Page 1

MEGHAN LEWIS: Selected Works 2012-2015

Master of Architecture // Master of Environmental Managment

Yale University 2016


DESIGN


WORKSHOP MAYA: NEIGHBORHOOD UNIVERSITY Yale University - Spring 2015 - Advanced Design Studio Critic: Tatiana Bilbao // Studio Partner: Meghan Mcallister

This studio led by Mexican architect Tatiana Bilbao with the support of Infonavit tackled the issue of abandoned social housing complexes in Mexican suburbs. We proposed interventions in five Mexican cities. My partner and I worked in Villas Otoch, a social housing complex in Cancun with over 6,500 units, approximately 23% of which are abandoned. 30% of Cancun’s population identify as Mayan or indigenous. The Yucatan peninsula is home to an indigenous population with a long and rich cultural history, and many of these practices are very much alive and in use today. The monotonous housing stock and lack of communal space make cultural practices difficult to carry out in the current urban condition. This contributes to the transient nature of these housing complexes, contributing to high rates of abandonment.

We propose to create a new kind of university: an indigenous university that is distributed in small, formerly abandoned sites throughout Villas Otoch. This neighborhood-driven university will empower residents with a means to pass on and sustain indigenous knowledge within an urban setting. Additionally it will provide more local employment opportunities while helping to foster a greater cultural identity for Cancun. In the spirit of traditional education that relies mostly on observation from within the home, this new architectural typology for a university enables education practices to blend with home life as well as the community life of the neighborhood.


Left: Photographs from Site Visit to Villas Otoch, February 2015 Right: Overlay of Mayan populations in 2000 and Cultural Heritage Sites on Yucatan Peninsula (Above) and location of Villas Otoch, developer settlements, and informal settlements in Cancun (Below)


YUCATÁN PENINSULA

YUCATÁN PENINSULA

INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS (2000)

+3,000

MAYAN CULTURAL HERITAGE POST-CLASSIC AD 900 CANCUN SITES - 1500

CANCUN

IZAMAL MAYAPÁN

Mayans migrants to Cancun per month

CHICHÉN ITZÁ COBÁ UXMAL

CLASSIC SITES AD 250 CALAKMUL - 900

y

PALENQUE TIKAL

YACHILÁN SEÍBAL

QUIRIGUA UTATIÁN IXIMCHE

COPÁN

KAMÍNAÍJUYU

6

20

Million

Million

Peak Population (AD 600-900)

21st Century Population

20

Thousand

Population

6,562 Dwellings

Villas Otoch

58.41

Dwellings per Hectare

Density

23% of Dwellings

Vacancy

628 Thousand

Cancún Population

120

INFORMAL SETTLEMENT

km2

Cancún Size

NEW DEVELOPER WORKER’S HOUSING

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

7


SCHOOL OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

100

Left/Right: Master Plan of Maya Workshop Neighborhood University Program 200

AL

50

G

N

SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE


SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP

SCHOOL OF ART

FACULTY HOUSING

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

STUDENT HOUSING

SCHOOL OF MAYAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

RE

AL

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

9


12.00

6.00

VILLAS OTOCH / HOUSING TYPOLOGY meters 1

5

10

3.45

3.8

6

4.5

8

11

3.5

16.25 20.5

Habitants

3.5

33.6

per Dwelling Unit Habitants

m2

42.8

33.6

per Dwelling Unit

Dwelling Unit Size

m2

m2

Dwelling Unit Size

Dwelling Unit Size

12.00

6.00

9.0

4.5

Left: Axonometric drawings and elevations of two developer housing types found in Villas Otoch Right: Axonometric drawings of a typical block in Villas Otoch comparing proposed, existing, and planned conditions


PROPOSED

PEDESTRIAN-ONLY INTERIOR BLOCK

UNIVERSITY INCUBATOR

PARALLEL PARKING

WIDER CONTINUOS SIDEWALK ALLOWS FOR ADDITIONS

INFILL PROTOTYPE WITH INCREASED OUTDOOR SPACE

ACTUAL CONDITIONS

NO COMMERCIAL BUILT

SELF-BUILT ADDITIONS

MINI-PARKS TURN DERELICT

FENCES CUT OFF SIDEWALK

ABANDONED HOUSES

DEVELOPER PLAN

ZONED COMMERCIAL

NO THROUGH-TRAFFIC

PARKING WITHIN LOT LINES

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

11


Left: 1:25 basswood sectional model of gallery of university art school Right: 1:100 First floor plan of art school showing integration of new program into existing fabric


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

15


Left: 1:200 basswood model of business school and agricultural university area Right: First floor plan of entrepreneurial school and agricultural university area


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

17


BOSTON 2024 OLYMPIC VILLAGE Yale University Spring 2014 - 1022b Architectural Design Critic: Jennifer Leung - Studio Partner: Huizhen Ng

Our urbanism studio co-opted the program of Olympic Village for Boston’s 2024 bid. My partner and I sought to utilize the global lens of the Olympics to justify the financial burden of hosting. We found spectatorship to be a unifying concept in achieving our programmatic and environmental goals, while also reflecting the everincreasing media presence in everyday life and at the Olympic Games. Harnessing Boston’s existing reputation for education, we proposed using the Olympic village to rebrand Boston as the East Coast entrepreneurial hub. We opted to incorporate the Olympic media hub program into our site to provide a unique community for competitive entrepreneurial startups after the Olympics as well as increase density. Boston need only retain a percentage of its graduates to transform economically and culturally. Second, the Village’s position on Boston’s harbor and the enormous scale of the Olympic program provide a unique opportunity to alter Boston’s problematic relationship with water. Historical land use and infill of the harbor have made expensive flooding an imminent danger to Boston’s future development. Engaging Boston residents with the water now is crucial to its resiliency in the face of climate change. While much of the existing

harbor is programmed as public space, these spaces are largely disconnected and not scaled for pedestrian use, occupied only for infrequent events and recreational boating. Our design integrates water into every aspect of daily life, educating residents and workers through the spectacle of the daily water cycle while providing productive landscapes for storm water management and designated flood environments. The result of our focus on spectatorship is visual, physical, and environmental porosity throughout the site. The central location of the media hub and its formal relationship to the surrounding training spaces creates visual porosity. Physical porosity results from a system of pedestrian routes that connect different nodes of activity, which also increases visual porosity through creating new user interactions. Lastly, the weaving of water and open space throughout the commercial and residential fabric at multiple datums creates both environmental porosity and a constant awareness of the ecosystem within which the buildings are situated.


Left: Aerial Renderings showing shifting park areas in response to rising water Right: Site Plan (Above), Ground Level Floor Plan (Left) + Submersible Park Level Plan


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

21


TYPOLOGIES: BUILDING + PARK + GREEN STREET EDGE

PARK EDGE

COMMERICAL RESIDENTIAL

STREET EDGE

PARK EDGE

STREET EDGE

PARK EDGE

RESIDENTIAL

TYPOLOGIES: BUILDING + PARK + GREEN COMMERICAL

STREET EDGE

STREET EDGE

PARK EDGE

PARK EDGE

RESIDENTIAL

STREET EDGE

PARK EDGE

Left: Typology studies of relationship between building, park, and water for Olympic Village (residential) and Media Hub (commercial) Right: Axonometric Diagrams of Residential Water Sectional Change


LOW TIDE

HIGH TIDE

STORM

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

23


Left: 1-64� Model with close-ups on residential canals (left) and training floodable park areas (right) Right: 1-150� Site Model (Museum Board, Plexi, Cardboard) with close-up on residential area (left) and Media Hub/Training Areas (right)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

25


CASIS HEADQUARTERS MANHATTAN Yale University - Fall 2013 - 1021a Architectural Design Critic: Sunil Bald

The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) is a government entity responsible for both managing the International Space Station (ISS) US National Laboratory and demonstrating the viability and necessity of ISS to America’s future. The Manhattan headquarters will not only provide office and lab facilities but will also house educational outreach and exhibition spaces. CASIS is unique among government entities in that it funds corporate and private research in addition to academic and government projects. I sought to emphasize this unique intersection of public and private sectors by exploring systems of transparency and blurring boundaries between programmatic spaces. Rather than creating transparency through conventional material means, I used the language of conventional structural members to create permeable partitions. The result is a system of web-like forms that weave through the building, creating spatial continuity and encasing the exhibition objects. This circulation sequence allows visitors to experience all of the various

functions of CASIS by situating educational and exhibit spaces adjacent to office and operations control, questioning the definition of what defines a traditional exhibition program.


Left: Process Floor Plans, (Graphite and Bristol) Right: Exterior Rendering of Northwest Entry From Park


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

29


LEVEL 2

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 4

LEVEL 5

LEVEL 6

Left: Floor Plans 2-6 Right: Renderings of Level 3 Gallery entry (above) and Space X Dragon Capsule from Level 5 (left) and Level 1 (below)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

31


Left: Southeast Exterior Perspective (above), Aerial Views of Destiny Module Exhibition (left) and Space X Dragon Capsule (right) Right: Aerial View (1/4� Basswood + Acrlyic Model)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

33


118 GREENWOOD Yale University Summer 2013 - 1013c Building Project + Building Project Construction Internship Construction Oversight: Adam Hopfner, Paul Brouard, Avi Forman

118 Greenwood is the site of the 2013 Vlock Building Project, an affordable 1,500 sf single family home in New Haven, CT. One project was selected from eight competing teams in the first year design studio.

As a construction intern, I worked on all aspects of construction, from framing and window installation to finished floors. The Building Project was the driving motivation behind my application to the Yale School of Architecture, As Project Manager, I was and I am delighted to say that it responsible for managing my fifty more than fulfilled my expectations. classmates, attending all meetings, The opportunity to interact with creating consistency between teams a real client, site, and project and construction documentation, while insulated by a pedagogical and serving as class representative environment was invaluable. My to faculty and clients. My co-project confidence as a designer, as manager and I led a larger leadership well as my patience and ability circle throughout the spring, in to collaborate with others, grew which we coordinated material exponentially over the course of donations, budget, community the project. All this, when added engagement, and website to the satisfaction of seeing a development, while preparing for the building develop from conception to upcoming task of construction. completion, made the project truly After a design was selected, we valuable. had a 2-week period to advance the project from schematic design to a [Photo Credits: Neil Alexander and full construction document set. After Sarah Smith] June 28, the house was handed off from our first year class to a smaller team of fourteen construction interns, three teaching assistants, and three construction managers.


Left: Construction Process - Framing and Siding Right: Construction Process - Skylight, Entry Stair, ‘Hearth’, and Finished Stair and Siding


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

37


Left: View of Hearth from Kitchen Below Right: First Floor Open Plan Kitchen and Living Spaces


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

39


PROTOTYPE HOUSE: 56 HENRY Yale University Spring 2013 - 1012b Architectural Design Critic: Trattie Davies

56 Henry is a 1,500 sf single family house prototype designed to address an abundance of abnormally thin lots throughout New Haven, CT. The prototype is a simple volume split, built to maximize privacy and natural light, two key limitations of the prototypical thin lot. Through it shears the kitchen and second set of bedrooms towards the back of the site, this prototype takes advantage of the light and views provided by the empty adjacent backyard. In so doing, it doesn’t turn its back on the neighborhood by setting itself too far from the street. Elongation of the house creates the feeling of additional interior space while activating a larger portion of the site. This approach also maximizes outdoor area by creating a hierarchy of programmed outdoor spaces sited for seasonal use, as opposed to a single open back lot. The prototype can be modified to fit the needs of each unique thin lot by lengthening or shifting to respond to site-specific idiosyncrasies, including adjacent houses, existing topography, vegetation, and orientation.


Left: Axonometric Prototype Iterations Right: Prototype Iterations (1-16� Models Basswood and E-Flute Cardboard)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

43


VLOCK FIRST YEAR BUILDING PROJECT: TEAM F Yale University Spring 2013 - 1012b Architectural Design Critics: Joeb Moore, Alan Organschi, Trattie Davies, and Paul Brouard

Vlock Building Project is a five-week residential design competition for first-year master’s students at Yale. Each team presents one house for selection and construction in a low-income neighborhood in New Haven, CT. We conceptualized our house as two interlocking zones: a systems zone and a living zone. The systems zone includes the appliances, mechanical systems, and utilities that constitute everyday life, whereas the living zone includes interior and exterior spaces for sleeping, eating, studying, or relaxing. The efficiency of the systems zone against the North wall allows for an open first floor with dining, kitchen, and living room spaces. Large front and back porches extend the living spaces to the exterior. The second floor is a series of more intimate nested spaces that integrate public and private uses while allowing natural light to pass to the lower floor. Each bedroom has a semi-public space in addition to a private sleeping space. This organization allows for no wasted circulation space on the second floor.

Where the systems and living zones interlock, they create voids that allow for visual connection and light to pass between floors. During the day, these voids alleviate the lack of natural light characteristic of thin lots by allowing second floor skylights to illuminate the lower floor. At night, the semi-translucent bathroom walls light up the voids, creating a sense of occupancy both day and night.


Left: East/Interior Elevation of ‘Living Zone’ (1/4” Basswood Model); Interior Renderings of ‘Void’ above and First Floor Living Zone Right: First and Second Floor Plan


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

47


Left: West/Interior Elevation of ‘Systems Zone’ (1/4” Basswood Model); Interior Renderings of ‘Voids’ from Below (left) and 2nd Floor Nook Right: Longitudinal Sections through ‘Nooks’ (top), ‘Voids’, and Systems Zone (bottom)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

49


WHY HOTEL ELEV Workshop / WEI Architects - Summer 2015

WHY hotel is a hot spring hotel located in the northeast Beijing suburb of Peking Backyard. ELEV/ WEI Architects was initially hired to renovate an existing structure of 20+ rooms and add seven new units on top of an existing parking area, without any major changes to the cartoon theme of the hotel. However, once open communication was established between the clients and architect, they quickly agreed to transform the project from a cartoon-themed agritainment style hotel to a design-focused boutique hotel, unified by a beautiful bamboo grove. The new design of WHY Hotel bridges traditional Chinese architecture and contemporary Beijing. We began with an analysis of the programmatic requirements of the new units, separating the basic functions of bedroom, toilet space, private jacuzzi, and space for meditation into individual units with the minimum required space. We then analyzed the site, studying the lighting conditions, the relationship with surrounding buildings, and the way in which humans move through the site. Last, we scattered the buildings both

vertically and horizontally throughout the site to create Na Wei’s vision of individual houses amidst a bamboo grove within the constraints of the allotted site. Working from this initial design, the we optimized the organization of the units to accommodate our site analysis and the technological, material, and functional needs of each building. Our bamboo steel engineers translated our digital model into a complete structural model to enable them to send datasheets to their factory in Szechuan province. Each piece was made to specification in the factory and transported back to Beijing, where it was precisely assembled according to the design. In the center of the courtyard is a hot spring pool, filling the courtyard with warm steam throughout the year. Two sets of paths weave through the courtyard amidst the bamboo grove: a central path encircling the hot spring pool and a second path connecting each independent courtyard to the central space. The elegant dance between these paths required two

months of careful iteration by the design team. A system of sprayers produces mist in the bamboo groves to maintain adequate humidity. Meandering through the bamboo, guests can see only mist and the indistinct form of the hotel units beyond the dense grove. The walker’s view clears upon reaching the hot spring pool, where an undulating wall of vertical bamboo steel planks encircles the public area to create privacy for the hotel units. Privacy for each unit is created through the carefully designed angle of each vertical bamboo piece, as well as through the electric glass in the apertures of each room. With this technology, guests curate their visual interaction with the central landscape by adjusting the transparency. Photo Credits: Staff of ELEV Workshop


Left: Site Plan and exterior photograph from SE adjacent courtyard Right: Exterior photographs of pool with hotel additions beyond and underneath the cantilevered bedroom of new additions


Left: Model (above), photographs of view from paths to courtyard (middle) and night view of central courtyard Right: Axonometric diagram of design components


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

55


Left: Axonometric of hotel and courtyard (above) and photograph from SE adjacent courtyard Right: Intersection of vertical ‘bamboo steel’ fence and supporting concrete wall (above) and skylight in bedroom units (below)


Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

57


RESEARCH


PRIMARY LABEL

STANDARD/CRITERIA DOCUMENT

CRADLE TO CRADLE (C2C) CERTIFICATION PROGRAM V2.1

INDUSTRY SECTOR

GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN

MULTI-PRODUCT

MTS 2006 SMART SUSTAINABLE BUILDING PRODUCT STANDARD MULTI-PRODUCT

EU FLOWER COMMISSION DECISION 2009/607/EC HARD SURFACE COVERINGS

GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICE AUSTRALIA (GECA) 50-2011 V2 CARPET PRODUCTS

NSF/ANSI 140-2009 SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARPET CARPET PRODUCTS

ANSI/BIFMA E3-2010 FURNITURE SUSTAINABILITY STANDARD FURNITURE

NORDIC SWAN ECOLABELLING 031 FURNITURE AND FITMENTS, VERSION 4.0 FURNITURE

ULE ISR 100 FOR GYPSUM BOARDS AND PANELS WALLBOARD

NSF/ANSI 336-2011 SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR COMMERCIAL FABRIC TEXTILES

FIGURE 2.1 – STANDARDS INCLUDED IN MSS STUDY

The nine materials sustainability standards selected for this study provide a set of criteria against which a product can be measured. The labels pictured are the official certification marks (or ecolabels) for the particular standard, although multiple certifications marks may exist for a single standard.

10


MATERIAL SUSTAINABILITY STANDARDS + CERTIFICATIONS Brookings Institute and Washington University Academic Venture Fund Primary Research Assistant 2010 - 2012 - Washington University in St. Louis

CHAPTER 4 : ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CATEGORIES

This chapter discusses the issue at the heart of material In 2010, a team of what architecture sustainability standards comparison: is each and standard requiring an applicant’s product to mitigate lawoffaculty were awarded a $40,000 its impact on the environment? This chapter is into grant to perform impartial and rigorous sections focusing on nine environmental impact analysis Use, of sustainability standards categories : (1) Resource (2) Human Health and and Ecological Toxicity, (3) Toxic and Pollutants, (4) certifications for Media building materials. Energy Use, (5) Water Use, (6) Social Accountability, 2010 to 2012,and I led small team (7) Performance,From and (8) Innovation, (9) aISO-LCA Requirements. of Asstudents these nineas categories wereresearch developed the primary as a method to analyze the standards in our study, assistant. Sustainability note that they have no directMaterial relation to the Life Cycle Impact (LCI) categories as created International Standards (MSS)byaretheone of few efforts Standardization Organization (ISO) or any other to mitigate environmental impacts organization’s categorizations.

as specifically related to building

We strive to not form value judgments regarding materials, providing the criteria whether one environmental impact is more important than another, orbehind whetherwell one known standardlabels is more valuable such as than another. Rather, our objective is to develop an Cradle to Cradle and GREENguard. effective way to compare the nine standards and to understand theirMany inner of workings, making the standards the existing efforts to provide more accessible to those who wish to use this research as education and analysis of MSS are a reference.

by nine manufacturers By grouping thebeing criteriaundertaken of each of the MSS into environmental categories, we may andimpact other self-interested entities. Our unintentionally underemphasize the extent of team strove to fulfill the critical need interdependence among the environmental impact for an academic of MSS categories. For example, an energyanalysis consumption criterion, listed in Use environmental impact to the helpEnergy designers, manufacturers, category, affects greenhouse gas emissions criteria, listed and enterprises evaluate in the Toxic andregulators Media Pollutants category. However, the most direct and c comparisons criteria andspecifi differentiate amongofthe many are evident when criteria with similar objectives are competing MSS and make critical presented side by side in grouping. objective and The percentagesdecisions representedusing graphically or textually throughout Chapters 4, 5, and 6 refer only to the meaningful information.

RESOURCE USE

Resource Use

HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL Human Health TOXICITY

and Ecological Toxicity

TOXIC & MEDIA & Media OLLUTANTS PToxic

Pollutants

EEnergy NERGY USEUse WWater ATER USE Use SOCIAL Accountability CCOUNTABILITY ASocial PPerformance ERFORMANCE INNOVATION Innovation ISO-LCA

ISO-LCA

F6IGURE 4.1 COMPOSITE PROFILE OF NINE STANDARDS environmental impact categories: oversight for two day workshop in

Resource Use (including Waste Washington D.C. and subsequent Reduction), Energy Use, Water Use, (3) acting as liaison criteria each, while the remainder of the criteriapresentations divide themselves into single digit percentages other student researchers and Toxicity, Social Responsibility, and across the between environmental impact categories. number of criteria dedicated to an environmental Performance. Our interest is in making faculty to focus and format research in impact category.The Theproject percentages no with way refl ect the kickedin off a two day LIFE CYCLE IMPACT (LCI) REDUCTIONS difficulty in achieving or the value of a criterion. the standards accessible to consumers addition to helping design data set and workshop in Washington D.C. with Life Impacts (LCI) to establish Figure 4.1 presents the distribution of the totality andCycle policymakers, via attempt a website and a website (4) providing a prototype for experts from around the country. consistent set of metrics to measure the impact of a of criteria from all nine standards by environmental white paper. data collection by designing a system product over its life cycle. As a result, they appear impact category.We Asthen illustrated in this fiagure, the nine established rigorous throughout this chapter in almost every section. of organization and presentation MSS have not distributed equal number of criteria analytical method comparison, While on the project, I was personally across the nine environmental impactofcategories. On The standards selected for our study focus on the (5) leading effort to organize and average, sixty percent the representative criteria are drawn from usingofnine materials responsible forcategories (1) collection of list life cycle impact established byof the Tool present data in a published format (6) two environmental impact categories: resource use for the Reduction andindustry, Assessment of Chemical and sustainability standards to reveal a experts in relevant academia, and human health and ecological toxicity. Toxicity, developing all graphics, editing and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), a project of MSS today. Weimpact, focused on established on average, holdspicture the largest environmental standardsand associations, non-profits, maintained by the Impact Assessment compiling graphs from data collected constituting 32% the criteria. Energy use and theof environmental impact mitigation &and Measurement Program of the US EPA.13 The life government associations, toxic and media pollutants average a tenth of the cycle impact categories are a means of analyzingby thestudent research team, and criteria with regard to what data working as a project team to recruit collecting writing from project faculty is being measured, how that data 15 invitees for grant-funded conference, and students is measured, and how that data is (2) preparation of drawings and valued. Our data is organized into presentation with architecture faculty


12.5% CONTE RECYC

ED

RE CO

LE AB T EW TEN N

N

MATE RIAL AND CHAR INVENTO

M A

RY ATIO N

ERIZ

D

M

AM

R

G

O

PR

N TIO UC

%

2%

2%

3%

5% R

/

1.5

N

ECYC LAB FOR DISAS ILITY/DESIG SEM N BLY

ED

/R

RY VE CO

RE E ST

5%

WA

NG CI TS UR EN

SO REM

UI

Q

NS

TIO IZA

ILITY ITY

DAB

5%

D

2%

TIO

IAL

CU

GRA

TER

ED

MA

IR

LC

DE-

BIODE MPOSTABIL CO

5%

TE AC RIA L TI ON

TR

O

SU ECO R

EX MA

O

R

VE

13%

RA W RE

Y

TION: STRATEGY/GOAL DEFINI TION WASTE REDUC

C

C

EABLE

W

L

E

BIOBASED/RECY CLED/ EPP: INTERCHANG

IN C UR O S

CT IO N

U

L

IA

R

E AT

M SE U FU RE SS /

C

G

E ER ST WA

:

L

IA

13

TOCK: TYPE AND EDS QU FE AL AL IT I R Y E T

RESOURCE USE N ITIO EFIN VERY L D O GOA REC GY/ EUSE/ E T A STR ERIAL R AT

M

AI

RE ATER M

:

9%

D SE T EU N /R NTE ED O

T TEN

LY L D A PI RI

%

CL

C RC LED HA /R NG EN EA EW BL AB E LE

TE

ACT

LED

S -BA CON BIO TERIAL MA

RA ATE M

R IN ECY

10%

NT

5%

4% 3%

FIGURE 4.3 SUMMARY OF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF CRITERIA WITHIN RESOURCE USE

A

WAT

ER

AUD

ITIN

DAT G

25%

This figure illustrates the distribution of environmental criteria from the Resource Use dataset from all nine standards among the seventeen Resource Use credit categories. The percentages are grouped by similarities and organized from largest to smallest percentage within each grouping.

41from %B

the production of furniture padding materials must be recycled. 6% S:

IT

S

LIM ICAL

AL

S

IS

C

Y

EC

MATERIA L FOR AND C MULAT HARACT ION ERIZAT

LC

IR

ED

UC

TIO

NS

QU

WAT

ER

L

9%

MPT

LIM ION ITS

W

AT E

R

G US

U

E

CON

SU

S: N IO N CT TIO A RE PHIC O TR DU

CI

TOOLS

LCI REDCUTIONS

O

AL

E

D

S

T EF RAT IN EG IT IO Y/ N

7%

8%

%

11

TIONS

BAN RED OF TOX LISTS INS:

NT

WATER EFFICIE

NET-ZERO WATER

REDUC

S: XIN IES OR

TO

OF TEG

20

ER

WAT N IO Y OF BOD PROTECT

USE

N

A BA C

2%

STR ATE GY/D

ION

ISCLOSURE

3RD PARTY ASSESSMENT

AUDITING DAT TER WA A

ITY AL

WATER

These criteria reward manufacturers that design products to be recyclable, whether requiring HUMAN HEALTH that a local facility be available for consumers to 2% recycle the product, requiring the manufacturers AND ECOLOGICAL themselves to makeTOXICITY recycling available through 7% a take-back program, or designing products to be disassembled and separated as necessary to be recycled.

18%

24% NSF-140, BIFMA e3, ULE ISR 100, and NSF336 require manufacturers to set goals and develop strategies for landfill diversion. These criteria 5% differ from Material Reuse/Recovery Strategy or Goal Definition criteria WATER because they may involve 1% reducing the initial amount of waste, whereas the 2% USE latter focus only on recovering waste that already 3% occurs within the manufacturing process and set no 5% limits on waste creation. WASTE QUALIT WATER

N M SIO HE

EM IFIC

SP

LING

RECYCLABILITY/DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY - 5%

STRATEGY/GOAL DEFINITION: WASTE REDUCTION - 3%

1

RECYC

IC

WATER

EM

11%

TO X CH INS:

ROVING WA TE IMP R

AN OF EC IFIC

SP

RE DU CI NG WA TER CON SUMPT ION

FIGURE 4.20 SUMMARY OF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF CRITERIA WITHIN WATER USE

FIGURE 4.8 SUMMARY OF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF CRITERIA WITHIN TOXICITY

This figure illustrates the distribution of environmental criteria from the Toxicity dataset from all nine standards among the twelve Toxicity credit This figure illustrates the distribution of environmental criteria from the Water Use dataset from all nine standards among the eleven Water Use categories. The percentages are grouped by similarities and organized from largest to smallest percentage within each grouping. credit categories. The percentages are grouped by similarities and organized from largest to smallest percentage within each grouping.

Left: Summary Graphs of Distribution of Types inofaccordance Criteria ResourceforUse (top), Human Health and Ecological Toxicity, and Water Use C - 16% withwithin CA/DHS/EHLB/R-174 all American MSS that we examined. the water consumption at the manufacturing stage All standards require the limitation of the emission N Z W U - 3% Right: Red Lists (above) and Life from raw material preparation to firing operations of specifi c chemical families. A large Cycle percentageCharacterizations of B E :C R L P / REDITS

ET

these criteria are limits on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. This area has the most consistent use of a reference standard, requiring accordance with California Section 01350 as half the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (CREL) of 18 Îźg/m3 established

AN OF

MISSIONS

HEMICAL

ED

ISTS

REREQUISITES

CREDITS - < 0.5% SMaRT and BIFMA e3 ban HHE emissions through the list of Stockholm Convention Pollutants18 (SMaRT) and through banning the release of Annex B Chemicals of Concern at any 19

for fired products to 1 L/kg of product of fresh water (groundwater, shallow water, or water from the aqueduct) specific consumption (Cwp-a),33 and GECA 50-2011 limits the total water use measured at the water intake to 30,000L of greasy wool scoured for the totality of greasy wool

ERO

ATER

SE

Only BIFMA e3 has a criterion for Net Zero Water Use, awarding applicants who achieve zero net process water usage or wastewater discharge rates for the facility where the finished product is assembled or manufactured. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT REDUCTION: WATER USE REDUCTION/


U.S. Governmental

Non-Governmental EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI)

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III

EPA CERCLA Reportable Quantities

BEES Please User Questionnaire Categories GHS For Hazard Classification and Labelling

NSF-140

EPA Risk Management Plan (40 CFR Part 68)

WHO Classification 2009

SMaRT

Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR

BIFMA e3

NSF-336

EPA Predictive Model (PBT Profiler)

GECA EU Flower Directive 67/548/EEC Dangerous Substances Directive

Nordic Swan Stockholm Convention Persistent Organic Pollutants

Rotterdam Convention Annex Iii Substances

CLP Regulation 1272/2008

International Treaties

European Governmental

GLOBAL WARMING CO2 Equivalents

STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION CFC-11 Equivalents

N2O

CH4

CO2

ACIDIFICATION: Hydrogen Ion Equivalents

NH3 CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

HCI

Halons

CFCs HCFCs CH3Br

PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG NO2 Equivalents

HF

Micro-DALYs/G Equivalents

PM

SO2

NO2 CH20

Coal FOSSIL FUEL DEPLETION

Natural Gas

Surplus MJ Equivalents

Oil

C2H6O2

C6H12O

Toluene

Hg Dioxins Cd

Pb HUMAN HEALTH

C10H8 As ECOLOGICAL TOXICITY

CH3CHO

Toluene Equivalents

CCL4

2, 4-D Equivalents

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

63


DEGRADED HABITATS

AQUATIC HABITATS

MODERATE/HIGH QUALITY HABITATS


AMERICAN RIVER PARKWAY Yale University Fall 2014 - Ecological Urban Design and River Processes and Restoration Professors: Alexander Felson and Jim MacBroom

In Fall of 2014, I helped teach the interdisciplinary class Ecological Urban Design: Earth Stewardship Initiative along the American River Parkway. Graduate students from the architecture and environmental management programs collaborated to propose five design experiments to aid in an adaptive management plan for the American River Parkway (ARP) in Sacramento, CA. We visited in November 2014, presenting the class work to stakeholders along the ARP. During the same semester, I pursued further research on the ARP with three classmates in a River Processes and Restoration class, assessing the history and hydrological and sedimentological processes affecting the health of the river and park ecosystem. In addition to our analysis, we made recommendations as to how the river could be restored to aid park goals and increase ecosystem health.

Confluence with the Sacramento River

Downtown Sacramento


GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE CITY OF BRIDGEPORT Yale University Fall 2015 - Environmental Protection Clinic

In Fall of 2015, my partner Gabriela Baeza and I produced the report Green Infrastructure for the City of Bridgeport: Project Survey and Recommendations as part of the Yale Environmental Protection Clinic, a collaboration between the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and the Yale Law School designed to give students experience advocating for environmental protection in a wide range of issues. Each semester, students work in teams to act as consultants for a sponsoring organization, ranging from local governments to international environmental advocacy organizations. The City of Bridgeport asked our team to work with the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Department of Sustainability and the Water Pollution Control Authority (WPCA) to provide analysis and evaluation of green stormwater management approaches in the City of Bridgeport. The goal

was to aid the city in expanding upon the targets established in the BGreen 2020 Sustainability Plan. We gathered information on completed, ongoing, and proposed green infrastructure projects within the City of Bridgeport and then analyzed each project to identify the factors that led to implementation, cancellation, or delay. Complementary to this research, we collected information and conducted interviews to learn about successful government sustainability projects implemented in similar cities around Connecticut to gain from the experiences.


RUINS THE ARCHITECTURE OF SELECTIVE MEMORY David Schwarz Travel Fellowship - Summer 2014/Exhibit March 2015

Ruins play a crucial role in the development of cultural identity and narrative. When ruins are preserved, they act as architectural historical records. When ruins are destroyed, the cultural diversity and historical narratives they record are destroyed alongside them. A combination of global and local factors have resulted in large areas of abandoned or dilapidated buildings in historically thriving neighborhoods across America. These buildings vary in typology, age, and design, ranging from the small vernacular structures to large commercial buildings to entire residential areas. While the aesthetic appreciation of American ruins is visible in the profusion of websites, publications, and exhibitions dedicated to photographing Detroit and other cities, the social and spatial implications of the destruction or preservation of these ruins requires further exploration. The history of settlement in contemporary America extends as far back as that of other nations, there has been relatively little study of the ruins resulting from the decline of its

ancient settlements. The ruins of early indigenous populations of the United States such as those found at Mesa Verde or Cahokia are few in number when compared to the vast number of ruins found in other countries. By putting American ruins in a global context, one may examine them in the context of a longer history of preservation and appreciation of ruins. My research studies both the motives behind the preservation of ruins as well as the social and spatial implications of ruins for their urban contexts through the examination of a broad selection of literature as well as case studies collected through travel in Turkey, Greece, Italy, Cambodia, Mexico, and America from May 2014 to February 2015.


Left: Green space in Central Athens (top left); Russell Industrial Center in Detroit; Ta Phrom Temple, Siem Reap, Cambodia (below) Right: Armor Packing Plant in St. Louis (above); Theater at Pergamum, Bergama, Turkey (below)


Left: Corktown, Detroit (top); St. Louis Southwestern Freight (middle); Depot Lincoln Street Art Park, Detroit (below) Right: Michigan Central Train Station, Detroit (above); Bayon Temple, Siem Reap, Cambodia

Meghan Lewis M. Arch / M.E.M. Yale University 2016

73


Meghan Lewis: Selected Work 2012-2015  

Sample Pages, Uploaded January 2016

Meghan Lewis: Selected Work 2012-2015  

Sample Pages, Uploaded January 2016

Advertisement