBlEdlyYn)aneFIVsRgÁamQñH)araMgenA eDonebonPU ehIy)ancab;Tahan)araMgCacMNab;xμaMg bgçMeGay)araMgRbKl;ÉkraCümkeGay\NÐÚcin edaycuHsn§isBaØaenARkug hSWENv éf¶TI 20 Exkkáda qñaM 1954. minEmnedaysar semþc sIhnu eFIVkaMePøIgeQIKμanRKab;Gacedj)araMg ehIyRbeTsExμrTTYl)anÉkraCüenaHeT. eyIgGacniyaymüa:geTot GMNacbgçitbgçMenH KWCaGMNac Edl eRbIkmøaMg eRbIeyaFa eRbIhwgSaCaedIm. ehtuGIV)anCa RKb;RbeTsmhaGMNacxitxMBRgwkGMNaceyaFa edayplit GavuFnuyekøEG‘r enHCaGMNacmYyxøaMg dUcshrdæGaemrik CamhaGMNaceyaFaRKb;RKgBiPBelak bnÞab;BIQñH sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2. karTUtRtUv manT½B karTUtGt;T½B dUckaMePøIgGt;RKab;. eRbIGMNacbgçitbgçMeBlEdlcg;eGaymanvin½yl¥ kñúglkçN³dUcteTA³ ƒ Bnül;c,ab; nitiviFI lkçxNÐtMrUveGayeFIV nigFanafaeKyl;BIkardak;TNÐkmμkMritF¶n;enaH ƒ eqøIytbPøam² cMeBaHkMhusEdlsmRsb EdlRbRBwtþixus ƒ esIubGegáteGaydwgkarBitsin munniwgdak;TNÐkmμ ecosevogkarsnñidæanxus nigeFIVkarecaT Rbkan;xus ƒ elIkElgcMeBaHkareFIVkMhusF¶n;F¶r edayeFIVkarRBmanpÞal;mat; nigCalaylkSGkSrmuneBl dak;TNÐkmμ ƒ eFIVkarRBmanCaÉkCn eCosevogkarKMramKMEhg ƒ enAes¶om nig ecosevogkarbeBa©jkarbdiesFpÞal;xøÜn ƒ sEmþgBIkarcg;CYyedayesμaHcMeBaHbuKÁlenaH edayecosvagkardak;TNÐkmμ ƒ GeBa¢IjmnusSeTAedIm,IsMeNIreGayEkbBaða nigEsVgrkkic©RBmeRBog niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            100

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rkSaTMnukcitþ RtUvdak;TNÐkmμ RbsinebIenAEteFIVkMhusdEdl eRkayBIeFIVkarRBmanrYcehIy dak;TNÐkmμ EdlRsbc,ab; RtwmRtUv smnigkMhusF¶n;F¶renaH 5-GMNacÉkeTs (Expertise Power) GMNacÉkeTs KWCaGMNacEdlemdwknaMmancMeNHviC¢aÉkeTs nig cMeNHdwgbec©keTsGIVmYyBitR)akd. cMeNHviC¢aEdlcMElkGMBIviFIl¥bMputedIm,IeFIVkargar nig edaHRsaybBaðasMxan;² eFIVeGaeyIgman\Ti§BlskþanuBl eTAelIGñkeRkambgÁab; shesvik ecAhVaynayCaedIm. eTaHbIya:gNak¾eday GMNacÉkeTsenH mansuBlPaB enAeBlNaEdleKBwgelIeyIg b¤GñkEdlmancMeNHenaHEtb:ueNÑaH EtkñúgkrNIbBaðamYyEdleKedaHRsay CaGciéRnþy_ b£GñkdéTeronedaHRsaybBaðaenHedayxøÜneK enaHGMNacÉkeTsminGacmantMél)anyUr GEgVg eToteLIy. ehtudUcenHehIy)anCamanGñkxøH Edlcg;rkSaGMNacenHrbs;eK eKBüayamlak;)aMg karBar GMNacÉkeTs edaylak;minbeNþayeGayeKdwgTukCasm¶at; edayeFIVeGaykargarhak;dUcCa sμúKsμaj Gaf’kM)aMg nigbMpøajRbPBBt’manepSg² GMBInitiviFIkargar dUcCa kMNt;ehtuRbcaMqñaM RbvtþisaRsþ k,ÜnxñatKm<I kmμviFIkMuBüÚT½r düaRkam nigsñamédCaedIm. eKGaceFIVkargarsMerceCaKC½y ecjCalT§plEpøpáa)an plRbeyaCn_ dl;CatiExμrTUeTA. GMNacÉkeTs dUcCa ÉkeTsesdækic© eyaFa neya)ay c,ab; bec©kviTüaepSg². eyIgGaceRbIGMNacÉkeTsenAeBl ƒ Bnül;ehtupl sMrab;sMeNIsMu sMeNIKMeragfamUlehtuGIV)anvasMxan; ƒ pþl;PsþútagEdlKMeragsMeNIenaHGaceCaKC½y ƒ kMueFIVesckþIEføgkarEdlKμanRbeyaCn_ minsmRsb nig GaRkk; ƒ kMuniyayelIs nig bkRsayxuscMeBaHehtukarBit ƒ sþab;edayykcitþTukdak;cMeBaHkarxVayxVl; nig sMNUmBrrbs;mnusS ƒ eFIVedayeCOCak; nigebþCJacitþeBlEdlmanvibtþi 6-GMNaceyag (Reference Power) GMNaceyagCaGMNacmYyCaFmμtamancMeBaHbuKÁlEdlrYsrayrak;Tak; Tak;GarmμN¾ manmnþesñh_ nig KYrCaTITukcitþ CaGñkEdlEtgEtsMEdgkarxVl;xVayGMBIGñkeRkambgÁab;edayesμaHsμ½RK ehIyGMNacenHniggay )at;bg;eTAvij ebIkalNaeyIgBüayamsMEdgecjnUvkarlak;But minBit eFiVButCarYsray eFIVButCaxVl;xVay edayminEmnesμaHRtg;ecjBIdYgcitþBitR)akd bgðajnUvkarTukcitþ eKarB nigeFIVcMeBaHbuKÁldéTedayRtwmRtUv yutþiFm’. GMNaceyagenH GaRs½yelIcriklkçN³rbs;emdwknaM. skmμPaBB¤xøaMgCagkarniyay. meFüa)ayEdlTTYlyk nig EfrkSaGMNaceyag ƒ bgðajkarrab;GanCaviC¢man nig TTYlyk ƒ eFIVkarKaMRT nig eFIVRbeyaCn_ ƒ karBar nigenABIeRkaymnusSeBlEdlsmrmü ƒ lHbg;xøÜnÉg edIm,IsMEdgnUvkarxVayxVl; ƒ rkSaBaküsnüa ƒ ƒ

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            101

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7-GMNacRsbc,ab; (Ligitimate Power) GMNacRsbc,ab; KWCaGMNacpøÚvkarsMrab;skmμPaBkargar . GMNacenHTak;TgeTAnigbegIátGMNac Rsbc,ab;mYy b£siTi§edIm,IRbePTsMeNIsMuBiessNamYy CaBiesssMrab;kic©karRbcaMéf¶. Tak;TgnigGMNacenH manlkçN³ sμúKsμajbnþic. tamFmμta edIm,IerIsemdwknaMRtUveFIVtam rdæFmμnuBaØ eFIVtammaRtac,ab; tamRbéBNI karTTYlykGMNacenH GaRs½yelIkarTTYlyknUvtMENgdwknaMrbs;emdwknaMenaHb£Gt;. vaytMélsMrab;buKÁlwk épÞkñúgeKarBtYelxGMNac bgðajnUvkareKarBcMeBaHc,ab; nigeFIVtamRbéBNI. GMNacRsbc,ab;CaFmμta RtUveKeFIVtamsMeNI bTbBa¢a karENnaMEdlTak;TgtampÞal;mat; b¤CalaylkSGkSr. ebIsinCaemdwknaMsMEdg ecjnUvkarsgS½y minc,as;las; karP½nþRcLM eFIVeGayGs;\Ti§BlelIGñkeRkambgÁab;. EdlekIteLIgBIkarEtg taMgedayRsbc,ab; BIGgÁkarsßab½nNamYyc,as;las;. dUcCaGMNacEdlEtgtaMgeday esþc RbFanaFibetyü naykrdæmRnþI EdlEtgtaMgKNrdæmRnþI EtgtaMgecAhVayextþRkugCaedIm. ehtuenaH GñkTaMgenH ykGMNacenH eTAeFIVRbeyaCn_dl;CatiExμr eFIVRbeyaCn_dl; RbCaBlrdæ minykGMNaceTACiHCan;ekobsgát;RbCaBlrdæeLIy BIeRBaHGMNacBitR)akd KW)anmkBIRbCaBlrdæEdlRbKl;eGayeFIVCatMNagEtb:ueNÑaH tamry³kare)aHeqñat. eBlEdlRtUveRbIGMNacRsbc,ab; ƒ eFIVsMeNIEdlc,as; ehIyKYrsm ƒ Bnül;BIehtuplsMeNIr ƒ kMuniyayelIsTMhMGMNacrbs;Gñk ƒ BinitübBa¢ak;BIGMNacebIsinCacaM)ac; ƒ tamExSry³RtwmRtUv ƒ tamdanedIm,IBinitübBa¢ak; 8-GMNacBt’man (Information Power) RbPBGMNacsMxan;mYyeTot KWRKb;RKgBt’man. karRKb;RKgBt’manenHTak;TgnigkarRbmUlBt’man sMxan;² dak;bBa©ÚlkñúgTinñin½y nigRKb;RKgelIkarEckcayBt’maneTAGñkeRkambgÁab; nigGñkepSgeTot rYmTaMg fñak;dwknaMxagelIpg. dUcenH karRKb;RKgelIBt’manman\Ti§BlTaMgxageRkam xagelI nig\Ti§BlTUeTA. ebIsinCaemdwknaMCaGñkTTYlBt’manRKb;Ebbya:gBIxageRkA emdwknaMman»kasbkRsayRBwtþkarNTaMgenH eGay GñkeRkambgÁab; nigman\Ti§BlelI\riyabf. enAeBlEdlGñkeRkambgÁab;manBt’mancaM)ac;sMrab;emdwknaMeFIVkar sMerccitþ eBlenaHvaCaRbPB\Ti§BlelIkarsMerccitþrbs;fñak;elI. GñkeRkambgÁab;xøHEsVgrkRbePT\Ti§Blrebob enH edaysnSwm² TTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHkarRbmUlBt’man rkSaTuk nig raykarN_ Bt’mankMBugRbtibtþikar. ebIisinCaemdwknaMBwgEp¥kelIGñkeRkambgÁab; edIm,IbkRsaykarviPaKd¾sμúKsμajénBt’manRbtibtþikar enaHeKnig GeBa¢IjGñkeRkambgÁab;enaHeGaycUlrYmpÞal;kñúgkarsMerccitþEdlsMGagelIkarviPaKenaH. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday k¾GñkeRkambgÁab;enAEtman\Ti§BlelIemdwknaM ebIsinCaGñkeRkambgÁab;RKb;RKgBt’mansMxan; eTaHmin)ancUlrYm edaypÞal;k¾eday. Bt’manGaceFIVeGaysgÁmmYy seTACaexμA exμAeTACas)an. ebIsinCaBt’manminÉkraCü yutþiFm’ GñkEdlTTYl)anminGacvinicä½yRtwmRtUvyutþiFm’eLIy. müa:geTot eyIgsegáteXIj RbB½n§sarBt’man niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            102

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viTüú TUrTsSn_ karEst CaedIm mansar³sMxan;sMrab;mnusSTUeTA vaCaGMNacmYysMrab;GñkEdlecHdwg TTYl)anBt’maneRcIn CaBiess Bt’mansMgat; GIVEdleKmindwg eyIgGacTTYl)an Bt’manenaH eyIgdwgelIseK ehIypþl;Bt’manenaHeTAeGayGñkepSgeTotenaH CaGMNacmYysMxan;Nas;. dUcenH eyIgRtUvRbmUlBt’man eGay)aneRcIn TaMgBt’man gab; nig Bt’man rs;. Bt’mangab;CaBt’manEdleKbeBa©jeGaysarFarN³Cndwg EtBt’manrs;CaBt’manEdlsaFarN³Cnmindwg sm¶at;. 9-GMNachirBaØvtßú (Money Power ) GMNachirBaØvtßú CaGMNacmYysMxan;bnÞab;BIGMNacneya)ay nigeyaFa. GMNachirBaØvtßúKW esdækic© CaGñkmanluy RTBüsm,tþieRcIn. GñkEdlmanluyeRcIn Gacman\Ti§BlxøaMgmYyEdr sMrab;eFIVGIVmYy ehtuenH ehIy neya)ay nigesdækic©RtUvedIrTnÞwmKña. GñkEdlmanneya)ay eRbobdUcCaGñkmanEpnkar b¤KMeragkar dUcCaGñkEdlmanm:UtU cMENkÉGñkmanesdækic© CafvikasMrab;eFIVeGayKMeragenaHcab;epþImdMeNIrkar dUcCasaMg sMrab;cak;m:UtUeGayeqH GacCiH)an. 10-GMNaceGkULÚsIu (Ecological Power) GMNaceGkULÚsIuenH CaGMNacEdlRKb;RKgelIbriyakasxageRkA bec©kviTüa nigkarcat;Ecgkargar Edlpþl;»kaseGayman\Ti§BlRbeyalelImnusSepSgeTot. CakarerobcMKMeragbøg;edIm,IelIkTwkcitþbuKÁlwk. karerobcMKMeragbøg;RbB½n§Bt’man CaRbPBman\Ti§BlTaMgGs;dl;GñkepSg²eTot. GMNaceGkULÚsIuepSg²eTot mandUcCa ePøIg eRKOgpþl;sBaØaRtYtBiinitü edIm,IR)ab; RBmaneGayQb; p¥ak edaymaneRKaHfñak; b¤xUcCaedIm. II>tYnaTIemdwknaM (Role of Leaders) 1-GñknaMBakü (Spokesman) emdwknaMmantYrnaTICaGñknaMBaküeGayRkumkargaredIm,IpSBVpSayesckþIEføgkareTAxageRkAGgÁkardwknaM nig pþl;dMNwgeTAfñak;eRkamRKb;lMdab;fñak;. cMENkfñak;dwknaMtamlMdab;fñak;RtUvRtUveFIVesckþIraykareTA fñak;dwknaMxagelI eTARbFan b£KN³kmμkarnaykCaedIm. GñknaMBaküCaGñkEdleFIVkarTMnak;TMngsarFaN³ edIm,IniyayeGaymanRbsiT§PaBcMeBaHGgÁkarcat;taMgrbs;Kat; nigedIm,ITTYl)annUvkarKaMRT kareKarBBIxageRkA sarFaN³Cn RbCaBlrdæ. 2-Gñkcrcar (Negotiator) emdwknaMCaGñkcrcarmYyd¾buinRbsBV karcrcarepþatelIplRbeyaCn_ epþatelIkaredaHRsaybBaða minEmn epþatelIdMENg GMNac nigepþatelIbuKÁlwklkçN³buKÁlenaHeT. emdwknaMmuncrcar RtUverobcMKMeragyuT§saRsþ kñúgkarcrcareGay)anc,as;las; edayCYbRbCMuRkumÉkeTsEdlBak;B½n§nigkargarenaH. karcrcarEdlman RbsiT§PaB KWedaysarkmøaMgT½BmanRbsiT§PaB. karcrcaredIm,IbBa©b;CemøaHmineGaymansRgÁam Etkar eFIVsRgÁamGaceFIVeGaymankarcrcarvij nigGacbBa©b;CemøaHpgEdr ]TahrN_ muneBlbBa©b;sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 KWeRkayBI shrdæ)ancUlkñúgsRgÁam ehIyTMlak;RKab;EbkenATIRkug hIur:UsIma: nig NagasaKIenAeBlenaH GgÁkarshRbCaCati)anbegIáteLIgenAqñaM 1945 edIm,IbBa©b;mineGaymansRgÁameTot. mYyvijeTot munQan niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            103

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eTArkkarcrcarsn§isBaØaTIRkug)a:rIs éf¶TI 23 Extula qñaM 1991 rvagctuPaKI sRgÁam)aneFIVeLIgCamYyyYncUl mkQøanBanExμr cab;BIéf¶TI 7 Exmkra qñaM 1979. karcrcartMrUveGayemdwknaMmankarebþCJacitþ eGaysißtesßrBIFnFanEdlmaneBlbc©úb,nñ edIm,IsMrbsMrYl eGaymanGMNackñúgkareFIVkarebþCJacitþ. 3-GñkbeRgon nigGñkelIkTwkcitþ (Coach and Motivator) eyIgCaemdwknaM RtUvecHral;kic©karEdlRtUveFIV cab;taMgBIfñak;bec©keTs fñak;Rbtibtþikar¬karRKb;RKg¦ fñak;yuT§saRsþ¬dwknaMkMBUl¦. eBlEdleyIgecH ehIyeyIgRtUvmancitþTUlay kñúgkarEbgEckcMeNHdwgenaHeTA eGayCnrYmCatiExμrbnþ minfaCacMeNHdwgGIV edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr CnrYmCatiExμrTTYl)anKMnitcMeNHdwgfμIl¥² ykeTAdwknaM ykeTACYyksagRbeTseGayrIkcMerIn. RbeTsrIkcMerInmYycMnYn eKEkERbkmμviFIsikSa edaydak; RTwsþIenAkñúgkarGnuvtþn_Cak;Esþg edIm,IeGayGñkeron yl;dwgc,as; TaMgRTwsþI nigkarGnuvtþn_ GaceFIV)an eBlEdleroncb; GaceFIVGIVCasñaéd ecjCalT§plBitR)akd. cMENkeyIgCaemdwknaM eyIgeron)anRTwsþIehIy eyIgRtUvykRTwsþIeTAGnuvtþn_kñúgsßanPaBCak;EsþgehIy eyIgRtUvykbTBiesaFn_enaHmkbeRgont eyIgCa emdwknaMRtUveronxøÜnÉgbnþeTot ehIyeyIgcuHGnuvtþn_edIm,IykCabTBiesaFn_eTot nigbeRgoneTAGñkeRkam bgÁab;t. ebIsinCaGñkeRkambgÁab;minGaceFIV)an eyIgCaGñkdwknaMGaceFIV)an CaGñkbeRgon CaGñkbgðat;beRgon nigCaGñkelIkTwkcitþRKb;eBlevla edIm,IeGaysMercdl;eKaledA. enAsalanayTahanCan;x<s;Gaemrik Tahan EdlhVWkhat;cb; ehIymanbTBiesaFn_enAkñúgsmrPUmi eKRtUvtMeLIgeGayeFIVCaRKUbeRgon ehIyeRkay mkcUlkñúgsmrPUmieTot eTIbeKtMeLIgbuNüs½ká ebIGñkenaHmansñaédeCaKC½ykñúgsmrPUmieRkaymkeToteTIb eKtMeLIgeGayeFIVCaemT½B b¤eFIVCaembBa¢akarkgT½BCaedIm. emdwknaMCaGñkEdlGacemIleXIjcMNucexSay rbs;GñkeRkambgÁab; cMNucexSayRbB½n§RKb;RKgdwknaM ehIyriHrkviFIedIm,IeFIVeGayRbesIreLIg kalNaKuNPaB buKÁlwkmansmtßPaBl¥ plkargarl¥ GacRbkYtRbECgQñHeK eFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHmanrIkcMerIn. GñkGPivDÆn_CYyGñkd¾éTeGayerontamry³karbeRgon karbNþúHbNaþl nigkarhVwkhVWn. erOgenHbegIát kEnøgKYreGayGs©arümYyedIm,IeFIVkarnig eron. minEdlecal»kasedIm,IbeRgon b¤eron GIVmYyfμIxøÜnÉg. GñkEdl eFIVkareGayeyIg enaHeKeronBIkMhusrbs;eK ehIynigQñHenAeBlcugbBa©b;. 4-GñkbegIátRkumkargar(Team Builder) eyIgCaGñkbegIátRkumkargareLIg edayemdwknaMecHeRbIRKb;viFIsaRsþkñúgkarTMnak;TMng karbBa©úHbBa©Úl karcrcar b¤kareRbIsmtßPaBEdlGnuvtþn_nUvPaBCaGñkdwknaM edIm,IeFIVeGayRkumkargarenaHekIteLIg. eyIgCa GñkbegIátRkumkargar edayeCOCak;faRkumkargarCaRkumEdlmansmtßPaB GaceFIVsMerctamckçúvis½yEdleyIg kMNt;. kalNaeyIgbegIátRkumEdlKμansmtßPaB enaHRkumminGaceCaKC½yeLIy. emdwknaMRkumRtUvrkSa eKalbMNg eKaledA viFIsaRsþBak;B½næ nigmanRbeyaCn¾. sUmkMuxøacRbLak;éd xøayenOyht; RtUvdwknaMRkum eFIVeGayGs;BIsmtßPaB.

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5-GñkedIrtYtMNagRkum (Team Player) ral;kic©kargarTaMgLay emdwknaMRKan;EtCaGñkedIrtYtMNagRkumkargarEtb:ueNÑaH dUcenHral;karsMerc epSg²RtUvykeyabl;Rkum b£eKarBtamesckþIsMercrbs;Rkum. eyIgRkeLkemIl emRkumkILa)al;Tat; EdledIr tYnaTItMNageGayRkumrbs;eK kñúgkaredaHRsaybBaðaepSg². 6-GñkedaHRsaybBaða (Great Problem Solvers) emdwknaMKWCaGñkBUEkemIleXIjbBaðaBitR)akd ehIymansmtßPaBedaHRsaybBaðaenaHmanRbsiT§PaB. CaBiess emdwknaMemIleXIjbBaðamun ehIykarBarmineGaybBaðaenaHGacekItmaneLIg enHCaemdwknaMBUEk. emdwknaM RtUvkarBarvibtþi kMcat;bBaða begIánsuxa rkSacMerIn. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvkarBarCamun minRtUveGaybBaðaekIteLIg eBlmanbBaðaeyIgRtUvRbjab;edaHRsaybBaðaenaHCabnÞan; kMubENþtbeNþayTukbBaðaenaHekItmanFMeLIg eRcIn eLIg rhUtdl;Bi)akedaHRsay. eyIgeRbobeFobbBaðaeTAnigCm¶W karBarmineGaymanCm¶Wqøg eBlEdlqøg RtUvRbjab;eTArkRKUeBTü b£Büa)al ebIeyIgTukdl;Cm¶WF¶n;F¶renaH eyIgRtUvEtrkRKUeBTü CMnajBitR)akdeFIVkar vHkat; edIm,IeGayGñkCm¶WGacrs;)an. bBaðaCaTUeTA EdlemdwknaMRtUvdwg mankareRCIserIs smaCikeFIVCaemdwknaMM eRcInhYsehtueBk elIsBItMrUvkargar EdlenAkñúgeKalbMNgcg;)anmuxmat;. ehtudUecñHehIy Rkumkargar KμantulüPaB kEnøgeFIVkardUcKña EtmancMnYnmnusSelIs nigcMENkÉkEnøgTMenr KμanmnusSeFIVkar. emdwknaM minyl;BIPaBxøaMg PaBexSayxøÜnÉg lTæPaB nigkareBjcitþ. emdwknaMmindwgGMBIfaetIRtUvelIkTwkcitþ buKÁlwk edayrebobNa? BIeRBaH mindwgBItMrUvkarrbs;mnusS nigbuKÁlmñak;². smaCikkñúgRkumkargarmanGarmμN_fa RkumkargarmineFIVkareday\trGak;rGYl. ehtuenH ebIsinCamankarRbQmmuxnigbBaðadUcteTA eyIgRtUveFIVkar BinitüsareLIIgvijkñúgkrNI ³ 1-TinñplkargarFøak;cuH 2-bNþwgtva: 3-CMelaHrvagbuKÁlwk 4-KμaneKaledAc,as;las; 5-karRcLMGMBIkic©kar 6-xVHKMnitfμI minha‘nRbfuy 7-karRbCMuKμanRbsiTæPaB 8-xVHKMnitpþÜcepIþm 9-karTMngTMngexSay 10-xVHkarTukcitþ 11-nieyaCikmanGarmμN_fa kargarrbs;eKminTTYlsÁal; 12 karsMerccitþ RtUveKCMTas;

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CMhanedIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaRkum³ 1-kMNt;eKalbMNgRkumkargarRtUvkarcg;ecH GIVEdlRtUvepþatelI elakGacdak;ecjnUveKalbMNg CamUldæan. kat;bnßyeRKaHfñak;enAkEnøgeFIVkar b:uEnþvamansar³sMxan;edIm,ITukeGayRkumkargarkMNt; nigBRgIk eKalbMNg. 2-minRtwmEtedaHRsaybBaðab:ueNÑaHeT EfmTaMgR)ab;BImUlehtu . RkumkargarKYrEtkMNt;bBaðaEdlman kñúgGgÁkardwknaM nigRkumkargar. karsMerccitþedaHRsayl¥ RtYvsYretImanGtßRbeyaCn_GIV? 3-kMNt;]bsKÁEdlnigTubsáat;RkumkargarBIkarsMercGIVEdleyIgcg;)an. epþatelI]bsKÁxagkñúgmin EmnEtbriyakasxageRkA. vaminRtUvniyayfa eyIgminGaceFIVGIVGMBIerOgenH. 4-\LÚvenHRkumkargareFIVEpnkarskmμPaBTwsedArbs;xøÜn. erobEpnkartamCMhan 4 b¤ 5 viFankar GacemIleXIj ehIysresrva. minEmnsakl,genaHeT skmμPaBRtUvCaskmμPaBBitR)akdCak;Esþg. begIátrUbmnþskmμPaBedIm,IeBal. cat;viFankar\LÚvenHPøam. enHKWCaviFankarsMxan;bMput. vaKWCaGIVEdlRbsiTæPaBRkumman RbsiTæPaB BIRkum nigRkummankarRbCMueRcIndgCamun. ebIsinCaFøab;cat;viFankar RkumkargareGayeKeFIV. karebþCaJBI smaCikRkum kargarnImYy²edIm,Icat;viFankareTAelIGIVEdlCak;lak;. 7-GñkbegIátEpnkaryuT§saRsþ (Strategic Planner) CacMNucsMxan;bMput sMrab;emdwknaM EdlRtUvecHerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ. emdwknaMRtUvmanKMniteRcIn emdwknaMRtUvmanKMnityuT§saRsþ BIeRBaHfaeyIgRtUvmanKMniteRcInCageK RtUvmanyuT§saRsþxøaMgCageK eTIbfñak; eRkam TaMgfñak;Rbtibtþikar fñak;bec©keTs kl,yuT§ GaceCaKC½yBitR)akd. emdwknaMCaGñkRKb;RKgEpnkar yuT§saRsþ edayGacbt;EbntamkarERbRbYltamkal³eTs³. emdwknaMCaGñkyl;dwgbriyakasCMuvijsßankarN_ TaMgesdækic© sgÁm neya)ay RbCaBlrdæ KUrRbkYtRbECg karvivDÆn_kñúgtMbn; nigBiPBelak. viPaKRtwmRtUv nUvral;karsMerccitþTaMgGs; TaMghaniP½y ehtukarN_epSg². manlT§PaBGacyl; emIleXIj RbmUlBt’man xageRkA Bt’manEdleKminGacTTYl)an nigxkxanminTTYledayeKcat;TukfaminsMxan;. dwgBIcMNucxøaMg nigcMNucexSayrbs;GgÁkarsßab½ndwknaM ehIyGacEkERbcMNucexSayenaHeGayxøaMg TTYl)aneCaKC½yeTot. GacbegIát nigGnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþrbs;GgÁkardwknaM eFIVeGaykan;EtxøaMgeLIg. bgðajnUvkarebþCJax<s; edIm,IeFIVeGay mankarpøas;bþÚr eFIVeGayRbesIreLIg eFIVeGayEbøkxuseK. bgðajkarebþCJax<s;kñúgkarbegIát nigEfrkSaeGayCa GgÁkardwknaMmYyEdlnaMmuxeK CaGgÁkardwknaMEdleronmYy. begIáteGaymankardwknaMEdlmanry³eBlyUr mYy. 8-GñksMruHsMrYl bRgYbbRgYm ( Coordinator and Arbitrator) emdwknaMCaGñkpSHpSarPaKIGñkmanCemøaH CaGñksMrbsMrYl. emdwknaMRtUvCabuKÁlEdlGacmantYr naTIpSHpSar man\Ti§BlelIGñkmanCemøaH)an. GñkbRgYbbRgYmerobcMskmμPaBeRcInEdlekIteLIgtamry³GgÁkar niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            106

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dwknaMedaypþl;TsSn³GnaKt niglTæPaBTTYlva)an. eCaKC½yGacTTYl)anluHRtaEtmankarÉkPaBkñúgCYr GñkdwknaM. 9-GñkeFIVsmaFicitþ (Mediatiator) emdwknaMRtUvmancitþsmaFiRKb;eBlevla kalNamansmaFiral;kic©karRKb;ya:gGacsMercTaMgGs; BI eRBaHfa kalNaemdwknaMmansmaFi R)aCJaekItman naMeGayGarmμN_s¶b;l¥ RtCak; mineqvqav minekþARkhay nignr eFIVeGaykarKitmansNþab;Fñab;l¥ Epnkarl¥ enHCaktþanaMeTArkeCaKC½y. emdwknaMNaEdlman esckþIBüayam nigGt;Fμt; emdwknaMenaHnigeCaKC½ykñúgkargar BIeRBaHfakarBüayam nig Gt;Fμt;enHekIteLIgBIcitþ citþCaRbFan ebIeyIgeFIVcitþeyIgeGays¶b; mansmaFiehIy kargarsμúKsμajya:gNak¾GacedaHRsay)an b£kargar EdlnigbraC½yk¾GacEkkuneGayTTYleCaKC½y)anEdr. emdwknaMEdlykkareFIVsmaFicitþmkGnuvtþn_)ansMerc eTAehIymanRBHBuT§ nigRBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 Nab:UlIGug .l. kareFIVsmaFicitþenH eyIgRtUvhat;eFIVCaerogral;éf¶ ral;RBwkl¶ac rhUtdl;eyIgGackMNt;citþrbs;eyIg mansmaFiRKb;eBlevla. 10-GñkerobcMxñatKMrU (Standard Designer) GñkerobcMxñatKMrU erobcMKMeragkargartamRkmsIlFm’enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMmYy CaGñkpþÜcepþImKMnitedIm,I erobcM eGaykarpøas;bþÚr Tajyk»kaseGaysßankarEdlmanRbesIreLIg. CaGñkerobcMxñatKMrUedIm,IbegIát karTukcitþ BIfñak;eRkam»vaT nig mCÄdæanCMuvij. III.ktþanaMeGayman\Ti§BlelIGñkdéT nigkardwknaM (Factors that influence others and in leadership)

1-PaBs¥itrmYt (Cohesion) PaBs¥itrmYt rYmsuxrYmTukçCamYyGñkeRkambgÁab; CaktþamYyman\Ti§Blya:gxøaMg elIkTwkcitþdl;buKÁlwk eGayxitxMeFIVkar esμaHRtg; nig lHbg;RKb;Ebbya:gedIm,I sMerceKalbMNgrYmKña. PaBs¥itrmYtenH KWeyIgmin RtUvRbkan;b£kRkGWtRkTm KitEtRsYlxøÜnÉg suxxøÜnÉg EtGñkdéTBi)ak eRKaHfñak;CMnYsxøÜn EtRtUvCYyral;kic©kar dl;GñkRkumbgÁab; eBlEdleKminGaceFIV)an. EteyIgRtUvrwgbwug ehIymWugma:t;kargar edayecosvag eLHeLaH elgesIceFIVeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;sÁal;citþ ElgxøacemIlgayeyIg. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvRbkan;PaBéføfñÚr ecos vagkareFIVeGayeKemIlgay. BaküExμreyIgniyayfa {esñh_minQñHsñiT KWPaBs¥itrmYtenHÉg}. 2-kardwknaMeFIVpÞal; (Personal Direction) kardwknaMeFIVpÞal;eFIVeGay GñkeRkambgÁab;GacemIleXIj ykKMrUtam ehIyman\Ti§BlxøaMg Cagkar RKan;EteyIgniyay. kardwknaMedayskmμPaB manRbsiT§PaBxøaMgCag karRKan;EtniyayehIymineFIV b¤ minGac eFIV)an. niyayeGaycM ecHEtRTwsþI EtminGacGnuvtþn_kargar)an. 3-EbgEckeGayc,as;rvag mnusS kargar nig criklkçN³ cMeBaHlT§plkargar nigcriklkçN³mnusSepSg²Kña. emdwknaMRtUvecH eRbICaRbeyaCn_nUvRKb;mnusS TaMgGs; eRbobdUcCa stVXμMúEdlehIreTAeRkbkRmgpáa BIRKb;páa mkeFIVCaTwkXμMú. dUcenH RKb;mnusS eyIgRtUv niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            107

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eGaytMélepSg²Kña tamlT§plkargar. edayeyIgminEbgEck mnusS nigkargareLIy. eQIeTaHevoc eTaHRtg; eTaHgab; b¤rs; GacykmkeFIVCaRbeyaCn_)anTaMgGs; GaRs½yelIkarécñRbDitrbs;GñkeRbIR)as;. 4-rkSaBaküsnüa BaküBit Baküsc©³ (Keep Promise) karrkSaBaküsnüaenH CakarsMxan;Nas;edIm,IeGayeKeCOCak;. cUrkMuePøcBaküsnüa GIVEdlGñk snüacMeBaHGñkd¾éT. GIVEdleyIgminGaceFIV)an cUreyIgkMusnüa. eyIgRtUveFIVeGayecjCalT§pl ehIyeyIg niyayCakarsMxan;. ehtuenHehIy munniwgniyayGIVmYyeyIgRtUvKitCamuneGayc,as;las; etIniyayeTAman RbeyaCn_b¤Gt;RbeyaCn_ cMeNjb£xat ebIxateyIgkMuniyay kMusnüa. cUrRbkan;karBit c,as;las; R)akdRbCa yutþiFm’ sc©³ karTTYlxusRtUv karTTYlsÁal;karBit. 5-eqøIytbeday\riyabfviC¢man (Positive Reply) kMuniyayBaküGviC¢man CMTas; bdiesF EtRtUveqøIytbeday\riyabfviC¢man. eyIgRtUveRbIBaküRsal² edaymineRbIBaküEdlF¶n; dac;Nat; eRbIkarniyayedaymineGayGñkenaH Gak;Gn;citþ xwgeLIy. kñúgGarmμN_ rbs;eyIg kMueTIsTal; kMuceg¥otcg¥l; kMuxwg kMemIlgay kMuxμasGñkd¾éT CaBiessmanKMniterIseGIg GñktUcTab CaedIm. RtUvrYsrayrak;Tak; kMuRbkan;xøÜn eTaHCabuKÁlEbbNak¾eday. ecHeRbIPasaTMnak;TMng)anl¥ manBiFIkar kñúgkarniyay. 6-bgðajnUvkarRsLaj;rab;GanedayesμaH (Love from heart) eyIgRsLaj;rab;GanbuKÁlNamYy RtUvRsLaj;rab;Gan CYyeKedayesμaH edayminsMLwgemIleXIj plRbeyaCn_GIVeLIy. eyIgRtUveFIVGIVmYyeGayesμaHGs;BIdYgcitþ edayminlak;elom b£ hutTwksMLwgkakeLIy. ebIeyIgRsLaj;xøÜneyIgb:uNÑa eyIgRtUvRsLaj;GñkeRkambgÁab; GñkdéTdUcKñaEdr. 7-snñidæan b¤KitcMNucl¥bMputcMeBaHGñkdéT (Optimistics) eyIgRtUvemIlelIKuNsm,tþirbs;GñkdéT eyIgemIlcMNucl¥EdleKeFIV ehIyelIkTwkcitþ edayyk Rtg;cMNucl¥mkniyay. eyIgminRtUvmanKMnitTuTidæiniym emIleXIjEtcMNucGaRkk;rbs;eKenaHeLIy. EteyIg RtUvBinitü segátemIlBIcMNucGaRkk; cMNucexSayrbs;eyIg ehIyEkERbecj enHCacMNucl¥. kalNaeyIgemIl eXIjEtcMNucGaRkk;cMeBaHGñkdéT eyIgCamnusScitþceg¥ot eTas³ eRkveRkaF EtgEteqvqavxwgCanic©. emdwknaMkMuePøcBakü GrKuN cMeBaHGñkdéT rMlwkKuNeK eTaHCaeKeFIVKuNenaHtictYcya:gNak¾eday. 8-EsVgyl;xøÜnÉgCamun eTIbbgðajGñkdéTCaeRkay (Seek first to understand and to be understood)

ral;kic©kargarTaMgLay eyIgRtUvEsVgyl;xøÜneyIgCamun eyIgyl;c,as;ehIyfa eyIgRtUvGnuvtþn_ eGayecjCaEpøpáa )anpleCaKC½ysin eTIbeyIgbgðajR)ab;GñkdéTCaeRkay. eRbobdUcRKUbeRgon EdleronecH yl;c,as;ehIy eTIbykemeronenaHeTAbeRgonsisSCaeRkay ebIsinCaemeronenaHRKUminTan;yl;pg ehIyyk eTAbeRgonsisS eFIVeGaysisSBi)akyl; ehIy)at;bg;\Ti§BlelIsisSCaminxan. eyIgRkeLkemIl RBHBuT§ GgÁm©as; RBHGgÁ)ansikSaeronecHcb; ehIyGnuvtþn_)ansMercdl;RBHniBaVnþeTot eTIbRBHGgÁecjeTAseRgÁaH niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            108

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stVelak)an. ehtudUcenH eyIgCaemdwknaM RtUvmansmtßPaBeFIVkic©karenaHCamun eTIbeyIgGacR)ab;GñkdéT eGayeFIVtam)an. 9-citþTUlay esμaHRtg; (Open-minded and Honest) eyIgmancitþTUlay esμaHRtg; cMeBaHGñkdéT nUvral;kic©karCakarsMxan;Nas; sMrab;eFIVeGayGñkenACMuvij eCOTukcitþ kareCOTukcitþbNþaleGayeyIgmankmøaMgcUlrYmeFIVkargar. citþTUlay GaceGayGñkdéTBwgBak;)an mnusSCaeRcIncUlcitþ RsLaj;rab;Gan. ktþaTaMgenH CacMNucBiessrbs;emdwknaM EdlGaceFIV)an EtvaCakar lM)aksMrab;GñkEdlminKitBIGñkdéT ehIyKitEterOgtUctac kMbwukkMb:uk dUcenHcUreyIgKitBIbBaðaFM² dUcCaerOg Cati sasna nig RbCaCatiExμrTaMgmUl. 10-mankareyaKyl; Gt;eGanGFüaRs½y (Good understanding) eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvmankarGt;eGanGFüaRs½y cMeBaHGñkeRkambgÁab;eGay)aneRcInbMput. eyaKyl; nUvkMhusqÁg Edlminb:HBal;dl;plRbeyaCn_rYm plRbeyaCn_FM CakMhusqÁgbuKÁl kMbwukkMb:uk . eyIgminRtUv Rbkan;nigerOgkMbwukkMb:ukeBkeT ehIyeyIgRtUvbMePøcecalnUvGIVEdleKeFIVxus edayminTukcaMenAkñúgxøÜneLIy EteyIgRtUvcaMGIVEdleKeFIVl¥ eFIVRtUv. 11-RBmTTYlkMhus nigsMueTas (Admit Mistake and Make Apology) ´manerOgmYyenAkñúgsRgÁamevotNam eBlTahankMBugRbyuT§Kña rvagevotNamnigkgT½B shrdæ Gaemrik eBlenaHelakembBa¢akar)anbBa¢aeGayGñkTak;TgviTüúehA CMnYyT½BGakasmkTMlak;RKab;Ebk Rsab;Et eBlenaH GñkehAviTüúTMlak;xusTwsedA ehIycMelITahanxøÜnÉgeFIVeGayrgrbYsCaTg¶n; b:uEnþeBlenaH embBa¢akar min)anbenÞaskUnTahanKat;eT pÞúyeTAvij Kat;)ansarPaBfa enHCakMhusrbs;Kat; Edlmin)an bBa¢aRtwmRtUv tameKaledA Gs;elakxMRbwgl¥Nas; ehIyTahanrbs;Kat; dMbUg)ak;TwkcitþCitcaj;Tahan yYneTAehIy EtedaysarBaküsMdIrbs;Kat; eFIVeGaykUnTahanKat; ERskfa enHminEmnCakMhusrbs;elakeT ehIykUnTahan Kat;manTwkcitþsuxcitþbUCaCIvitedImI,Kat; TIbBa©b;Kat;)anTTYleCaKC½ykñúgsmrPUmi. 12-eFIVkarebþCJacitþsarCafμInUvGIVEdleFIV (Recommitment) RtUvrMlwkCaerogral;éf¶ enAckçúvis½y eKaledArbs;eyIg edIm,IkMueGayeyIgePøc . karEdleyIgrMlwk edIm,IeFIVeGayeyIgeFIVebþCJacitþsarCafμI nUvGIVEdleFIV nigkMBugeFIV. cUrkMueFIVRbEhs RtUvRbugRby½tñCanic© eTaHCa kal³eTs³Nak¾eday. ebIkalNaePøceKaledA eFIVeGayeyIg)at;bg;qnÞ³ xVHkarelIkTwkcitþ ehIyeFIVeGay eyIg)at;bg;karebþCJacitþ. 13-CYyGñkdéTedayesμaH sb,úrs (Help other honestly) emdwknaM RtUvriHrkviFICYyGñkdéTCanic© eTaHtamviFINak¾eday karCYyenaHRtUveFIVedaycitþesμaHRtg; edayKμancg;)anGIVtbsñgmkvijeT EteKalbMNgKWCYyeGayeK)ansux edaHRsaybBaðaEdleKCYbRbTH. RtUvbgðajkarCYy edayTwkcitþesμaH GaNitGasUr. ehIyCabuKÁl EdlBwgBak;)an RKb;eBlevla eBlEdlman GñkRtUvkarCMnYy. CabuKÁlEdlminEdl bdiesF cMeBaHbuKÁlNamYyEdlesñIeGayCYy. niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            109

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14-GñkdéTman\Ti§BlelImun (Being Influenced first) emdwknaMRtUvCabuKÁlEdlgayeKBwgBak; gayRKb;y:agsMrab;eKTMnak;TMng sb,ayrIkray nig TTYlkar rab;GanBIGñkdéT. eTaHCaeBlNak¾eday eyIgRtUvEteFIVRbeyaCn_eGayeKCamun edayminKitBIplRbeyaCn_ tbmkeyIgvij. 15-\riyabfviC¢manRKb;sßankarN_ (Positive Attitude) ecosvagkarKitGIVCaGviC¢man ecosvagkarKitGIVEdlGaRkk; ecosvagemIleXIjniyayGaRkk;GMBI GñkdéTBIeRkayxñg. eTaHCaGaRkk;k¾eday l¥k¾eday emdwknaMRtUvrkSaTukkñúgcitþ minRtUvniyayecjmk eday eFIVkarkMNt;sMKal;edayxøÜnÉg. RtUveFIVCabuKÁlEdlmanPaBrIkray Rss;føa nig GarmμN_RtUvbgðajesμaHRtg; edaymindwgerOgrbs;buKÁlenaH eTaHCaeyIgdwgehIyk¾eday kñúgkrNIeKmineBjcitþ b¤niyayGaRkk;BIeRkayxñg. CabuKÁlsnþiPaB EsVgrkmitþPaBRKb;TIkEnøg EdlEtgEtdak;xøÜn nigelIktMekIg eGaytMélGñkdéT. 16-erobKMnitnigcitþ muneBlniyay (Think first before speaking) CakarBitNas; munniwgeFIVGIVmYy eyIgRtUverobcMKMnit erobcMkarKitCamunsin. etImaneKaledAGIV maneKalbMNgGIV ?etIcMeNjb¤xat ?etImankarKaMRT b£RbqaMg etImankarvayluk b¤karBarxøÜn. etITwsedA sMedAeT xagNa? eyIgRtUvecaTsYreGayGs; BIkarbkRsayepSg² edayRbCMuBiPakSaeGaym:t;ct;. eyIgRtUvyk mkniyaysakl,g faetIkarniyayrbs;eyIgenH)anRtwmRtUvtamkarKit nigyl;c,as;ehIyb¤enA bnÞab;mkeyIg Gacniyay)anl¥ eBlniyayCapøÚvkar. 17-minRtUvman³ (Not Stuborn) emdwknaMminRtUvman³ tamcitþrbs;xøÜnÉgeLIy kalNaman³ emdwknaMnig )at;bg;»kas. emdwknaMRtUv es¶oms¶at; Etrwgbwug. Tn;Pøn; rIkray EtminEmn Tn;RCay. eyIgRtUvsþab;eyabl;BIRKb;mCÄdæan ehIyyk mkBicarNaRsavRCavemIl etIcMNucNal¥GaceFIV ehIycMNucNaminl¥ eyIgminKYreFIV. eyIgRtUvBinitüemIl ehtuGIV)aneKRsLaj;kUnekμg BIeRBaHkUnekμgTn;Pøn; sþab;eKarB CMrabsYr GñkdéT ehIyniyayBaküBit s¥at)atCaedIm. eyIgRkeLkemIl ehtuGIV)anEdk RtUveKlt;dM dutePøIg munnigRtUveKykeTAeRbIR)as;eFIV]bkrN_ GIVmYy? BIeRBaHEtEdkenaHvarwg. 18-niyayPasamantkáviC¢aRtwmRtUv nigGarmμN_l¥ (Logical Word and Good Feeling) PasaEdleyIgniyay RtUvmanlkçN³tkáviC¢a manPsþútagc,as;las; ehtukarN_ RBwtþikarN_ekIt eLIgCak;Esþg cMeBaHbuKÁlenaH. eyIgRtUvBinitüemIl kMrityl;dwgrbs;eK ehIyniyayGIVEdleKgayyl; niggayTTYlyk)an ecosvagkarniyayGIVEdlhYsBIkarKit niksμanmindl; Bi)akyl;CaedIm. Pasaniyay RtUvPasal¥ PasaelIkTwkcitþ GarmμN_l¥Canic©. 19-pþl;kargarEdlmanRbsiT§PaB (Delegate Effectively) emdwknaMRtUvsÁal;GMBIsmtßPaBGñkeRkam»vaT buKÁlwkrbs;xøÜneGayc,as; edIm,Ikarpþl;kargar tam smtßPaB ehIymanRbsiiT§PaB. edIm,IecosvagkareRbIbRB©aasTisedA GñkEdlmansmtßPaBx<s; eGay niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            110

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eFIVkarEdlgayRsYlCaedIm. eRbImnusSeGayRtUvnigsmtßPaB eGaysmnigkargar edIm,IeGaycMeNj TaMgeBlevla FnFan. ebIsinCaemdwknaM pþl;kargarminRtwmRtUv eFIVeGaykargarywt ehIyKμanRbsiT§PaBx<s;. 20-esBKb;mnusSsMxan;² (Contact Important Person) karesBKb;mnusSsMxan;² GaceGayeyIgman\Ti§BleTAtamenaHEdr BIeRBaHenHCaGMNaceyag. EteyIg RtUvrkSaeRkDIt tMélrbs;eyIgeGayenAsißtesßrmantMéldEdl. rkSaTMnak;TMngrbs;eyIgeGay)anl¥CamYy mnusSsMxan;²TaMgenaH. ebIeyIgesBKb;GñkR)aCJ eyIgnigmanKMnitdUcGñkR)aCJ ebIeyIgesBKb;mnusSl¥enaH eyIgCamnusSl¥pgEdr ehIyebIeyIgesBKb;mnusSl,I manRbCaRbiy mnusSsMxan;² eyIgnigkøayCamnusSsMxan; Edr. eRbobdUcCapáaQUk EdlenACMuvijRBHBuT§ya:gdUcecñHEdr.

esckþIsnñidæan

(Conclusion)

srubmkenAkñúgesovePAemdwknaMPaK 2 enH cg;bgðajRbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; Gs;elakGñkGanRKb;rUb eGayemIleXIjb£sKl;bBaðaBitR)akd edIm,ICaKnøwHlatRtdageGaykUnExμrCMnan;eRkay)andwg CaKtisMrab; BicarNa cg;eGayRbCaCatiExμrRKb;rUbrYmcMENkCYyKitKUredaHRsaybBaðaenHeGay)ancb;. bnÞab;BIeXIjb£s Kl;énbBaðaehIy tamry³esovePAmanbgðajeKalyuT§saRsþmYycMnYn EdleKmincg;eGaykUnExμrecH GMBIviFIdwknaM edaHRsaybBaðaRbeTsCatiedayxøÜnÉg caMBwgEtbreTsnigR)ab;pøÚvsMrab;eFIVkarpøas;bþÚr kardwknaMrbs;BYkh‘un Esn EdleRkamGMNacyYnral;éf¶. karbgðajBIsßankarN_rbs;RbeTsCatiExμreyIg neya)aytMbn; nigGnþrCati edIm,I eFIVkarpøas;bþÚrtamckçúvis½y EdlmanyuT§saRsþRtwmRtUv eFIVeGaysMerceCaKC½y tameKalbMNgcg;)aneday GnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaM minRtUvBwgelIGIVEdlKμankarBit BwgemX Bwgxül;enaHeLIy. emdwknaMCatiExμrRtUvyk smtßPaBxøÜneyIg mkxitxMbMeBj xMeFIV edIm,IbMerIplRbeyaCn_RbeTsCati karBar RbeTsCati edaykaredaHRsay bBaðaxøÜnÉg minBwgelIbreTs mineCOelIbreTs EdlnaMeGayCatiExμrEbk)ak; eCOelIExμrxøÜnÉg. ebIemdwknaMNa BwgbreTs eCOelIbreTs bMEbkbM)ak; kab;smøab;Exμr eFIVtambreTs dUcCa sI hnu nig h‘un Esn eyIgCa RbCaCatiExμr RtUvebþCJaya:gmuHmutTaMgGs; TTYlxusRtUvkarBarcMeBaH Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr EkERbecj eGay)anCadac;xat edayminrgcaMbeNþayCnBalTaMgenH bMpøajCatirhUtdl;ExμrkøayCaCnCatiPaKticrbs;yYn tamEpnkaryYn shB½n§\NÐÚcin dUcerobrab;GFib,ayxagelIenaHeLIy.

{ ExμrrYbrYm Exμrrs; }

niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                            111

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Éksareyag 1-GTieTBRkugGgÁr 2-EvbsayGasIuesrI ¬RbvtþisaRsþ¦ 3-RbvtþisaRsþkm<úCa BIedImmkdl;km<úCaRbCaFibetyü edayelak exovsMpn 4-ÉksarRbvtþisaRsþ km<úCaeRkam ¬GMNacKμanExμreRkam¦ eday elakRtaMgqat b‘ut 5-vibsayGtßbTviPaKneya)ayrbs; bNÐit NarBaØ KIrITitü 6-dMeNIreq<aHeTATwsxaglic edayelak nYn eXOn 7-Evbsay kulbuRtGgÁr rbs; elak )a:g suexOn¬GnubNÐit¦ 8-vibsay exGay emD½r 9-vibsayvIGUeGr 10-klb,vtþRbvtþisaRsþkm<úCa

11-GgÁrbUrI 12-exmrCati 13-EvbsayExμrRsLaj;Exμr , khmerlovekhmer.co.cc 14-EvbsayExμrviPaK 15-Leadership in Organization, fifth edition, Gary Yukl,Ph.D 16-The Art of Leadership, 17-World Politics,by Johnh T.Rourke ,Ph.D and Mark A Boyer, Ph.D University of Connecticut 18-The International Politics of the Asia Pacific, Second edition and revised edition, by Michael Yahuda,Ph.D 19-Vietnamese Communist( 1925-1945) by Huy nh Kim Khanh 20-Political Analysis, Technique and Practicse by Louise G White,Ph.D 21-Mondern Office Technology and Administration by Joan Gallagher Siobhan Coghalan, second edition, 2002 22-The Art of War Sun Zue translated by Thomas Cleary 23-The Root of Strategy, Book1, 2,3 by Colonel Ardant du Picq, French Army, translated by Colonel John N.Greedy, field artillery, U.S Army and Major Robert C.Cotton , General Staff ( Infanstry), U.S army.

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មេដឹកនាំជាតិខ្មែរ ភាគ២