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Shaping 15 ISSUE

A MEINHARDT AUSTRALIA MAGAZINE www.practicalimagination.info

Tall Building Trends The Business Of Designing Skyscrapers

NOVEMBER 2014


01 | INTRODUCTION

Message From The Top Welcome to the Tall Buildings 2014 Edition of Shaping Australia.

This latest Tall Buildings special – we have done 2 previously – is not just about how to design tall buildings.

By looking at some of the planning trends in Melbourne, which is Australia’s particular hotbed currently for skyscrapers, we also consider the ‘where’ and the ‘why’. The engineering teams, meanwhile, turn their thoughts to the business of

skyscrapers. ‘How’ is important and ‘design’ is integral to the thinking but it is about ‘how design can deliver value and economic sustainability for developers of tall buidings’.

The façade team gives their thoughts on the trends in both Australia and Asia, while we also welcome a contribution from George Argyrou of the Hickory Group on the importance of self-performance.

As always, we welcome your feedback. Denis Young, Managing Director – Australia denis.young@meinhardtgroup.com

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


Contents

Lorrimer Precinct

Sandridge Precinct

imagin8

05.

HOW NEW VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY CAN LIFT PROPERTY VALUES

If Rialto Towers Were Designed Today.

09.

OPTIMISING SITES & MAXIMISING FLOOR PLATES

13.

SELF-PERFORMANCE KEY TO SUCCESSFUL SKYSCRAPERS

Montague Precinct

Wirraway Precinct

N

21.

Fishermans Bend Urban Renewal Area (FBURA)

Grabbing Real Estate From The Sky.

Guest Contribution, George Argyrou, Managing Director of Hickory Group

Case Studies

21. 23. 27.

60-82 JOHNSON SREET, SOUTH MELBOURNE

Strategic Foresight Brings Area To Life CHARLES DARWIN CENTRE Engineering Darwin’s Tallest Office Building

TANJONG PAGAR CENTRE

Setting High Green Standards

23.

Features & Opinion

17. 29.

TALL BUILDINGS CRITICISM A Tall Tale

LIGHTBOX

Meinhardt Light Studio’s Tall Building Projects.

31. 33.

POSTCARDS FROM SHANGHAI

Glen Pederick Recaps the Council of Tall

Buildings & The Urban Habitat Conference PUSHING THE ENVELOPE: SKYSCRAPER FAÇADE TRENDS

Views from Asia and Australia.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


03 | IMAGIN8

imagin8 is a series of educational seminars designed to share the latest global thinking in the built environment space.

Skyscraper Trends Held in partnership with Urban Melbourne, we recap our seminar – Skyscraper Trends: From Super Skinny To ‘Prefabulous’

M

“A great way to create con Feedback from our imagin8 seminar.

OUR SPEAKERS

elbourne has become a hotbed for tall building development. The Planning Minister has been

dubbed “Mr Skyscraper” and there are currently

49 skyscraper developments proposed for the city. So what’s next?

From planning to construction, our speakers shared their

thinking and new ideas to help developers, architects and

project managers deliver the next generation of skyscrapers and continue to shape not just Melbourne’s skyline, but cities around the world.

George Argyrou

Andrew Leo

Hickory Group

CBRE Resi

Managing Director –

Managing D

Prefabrication in High-rise Delivery

Current the Mar

You can download the presentations from our Practical Imagination website.

visit site

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

IN PARTNERSHIP WITH


nversation and build networks.”

oncelli

Jon Brock

Vincent Amato

Glen Pederick

idential Projects

Development, Meinhardt

Meinhardt

Services

Director –

State of rket

National Director – Land

The Victorian Town Planning Context

Associate – Structures,

Optimising Sites, Maximising Floorplates

Discipline Leader – Building Meinhardt

How Vertical Transportation is Transforming the Modern City

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


05 | IMAGIN8

How New Vertical Transportation Technology Can Lift Property Values With increasing land and construction costs, the key to building a modern skyscraper that is economically sustainable is increasing the building’s efficiency.

Glen Pederick Discipline Leader – Building Services glen.pederick@meinhardtgroup.com

T

he world’s population has increased six-fold in the past 150 years, while at the same time becoming increasingly urbanized each year. The need for

more people to live on less land makes the increasing

elevator journeys taken in buildings all over the world - the

equivalent to the entire population of the world taking ride. BUILDING EFFICIENCY

construction of tall buildings inevitable.

With increasing land and construction costs, the key

The ability to continue to construct and access taller

sustainable is increasing the building efficiency, which

advances in elevators such as increased speeds and

spaces to optimize the yield.

buildings has traditionally been driven by technological improvements in elevator traffic control.

to building a modern skyscraper that is economically

means reducing the size of the building core and plant

As the service which occupies the most floor space in

New technologies such as regenerating drive systems,

a building; elevators provide the greatest opportunity

elevators and TWIN allow tall buildings to be constructed

buildings, saving just one shaft can have a significant

economically sustainable.

development. Recent elevator technologies offer further

The elevator industry is a major factor in tall building

the installation of less shafts while still achieving the same

destination dispatch control systems, double-deck

for space savings and efficiency improvements. In tall

more efficiently than ever, making high rise development

impact on the building efficiency and the feasibility of the

construction. Every day there are more than 7 billion

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

opportunities to improve building efficiencies by allowing level of performance.


“ New technologies such as regenerating drive systems,

destination dispatch control systems, double-deck elevators and TWIN allow tall buildings to be constructed more efficiently than ever, making high rise development economically sustainable.

Double-deck destination dispatch, in particular, can provide

Modern variable voltage, variable frequency drives

office tower developments, increasing the available area and

hydraulic motors.

substantial reduction in the number of elevator shafts in potentially the value of the building.

TWIN elevators, meanwhile, can effectively be used to

reduce the overall number of shafts in a wide range of tall buildings such as offices, hotels and mixed-use towers, while maintaining the same level of service. ENERGY EFFICIENCY

In high rise buildings, elevators can consume up to 10%

of the building’s electricity usage. Increasing the efficiency

consume less than one quarter of the energy consumed by

Regenerating drive systems return the energy of an elevators

downward journey back to the electricity supply, reducing the overall elevator energy consumption by up to 30%.

Control systems which transport passengers efficiently to their destination with a minimum number of journeys

and stops, combined with modern drive systems, make elevators increasingly energy efficient and sustainable.

of the drive systems can have a significant impact on the building’s carbon footprint.

Early steam powered and hydraulic elevators consume

significantly more electricity than today’s modern elevators.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


07 | IMAGIN8

Case Study: Rialto South Tower, Melbourne Australia.

located in Collins Street, Melbourne. Meinhardt

engineers undertook the innovative design of the

structure of these landmark towers over 30 years ago, and construction was completed in 1986. The Rialto

South Tower remains the tallest office tower in Australia when measured to its roof.

The existing South Office tower comprises 4 passenger elevator services, including a total of 20 passenger elevators as follows (Figure 1):

• Low rise elevators (serving L1 to L12) • Mid rise elevators (serving L12 to L24) • High rise elevators (serving L24 to L37) • Sky rise elevators (serving L37 to L54) An alternative elevator design (Figure 2) was considered

for the tower utilising 2 banks of double-deck destination

Glen Pederick, Discipline Leader – Building Services at

Meinhardt and a member of the Council on Tall Buildings and the Urban Habitat Advisory Board, explained the new approach:

“For this alternative design, the low rise service would comprise 6 No. 1800kg double-deck destination

dispatch elevators and would serve levels 1 to 29. The

high rise service would comprise 6 No. 1600kg doubledeck destination dispatch elevators and would be

configured to serve levels 30 to 54,” said Pederick. The service core for alternative double-deck destination dispatch design is compared with the original core design below:

Sky rise

L54

High rise

L37

performance to the original lift services.

Alternative Double Deck Destination Dispatch Design

Original Design L54

dispatch elevators, based on an equivalent level of

High Rise

Mid rise

L24

Low rise

L12

L29 Low Rise

T

he Rialto Towers are premium grade office towers

L1 4 Passenger Elevator Services

L1

20 Passenger Elevator Shafts

Figure 1

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

12 Passenger Elevator Shafts

Figure 2


“The alternative passenger elevator design requires 12

double-deck elevators, while the original design utilizes 20 passenger elevators. As a result, there are 8 less elevators and 8 less elevator shafts,” added Pederick (Figure 3).

Installing less elevator shafts provides the opportunity

to gain floor area in the building. The alternative design

allows an additional 2850m² of floor area for tenants of the

building, which is the equivalent in area to almost 3 floors of the building.

With premium Melbourne CBD office space rental currently at $475/m² per annum, this extra space could provide an additional AU $1.35M in annual rental income.

Premium Collins Street office space in Melbourne is

currently valued at around AU $10,000 per m², so the

additional value of the extra floor space in the building would be of the order of AU $28 Million.

8

less passenger elevators

8

less elevator shafts

3

Floors of extra floor area

$ $1.35m

p/a AUD of Potential Extra Income

$28m

Additional Building Value (AUD)

Figure 3

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


09 | IMAGIN8

Skyscraper Trends: Optimising Sites & Maximising Floor Plates With valuable land in city CBDs around the world getting smaller, as well as scarcer, how do you maximise their development values and are skyscrapers viable on these compact sites?

Vincent Amato Associate – Structures vincent.amato@meinhardtgroup.com

As well as sites getting smaller, so are

At their very core, structural solutions for

we maximise floorspace to improve returns

and cost competitive.

apartments. But do they need to? How do

without compromising design and comfort? Incredible shifts are happening in technology and building practices. We have a new

generation of technology pushing the limits of concrete and steel like never before.

But for engineers to continue to lead, they

skyscrapers have to be simple, innovative

Melbourne is in the midst of a skyscraper construction explosion. Three of the five tallest under construction are nearing

completion; the 72-storey Prima Pearl on the

South Bank, the 68-storey 568 Collins Street;

and the 58-storey Abode 318 on Russell Street.

must provide compelling answers to the

ABODE318

give you more?’

318 on Russell Street in Melbourne’s CBD,

For developers, it’s more sellable area.

pencil thin skyscraper (this is usually defined

question: ‘Can we take what you want, and

For architects, it’s more space with less

structure. For builders, it’s increased speed of construction, while at the same time ensuring health and safety.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

With a height to depth ratio of 9:1, Abode

could almost be classified as super skinny or at a ratio of 11:1).


Images Left: Abode318 Right: 568 Collins Street

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


11 | IMAGIN8

To achieve the requirements for 58-storeys

An economic floor plate design was achieved

The whole approach also redu

stability solution was critical. Wind tunnel testing

floor repetition of the floor plate with the majority

of floors and reduced the cos

on such a small site, optimising the building’s and Finite Element Analysis were therefore

by seeking order in the waves and adopting a 10 of the floor plate remaining consistent and

overall height while keeping th

variation being limited to the edge. This allowed

PRIMA PEARL

This early analysis highlighted the challenges

design with a bespoke outcome.

prestigious 72-storey Prima P

overall building natural frequency on the borderline

568 COLLINS STREET

building includes an indoor sw

conducted early in the project.

associated with wind acceleration and revealed an

the contractor to achieve economies of repetitive

for occupancy comfort.

The 68-storey, mixed-use tower at 568 Collins

“We incorporated provision for a tuned

only 30m x 40, which is very small for a building

Street meanwhile is set on a plan dimension of

mass damper to be located at the top of the

of this height.

of the building’s primary elements and lateral

Traditionally in the Melbourne market high rise

and shear walls, in a computer model,” explained

central service core. On this site, however with

building, while at the same time optimising all mechanisms, including car park ramps, lift cores

towers get their lateral stability solely by the

Vincent Amato, Associate – Structures.

the limited space the client wished to maximise

“When the structure was 80% complete the

views with bulky structure.

a ‘drop test’. One of the building cranes safely

By working closely with the architects and client

building response was measured.”

structure has been created. This is rarely achieved

This test revealed the dynamic response of the building to be acceptable without the need of the costly tuned mass damper, which could have cost the client $100k-$150k.

requiring different functional grids for various uses.

actual building frequency was measured using swung a weight above the structure and the

“It was also important to not underestimate the

importance of floor systems,” added Amato. “When you have literally acres of the same footprint, it’s a significant cost to the overall project.”

The horizontal and vertical wave form of the Abode façade meant that every floor had a

different geometry to the floor below and the floor above.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014

the sellable floor space whilst not impeding the

in the early stages of the project a transfer-free in a mixed-use tower due to the floor plates

“We were able to achieve this feat by use of

advanced long term shortening and shrinkage modelling to predict and compensate for

an uneven loading pattern to the structure,” explained Amato.

“We called on our experience in the Middle East and Asia and adopted an outrigger system,

which alleviated the core of all the work and

kept the façade free of bulky structure. With

an outrigger system in two locations (top and bottom), we were able to shrink the core and give more sellable space back to the client.” “In addition, a retention system without

temporary ground anchors accelerated

construction and avoided potential damage to surrounding services.”

Located across from the Crow

tower is nearing completion. T

sauna, spa and gymnasium, p

lounge and library, 8 –level po

virtual golf driving range and le

Unlike Collins Street, this tower

doing all the work. Nevertheles

opportunities to optimise space

“We considered the impact of

core walls on the overall build

said Amato. “And despite rece

the contractor’s steel schedul

we had submitted was correc

to reduce the required reinforc

thickness of the main externa

At the top of the building, on t

floors, the client demanded ev

“We have changed the shape

plates above level 30 from co

convex, which has created la

plates for the premium apart Amato. “This structural floor

which we developed, easily a the changing building footpr

compromising a typical desi fast construction.”

This is clearly where the bene

translates to added value bac

It is literally possible to grab re the sky.


uced the building’s

he desired number

st to the developer.

wn Casino, the

Pearl apartment

The mixed-use

wimming pool,

private cinema,

odium car park,

evel-67 sky lounge.

r has the core

ss, there are still

e.

f small internal

ding stiffness,”

eiving calls from

ler to check what

ct, we were able

cement and wall

al core walls.”

the penthouse

ven more.

e of the floor

oncave to

arger floor

tments,” said

plate design,

accommodated int without

gn philosophy for

efit to the project

ck to the client.

eal estate out of

Images (clockwise from top): 1. Prima Pearl Floor Plate Design 2. The Outrigger System for 568 Collins Street 3. Prima Pearl under construction

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


13 | IMAGIN8

Self-Performance Key To Successful Skyscraper Delivery George Argyrou, Managing Director of Hickory Group, was one of the keynote speakers at the recent imagin8 seminar in Melbourne. Here he writes how he believes self-performance is crucial in ensuring optimum efficiency when constructing tall buildings. George Argyrou Managing Director – Hickory Group g.argyrou@hickory.com.au

B

uilding super tall buildings and getting it right takes collaboration, dedication and know-how. More so than any other type of construction project,

following best practice processes and having experienced professionals on the team is critical.

For us, it also means ensuring tight control of the project to

mitigate risk and ensure projects are built safely and remain on program and on budget.

CONTROLLED FACADE DELIVERY

Like structures, façade procurement and installation is one

of the most risk intensive facets of tall building construction, with the late delivery of internationally sourced façade

systems frequently contributing to late contract delivery.

We have not been averse to this issue, and recently created a risk mitigation strategy in the form of a 60-person façade division dedicated to the design, procurement, fabrication, warehousing, transportation and installation of façade

systems. By sourcing facades through our own Chinese Currently constructing 568 Collins, one of Melbourne’s

based procurement officer, the new streamlined supply

facade engineering by Meinhardt), we have employed

high-rise projects.

optimised construction programme and streamlined

The architecturally complex 568 Collins glass façade

tallest and leanest residential towers (structural, civil &

chain enables greater control of the façade process on

several key self-performance capabilities to ensure an approach to building methodology. This includes using

Hickory’s established formwork division to construct the building structure.

features geometric vertical strata that accentuates the

tower’s slender form. Our façade division has optimised the construction sequence on the project by enabling façade and formwork to be performed concurrently behind the

From the ground-up, our process is that of a project builder, not a project manager.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

protection screens, deploying a 22 man project façade team to install the 29,000 square metres of glass curtain wall. To


“ For us, it also means

ensuring tight control of the project to mitigate risk and ensure projects are built safely and remain on program and on budget.

�

date this new approach has proved successful, with the

project consistently hitting targets and tracking successfully towards an on-time delivery in 2015.

MODULAR CONSTRUCTION LEARNINGS

In line with this emphasis on bringing key componentry in

house, we have also established a manufacturing division

producing modular buildings and building products. Using

UB technology we have erected complete modular projects in record time, like the recently opened Schaller Studio Art Series hotel in Bendigo that went up in 6 days, and

the 9-level One9 apartment project in Moonee Ponds that materialised in just 5 days.

Realising however that not all buildings lend themselves to

being built in a completely modular fashion, and the height limitation inherent in most modular systems, we are now

concentrating on delivering key prefabricated elements to our conventional projects, rather than complete off-site builds.

SHAPING TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


15 | IMAGIN8

OFF-SITE BATHROOM CONSTRUCTION

Our newly formed Sync bathroom pod product has been

instrumental in the on-time delivery of 568 Collins Street,

creating significant buildability advantages and improving

delivery and site logistics by removing up to 12 trades from the restrictively small site footprint.

All 794 of the 65 level tower’s project bathrooms have been fitted and finished to completion in our Brooklyn factory then simply trucked to site where they are craned onto

a loading platform, wheeled into position, connected to

services and sheeted with plasterboard. On a compact site such as 568 Collins, taking bathroom trades off the critical path (including plumbers, tilers, carpenters, electricians and shower-screen installers) has enabled 12 – 18 day

reductions on each cycle and ensured a consistent quality product across the 224 metre project.

PREFAB TECHNOLOGY TO REACH NEW HEIGHTS

We are now planning to employ these prefab efficiencies

on a much larger scale for future high-rise projects. Built on our learnings refining and manufacturing the UB System,

we have developed a new system for tall-building project

delivery that blends the best of modular and conventional construction practices. The new Hickory Integrated

Structural System uses the principles of modular delivery, breaking down a high-rise structure into individually

assembled units, however the essential make-up of these units is quite different. The integrated system creates a

chassis-style structural unit beginning with a light-weight concrete floor with pre-determined slab penetrations to which load bearing columns and curtain wall (or other

specified façade) is attached. A fully finished bathroom

pod is also integrated into the structural unit, which is then deployed to site for assembly.

Using this structural system we can overcome the height limitations of conventional modular systems, which are

generally based on panelised steel container structures

that are self-supporting and have limited structural integrity over 10 – 15 stories. Instead this system enables structure to be prepared ex-situ, with added strength delivered by shotcreting between the units on taller builds.

Whilst the majority of fit-out (with the exception of bathroom

pods) can still take place on site, the benefit is that all onsite work happens behind the protection of a prefinished

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014

façade, removing the need for protection screening and the potential risk of delays due to inclement weather.

A BEST-PRACTICE MODEL FOR THE INDUSTRY

Hickory see this new structural technology as a logical extension of our self-performance capabilities, to be

employed on a best-for-project basis. Combining structure, façade, subassembly and fit-out capabilities, we hope

that this methodology will provide a catalyst for further exploration and change in the industry.

By investing in continuous innovation, the construction

and engineering industry can enable Australia’s significant pipeline of new tall buildings to be delivered faster, more safely and sustainably and to a higher quality than ever

before, showcasing our considerable homegrown talents to the rest of the world.


Image (previous page): 1. 568 Collins Street - bathroom pod installation Images (clockwise from top left) 1. 568 Collins Street Structure and Facade Install 2. 568 Collins Street bathroom in the Sync factory 3. Integrated Structural System Unit Model

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


17 | FEATURES & OPINION

Tall Building Criticism: A Tall Tale The sustainability of tall buildings has been forgotten, write Tim Retrot and Jon Brock.

Tim Retrot Senior Consultant – Planning tim.retrot@meinhardtgroup.com

P

Jon Brock National Director – Land Development, Infrastructure & Environment jon.brock@meinhardtgroup.com

lanning ideologies are slowly changing. The recently

to which the Age newspaper’s architecture critic Norman

Melbourne, advocates densified residential and

city centre”. Professor Adams’ comments thus embody

released Metropolitan Planning Strategy, Plan

commercial buildings at increased heights, particularly

within the CBD and urban renewal areas – both of which

are strategically located near jobs, transport and existing

infrastructure. Despite these positive steps, the Minister for Planning, Matthew Guy, has been widely criticised for what

many view as his tall tower ‘approvals binge’, leading to him being dubbed “Mr Skyscraper”.

There are currently approximately 30,000 apartments within Melbourne City Council’s boundaries, with over 100+ tall towers approved for construction in Central Melbourne.

An estimated 15,000 more apartments housed within tall buildings are planned over the next five years (Figure 1).

In August 2013, Professor Rob Adams, Melbourne City

Council’s Director of City Design, questioned this growing trend towards tall buildings and higher plot ratios and

warned that the city centre could become “Hong Kong but without the spectacular setting” if planning rules were left unchecked.

Melburnians’ earnest engagement over the future of their

city skyline exemplifies a community pride that has grown

since the rejuvenation of the city centre in the 1980s, prior SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

Day described the bleak CBD in 1978 as “an empty, useless a long-standing narrative of Melbourne’s developers and

decision makers wrestling with community groups over the height of their projects.

But are the claims that tall buildings are “soulless towers” destined to become “slums of the future” justified? What,

if anything, is wrong with height and how do tall structures

detract from Melbourne as the “world’s most liveable city”? Apart from densification enhancing Melbourne’s prime “liveability” status by containing urban sprawl, tall

buildings can elevate cities by redefining their local and

regional environment, creating jobs and opportunities, and

becoming the iconic structures of re-imagined city centres. Melbourne’s flat topography allows appropriately positioned tall buildings to define and articulate the city structure, visually reinforcing areas of significance or noteworthy

localities within the city area. The combination of appropriate site location and a considered architectural response enable tall buildings to become important city landmarks.

Tall buildings should therefore be appropriately located

if they are to enhance and complement the city structure


MELBOURNE GROWTH TIMELINE SOUTHBANK & HODDLE GRID

SOUTHBANK

1920s

1960s

1980s

2000s

2014

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS- NOV 2014


19 | FEATURES & OPINION

MELBOURNE TALL BUILDINGS GROWTH PREDICTION

and protect the amenity of sensitive areas. A poorly

located, poorly designed tall structure can physically and

2014 MELBOURNE TALL BUILDINGS

visually overwhelm adjacent streets and neighbourhoods,

City of Melbourne Zone Central Melbourne area

overshadow nearby open space, create unnecessary traffic congestion, and produce uncomfortable wind conditions. Tall buildings thus have a responsibility to respect the

30,000 APARTMENTS

surrounding environment. It is the opinion of the writers that Melbourne appropriately balances this obligation – take the Swanston Street city core as an example (Figure 2). The

‘heart’ of the CBD preserves its rich historic architecture and character by avoiding tall buildings and ensuring a

thoughtfully blended contemporary design aesthetic. The majority of current tall building approvals are on the west 100+ TALL TOWERS APPROVED FOR CONSTRUCTION

and north-western edge of the Hoddle Grid, Southbank, or, more recently, Fishermans Bend.

Urban renewal precincts such as Fishermans Bend are

2019 MELBOURNE TALL BUILDINGS

strategically located near jobs, transport and existing

City of Melbourne Zone Central Melbourne area

infrastructure. By creating efficient and sustainable tall buildings within and near the central city, the need for transportation and land are economised, resulting in

increased social equity, shared resources, energy savings, and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions per person. 45,000 APARTMENTS

Unfortunately, these powerful ecological, social and

economic arguments appear to have become too passé for those Melburnians agitating against the aesthetic of their evolving city skyline.

Apart from the lifestyle benefits of proximity and

connectivity to city amenity (not to mention the spectacular 100+ COMPLETED TALL TOWERS

views), tall buildings are economically sound propositions. Taller buildings cost less per square metre to build. The

rising land values in Melbourne’s central city have increased

Figure 1

pressure to densify and achieve greater dividends for

prime-location sites, which in turn allows high-risk investors the lure of recouping their outlays, thereby stimulating economic growth.

The increasing focus on developer contributions in the form

of public open space is also encouraging. Not only do these areas enhance the sustainability of the city by securing land for public use and enjoyment, they also enhance SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


the streetscape by ensuring a pleasant public realm and

community asset. It is here, at the street interface and lower

levels of tall buildings, where attention should be focussed –

and this is where the concern surrounding some tall building approvals is justified.

The public domains of commercial buildings have generally been self-fulfilling because profits are maximised by

creating generous retail space and public plazas that are as inviting as possible for business tenants. Residential buildings have caught up in recent years with an

acknowledgement that the profit derived from the number of units needs to be balanced against an attractive public domain and activated retail frontage as investors have

Figure 2

become increasingly ‘lifestyle’ savvy.

Melbourne does have poor examples of taller development (mainly approved in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000) with podium levels facing away from the street employing

high, blank, unactivated walls, which force socioeconomic

activities inside rather than out. Such internalisation of uses results in the isolation of retail and social activities from the collective city community and the ‘buzz’ of city life.

Simple landscaping elements such as tree canopies and

“ What, if anything, is wrong with height and how do tall structures detract from Melbourne as the “world’s most liveable city”?

streetscape designs incorporating awnings and retail

frontages effectively mitigate internalisation of uses and solve the human-scale problem by creating a microenvironment for pedestrians.

To conclude, well-designed tall buildings do not detract

from Melbourne as the “world’s most liveable city” because: • The combination of appropriate site location and a

considered architectural response enable tall buildings to become important city landmarks.

• Tall buildings within and near the central city are

sustainable – an argument that needs to be cogently reiterated.

• Appropriate street treatments can solve the humanscale problem by creating a micro-environment for pedestrians.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014


21 | CASE STUDY

Strategic Foresight Brings Area to Life The $1 billion mixed-use development at 60-82 Johnson Street, South Melbourne, is located within the Fishermans Bend Urban Renewal Area (FBURA) and responds to the recent Capital City rezoning and urban renewal objectives for increased high-density, high-rise development.

Tim Retrot Senior Consultant – Planning tim.retrot@meinhardtgroup.com

T

he development comprises four towers ranging from

A rigorous conceptual analysis placed the site in context

atop a podium structure containing a variety of

psychological ‘barriers’, which formed natural boundaries to

21 to 58 storeys and incorporates 1600 dwellings

uses including retail, commercial and extensive communal facilities, including a proposed Village Hall to be donated to Council.

The proposal was located in the Montague Precinct in an

area typified by large lots. The draft Montague Structure Plan

envisaged development not exceeding 100m for the Precinct. Yet the site was located on the border of the Sandridge Precinct and had the capacity to accommodate a substantial building envelope, which prompted the Meinhardt Planning team to argue that there was no transition between the Precincts.

by identifying a number of features that create physical and

create a new ‘Northern Gateway Precinct’ for the Fishermans Bend area.

The central location of the site within the identified

‘Northern Gateway Precinct’ meant the large site had the

capacity to support a landmark development of substantial scale that would act as an architectural identifier for the

Precinct. In addition, the correct mix of uses would enable establishment of a heart and active community hub for the area; a design solution that suitably complemented the other nearby activity centres.

The area links the Hoddle Grid and Docklands to Fishermans

Meetings and workshops were therefore organised with State

across the Charles Grimes Bridge. As such, the Meinhardt

set its own parameters outside the published Structure Plans.

Bend, and the site is one of the first visible when coming Planning team added that the site surrounds should be

distinguished as a gateway to Fishermans Bend, and needed to be defined as such.

Government, and an urban context report was prepared which

The new approach has been well received by relevant government bodies, and the client is delighted as it

proposes a far better development outcome and one that is now financially viable. SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


Images: Top: 60-82 Johnson Street, South Melbourne. Bottom: FBURA Precinct Map

“ The site was located on

the border of the Sandridge Precinct and had the capacity to accommodate a substantial building envelope, which prompted the Meinhardt Planning team to argue that there was no transition between the Precincts.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


23 | CASE STUDY

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


Engineering Darwin’s Tallest Office Building The engineering challenges range from designing to withstand hurricanes to meeting NABERS 5 Star requirements.

Paree Cordato Project Leader paree.cordato@meinhardtgroup.com

D

esigned by Pei Cobb Freed, with local architectural

The services design has had to be specific to meet the

construction of an iconic lens-shaped tower of 21

account the lack of green power purchase opportunity in

partners DWP Suters, this development sees the

storeys, rising to a height of 83 metres.

The building will provide Premium Grade office

NABERS 5 Star and Grade ‘A’ office requirement, taking into Darwin, and to have all services fitted within the constraints of the core areas.

accommodation to blue chip clients including half of all

Repetitive simulations were carried out to establish the

above-ground and below-ground car parks.

determinations on building services systems and building

the NT Government’s departments together with retail and

optimum make-up of the ESD features with the ultimate

façade components based on these ESD credentials, ease

Meinhardt is providing multi-disciplinary engineering

of operation, risk, cost and life cycle considerations.

under construction.

The following building services strategies have been adopted:

The lens shape is a key feature of the design and will offer

• To help reduce utility bills and maintenance costs a

design services for the project which is currently

generous panoramic views of the waterfront while giving Darwin a unique sculptural form on its skyline.

centralized energy management system has been

installed. This comprehensive Building and Management and Control System (BMCS) integrates Mechanical,

From a structural perspective, the major challenge is to

Power, Lighting, Vertical Transportation & Security

winds. Computational fluid dynamic modelling simulations

floors’ energy consumption, and to control access and

enable the iris-shaped building to withstand hurricane force

Services to monitor base building, and individual tenancy

were carried out to assess the forces from all directions.

usage both during normal and after office hours

The presence of necessary penetrations at the building core has also proved to be a challenge as this structure will bear the full weight of the building.

• Digital thermostats will monitor room occupancy and

automatically adjust the temperature when occupants enter or exit

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


25 | CASE STUDY

images Previous page: Charles Darwin Centre Artist’s Impression This Page (Clockwise From Top Left) 1. Charles Darwin Foyer Impression 2. Charles Darwin Foyer Impression 3. Charles Darwin View From Office 4. Charles Darwin Construction Photo

• To reduce lighting costs, energy-efficient lighting and occupancy sensors have been provided. A lighting

control system based on ‘state of art’ technology DALI standard has also been specified to be implemented throughout the whole building. Daylight sensors are located at the window perimeter zones for daylight harvesting controls over artificial lighting

• A flexible design has allowed roof space and capacity within the electrical infrastructure to enable the

installation of a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) system to generate on-site renewable energy

• The installation of high efficiency (full load and part load) water-cooled chillers

• The use of low velocity air distribution ductwork to reduce the fans’ power consumption

• The use of a variable air volume air conditioning system with optimum AC zoning to provide close temperature control to each space without overcooling

• A guide has been produced for implementation by the

building owner to help educate cleaning and maintenance staff to turn off lights and adjust thermostats, and implement preventive maintenance programs

“ The major challenge is to

enable the iris-shaped building to withstand hurricane force winds. Computational fluid dynamic modelling simulations were carried out to assess the forces from all directions.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


27 | CASE STUDY

Setting High Green Standards Tanjong Pagar Centre is a large-scale integrated mixedused development set to be the tallest building of its type in Singapore.

Wong Kong Sing Director – Mechanical kongsing.wong@meinhardtgroup.com

T

he 290m project, which sits above

Tanjong Pagar Centre sets a high

1.7-million square feet of Grade-A

and the design of the M&E services has

the local metro station, will contain

offices, high-end residential apartments, a luxury business hotel, premier retail space and a sheltered event space in Tanjong Pagar City Park.

Meinhardt is the Design Engineer of the

Mechanical and Electrical Services & QP of the Mechanical & Electrical System

The M&E services, which are all being

benchmark for environmental sustainability been integral to this.

The transit-oriented development uses passive technologies such as solar

shading devices and natural ventilation to reduce mechanical loads, sophisticated

power management and lighting systems, including T5 and LED lighting, rain

water recycling systems and will employ

photovoltaic panels to generate one percent

designed using Building Information

of the building’s energy.

to meet the multi-stakeholder Multi- Tier

The project has received Green Mark

(MCST) requirements.

Construction Authority, while GuocoTower,

Modelling (BIM), have been developed Management Corporation Strata Title

awards from the Singapore Building and the 38-story office building portion of

In tandem with this, minimising the GFA for

the development, has achieved LEED®

lettable areas has been another key goal,

the USGBC.

solution which can easily allow for the

Tanjong Pagar Centre is slated for

the M&S Services Plant Rooms to optimise while the team has also designed a flexible provision of future tenancy works.

SHAPING | HEALTHCARE - NOV 2014

Platinum Precertification (Core + Shell) from

completion in 2016.

Client: Belmeth Pte Ltd/ Guston Pte Ltd/ Perfect Eagle Pte Ltd

Design Architect: Skidmore, Ownings & Merrill LLP

Architect (QP): Architects 61 Pte Ltd Main Contractor: Samsung C&T Corporation

Quantity Surveyor:

Davis Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd


SHAPING | HEALTHCARE - NOV 2014


29 | FEATURES & OPINION

A Snapshot Of Our Tall Building Projects Pan Pacific Singapore

Face Platinum Kuala Lumpur NIGHT PERSPECTIVE

Tianjin Bohai Bank Tower China NIGHT PERSPECTIVE

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS - NOV 2014

Ballarat Base Hospital


MNC Tower Jakarta MEDIA FACADE

Four Seasons Kuala Lumpur RESIDENTIAL ELEVATION

MNC Tower Jakarta EAST WEST FACADE

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


31 | FEATURES & OPINION

Postcard from Shanghai Future Cities: Towards Sustainable Vertical Urbanism

Glen Pederick Discipline Leader – Building Services glen.pederick@meinhardtgroup.com

Glen Pederick, Discipline Leader – Building Services at Meinhardt Australia was invited to speak about vertical transportation at the world’s largest conference for Tall buildings.

The Council on Tall Buildings and the Urban Habitat (CTBUH) event took place from September 16 – 19 in Shanghai, China.

Glen’s paper titled “How Vertical Transportation Is Helping

Transform The Modern City” discussed new approaches to vertical transportation design and some of his key findings are included as part of his thought leadership article earlier in the e-magazine

Glen has also been appointed to the CTBUH Advisory Group. Drawn from the international Council membership, the Group provides

wider strategic counsel and guidance to the Board of Trustees. He is the only representative from Australia.

Images courtesy of CTBUH http://www.ctbuh.org/

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014

Things I Learnt

1. Tall buildings are no l 2. They are no longer st 3. Buildings are getting


longer office buildings, they are mixed-use buildings. teel construction, and are mostly composite structures. taller, with new challenges being created for designers GP

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


33 | FEATURES & OPINION

Pushing The Envelope: Skyscraper Façade Trends The façade sector is a dynamic, constantly evolving industry driven by a number of trends from technology to materials to costs. Mimi Daraphet [MD], Technical Director, and Sanjayan Sivasubramaniam [SS], Associate - Senior Facade Consultant, give their perspectives as to what this means for tall buildings in the Asian and Australian markets. Mimi Daraphet Technical Director – Facade mimi.d@mfacade.com

TECHNOLOGY TRENDS: WHAT ARE THE TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS CHANGING HOW WE DESIGN? [MD]: As each new skyscraper tries to outdo the last, facade

and building forms continue to evolve in their complexity aided by 3D programs and continually evolving BIM technology...

But the sector continues to rise to these challenges through clever thinking.

We have seen and been part of innovations like three part

unitised systems to accommodate double curvature curtain walls (Figures 1, 2 & 3). We have also been at the forefront of extreme cold bending for curtain walls by developing

in-house parametric modelling that considers all aspects of cold bend glass, including structural and fabrication limitations, as well as appearance (Figures 4, 5 & 6). A

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014

Sanjayan Sivasubramaniam Associate – Senior Facade Consultant sanjayan.s@mfacade.com

specific testing method to validate numerical models for this has been developed as well.

[SS]: The tall building market in Australia historically has

been predominantly influenced by the residential market.

These projects were often developed with the expectation of large cash returns with architecture and sustainability held in less regard. This saw a trend for cheaper and

cheaper materials, simple designs and mass production

options as a driving force for facades. Innovative solutions and opportunities for R&D were very limited.

This though has led to more design scrutiny as a common expectation from builders when providing these cost

effective solutions nowadays. They have learnt from the past as remedial façade works have started to pick up, similar to the post-Olympic era in the 1990s, caused by fast and in-experienced construction.


“ Technology has also

contributed to the sustainability of the materials driven, in tandem, by the increased demand for green certification of projects. Technology has also opened up new techniques and possibilities for application.

Images (clockwise from top left): Figure 1: Three part unitized system for Hangzhou Raffles City, China by UN Studio Figure 2: Form models of Hangzhou Raffles City by UN Studio Figure 3: Construction of Hangzhou Raffles City

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


35 | FEATURES & OPINION

Images (clockwise from left): Figure 1: HQ, Lebanon by ERGA Group Figure 2: Cold bend glass - QA/QC inspection at factory Figure 3: Credit Libanais site photo

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


From a systems perspective in Australia we note the following key trends:

• Monumental awning windows on residential buildings to improve natural ventilation. This is saving costs on

air-conditioning but needs to be considered in tandem with wind implications, which isn’t always being done

• A move away from BMUs and a tendency towards rope access – a potentially worrying trend putting cost before safety

• Stage by stage construction which creates opportunities for wind engineers and other specialists

MATERIAL TRENDS: WHAT ARE THE MOST POPULAR MATERIALS CURRENTLY AND IS THERE A REASON FOR THIS?

CLIENT TRENDS: WHAT ARE THE CURRENT PRIORITIES FOR CLIENTS?

[MD]: Sustainability, aesthetics, buildability, future-proofing, price – they are all important. It really depends on the client or the market.

Price is a big factor, and rightly so, as the facade is the largest surface area of a building. But it is also the first

thing people notice about a building. Some clients value the impact potential over price and some don’t.

Some value getting it up in the shortest time possible at

little cost variation and some build for future-proofing and

efficiency (although this is not a common buzzword for Asia). The latter really depends on the client, their corporate

[MD]: Glass continues to be the most popular material

image, their culture and whether they are going to sell or

because of the popularity for full height glazing.

keep the building. We get the extremes of that in Asia.

The technology for glass fabricated and processed in

[SS]: In my opinion the high Australian dollar has stifled

supply and it is very competitive in terms of cost. Even

clients are expecting more – more detailed outputs and

processed in China for export use and are even selling their

showcase the façade.

competitive in the market.

Sustainability, buildability and price are all part of existing

Factored into this are architects who are also wanting larger

capabilities in lighting, ESD, animation, specialist materials,

which is pushing the boundaries in terms of glass selection

Korea – and wind mitigated facades – as seen at Brisbane

China is advancing to meet the European and American

creativity in the past. With the Australian dollar now falling,

Europe and USA are now allowing their products to be

more specialist capabilities within the team to really

coating technology to Chinese factories in order to remain

requirements. In my opinion, the future will require

and larger glass size panels and for clearer and clearer glass,

Eco façades – as seen in the Invisible Tower in South

criteria (Figure 7a & 7b).

Airport’s new car park.

materials driven, in tandem, by the increased demand for

CHALLENGE TRENDS: AS WE CONTINUE TO GO HIGHER, WHAT ARE THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES NOW BEING FACED?

new techniques and possibilities for application. For example,

[MD]: There are three particular trends that we have

Technology has also contributed to the sustainability of the green certification of projects. Technology has also opened up we are investigating the use of a 60mm thick single piece of

carbon reinforced plastic (CRP) that is 15m x 15m on a project. [SS]: I agree that glass continues to be the most commonly used material but there is also a trend towards other cheaper material options.

These include light weight steel, as this avoids the need for specialist trades, and the use of weaker stones like

travertine stone, which, as well as the cost benefits, is also locally available and Green Star rated.

identified as key to the next evolution of tall buildings: 1. The magnification of issues on small buildings is

exacerbated as you go higher. For example, there is the

elastic shortening on columns as you build higher, so the stack joints need to cater for that by being installed with bigger joints.

2. Although there are examples, like our own 568 Collins

Street project in Melbourne, where transfer structures have SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


37 | FEATURES & OPINION

Image (from top): Figure 7a: and 7b 1.7m wide by 5.5m tall piece of glass for a 10.5m tall façade at Singapore’s Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall. The other pieces are 3m wide by 3.5m tall. The glass is also very clear with a 72% visual light transmission but with a relatively good performing SC value of 0.46

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


been avoided, inevitably in most buildings as we go higher

these will have to be made at some point. This means careful consideration must be made for the deflection of the façade members to the floor above and below the transfer floor.

3. Greater heights will lead to greater variation in wind loads and so optimising frame sizes will test façade engineers.

“ Sustainability, aesthetics,

buildability, future-proofing, price – they are all important. It really depends on the client or the market.

[SS]: Architects and clients are becoming more and more comfortable working directly with the manufacturers,

and most contractors have a very good understanding of traditional curtain wall and detailing.

The challenge for façade consultants is how to exceed the

knowledge of an architect and traditional detailers. That is to bring both the architectural aspect and engineering together and deliver them scientifically so that they work in harmony. COST TRENDS: HOW CAN GOOD FAÇADE DESIGN IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPER’S BOTTOM LINE? [MD]: For a low-rise building one could expect the

façade cost to be in the range of 10% or less of the total construction cost. With a super high-rise building the

façade cost can easily exceed 20%, which is more than the

cost of the superstructure, but simply because there is more surface area.

Savings can be made by having robust coordination

between the design consultants; not only with the architect, but also the structural engineer (for reasons mentioned

above), the MEP engineer, the specialist lighting consultant and the BMU consultant.

Other savings can be made by understanding your materials properly in order to optimise the cross-size of members and to minimise wastage by choosing appropriate modulations for the façade.

Building Physics Modelling can also help generate significant value. Energy modelling helps ensure appropriate glass

selection to reduce loading on the HVAC systems, while daylighting and glare studies can help optimize façade

additives and the overuse of artificial lighting. We have a live

example where this approach saved the client a million dollars

[SS]: From a developer’s perspective, it is all about risk and reliability.

Nearly 100% of façades are produced based on façade contractor’s shop drawings. Construction risk can

be minimized via a systematic QA/QC approach and contractual risk can be managed via specification. FUTURE TRENDS: WHAT DO YOU THINK THE FUTURE HOLDS? [MD]: The future presents a key challenge in the

maintenance or façade access of a building. As buildings

become taller and more intricate, ensuring that all parts of the façade can be accessible is a huge challenge that is

often overlooked or left to the last minute. It is why we have a dedicated BMU and Façade Access engineering team. With buildings being so tall, the duration of the cleaning cycle could mean that once you finish, it may be time to start again.

The maintenance of artificial lighting on a taller façade

needs also to be considered as well as the replacement of glass and/or components on the façade (ie. gaskets, sealants, etc) (Figures 9 & 10).

[SS]: For me the future of façades lies squarely in a consultant’s expertise and capability to deliver.

Staying on top of all the trends we have referenced is

crucial to ensure the fostering of creativity but also an understanding of how these can be delivered without

compromising the final design outcome for the sake of short-term financial gain.

by halving the original depth of the sunshades (Figure 8).

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


39 | FEATURES & OPINION

The future presents a key challenge in the maintenance or façade access of a building. As buildings become taller and more intricate, ensuring that all parts of the façade can be accessible is a huge challenge that is often overlooked or left to the last minute.

SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014

Image (from top left): Figure 8: Daylight Analysis testing the depth of the sunshade for optimization for CREATE at Singapore’s National University of Singapore (NUS) Figure 9 and 10: Pearl River Tower in Guangzhou has 6 access doors in the façade (2 each on the front and back and 1 each on the short facades).


SHAPING | TALL BUILDINGS – NOV 2014


Your Contacts

Denis Young

Jon Brock

John Corrigan

Luke Taylor

Bob Ellis

Tom Harrington

Jason Murdoch

Nick Bamber

Daniel Moore

Michael White

Steve Dunstone

Dr. Santo Ragusa

Glen Pederick

Brendan Smith

Rennie Darmanin

Tony Douglas

Managing Director – (Aus) denis.young@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader - Property & Buildings (SA) bob.ellis@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader - Mining & Resources (SA) daniel.moore@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader - Building Services glen.pederick@meinhardtgroup.com

National Director - Land Development (Aus) jon.brock@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader - Land Development (VIC) tom.harrington@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader - Civil Infrastructure michael.white@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader – Project & Programme Management brendan.smith@meinhardtgroup.com

Feedback If you have any queries about the content in the magazine, please contact: Justin Farmer PR and Marketing Manager – (Aus) justin.farmer@meinhardtgroup.com

National Director Property & Buildings (Aus) john.corrigan@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader - Land Development (QLD) jason.murdoch@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader - Civil steve.dunstone@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader - Structures rennie.darmanin@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader - Property & Buildings (QLD) luke.taylor@meinhardtgroup.com

State Leader Mining & Resources (QLD) nick.bamber@meinhardtgroup.com

Discipline Leader Environmental Services santo.ragusa@meinhardtgroup.com

General Manager - Facades tony.douglas@meinhardtgroup.com

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Shaping_Issue 15_Tall Buildings  

A Meinhardt Australia Magazine

Shaping_Issue 15_Tall Buildings  

A Meinhardt Australia Magazine

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