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" "" "" "''": " " "" """ "" .' Describe, draw,and labelthe createdlens ereated t hr ough t his pr ocessbe low:.

of WaterLens I Description

aWater [ensMicroscope Constructing materials, haveusedtransparent Forcenturiesscientists havingat leastonecurvedsurface,to makelenses to images, or to concentrate or formmagnified or reduced sucha spreadlightrays.ln thisactivityyouwillconstruct lens-out of water-and mountit on a cardto function asa simple,single-lens microscope.

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Nowusethiswaterlensto viewthetype of thispage. below: Recordyourobservations

(Per group) 4 Papercardswith centerhole 'l Cupwith water

Step5

to view printed Useyourwaterlensmicroscope andcolorimagessuppliedby yourteacher. images; colorand black/white black/white Printedmagazine howtheseimagesaremade? Canyoudetermine Transparenttape yourobservations below: Describe

1 Pipet

StepI Carefu tapesothat it covlly placea pieceof transparent ersthe centerholeon the cardprovided. 5tep2 placea dropof wateronto the transparent Carefully tape covering the holeon thecard.Keepaddingsmalldrops ofwateruntiltheenlarging dropfillsthe hole.

Explorlng WithA Microscope

Step5 of a lensanda microscope? Whatisyourdefinition Definitionof a lens:

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Step2 Placea singledrop of waterin the centerof a clean rn i rrncr n no

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step3 Useforcepsto placethe newsprintonthewaterdrop.

UsingtheCompound Microscope

5tep4 Carefully lowera coverslipat an angleonto the wetted paperbeingcarefulnot to trap air bubbles.

(Petgtoup) Compound microscope Coverslip

Observinga Newsprint lmage

Step1

Glass microscope slide

Placethe slideon the stageof $e compoundmicroscopewith the centerofthe upiightcoverslipareacenteredoverthe holein the stage. Position the slideusing stageclips so that the newsprintis facingyou and can be readrightsideup. Record whatyou observe below:

Newsprint

lmageOrientationl

, Cupwith water Forceps

Pipet Scissors

lmageappearance to the nakedeyeon the microscooe staoe:

StudentlnformationSheet#1 VisualGuideto the Microscope

la Step2

Usethe microscope illustration in Studentlnformation Sheetf-l asa visualguideto the partsof a compound microscope aswellasimportantusagetips. Making A Wet Mount of Newsprint

Adjustthe lightsource(flatmirrorsurfaceor illuminator) ({iscor iris)sothat light passes up anddiaphragm throughthe paper.Youshouldbe ableto seea circleof lightwhenyou lookinto the eyepiece.

Step1

Step3

Usescissors to carefully cut out a shortnewsprintword (nota headlineword)containingthe letters

Position the lowestpowerobjectiveinto the opticalpath by rotatingthe nosepiece.You willjeel a "click"whenthe objectiveis correctlypositioned. Usethe coarseadjust1 mentknobto lowerthe objectiveto approximately (2.5 inch cm)abovethe stage.

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Step4

Step5

Lookthroughthe eyepieceand slowlyraisethe objective by turningthe coarseadjustmentknob counter-clocktowardsyou) untilthe imageis in focus.Then wise(i.e. knobto bringthe imageinto usethefineadjustment sharpfocus.

oriimageformedby the microscope lsthe newsprint entedthe sameaswh.enyou observeit with your naked waydoesthe eye?Movethe slidedownward.Which imagemove?Movethe slideto the rightandthenthe left.Whichway doesthe imagemove?

ImageDescription:

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lmageAppearance: tl

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lmageObservation: lmageMovement

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Determining Magnification andSize In Activity1,youmadeobservations usinga singleiens microscope of yourown construction. A basiccompoundmicroscope "objective" hastwo lenssystems:an lens(i.e.closestto the objectbeingviewed)and an "ocular"lens(i.e.closestto the eye). is the ratioof the apparentsizeof a magMagnification nlfiedobjectto itstrue size.lfa lensproducesan image of a viewedobjectthat isfourtimeslts realsize,lts magnificationcapabilityor poweris "4X". takes magnification ln a compoundmagnifyingsystem, placein two stages.The objectivelensfirstprojectsa magnifiedimageof the objectto a fixedpositionabout 1 cm belowthe top of the viewingtube in the micropositionedin the bodytube above scope.Theeyepiece, this projectedimage,re-magnifies into a secondimage of that the eyeobserves. Thusthe total magnification power the microscope is foundby multiplyingthe of the objectiveby that of the eyepiece.

(Pergroup) Compound microscope Prepared wetmountof newsprint(from Activity2)

DeterminingMagnification Step ofthe lowestpower Recordthe total magnification usedto viewnewsprintin objectiveof four microscope Activitv2 below: Lowestpowermagnification: *OX

:

carewhen Exercise Changeto a higherpowerobjective. rotatinganyhigh-powerobjectiveinto the opticalpath' Makesurethat the higherpowerobjectivewill not touch you should With mostnewermicroscopes, the coverslip. objectiveinto place be ableto rotatethe higherpr.;wer andobserve an imagethatwillonlyneedsharpening usingthe fineadjustmentknob to knobclockwise adjustment lf not,turnthe coarse 1-2 than is no closer "rackdown"the objectiveuntil it usethe fine-adjustsurface.Then mm fromthe coverslip the focus.Do not usethe coarse ment knob,to sharDen adjustmentknobto focusany high-powerobjective. ls the light brighteror darker?Afterchangingobjective will for bestIighting.You the diaphragm lenses, readjust at (i. opening) needmorelight e.a widerdiaphragm cations. lensmagnifi higherobjective

Ruled l mm graphpaper('l cm,square) Ruler, metric

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Step3

Determining Field Diameter and Object Size

drawingsof the newsprint to BeloWdrawcomparative thesizeof an objectis critical Beingableto estimate of your success imageat both lowestand next highestmagnification in recordingaccurateinformationaboutit. your compoundmicroscope. Alsorecordtotal magnification for each.

l!:r.1................

Newsprint

To determinethe diameterof a particularfield-of-view, placea pieceof 1 mm ruledgraphpaperovertheholein the stage.Focususinga low powerobjective(i.e.4Xor of the ruler 10X)to obraina clearimageof the divisions an or the rulesofthe graphpaper.Youshouldobserve one below: imagelikethe

ObjectiveLens:..J.e-.'.........-. ObjectiveLens: .......4................ t 0 Lens: l o Lens: Eyepiece Eyepiece TotalMagnification' ..1--o4..

mm ruteo raphpaper

TotalMagnification, . {9--O-{..

FieldDiameter At 100Xtotalmagnification 1.6mm (1600pm)

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Foreachobjective, drawthe observedfieldof viewand determineitsfield sizebelow: Determining Field Diameter

TotalMagnifiction:

TotalMagnifiction:

TotalMagnifiction:

Fietdsize: .* ..fn.Ar,ilntrn

FieldSize:

Y.o^x. . Fietd size:.S..n.*..XI Un Step5 Knowingthe fielddiameterfor a particularobjectivelens is is a quickaidin measurlng length.lf an organism aboutone-quarter the lengthofthe fielddiameterat 400Hmin length. 100Xit is approximately Usethe fielddiameterasan aid in estimatingthe width of the newsprintletteryou areobservingand recordit below: Newsprint

uDJecItveLens:..........:................. (cz

o bjectiveLens'..........-{.()-........

TotalMagnification:....{LQ..X

tenst.,...1.9-.fi-....... Eyepiece \ TotalMagnification, ...i..,.2...)

tmagesize:..).f::.X...3.Y1m

ImageSize:.......J.fl n....EA rn rv^t

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Next, caiculate ihe mag nrfication r'alicior bolh e):epiere magnification vjews cf the ne'*sprlnt :eft:r ba;=d '::cn yo ur p r ev i o u s ly r e c:r d ed . ,.r e 3 s - r e 'ne n t s

:i! lr"ue;ize, in rrillimeters imm), u:e a rule1-i,J i-tleesirf! ci l:: ,.ircti of the ::luai ne';;sp;-lnlietter and record it o u:o . ,u--ihesyn ol l] c ais c t : k e ey epr ec =r ne as ur e m e nt so f ''e' 31 the lowe5t and riie app.a|eni rrr,a';e.:i ihe iefier s. n,exl-lo''re:t i o.tal riagniiicai;,cn

mm nagniflcar;on j.fifr 5ir:- cro,,esi Apparent

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Fo r e x ai - n p l e : Wh a tis t ne m a g n il ic a iic n r a tic i a n a ppar ent inrage at the ictt,est pov,'eriotal magnificatlon l40Xj is 4 n-irn if it i'neasuresJ i^,i.m7

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the cbjecti';e and "Tube length'-i: the sislan{e bel"u^;een e y epie c e le ns e s.

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I. Title: Diffusion and Cell Size II. Purpose: To Determine the extent and rate of diffusion into three different sizes of agar cubes. III. Materials: 13cm x 3cm x 6cm agar block 2Knife 3Plastic cup 4Ruler 5Vinegar IV. Steps: 1Cut out a 3x3x3 cm cube, a 2x2x2 cm cube, and a 1x1x1 cm cube. 2Place all cubes into cup full of vinegar. 2Wait ten minuets. 3Observe the cubes. V. Data: a. Agar Cubes Cube Size

Surface Area

Volume

Surface Area/Volume

3cm

3

34

27

2:1

2cm

3

24

8

3:1

1cm3

6

1

6:1

b. Rate of Diffusion Cube Size

Depth of Diffusion

Time

Rate of Diffusion (cm/min)

3cm3

.8 cm

10 min

.08 cm/min

2cm

3

.7 cm

10 min

.07 cm/min

1cm

3

.5 cm

10 min

.05 cm/min

c. Extent of Diffusion Total Volume

Estimated amount Volume not of cube changed Changed color (Diffused in)

Percent Volume of cube changed Color

3cm3

27

60

10.8

60

2cm3

8

80

1.76

78

1cm3

1

99

.1

99

VI. Conclusion:


r ;Diffusion and Cell Size {Lab Activitv l

,,' { i i ) I I i:

ASSESSMENT

i i

1.

i .

The agar you used to make your cubes contained phenolphthalein and had a pH of greater than 9. E*plain how the use of a pH indicator allowed you to visualize the extent of diffusion into the C U b eS . a

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Into which cube cub did the diffusion medium d iffuse the most by voiume?

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Examine your data in Data Table 2 for a relationship between cube size and the rate of diffusion into the cube. Make a generalized statement about the relationship between cell size and the rate of diffusion.

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what problem might exist for the largest cell?

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9. Is diffusion the only method in which substances enter and exit a cell? If not, what factors are not accounted for in the simulation?

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1 0.osmosis is a specialized form of diffi-rsion. Research osmosis and create a Venn diagram comparing osmosis and diffusion.

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4 Na me

Date

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Ac t i vi ty I Mendeland thO Laws of Chance Calculationof GeneticRatios A great scientistonce wrote . . . "all scienceis measurement".In qenetics,much of which is measuredconcerns the ratiosof different phenotypes(outward appearances)and geiotypes (geneticmakeup),Tnesegeneiic-refationshipsarisefrom probabilityrelationships-the chancesegregatiorianOassortmentof genesin gametesand their chancecombinationto form a zygote (a diploid cell reiutting from the union of twd gametei). In this activityyou explore how the determinationof genetic ratios is derivedfrom two basiclawsof chance. In app]yingmathematicsto the studyof genetics,Mendelwasstatingthat the lawsof chanceapplyto biology as well as they do to the physicalsciences.-A radicalconcept for the times!

M a te r i al s

N e ed e d

( pe r t ea m of 2 s tud e nt s)

. Two 2-sidedplastic"coins"-marked "heads"and .,tails,' . Student Study and AnatysisSheet(one per student) Tossthe two'sidedcoin.Thechancethat it will turn up "heads"is 1/2 or fifty-fifty.lf two "coins"aretossed,the chancethat one will turn up "heads"_is again1/2.The chancethat the sec6ndwitt alsoturn up "heads"is 1/2. Th e cha ncebot h w illturn up "heads"i s1/Zx1/ 2 or 1/4. SUMMARY

Tneprobabitityof two independenteventsoccurring togetheris simpty the probability of one occurring alone muttiptied by the probability of the other occurring alone.

We can diagramthis probabilityrelationshipin a checkerboard-PunnetSquare- (below)which indicatesthat the combinationin eachsquarehasan equal-independent-chance of occurring.

"Heads" "Heads" "Tails" " Heads"

"Heads"

"Tails"

"Tails"

"Tails"

NOTE:The Punnetsquarewas named after an Englishgeneticistwho first usedthis sort of diagramfor the anallnis of genetically-determined traits.

1. What is the probability (chance), if there were three plastic "coins" involved?

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@ 1995 (Revised 612007)W N S E All Rights Reserved 2 50- 9 54 I


5 Placetwo plastic"coins"in a shakercup. Shakeand tossthe piecesonto the tabletop 100 times.Keep track of the results;recordtotals in the spacesbelow. Do the resultscome closeto those predictedby the Punnetsquare?

(" HEA D" / "HE A D " )

JI

(" TA IL"/" TAI L"J) 7

5

("TA|L"/ "HEAD") ( " HE A D" / " T A|L " )

you tossboth plasticcoins1000timesinsteadof 100. What would this targersample allow? Suppose c:'<zza-1/

/@4-

C A LC UL A T IO NO F GENET I C RAT I O \$ On the basisof Mendelianprinciples,a diploid (doubleset of chromosbmes)adutt of genetic constitutionAa may give riseto two gametes,A and a.'lf the genetic constitutionof the parentsis not given, two possibleexplanations(hypotheses)existwhich can accountfor the presenceof phenotypes A or a in the offspring.The answer,in terms of probability, is td assumethat iarents ,4apioduce-two types of gametes,A and a, equallywell and the aa parent producesonly one type of gamete, a. Any combinationof gametesdependsupon the frequencyor probabilityof eachtype of gametefurnished by the parents.Thus the formation of a zygote is the resultof two independentevents(two gametes), eachwith their own probabilities, which now occurtogether. SUMMARY:

fne probabititythat a particutarzygote witl be formedis equatto the product of the probabilitiesof the gametesthat composeit.

4. Complete the two checkerboards (below) to calculatethe values: Aa x Aa cross: A (Probability= 112) A (Probability= 1/2)

AA Probability= 1/4

a

(Probability= 1/2) Probability=

Aa x aa cross:

a

(Probability= 1l)

= 1121 a (Probabiliry

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A (Probability= 112)

Ao

Probability =

L

4AProbability=

= 1121 a (Probabiliry

a- a-

=l*

Probability

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6

5 . Complete the following statementsfor the Aa x Aa cross: . How many possiblekindsof zygotescan be formed

. Theprobabilitythat the /4phenotypewiuoccur? 75

%

. Theprobability that a zygorecanbe heterozygous (i.e.Aaor an)Z 5 O?o ^

l s%,r s%r; JSs%=2 sg % . JIVA,

Theprobability that a zygorewiil be eirher44, Aa,or aA?

<,

. The probabilitythat a zygorewilt be AA,Aa, aA,or aa? . what are the genotype and phenotyperatios?

GENOTYPE

^ /t>og -

PHENOTYPE

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6. Complete the following statementsfor the Aa x aa cross:

. Do both genotypes occurwith equalfrequencyZ

We 5

- What are the genotype and phenotyperatios?

GENOTYPE

{,1

PHENOTYPE

't

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7 Nam e

Date

Ac t i vi ty l l Crossing Men del'sPe a s

. a Mo n oh ybridC ross

This activityinvestigates crossesbetween pea plantsthat are different in but a single characteristic(gene difference)-a monohybrid cross.

Ma ter ial s

N e e d ed

( per t ea m of Z s t ud en t s)

. Cup shaker . (2) RedAlleleDiscseachhaving Wfor purplefloweron eachside . (2) RedAlleleDiscshavingw for white floweron eachside Eachdiscrepresents a gametecell. . StudentStudyand Anatysis Sheet . 1 Wax.pen NOTE: A peaplanthomozygous for purpleflowercolorisrepresented by WWingeneticshorthand. Thegenefor purpleflowercoloringisdesignated ti'llbecause of a convention bywhichgeneticists, in indicating i pairof alleles, usethefirstletterof the lesscommonform (white).Thecapitalindicates the dominant,the lowercasethe recessive. Usethewaxpenprovided to writethealleletype(Worw) on eachsideof thedisc. ' Readand becomefamiliarwith informationpresentedin the StudentStudySheet 7. Placetwo (W) allelediscsin the cup, represe_nting the u.nion(fertilization)of a male and female gamete. Shakeand tossthem onto the table. Repeatnine more timds. Recordyour results(genoty[e, phenotypes)betow:

Wt/x/

w

WW

m/ vt/

5x

po f pi e f. rf \te p fvrple N uf p l ! fv r Ft e 8. Repeat STEP 7 (above), butthistime'Place two (w)alletediscsin thecup.Shake andtoss.Repeatnine additional times..Record the resultant genotypeandphenotype below: ,r-nn

((V

,^-nif! ,^.hi|! "\i ft!! -h L Crosstwo purple (W) plantscreatedfrom zygote , unions from STEP7 by allowingthem to self-polli-

nateasMendeldid. Drawu Pu?1} square,jl

t"uly

WW F' tt fl t

p \J , P

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cordrhe genorypes ano pneno[ypes.

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10. Writea statementthat explainswhy theseplantswould continueto "breedtrue" ^t l [^

doo

11. lf white p_lants (w) weresubstitutedfor purple (W),would there be any changein the expected outcome?

@ 1 9 95 (R e vise d6t2 00 7)W N S E All Rights Reserved 250-9 549


I

8 N am e

Date

Ac t i vi ty l l l underst an ding Domina nce-The p rinci ple of Seg regat ion In this activ-ityy9u will study singlegene differencesin variousmonohybridcrossesthat led Mendel to the discoveryof the Principleof Segregation-theabilityto predictthe segregationbetweentwo differentalletesin a singlegene pair and their behaviorin eachqeneration.

Ma te n a ls N e ed e d ' ' ' . .

( pe r te a m o f Z s t ud en t s)

plasticdiscs-representing"purebred"(homozygous) yellowpod colortrait !2) yellow-colored green-colored plastic disc-representingi'purebred" (nomozy!6us) gieen pod cotortrait !1) (1) red-coloredplasticdisc-representing'ipurebred" (nomozyg6ls)puipteftowertrait (1) blue-coloredptasticdisc clearstickytape (not provided) StudentStudyand AnalysisSheet

Mendelconductedexperiments on seventraits(seeTable1) whosecharacteristics (itselfand its alternate)were clearlydefined.Thisactivitywill simulatecrosses among two of these:flowerand pod color. 12 . Simulat eacrossbetweenap lanthomozygou s(G G )f or gree npodco lort(gree rait n-color ed p last ic disc)by crossingit with anotherhomozygous(gg)for yettowpods (yeltow-coloied ptasticdisc).Perform the crossby pl' :ing the yellowdiscon top of the greendiscariOsecuringwith stickytape. 13. Conductanothersimulatedcross,this time usingred-coloreddiscsto representa plant homozygous (WW) pu,rple-colored flowerswith yellow-coloreddiscsto representa plant homozygous(ww) *iitecoloredflowers.Secureplasticdiscswith stickytape. 14. What generationdo both these"disc crosses"represent? 15. Hold eachdisc(representing a crossresult)set up to the light and recordthe "dominant" observed

'"'"'Tlli;GGxss #{#ffi

crosswwx,, R#fr*,

16. Which phenotypictrait is hidden-ineachcro5s?

cross GG,nU#i{*-\${"

17. Writea statement

c,"sswwx,,$#i-{#\4p

{ tf

ng the relationship of

and "hidden" traits. { I

18. Completethe PunnetS quaresbelow writing in both genotypeand phenotypefor eachof the above

crosses.

cross GGx gg

I q -t

cross lAlWx ww l/

w

wW

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trnt W V{ . J Mlo*

Write a statementthat describeseach cross.

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20. Usethe informationin STEP1B to allow eachplantvariety(pod and flowercolor)to selfpollinate.Can you (likeMendel)predictthe results?CompleteanotherPunnetsquarefor eachcross-recordpheno14..

crossGgx Gg

Wwx Ww

w bl,^r;

C

la I I f[ /

^,V{./

I tt /

VV w

(

\j/ wf

21 .lnwh at rat iod othed omi nant andrece ssivet raitsa ppear 3 ?: I, t oof a tTab lel.lstherea simil ar relationshipconcerningall of rhe seventrairsstudiedOyMendel? 3CJ 7, ! 22. Usethe resultsof your observationstogether with Mendel'sactuallaboratorydata (in Table1) to describehow recessives disappearso completelyand then reappearagain,and alwaysin constant

proportions?

I& ^

ffiry ,^*_t; @ra

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ACT I V I TY I V Cr os s i ng M en de l' s Pe as

a Dih y b ri d Cr o ss

Thisactivityinvestigates crossesbetweenpea plantsthat are differentin two trait characteristics: (a dihybrid cross)with e-achgene pair havingone dominant and one recessive allele-and how eachgene pair actsindepen.de.ntly of the other. Phenotypesin the resultantgenerationswill be, on average,in a ratio of 9:3:3:1testifyingto the independence,or tndependentassortment,of thesetwo gene pairs.-

Ma tefials

Neede d

(per tea m o f 2 stu den ts)

Cup shaker (2) Four-sided dice-each numberedsiderepresents two gene pairs: (1) = (RY)-roundyettow (2) = (Ry)-round green (3) = (rY)-wrinktedVellow (4 = t/-wrinkted green StudentStudyand AnalysisSheet

24. UseTable1 to determinq *!iih,![qits (seedform andseedcolor) aredominan r,fpnl^/andwhicharerecessive:V!)sJ!W qf e!h.

g

"

t 6*

25. Predictthe genotypeand phenotypeof the F,generationthat resultsfrom a crossof a plant homozygous fBr rqynd (RR)an.Qyellow (YY)is crossedwith a plant havingwrinkled (rr) and green-colored(yy) peas. f ri! *.t rOo n&, 1e llO cF plantsfrom the abovecrossto predictfuture pheno26. Completethis Punnetsquarefor self-fertitized ' ,1

types:

PV [ \/

"Y r/ v \,

,y

--Su, PHENOTYPES' tru^.1. n,L*jreeh :J,-..ia Frb& ! olb*,{*:yf)r* { g ?'tlon 27. Usefour-sideddice for STEPS 27 through 28: (2) Four-sided dice-each numberedsiderepresents two gene pairs: (1) = (RY)-roundyettow (2) = (Ry)-round green (3) = (rY)-wrinktedyeltow {4) = (ry)-wrinkted green Permissiongrantedto makeunlimitedcopiesfor use in any one Foreducationaluse onlv,not for commercialuse or resale

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Eachdie is readby matchingthe numbervisibleon the point, correlatedto the gametedesignationabove.Thus when two die arecast(simulatingfertilization) the genotypeof the organismis establishedlFor example:a cast die indicates"4" and " 1". The correspondinggenotype would be Rryy-round yeilow.

30. Add your data to that of the restof the class;are the phenotypicratiosalteredmuch? How do they comparewith your Punnetsquareprediction? /\

.4"

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-

J'1. wrlte a statemEntthat summarizesMendel'sprincipleof independentassortmentbasedupon your classroomdata and Punnetsquareprediction.

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MATERIALS

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MATERIALS NEEDED PER GROUP 18 9 25 10 4

Black, deoxyribosemolecule pieces Blue, ribose molecule pieces lVtrite, flexible phosphate molecule tubes Red, guanine basetubes Blue, th)rmine basetubes R. Creery adenine base tubes L0 Black, cytosine basetubes ,^ I4hite, uracil basetubes 18 Solid, hydrogen bond connectors J Blue, IRNA models Black, amino acid models z White, rigid amino acid bonding tubes 1 Blue, ribosomemodel

PROCEDURE j:r.iitj:"r1f,',;:.iil$.&!tiii{{@FF,,W.tt,,itir:,,:,r.r.. ,,.,;,

students shouldalreadyhnaea basicunderstandingof organic molecules such qs nucleicacidsand proteins.Knowledgeof cell struitures and their functions mnyalsosaaeexplanationtime during thelaboratoryprocedure.

Part I - Making a DNA Chain A. Laying down the tracks 1. obtain eight white phosphate fledble moder tubes and nine bla& deoxyribose sugar pieces. Cormect these in a straight chairu so that the third, open bonding site on each sugar is facing the same direction. obtaln eight more phosphate tubes with r,in" ,.rgu, pieces, and form a second chain with each extra bonding site facing the same direction. set these chains parallel on the table in front of you so the extra bonding sites are facing each other, forming a structure that resemblestracks of a railroid (Figure 3). Phosphateand sugar alternately bond to form the backbone of all DNA molecules.

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Figure 3 Phosphate-sugarchains

t,

Nucleotide

Color

Cytosine

deoxyribose

Blue B. Completing the DNA molecule 1. The open bonding site on each nucleotide's sugar is filled by a nitrogen base. DNA has four possible nifrogen bases, and they have been color coded for this investigation. Starting at the top of one of your phosphate-sugar tracks, bond the following nitrogen bases, in order, to the strand: cytosine, thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine, gu&nine, adenine, thymine, guanine. This strand is marked with an asterisk in Figure 4 becauseit will be the single strand transcribed by RNA in Part E.

2. The second chain of phosphate-sugar molecules also contains nitrogen bases,and they are aligned in a specific arrangement dependent on the first strand's pattem. The nilrogen basesguanine and cytosine must always line up across from each other. Likewise, adenine and thymine will always match up. Since the first nitrogen base on the top chain was cytosine, the first nitrogen base on the bottom strand must be guanine. Place a guanine on the first deoxyribose of the bottom chain (Figure 4). Complete the bottom strand, placing the appropriate nitrogen base on each sugar that will correctly complement its opposing base.

Figure 4 Partially completed DNA model a aa

a aa

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4. Nitrogen base pairs join via hydrogen bonding to create the "railroad ties" that run between the phosphate-sugar "fracks." Obtain nine hydrogen bonding plugs, and corurect the two strands at their complementary nitrogen bases.This model is a portion of a DNA molecule.

Part II - MessengerRNA and Transcription C. Unzipping the DNA 1. In order for the information stored in the DNA to be used, the strand must temporarily separate at the hydrogen bonds that connect the complementary nitrogen bases.The separating is often referred to as 'urzipping the DNA strand.' Ur:zip your DNA model at the hydrogen bonds and set it aside for use in Part E.

D. Preparing RNA nucleotides

Redl

1. The DNA of a cell remains in the nucleus at all times, yet protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm. The information is fransferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by a second tlpe of nucleic acid, RNA. The sugar within RNA is called ribose, and it contains one more hydroxyl $oup (-OH) than DNA's sugar, deoxyribose. Obtain nine blue ribose pieces from your kit, and connect a white flexible phosphate tube to each.Do not link the sugar-phosphate models in a chain, but leave them as individual sections.

2. Complete the nine RNA nucleotides by adding a nitrogen base to each.Remember from the introduction that thymine is not a possible nih'ogen basein RNA, but that uracil is used instead to comliment adenine. To successfullycontinue with the procedure, you will need to add two adenines, two guanines, fwo uracils, and three cytosinesto your sugar-phosphatecombinations. E. Transcribingthe mRNA t.

Using the "unzipped," single strand of DNA, marked with an asterisk in Figure 4, and the hydrogen bond connectors,pair up the RNA nucleotides with their complementary DNA nitrogen bases. Recall that cytosine will pair with guanine, while adenine will pair with thl.rnine or uracil.

Figure 5

r a| 'a

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2. Connect each nucleotide's phosphate tube to the neighboring nucleotide'ssugar. Detach the RNA strand from the DNA sband at the hydrogen bond locations, allowing the RNA to keep the bonds. This strand of ribonucleic acid is called messengerRNA (mRNA) becauseit carries the inJormation stored on a DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes located in the cytoplasm. The srRNA is like a photographic negative of the original DNA single strand. Compare your mRNA to the complementary singie strand of DNA from Part B (without the asterisk in Figure 4). Aside from uracil replacing thymine, and ribose replacing deoxyribose, the stfands are identical. The making of this mRNA is called trarscription. 4. Using the remaining hydrogen bond connectors, reconnect the two single DNA strands, and save your double stranded DNA model for further observationslater in this investigation.

f 1 l

Part III - Transfer RNA and Translation F. Ribosomesand codons l.

After separation from the DNA, the mRNA exits the nucleus and partners with a ribosome in the cytoplasm of a cell. Place your mRNA model on the plastic ribosome plate from your kit.

2. A ribosome recognizesthree nucleotides at a time on the mRNA. The group of three nucleotidesis called a codory and codons speli out a messagethat will translate to a specific amino acid in the protein synthesis sequence.Your current chain of nine RNA nucleotides is actualiy considered three mRNA codons. Compare your codons to the illuskation in Figure 6.

Figure 5 Codon sequencefor your mRNA model

CodonGAU (Asparticacid)

9. Transfer RNA 1

CodonGCC (Alanine)

CodonUAC (Tyrosine)

(IRNA) and anticodons

A second type of RNA awaits the mRNA in the cyioplasm of the cell. Transfer RNA (IRNA) is a relatively small molecule that bonds to an amino acid on one end and a mRNA codon on the other (Figure 7). Obtain your tluee IRNA models and notice that eachhas three nitrogen basebonding sites.Thesetluee sites make up an anticodon, which complements a codon on the messenger RNA. O 2002WARD'S Natural ScicnceEstablishment,IncAll Rights Rcsened


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Figure 7 IRNA rnodel amino acid site

antlcodon

Build yow anticodora by placing the following groups of three nitrogen baseson the IRNA models: cytosine, uracil, and adenine (CUA); cytosine, guanine, and guanine (CGG); and adenine, uracil, and guanine (AUG). H. Translation Attach the anticodons to their complementary codons using hydrogen bond connectors.Again, guanine and cytosine must partner, while adenine and uracil partner. The tRNAs are now ready to receive amino acids. Bond each amino acid to its respective IRNA. Notice that the amino acid sequencehas been determined by how the anticodons were organized.

2. Compiete the symthesisof this portion of a protein by bonding the amino acid models together using the white bonding tubes. (SeeFigure 8 for comparison).

Figure 8 Translation, the final step in protien synthesis Polyp.ptldc (narn \

covalcnt bond Inrldc thc rlbosomc

Hvdrcqcn -bonZ

Rclcared

s"o Rlborc rugat

PhorphatG 9'NP

-_-)

Each type of amino acid is carried to the ribosome by a particular form of tRNA, carrying an anticodon that forms a temporary bond with one of the codons in the mRNA. As shown above, the ribosome moves along the mRNA chain and "reads off" the codons in seouence.

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3. A partial strand of DNA has the nitrogen base pattern shown below. Indicate what nitrogen bases would be needed for a mRNA to complement this strand. DNA

mRNA

\c

9 <o

<5

-cytosine --,

{

-adenine-

".1V c( \ ) h e

-cvtosine-J

-

-th ym ine - -

IKO <c <) <)

t

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lf, !rr' irC

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-cvtosine-r'

tl Uu a t l?! -

-adenine -

-

-

-guanine-

-cytosine

<" g

rllrc1i/

-

< f i l'

,;l

--

C>

c>' Q g C> C>

What would be the nikogen base pattern for the anticodons (tRNAs) that would bond to the mRNA strand in Question 3? Anticodons and tRNA

r 1 (

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r n, - t t P r,J

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5. How can protein be synthesized in the cytoplasm of a cell when DNA is contained in the nucleus?I'l

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Complete the following chart:

Nucleic Acid

Actual Name

Shape t)o,sE l(

DNA

D e r rg ri b o*ht' c leia a ,i j

mRNA

n1e75(* l( r cl iC' f r>o r1'-' .e

{tel;v )t \ 4

lp

( \-r )

r 'l

< ,t ' ct v td

s.{ rf

J r a ts{4 7

tRNA

nuc lf r I^,, .l!v< ,

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rl

,l

-t-tiie -4-or,U

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,to'ni

{: {( ) |

(lcv{

Y r i .u n u 7 l g i 6

t ! ,fr :i

;I

t.gk

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i;rl4

@tr=%

I

ar, i

Function During Protein Synthesis

Location in Cell

+ r r;',.,lca"tE I ( si Y tnlc pr cJ, "!n

r gi crcl

Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast codors to anticodons,rSirnilaritiesand differencescan relate to structure, components, andf or function.

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8. Read the following statements and write if each one is true or false. If you believe the statement is false, explain the reasonwhy below it. 'Uracil is always paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA' ,-l ' l ,, l (?

r 4 rl \

-

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'The processin which a ribosome controls protein synthesis is called transcription'

,(-k"'Adenine and guanine are purines; q,'tosine and thymine are pyrirnidines' -T--

I{ r ;t 'Protein synthesis occurs within the nucleus of a cell' /l l )t x r

W@ 'Nucleotides contain a sugar, an organic nitrogen base,and a phosphate group.'

\r t L 9. The DNA model you constructed was nine base pairs long and yielded a tluee amino acid protein. Actual human DNA is billions of base pairs in length and codes for the production of millions of proteins. Some sequencesare so specific that a change in a single base (termed an SNP, or single nucleotide polymorphism) can result in an entirely new protein structure. Researchan example of an sNP and explain the effects it may have' A r\ rj _ . n fL -'{t^

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10. Design a poster that shows the process of protein synthesis from DNA molecule to finished protein. Be sure to include where each process is occurring and what components are involved with each step.

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LAB.AIDS@ #50 . CONCEPTS OF CLASSIFICATION KIT StudentWorksheetand Guide To understandthe classificationof organisms,you mustfirst havea clear understanding of the meaningand type of traits(or characteristics), and how they are usedin identifyingorganisms. Thereare many differentkindsof livingthingson earth.All livingthingshaveone thing in common.Theyare madeup of cells. Problem: Do livingthingshavesomethingbesidescellsin common? Procedure: lmaginethat you havea commondeck of playingcardsin your hand.Eachof the 52 cardsis differentand yet they are similarin certainways. 1.

Listbelow the differentways a deckof 52 playingcardscan be grouped.

2.

Next to eachgrouping,indicatethe kindsof cardsthat you would place into that group.

WAYSTOCROUP rt U vnbq f I

A.

B. C. "

J.

co l r, f U i Y\ ' t " r. ,"r / tr

OF CA RD S FO UN Dt N GR O U PS . ,2 KT N DS ( \i ? e' 5 o/ . 'f 3' i , * ') t ,

L -l < < R

r "J ,

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txw*, $1"5,L. , 3r+ . 1, c.2 .t . 7, 1 _l-UC ^ - -A(tCards TABTE1. CategorizingPlaying into Croups

er. W ha tcha r ac ter ist i csof thecardsen ab l ey o u tog ro u pthJL, e m? l\' 't , -

4.

,i l

9 -,| 9

a^d

wo l v( ,

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1 , 1:,A O

t uf. ,

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Youwill work in a team and your instructorwill provideyour team with 20 numberedfigures.Youwill be able to observethatthe 20 figuresare differentand yet they havecertainsi,milarities..(Remove them from the sheetsif _ lhevar e stillat tache d.t lstherea nvordertot hem ? 4 ( C s 1""., .^1,. . t i>-a " Write a briefdescription(in words)of eachof the 20 figures.Tryto describeeachfiguresimplyand adequately so that anotherstudentwill be ableto identifyit from the descriptiononly.B = Blueand R = Red.

1" ,(,-,u ^j = 1 1)v, c L cL f q ( I r, rt,v.l e , p .l rte 82. l= ^ t l le / ^ \ lv a -.l cl g V 8 3 . ) r "a ll" * gl u e 8 4 . L W , al l r lo -J l rK e-

81.

85.

,r " .q l (

86.

L or q g

I,ut BB. L cr q _1 8 9. g r *t li 87.

B10 .

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ril v,! r-u, tet ,t

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R 6. R 7. RB. R9. R10. 5.

Tryarranging thefiguresintoBroups on yourdesk.Whencomplete, recordthe numbers for eachgroupin Table2. CHARACTERISTICS DETERMININC GROUPING t\

A.

E'.t

D . . -\ - /J ' ,' . f, '\

( ,_ , .C1 4( . , ,

i Mp Q

VC _, + \

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.

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TABLE2.

) t l-

6.

NUMBEROF FI GU RES

i n,. l,l r] , c r;, ,,.

Blu r in \ < ", Ai rJ , . ,, ^ , l l

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c. i Jq 9i ' -a Q , ^ ^-^b< r D . --:--

---

TYPESOF FIGURES

Q i, c

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K

Now mix up the figuresand regroupthem in anotherway and againrecordthe informationin Table3. CHARACTERISTICS DETE RMININC G RO UP INC

n. kd

*l

TYPESOF FIGURES

NUMBERO F FIG URES

,' c qi -,i h

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F. TABLE3. In the mid lBth century,CarolusLinnaeus, a Swedishscientistdid somethingsimilarto what was just done.He attemptedto groupall livingthingsas you haveattemptedto group52 playingcardsand 20 figures.His groupingshave beenimprovedon since,but he did establish the factthat livingthingscan be grouped.

O L AB- AI D5 ,I N C. 2 OOO sO -W SP


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Te a c n r n/ S e c lo n

Dnrr

New ideasfor teachingscicnce

AcnvrrY Step1

0assifyingLifeForms

Shareyourfindingswith yourteacherbeforeproceeoing.

(PerGroup) 8

CritterCards

Step2

Keyto the Kingdomsof Life Keyto eachof the sixkingdoms(Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi,Plantae, Animalia) 6

CrifterCharacteristic Sheets(onefor eachkingdom)

A CloserLookAt... CritterCards Takea momentto familiarize yourselfwith the information containedon eachCritterCard. 0rgNo.

Cardtext here. Cardtext here. Cardtext here. Cardtext here. Cardtext here. Cardtext here. Cardtext here.

5ilhouette Drawing of organism

Revieweachof your group's'tritters,'and determineto whichof the sixkingdomstheybelong.Usethe information providedon the CritterCard,the informationin the keybookletand the Keyto the Kingdomsof Lifeto make thisdecision. Recordthe'brganism number,,and scientificlcommonname(s) in the left-hand columnon the appropriate sheetfor eachcritter.

Size pmormicrometer 'Microscopic" "Vhible' mmormillimeter crn0r(entimeter mormeter

Information regarding: . Scientific Name . Common Name . CellType . Body 0rganization . Where lt Lives .Whatlt Eats . Howit Reproduces

Become familiarwith usinga dichotomous or twoanswerkey. Usinga DichotomousKey... A "dichotomous" or"two-answer" keyallowsyou to comparetwo choicesfor eachof an organism,s characteristics.You shouldbe ableto readthe pairof characteristics, and afterexaminingyourorganisrn, you,ll answer"no"toone of the pair,and"yes,,tothe other. Then,usinglinefor the "yes"characteristic, followthe instructions on whereto go nextin the key.lfthe charyou said"yes"toendsat a nameinsteadof acteristic directionsto the nextstep,you've finishedkeyingout the organism!The nameat the endof the lineisthe groupto whichyourorganism belongs. Toget somepracticeusinga dichotomous key,let's identifythisunique'brganism":


I I n

Neo*

scl:

TeacHe n/Srcloru

Newideasforteachingscience

Beginat-1a 1a

shapedlikea cubeor a sphere Organism l fy es, . ..G OTO 2a l fn o,. .. .. GO T O 1b

1b Organism+hapedl ike a cylinder lf yes,the organismis . . . . Cylinderous cellous lf n o, .. . .. GO TO 2a 2a

2b

Organism is a cube lf yes,the answeris . . . . lf no . Organismis a square

.Cubous cellous .. .. .q o to2 B

Critter Characteristic Sheet KingdomAnimalia(Eumetazoa) Taxonomy No: 12 Name: Romaleaguttata Grasshopper Phylum: Arthropod Class:

.Squarous cellous

Baseduponthe characteristic of its cubedshape,this "organism"would be identifiedasa'tubedcell"or "Cubouscellous." A wordof cautionwhenusinga dichotomous key- if you getto a pointin the keywhereyouthinkthe answerto both statements in a pair is"no"- you probably madea mistakeat an earlierstep.Go backandgive it anotheitry.Youshouldalwaysbe ableto say"yes"to one of the two statements in eachpair.

Phylum Class Characteristics Characteristics . Visible - Left/right organization . Organspresent . Bodydivided into three distinctparts . Hasjointed appendages and a hardouter covering

Step5 In the animalkey,subphylum groupsarealsoidentified. lf when keyingout yourcritteryou encountera subphylum group,drawa linebelowthe phylumcharacteristics andwritedownthe subohylum characteristics belowit. Forexample:

Step3 ldentifythe phylumto whicha particular critterbelongs by followingthe keyuntilit endsin a phylumname. Step4 Writedown the groupcharacteristic(s)that identifies the phylumon the CritterCharacteristic Sheetthat matches the kingdom1o__w_h_ich the critterbelongs. Forexample:

Thiscritterbelongsto the kingdomAnimalia (Eumetazoa) andthe phylumArthropoda. lt hasthese groupcharacteristics:

Taxonomy No :12 Name: Romalea guttata Grasshopper Phylum: Arthropod Class:

Phylum Class Characteristics Characteristics . Visible . Left/right organization 'Organspresent . Bodydivided into three distinctparts . Hasjointed appendages anda hard outercovering . Hassinglepair of antennaeon head . Breathes throughtiny body tubes

TheClassification ofLiving Things (0PYMAST[R: (opyuse@nfinedto edu(ational gnntedto makeuniimitedcopies. Permission purposes withina singleschoolbuiiding. Copyright 2001-Neo/sclrMCorponrron.

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Taxonomy

GroupCharacteristics

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' G reatvarie tyin b ody form :singlecells,gro u pso f l ike cells;thread-li kechainsof cells. ' Reproduces by either asexualor sexu almea ns.

Taxonomy No: *' l Name :+ r l l' litSr u- ,"'ili ,,'- rr. Class

Phylum AN\ctsBAs

PhylumCharacteristics f #i5

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No:,fF l"e' i.li ra; Name: -f l'l P i''r\ c,5l i!'\,i.l

Class Phylum 51 r'1E \\\.\ 61,5,

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TheClassification of Livinq Thi ( 0P YM A 5i [ f :P erm ilsi0 n gr an ted tomal 8unl i mit edc opies. (opyus!( onf]n edt oe du( l t i0na lp u rp ol es * it hi n es i ng le s <h oo lb ui ld i ng '( o py. i g ht]0 0t- Nu ol 5c ' *c o ' ' .t i. .l


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Taxonomy

PhylumCharacteristics

ClassCharacteristics -

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Taxonomy

Phylum Characteristics

ClassCharacteristics

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. Most are motile. . Cannotmake its own food - allfeed on others. . Reproduces by either asexualor sexualmeans.

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Analyze and Conclude 1. If the respectiverows of colored moths or different sized squaresare arrangedin a single file from white to black or small to large, is there an equal number of objectson eitherside of the middle object? ,4e7

2. Looking at the classdata for which coloredmoths were selected,did the class selectout more lighter-colored moths or darker-coloredmoths?

\ iqlr-{"f 3. How wouldyou explaintt.'rtus results?

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4. Looking at the classdata for which different sized squareswere selected,did the classselectout more smaller-sizedsquaresor larger-sizedsquares?

{ wo./let5. How would you expiain the classresuits?

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6. Imagine that most of the treesin a forest of over 100 years ago had bark that was light in color. In addition, some of the birds in this forest fed on moths. What kind of moth would be eatenby birds more frequently? Explain why. -- \ to \o, r d/ )f c qc g4 , rr u lr) he. /$zal\ D o-i \', tr

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7. If uneatenmoths mated, what color offspring would they tend to have a few more o f?r \,

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8. Further imagine that after a number of years,the nearby city becamemore and more industiahzed. Smokepoured out of the chimneys and settledon the tree trunks. What happenedto tfre color of the tree trunk as time progressed?

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