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MEGAN BETH SADLER

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER


LEARN 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

E X P E R I M E N TAT I O N

[M ANI PULATI ON

B U C K M I N S T E R FULLE R & FRE I O TTO N AT U R A L S Y S TE MS [ TENSILE STRUCTURES] E X P E R I M E N TAT I O N [M ANIPULATIO N O F TENSILE MESH] OF M ESH SURFACES] _ A N A LY S I S [MO IRE AND STRESS PATTERNS] D I G I T I S I N G E X P E R I M E N T S [ TENSILE MESH RELAXATIO N] D I G I T I S I N G E X P E R I M E N T S [ TENSILE MESH RELAXATIO N] D O U B L E L AY E R M E M B RANE S [ TENSEG RITY G RID] FA B R I C WE AV E [ ANALYSING TENSIO N]

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BURN 09 10 11 12 13 1 4 15 16 17_18 19 20 21 2 2 23 24 25 26_27 28 2 9 30 31 32_33 3 4

B U R N ING MAN [ INTRO DUCTIO N] E X P E R I M E NTATIO N [ KNIT] [ WEAVE] D I G I T I S I N G W O V E N S URFACE S [ WO VEN CANO PY] I N T I A L P R O P O S AL [ WO VEN CANO PY] S T R U C T U R E & FA B R I C [TENSILE DO UBLE SKIN MEMBRANE] D E V E L O P I N G T H E S Y S T EM [ STRUCTURE AND FABRIC] I N T I A L E X T E R N A L P R O P O S A L R E N D E R [ EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE] I N T I A L I N T E R N A L P R O P O S A L R E N D E R [ EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE] A R C H E D T E N S I O N S Y S TE M [ PHYSICAL MO DELLING ] S Y S T E M E X P L A NATIO N [ PINCHING SCRIPT] S Y S T E M & PA R A M E T E R S [COLUM N L ENG TH, ARCH EXAG G ERATIO N ] T E STING [ ARCH DEFO RMATIO N] D E V E L O P I N G T H E F O RM [ PHYSICAL MO DELLING ] F O R M FINDING [ DIG ITAL TESTING ] D E V E L O P I N G FO RM [ FO RM SCALE & SIZE] M AT E R I A L T E S I N G [ THERMO CHRO MATIC FABRIC] F I N A L P RO P O S AL [ INTRO DUCTIO N ] F I N A L P R O P O S AL [ PHYSICAL MO DEL ] F I N A L P RO P O S AL [ DAY CYCLE ] F I N A L P R OP O S AL [ INTERNAL RENDER ] F I N A L P R O P O S AL [ EXTERNAL NIG HT RENDER] F I N A L P R O P O S A L [ DETAILS & CO NNECTIO NS ] C O N S T R U C T I O N P R O P O S A L [PREPERATI ON OFSITE AND ERECTIO N O N SITE]

+ FA B R I C W E AV E DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

T h i s w a s u n d e r t a k e n w h i l s t a t ‘B U I L D I N G FA S H I O N ’ a 2 w eek Vi sti n g s c h o o l t o P a r i s w i t h t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l A sso ci ati o n , to exp l o r e t h e o v e r l a p b e t w e e n A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d F a s h i o n . [ S E E S E PAT E W O R K B O O K ]


DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

TO BURN


Richar d Bu ckminster “ Buc k y ” Fuller ( J uly 12, 18 9 5 – J u l y 1, 1983 )[1] was a n Am er ic an s y s t em s t heor is t , a r c h i t e c t , enginee r, au tho r, de si gner, inv ent or, and f ut ur is t . Bu c k m i n s t e r F uller wa s p rob ab ly one of t he f ir s t f ut ur is t s a n d g l o b a l t hinker s. He is the on e who c oined t he t er m “ Spac es h i p E a r t h ” , and his work ha s inspir ed and pav ed t he way f or m a n y w h o came after h im.

F rei Otto is an Engineer, Architect, inventor, natural scientist and experimental physicist. Otto began experimenting in W W II with tents for shelter due to the lack of material and an urgent need for housing. By observing the behaviour of thin membranes stretched over light frames and their exposure to aerodynamic forces, he developed his experiments. Otto is now the world’s leading authority on lightweight tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering.

THE GEODESIC DOME

T he c on stru ctio n o f G eodes ic dom es and latt i c e s h e l l st ructure s are b ased on ex t ending s om e bas ic pr i n c i p l e s t o build simp le “te nseg rit y ” s t r uc t ur es ( t et r ahedr on, o c t a h e d r o n , and t he clo se st pa cking of s pher es ) , m ak ing t hem l i g h t w e i g h t and sta ble . Ha iled a t t he t im e as t he light es t , s t r o n g e s t and m ost cost-effe ctiv e s t r uc t ur e, t he geodes ic d o m e w a s designe d to co ve r the m ax im um pos s ible s pac e wit ho u t i n t e r n a l suppor ts. The b igg er it is , t he light er and s t r onger i t b e c o m e s . T he g eo de sic s y s t em c ons is t s of div i d i n g a sphere into e qu al t r iangles so t hat t he surface st ructure o f a d om e c ould be m or e eas i l y m a d e . T he simila rity of the t r iangles m ak es t he dom es e a s i e r t o const ruct an d b en efits by being s t r uc t ur ally s t r ong. T h e o v e r a l l st rength is distribu ted ev enly. Fuller ins is t ed upon t h e m i n i m a l use of mate rials. Th er ef or e t he c ons t r uc t ion of t h e d o m e s made the m lig htwe igh t , t r ans por t able and eas ily a s s e m b l e d . T he inven tion o f th e geodes ic dom e was a s olut i o n t o t h e pressin g h ou sin g p roblem at t he t im e. Ric har d Bu c k m i n s t e r F uller exa mine d all so r t s of m an- m ade and nat ur al s t r u c t u r e s . H e was particula rly in tere s t ed in t hings t hat wer e m ade u p o f m a n y smaller but similar parts, each relying on the other to make a whole.

Otto’s career does bare a similarity to Buckminster F uller ’s architectural experiments: both taught at Washington University in St. Louis in the late 1950s, both were architects of major pavilions at the Montreal Expo of 1967, both were concerned with space frames and structural efficiency, and both experimented with inflatable buildings. In 1964 he founded the famous Institute for Lightweight Structures at the University of Stuttgart, examining the link between form and structure, and the intrinsic beauty of the double curved structure .

_ Tr i a n g u l a t i o n o f G e o d e s i c D o m e

_Open- ai r t heat r e r oof , Bad Her sf el d, 1968

BUBBLE EXPERIMENTS

Otto developed soap film models or real membrane models in which forms generate themselves. T his process allowed him to observe and analyse the process of load transfer and the deformations of the complex tensile shapes which he has conceived. Soap films have uniform stress in every direction and require a closed boundary to form. T hey naturally form a minimal surface. As the scale of his projects increased, he pioneered a computer-based procedure for determining their shape and behaviour. He took these experiments further in complex frames such as tetrahedrons or cubes, individual minimal surfaces

TENSEGRITY

Tensegrity, ten sio na l int egr it y or f loat ing c om pr es s i o n , i s a struct ura l p rinciple b as ed on t he us e of is olat ed c o m p o n e n t s in com pre ssion in sid e a net of c ont inuous t ens ion, i n s u c h a w ay t hat the comp ress ed m em ber s ( us ually bar s or s t r u t s ) d o not t ou ch ea ch oth er and t he pr es t r es s ed t ens ioned m e m b e r s (usually cab les o r te ndons ) delineat e t he s y s t em s p a t i a l l y. [ 1 ]

may be formed if existing frame edges are not used.

T he sim ple st te nseg rit y s t r uc t ur e. Eac h of t hr ee c o m p r e s s i o n membe rs is symmetri c wit h t he ot her t wo, and s y m m e t r i c f r o m end t o en d. Ea ch en d i s c onnec t ed t o t hr ee c ables wh i c h p r o v i d e compressio n an d which pr ec is ely def ine t he pos it ion o f t h a t e n d .

PNEUMATIC STRUCTURES

Otto’s experiments with soap films and bubbles have shown that self-generating and self-optimising forms in tents, cable net structures of all types, various membranes and air or water-filled pneumatics have been proven in engineering and are gaining increasing application. T his idea of pneumativs is borrowed from nature, every animal or plant cell is a pneumatic structure made up of membranes and contents.

^ Go mez-Ja ure gu i ( 2010) , Tens egr it y St r uc t ur e s a n d t h e i r A p plicatio n to Ar c hit ec t ur e. “ [ 1] ” , Sant ander : S e r v i c i o d e P u blicacion es de la Univ er s idad de Cant abr ia. 2 9 6 p p

_Minimal surfaces

T he Open-air theatre roof, Bad Hersfeld,1968, is an example of F rei Otto pneumatic structures. _Light-weight Geodesic dome structure

_ Str u t te n se g r i ty sp h e r e

1

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

BUCKMI NS T E R F U L L E R

[GEOMETRIC SYSTEMS]

FR E I OTTO

[MINMAL SURFACES AND PNEUMATICS]


D i ffe r e n t typ e s o f sp i d e r w e b s i n cl u d e; Orb webs, cobwebs, funnel w e b s ( 3 ) , tu b u l a r w e b s ( w h i ch r u n u p the bases of trees or along the g r o u n d ) , sheet wens and dome webs (4).

F rei O tto did a lo t of w or k wit h Tens ile s t r uc t ur es , s o i h a v e began my re se arch b y look ing at nat ur ally oc c ur ing t e n s i l e struct ure s.

WEB CONSTRUCTION NATURAL SYSTEM

S pider ’s orb we bs a r e t ens ile s t r uc t ur es , t he s ilk- t h r e a d becomes the tensile structure, which is supported, by the place the w eb is atta ch ed . It is a ex t r em ely light - weight s t r u c t u r e but very stron g, o wing t o t he m at er ial of t he t hr ead a n d t h e struct ura l a rran ge ment of t he r adii and c onc ent r ic r i n g s .

TENSION STRUCTURES

In Frei Otto’s research he expl ored many w ebs and nets i n natural systems. I have furthered my research w ebs and meshes, to fi nd out the di fferent arrangements of the tensi on stri ngs and w ebs that are 3D and the di fferent w ays they are hel d i n space. In w ebs the mesh i s the geometri cal el ement. It i s formed by the j oi ni ng together of cabl es and knots i nto cl osed l i nes. A ccordi ng to defi ni ti on there are four ki nds of meshes, the trapezoi d (1) found i n orb w ebs, square mesh (2) C yrtopora spi der, rectangul ar mesh (3) and i rregul ar meshes (4).

Orb web s a re a sys t em in whic h f ibr ous biom a t e r i a l s , silks, are arra ng ed in a c om plex des ign r e s u l t i n g from stere otypical behav ior al pat t er ns , t o p r o d u c e effect ive e ne rgy abs or bing t r aps f or f ly ing p r e y.

S ome speci es bui l d w eb surfaces that are strongl y curved i n space. Web structures can be spanned from grass (5), others such as sheet-w eb spi ders and orb w eavers have tent l i ke forms spanned betw een tw i gs (6) or three-di menti onal suspensi on systems (7). Webs can al so be tube-shaped (8), these are cal l ed retreats as spi ders constantl y l i ve i n them.

E volutio n in so me s pec ies has im pr ov ed t he m a t e r i a l qualit y o f th e silk, w hic h enables “ s par s er ” ar c hit e c t u r a l design s, a ltern atively s pider s s pinning lower qual i t y s i l k compen sa te archite ctur ally f or t he inf er ior m at er ial q u a l i t y of their silk. The te nsile s t r engt h of s pider s ilk is gr eat e r t h a n the same we igh t o f st eel and has m uc h gr eat er ela s t i c i t y.

03_Tubular web

1_

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T he form o f this str uc t ur e is det er m ined by a c o m p l e x interplay be twee n int r ins ic m at er ial pr oper t ie s a n d proxim a te be ha vio r. Or b webs hav e v ar ious f or m s , s o m e that ca n trap small ins ec t s , ot her s c an ev en s u p p o r t the w eigh t o f small bir ds . This c om binat ion of s t i c k y captur e silk an d ra di al s uppor t t hr eads , as well a s t h e i r archit ectura l a rran ge m ent pr ov ide a s t able plat f o r m , a n ext remely efficien t str uc t ur e and t her ef or e t he m a x i m u m potential p erfo rman c e as ener gy abs or bing t r a p s .

_Irregul ar w eb of a C yrtopfora w here web is at t ached t o surroundings at cert ain point s

2_

4_

3_

0 1 _ S p i d e r w e b s r e s e m b l i n g a c i r c u s s t r u c tu r e

0 2 _ We b p r o d u c i n g S p i n n a r e t s

04_Dome web

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5_

6_

7_

8_

D E V E L OP IN G T H E F OR M_ Te n s i o n l i n e s , ra d i i c a n th e n b e a p p l i e d a n d to d i ffe re n t fo rms , to c re a te te n t-l i k e s tru c tu re s , h y p e rb o l i c p a ra b o l o i d , o r a l g o ri th ms c a n b e a p p l i e d to g e n e ra te d i ffe re n t p a tte rn s .

2

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

NATURAL S Y S T E M S

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Th e fi b o r o u s str u ctu r e i s e xtr u d e d fr o m th e sp i d e r ’s sp i n n e r e ts. ( 2 ) Ea ch g l a n d p r o d u ce s a th r e a d fo r a sp e ci a l p u r p o se – fo r e xa m p l e a tr a i l e d sa fe ty l i n e , sti cky si l k fo r tr a p p i n g p r e y o r fi n e si l k fo r w r a p p i n g i t. We b s a l l o w a sp i d e r to ca tch p r e y w i th o u t h a vi n g to e xp e n d e n e r g y b y r u n n i n g i t d o w n . Th u s i t i s a n e ffi ci e n t m e th o d o f g a th e r i n g fo o d . H o w e ve r, co n str u cti n g th e w e b i s i n i tse l f a n e n e r g e ti ca l l y co stl y p r o ce ss b e ca u se o f th e l a r g e a m o u n t o f p r o te i n r e q u i r e d , i n th e fo r m o f si l k. In a d d i ti o n , a fte r a ti m e th e si l k w i l l l o se i ts sti cki n e ss a n d th u s b e co m e i n e ffi ci e n t a t ca p tu r i n g p r e y. Sp i d e r s to e a t th e i r o w n w e b d a i l y to r e co u p so m e o f th e e n e r g y u se d i n sp i n n i n g . An e ffi ci e n t r e cycl i n g a n d cl o se d - l o o p syste m .

[TENSILE STRUCTURES]


4_Model l i ng a 3D suspensi on system

S e tu p:

I w a n ted to te st o ut how meshes worked whe n s u s p e n ded in sp ace and the different arrangemen t s g e n e r a ted. I designed a frame with moveabl e n o t c h e s (1) so the tension lines, which suspend th e m e s h in space could be altered, manipulating th e s h a p e . I u sed d ouble layers to see the type of spa c e a n d e nviro nment created inside. This also create d i n t e r e sting Moire effects which I will go on later t o t a l k a b out. Using mesh also allowed observing th e a m o u nt of stre ss a s the mesh behaves in differen t w a y s to stress. 2 _ M esh suspended from the four main corne r s . T h i s t wo -dimentional web construction is seen i n O r b w e bs. 3 _ Te nt like form 4 _ M o de lling a three-dimentional suspension syste m

2_Two Di mensi onal O r b Web

3_Tent like form

2_

1 _ Frame with moveable notche s

3

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

EXPE RI M E N TAT I O N

[MANIPULATION OF TENSILE MESH]


Analysis:

A part from creati ng i nteresti ng forms, and very effi ci ent structures w i th tw o sheets of membrane and tensi on cabl es, the experi ment al so reveal ed i nteresti ng resul ts about stress. The mesh al l ow s an observati on about the magni tude of stress appl i ed as the mesh stretches and behaves i n di fferent w ays to stress. U si ng the Funnel experi ment (07) I w i l l anal ysi se the stress l evel s and the affects on the moi re and mesh.

7_S uspensi on system_Funnel w eb

FA R LE FT _moi re pattern w hen under sl i ght equal stress means the tw o l ayers natural l y fal l on top of each other. _moi re pattern w hen under a l arger stress means the tw o l ayers bunch together i ncreasi ng the materi al densi ty_ j ust as i n systems such as bone

5 _Suspension system_cacoon sys t e m

Moi re pattern and materi al di stri buti on i s dense show i ng a l arge magni tude of stress

T h e s e fu rther suspension systems, shows ho w v e r s a t ile th e me sh is with the tensile fibres. I n e v e r y experiment the mesh has varied amount o f t e n s i o n d epending on when it meets the tens i l e f i b r e s . Th e notches and overall frame is t h e c o m p r essio nal element in the equilibrium of th e s t r u c t u re. Th e cocoon system (05) suspende d h o r i z o n tally cre ates a large internal space and i s f u l l y s u pported just via these few tensile cable s .

_Moire pat t erns

Under little tension, material may be slack

6 _Suspension system_Dome w e b

Under a level amount of tension

_usi ng the moi re pattern to anal ysi se stress

Moi re pattern and materi al di stri buti on i s dense show i ng a l arge magni tude of stress 7 _ S u s p e nsi on system_Tensi l e fi bres

Under large amount of tension, material fully stretched

_MA P P IN G TE N S ION _a stress map usi ng the moi re effect to anal yi se stress magnit ude

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DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

EXP E RI M E N TAT I O N

[MANIPULATION OF TENSILE MESH]

A N A LYSIS

[MOIRE AND STRESS PATTERNS]


I th e n u s e d th i s s y s te m to d i g i ti s e my physical me s h e x p e ri me n ts . T h e i ma g e s b e l o w s h o w s th e s te p s i n o rd e r to re c re a te my p a rti c u l a r e x p e ri me n t. In s te a d o f th e n a k e d e d g e s I w a n te d to p i c k c e rta i n p o i n ts , l i k e th e o n e s i n u s e d i n my fra me , th i s w a s d o n e b y b a k i n g th e d e c o mp o s e , to tu rn a l l th e v e rti c e s o n i n rh i n o , th e n th e p a rti c u l a r p o i n ts c a n b e s e t.

To digitise my p hysical ex per im ent at ion wit h m es h, I f irst tried an arb itrary s hape t o t es t out G r as s hoppe r plug-in Kan ga roo . _F irst ly a mesh wa s c r eat ed in Rhino, us ing a box polygon p rimatives replic at ed t o get a wor k able shape. The en d side s of t he box es ar e delet ed t o f orm th e b ou nd ary or anc hor point s . _01_M ESH _ Th e me s h c an t hen be input ed in G rassh op pe r.

_BAKED_Output mesh

Wh e n I fi rs t s e t th e k a n g a ro o , th e d e fa u l t s e tti n g s me a n t th e me s h w a s n o t s ti ff e n o u g h _ 1 0 . To i mp ro v e th i s I a d d e d c a b l e ri d g e s , u s i n g a c u rv e fro m c e rta i n p o i n ts a n d i n p u tti n g th a t c u rv e i n to th e s p ri n g s , th e n i n to k a n g a ro o _ 11 .

_02_WEAVERBIRD E DG ES _This c r eat es an out line o f t he mesh ed ge s, wh ic h c an t hen be bak ed and us ed . _03_DECOMPOSER _This ident if ies all of t he v er t ic e s on t he me sh , so tha t t hey c an bak ed int o r hino and used a s d iffere nt a nchor point s . _04_NAKED EDGES _ This t ool f inds t he point s on t he ed g e o f the mesh, s o t hes e c an bec om e anc hor point s. (L ike in th e p hy s ic al m odel, t he t ens ile s t r in g s which sup po rt the mes h and ar e at t ac hed t o t he f rame) .

_Analysis using Ecotect

_ 11

_05_I TEM _This allo ws t he point s t o be input ed int o kangar oo . _06_S PRINGS _This c ont r ols I t em allows t he membr an e me sh an d it s pr oper t ies s uc h as s t iff nes s .

_ 1 0 _ In ti a l me s h p ro p e rti e s

_07_K ANGEROO th en s t ar t s , t he f or c es and proper tie s o f the mes h.

_02

_08_ M ESH _The ou tput is c r eat ed t o t hen be able to be bak ed , or to furth er t es t t he m es h. _09_P OINT _ th e p oin t t ool is us ed if t he anc hor point s d o n ot wa nt to be jus t s im ply t he boundar y point s see n in the image abov e, s pec if ic point s c an be cho se n (u sin g a ba k ed dec om pos er ) . _E COTECT_ Th is o utp ut c an t hen be plugged in t o E cot ect to wo rk o ut its env ir onm ent al pr oper t ies s u c h as sun pa th.

PROCESS

_06

_Improving accuracy mesh properties

_01

_07

_08

_03

F or the p ractise mod el I t hen bak ed t he out put m esh t o form this so lid sha pe, jus t as I would wit h c ov er i n g t he ph ysical mo de l wit h r es in.

_05 _04

_09

_Mesh

_ Wi th th e c a b l e ti e s , s ta rti n g k a n g a ro o

>>

_Wher e t he mesh f al l s.

5

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D I G I TI S I NG E X P E R I M E N T S

_ Al l v e rti c e s o n to a l l o w th e c e rta i n p o i n ts to b e picked

[TENSILE MESH EXAMPLE]

[COCOON EXPERIMENT]


_10_M es h

_Mesh

_Anchor points

_apply mesh properties, Kangeroo

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_Intial study the mesh was to o l a r g e , s o I m u l t i p l i e d the mesh faces by 3.

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6

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D I G I TI S I NG E X P E R I M E N T S

[3D WEB EXPERIMENT]


DOUBLE LAYER TENSEGRITY GRID To begin to start resear c hing and ex per im ent ing w i t h double la ye red me mbr anes , I f ir s t want ed t o look a t a structu ral syste m, w hic h was r igid enough t o s p a n large spa n an d ha ve s om e of t he s t r uc t ur al s y s t e m s of t ense grity. I b eg an look ing at a double lay er e d t enseg rity g rid. T his unlike th e stan dar d r ules of t ens egr it y, is c all e d ‘R igid ten se grity’. Th is s y s t em is als o c alled t he ‘ V expander ’. It is co ns t it ut ed by t wo s t r ut s , eac h o n e convergin g to a p in jo int ed node, plac ed r es pec t iv e l y on eit her g rid’s flexible lay er. The ex pander ’s axi s , joining th is co up le of nodes , is nor m al t o t he lay e r ’s surface. an active ca ble m at er ializ es t he ex pande r ’s axis. By red ucing its lengt h, it is t ens ioned a n d int roduces a p re-stres s ( s elf - s t r es s ) s t at e. T he system ha s zig z ag s haped c hains of t r us s es i n double grid co nfigu rat ions . The s epar at e c hains o f t russes d o n ot to uch one anot her, s o t he c hains a r e st ill flo a ting in te nsion m ak ing t hem t r ut h t ens egr it ie s .

R I G I D I T Y C O NT R O L GR ID I n this system the ca ble whic h r uns v er t ic al bet w e n t h e opposite V struts, a c t s as a r igidit y c ont r oller. I ncr e a s i n g t he tensio n on th is ca ble, inc r eas es t he c om pr es s ion o n t h e st ructs a nd th e ten sio n in t he c ables , m ak ing t he s t r u c t u r e more rigid .

_ D o u b l e l a y e r t e n s e g r i ty g r i d

_ s tr u c tu r a l s y s te m , w i th a m e m b r a n e , to fo r m a r o o f s y s te m

_plan

_m em br ane lay er s at t ac hed t o point s of gr id

_Wit h t he m em br ane at t he end of t he r ods , t he m e m b r a n e b e c o m e s t h e t e n s i o n elem ent s , m ak ing t he hor iz ont al c ables us eles s , s o t h e s e c a n b e r e m o v e d . T h i s im age s ugges t how t he m em br ane would be s t r es s e d .

ADDING A MEMBRANE

_ In th i s s tr u c tu r e th e V c o m p o n e n ts a r e th e c o m p r e s s i v e el ements, these put to g e th e r fo r m a tr u s s , th e s e tr u s s e s d o n o t to u c h ( te n s e g r i ty ). The cabl es i n the s y s te m a r e i n te n s i o n , th e s e c a n b e r e p l a c e d w i th tensi l e membrane. _ Pl a n

>>

_I nc r eas ing t he t ens ion ( dec r eas ing t he s iz e) o f t h e c e n t r e c a b l e , p u l l s t h e m em br ane, inc r eas ing t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e m e m b r a n e .

7

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D O UBLE LAY E R T E N S E G R I TY GRID

A f t e r u n d e rs t a n d in g t h e t e n s e g rit y g rid , I wa s a b le t o a d d a me mb ra n e , c re a t in g a d o u b le la y e d me mb ra n e s t ru c t u re , Co n n e c t in g t h e f a b ric a t t h e p o in t s o f t h e s t ru c t u re . Th e rig id it y c o n t ro lle r c o u ld t h e n b e s h o rt e n e d a n d in c re a s e t h e rig id it y o f t h e f a b ric .

[EXPERIMENTATION]


AA BUILDING FASHION WORKSHOP Exp er im ent at ion us i n g Te n s i o n a n d o p a c i ty to co nt r ol light , and a n a l y s i n g th e e ffe c ts .

>>

_REGULAR

_DIAGONAL

8

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

A NALY S I S I N G W E AV E T E N SION

_HORIZONTAL

[CONTROLLING OPACITY]


DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

LEARN TO BURN


DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER


RADICAL INCLUSION

Anyone may be a part of Burning Man. We welcome and respect the stranger. No prerequisites exist for participation in our community.

GIFTING

Burning Man is devoted to acts of gift giving. The value of a gift is unconditional. Gifting does not contemplate a return or an exchange for something of equal value.

T he B ur ning Ma n Arts F e s ti v a l i s l ocated i n a des er t w i th te mp e ra tu re s w i n g s from 30 F ahr enheit d e g re e s to 1 2 5 F a h re n h e i t degrees wit hin 24 ho u rs . T h e re i s n o w a te r s ource near t he f es t iv al, a n d a l l e v i d e n c e o f th e temporary c it y m us t be re m o v e d a t th e e n d o f the festi val . T hes e ar e c h a l l e n g e s th a t ma k e B u rn i ng Man a unique t es t s i te fo r s o me a s p e c ts o f stai nabi l i ty. A lt hough m o s t o f th e l i v i n g s tru c tu re s empl oyed in t his t em p o ra ry c i ty o f 4 0 ,0 0 0 a re not abl e to heat and c o o l th e ms e l v e s , th e re a re a number of buildings an d s tru c tu re s fo u n d a t B u rni ng Man t hat us e s u s ta i n a b l e a rc h i te c tu re p ri nci pl es to pr ev ent ov erh e a ti n g d u ri n g th e d a y a n d excessi ve heat los s at n i g h t. D e s p i te th e l a c k o f w ater, there ar e a f ew e v a p o ra ti v e c o o l i n g s tra tegi es that wer e em ploy e d i n c o n s e rv a ti v e a n d responsi bl e m anner s . A l s o o f i n te re s t to th i s s tu dy are the m any light w e i g h t s tru c tu re s e mp l o y e d to shel ter ‘B lac k Roc k ’ c i ty ’s re s i d e n ts fro m th e el ements.

DECOMMODIFICATION

In order to preserve the spirit of gifting, our community seeks to create social environments that are unmediated by commercial sponsorships, transactions, or advertising. We stand ready to protect our culture from such exploitation. We resist the substitution of consumption for participatory experience.

RADICAL SELF-RELIANCE

Burning Man encourages the individual to discover, exercise and rely on his or her inner resources.

RADICAL SELF-EXPRESSION

Radical self-expression arises from the unique gifts of the individual. No one other than the individual or a collaborating group can determine its content. It is offered as a gift to others. In this spirit, the giver should respect the rights and liberties of the recipient.

T her e ar e n u m e ro u s c h a l l e n g e s w h e n desi gni ng appr opr iat e h o u s i n g fo r N o rth e rn N e v a da’s B l ack Roc k Des er t. T h e re m o te l o c a ti o n o f Burni ng Man nec es s it at es th a t a l l c o n s u ma b l e re s ources used t hr oughout th e e v e n t a re b ro u g h t i n w i th each par t ic ipant a t th e b e g i n n i n g o f th e e v e nt. P eople ar e re q u i re d to c o n s e rv e re s o u rces both i n t heir s hade/ h o u s i n g s tru c tu re s , a s w e l l as i n thei r c ons um able re s o u rc e s , s u c h a s e l e c tri ci ty, food, and wat er.

COMMUNAL EFFORT

_Map of the P l aya

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

B URNI NG M A N

[INTRODUCTION]

Our community values creative cooperation and collaboration. We strive to produce,promote and protect social networks, public spaces, works of art, and methods of communication that support such interaction.

CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY

We value civil society. Community members who organize events should assume responsibility for public welfare and endeavor to communicate civic responsibilities to participants. They must also assume responsibility for conducting events in accordance with local, state and federal laws.

LEAVING NO TRACE

Our community respects the environment. We are committed to leaving no physical trace of our activities wherever we gather. We clean up after ourselves and endeavor, whenever possible, to leave such places in a better state than when we found them.

PARTICIPATION

Our community is committed to a radically participatory ethic. We believe that transformative change, whether in the individual or in society, can occur only through the medium of deeply personal participation. We achieve being through doing. Everyone is invited to work. Everyone is invited to play. We make the world real through actions that open the heart.

IMMEDIACY

Immediate experience is, in many ways, the most important touchstone of value in our culture. We seek to overcome barriers that stand between us and a recognition of our inner selves, the reality of those around us, participation in society.

9


Setup: U si ng what has be e n l e a rn t fro m th e ‘ L e a r n’ b ri ef, I want ed t o k e e p e x p l o ri n g me mb ra n es a nd the alt er ing t he p o ro rs i ty. To s ta rt I b e g a n b y l ook ing at t he ma k e u p o f d i ffe re n t fa b ri cs, w hi ch m ight f or m th e b a s i s o f a me mb ra ne. I began look ing c l o s e u p a t w e a v e d ma te ri al a nd th e way t he w e a v e i n te rl o c k s a n d h ow some weav es m ay b e l e ft l o o s e a s p e rh a p s a stru ctu r e or s uppor t fro m a w o v e n c a n o p y. I a l s o starte d look ing at kn i t a s a n a l te rn a te fo rm o f a w eave and it s beha v i o r u n d e r te n s i o n . P h y s i cal model s wer e m ad e a n d th e n a n a l y s i s ed. C onclu si o n s f ro m Ex p e r im e n ta tio n : Th e w ay t he f abr ic i s w o v e n d i c ta te s h o w mu ch stre tch / how m uc h th e fa b ri c c a n w i th s ta n d te nsi on. Wi th the r egular w e a v e I s tu d i e d , i f p u l l e d h ori zo nt ally had n o s tre tc h a t a l l , th e o nl y stre tch it had was if p u l l e d v e rti c a l l y a c ro s s the b i a s, ther e was a lot o f s tre tc h , th e w e a v e fu l l e d i nterl oc k ed and r edu c i n g p o ro s i ty to a l mo s t z e r o.

_ 1 We a ve

_ 2 We a ve p u l l e d a cr o ss th e b i as

_3 Developing design ideas, leaving some weaves loose perhaps as a structure for a canopy

Wi th K nit , I s t udied a ‘ s to c k i n e tte ’ p a tte rn , the most c om m on k nit . Wh e n s tre s s w a s a p p l i ed p oro si t y c hanged m o re th a n th e w e a v e . Stre tc h i ng h ori zo nt ally opened u p th e k n i t, w h e re a s p u l l i n g i n th e dir ec t ion on th e w e a v e c a u s e d th e k n i t to i nterl oc k , elongat e a n d re d u c e p o ro s i ty i n th o s e a re as.

ANALYSIS BIAS- Stretch, weave interlocks, reducing porosity

ALONG KNIT -knit interlocks, poros i t y decreases

Kenneth Snelton. Weaving and Tensegrity

_ 4 Kn i t

_5 Knit stretched horizontally

In S ne lton’s animation a we a ve d laye r mo rph s int o a d o u b l e l a ye r t e n se g r i t y g r i d a s a b o ve .

_6 Knit stretched vertically

ACROSS KNIT- holes open up

10

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

EXP E RI M E N TAT I O N

GRAIN- No stretch or change in opacity

[WEAVE AN D KNIT]


PA R A M ETRIC S URFACE S K NIT In thi s s c r ipt f or a k n i tte d s u rfa c e , fi rs tl y a surfa c e is input t ed fo r th e p a tte rn to b e a p p l i e d u pon. T he div is ions o f th e s u rfa c e c a n th e n b e a l te re d t o alt er t he ti g h tn e s s o f th e w e a v e . T h e p i p e c om m and t hen ta k e s th e s e d i v i s i o n s a n d p i p es t he pat t er n s o th e k n i t p a tte rn ta k e s a 3D fo rm. A num ber s lid e r c a n th e n b e i n p u tte d to change t he r adius o f th e p i p e . WEAV E Th i s s c r ipt f or a we a v e d s u rfa c e h a s th e s a m e p ri nci ple of s ur f ac e , d i v i s i o n s , a p p l y p a tte rn a nd pipe. I nc r eas in g a n d d e c re a s i n g th e d i vi si o ns ( 1) I nc r ea s i n g a n d d e c re a s i n g th e n umb er of t hr eads . T h e n u mb e r s l i d e r fro m th e pat t er n s c r ipt c a n b e a l te re d to c h a n g e th e w eave lengt h ( 2) . T h e p i p e s l i d e r th e n a l te rs th e thic k nes s of t he th re a d s .

xK

zK

xK

K K

K

S

S

K

Fx

Fx

K

K

zK

_02 + zs - zK

VK

S ys

b

S

S

VK

S

ys

zS

d

_01

69: Schematic layout model of the fabric threads in undeformed (left) and uniaxially tensioned (right)condition

erably greater thread curvature of the weft thread is the Fabrics show a considerable dependence of the strains in ness of the fabric in the weft transverse direction on the strains in the axial direction. A ection. In the axial direction of the fabric, the material has tensile stressσ(F) applied to a fabric leads, in addition to the er warp resulting primary strain 1ε, to contraction at right angles to ection therefore stretches less under loading than the weft the applied directionε2. The relationship of the axial to transverse strain is the ratio of the strainε1 from the primary apection. plied load to the resulting contraction in transverse direction eraction of the fabric directions ε2. It is calledPoisson‘s ratio μ.

uch an anisotropic fabric is strained in the weaker weft ection, then the weft threads stretch and the fabric elon- With conventional materials, the transverse contractions are es in the weft direction (xK in Fig. 69 c). Because of the related to the primary stress and the modulus of elasticity eraction between weft and warp threads at the crossing by a material constant. With fabrics, the Poisson‘s ratio is not nts and the course of the thread line, the curvature of constant, but dependant on the level of force applied and warp thread also alters with extension in the weft direc- is usually experimentally determined through tension tests n, and the DS additional by the warp in both directions of fabric. The transverse contraction is de1 0 MEcurvature GA N S Aexperienced D LER in Fig. 69 d) of the fabric in termined by the orientation of the thread layout in the fabric ead causes a shortening (V D I G I TI S IKNG E X P E R I M E N T S [WEAVE AND KNIT] ness of rp direction. erent contrac-

_02

_03

11


WOVEN CANO P Y

>>

SKETCH SURFACE

M E S H R E L A X AT IO N to c r e a te a s i m u l a ti o n o n th e m i n i m a l s u r fa c e fo r fa b r i c p r o p e r ti e s

S T R U C TU R AL P O I N TS fo r a n c h o r a n d c a b l e p o i n ts i n Kangeroo

EXT ERNAL PERSPECT I VE

PIPE S T R U C TU R AL E L E M EN T S

A P P LY K N IT /W E AV E TO S U R FA C E

IN ITIA L IN TE R N A L P E R S P E C TIV E [S how i ng l i ght qual i ti es of space and bui l di ng programme]

12

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

IN I TI AL P ROP O S A L

[WOVEN CANOPY]


>>

DEVEL O P I NG P RO POS A L

I nt erior spaces creat ed t ensioned f abric syst em.

by

V ERTIC A L_ In the i ni ti al study verti cal c ol umns w ere pl aced regul arl y o n a gri d al ternati ng w i th the ta ught membrane toughi ng p oi nts. Thi s started creati ng e ven amounts of tensi on and c ompressi on, how ever i t sti l l r el i ed heavi l y on tensi l e forces p ul l i ng outw ards, otherw i se i t w oul d col l apse i nw ards.

>>

13

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

ST RUCTURE A N D FA B R I C

[TENSILE DOUBLE SKIN MEMBRANE WITH VERTICAL STRUTS]


02

zz

0

DE VEL O P I N G S Y S Y E M I N PR E V I O U S P H YSI C AL M O D EL

P inc h points hold te ns ion w ithin m e m bra ne Tension ed f ab r i c

z z z

Sp aces be low

Columns in c ompression S pa c e s w ithin

14

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D EV E LO P I N G FA B R I C S T I C K SYST EM

[PHYSICAL MODELLING]


15

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

IN TIAL E X TE R N A L P R O P O S A L

[EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE]


z

20

00 0 z zz

0 RELAX

SIT

20 SLEEP

0

20

0

zz

z

0

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

IN TIAL I NTE R N A L P R O P O S AL

[INTERNAL PERSPECTIVE]

z

0

20 R E PA IR

20

z

zz z R E PAIR zz

0

SECT I O N SHO WI NG USE

0

20

z

0

20 20

zz

20

zz

zz

20

20

z z z z z z z z z

z z z E N T RANCE UNDERNEAT H MEMBRANE

16


D ES I G N P R O GR E S S IO N

When creating the initial model above I noticed that if the fabric was put in enough tension the columns would raise off the base. This created a small ARCH. I began to develop how to accentuate the Arch system. The next pages show how by changing the parameters, such as changing the size of the columns, can accentuate the arch system.

17

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

A RCHE D TE N S I O N S Y S T E M

[PHYSICAL MODELLING]


INTERNAL

18

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

A RCHE D TE N S I O N S Y S T E M

[PHYSICAL MODELLING]


The process of creating the tensile membrane digitally, was similar to that of construction. The columns are placed (2) and the pinched points marked (3) the mesh or in physical terms fabric is applied in a flat plane (4) and using Kangaroo for Grasshopper, the mesh is relaxed on these certain places (5). The Grasshopper script works by in putting the mesh and the mesh edge points which work as anchor points for the mesh relaxation. The column and pinch lines are input, the points on either end, which intersect with the mesh are evaluated and the mesh relaxed or is tensioned from these points.

_2

_3

_4

_5

_1 R esul ti ng P i nched Fabri c

19

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

SYSTE M E X P L A N AT I O N

[PINCHING SCRIPT]


Front Section

Side Section

Perspective Section

Setup: This series of experiments begin to test the parameters within the designed system. By changing the variables the optimised solution can be realised. In this instance reducing the length of the column, increases the curvature of the arch. The tests below show the different spaces created. A section of the system is used, with a 4500 mm x 4500 mm column grid. Conclu si o n : From these experiemnts of varing the length of the columns, I have found that the ideal spaces created are that in the Model 2. This model creates a ideal sized space underneath the structure which is realisable with the length of the columns, and a internal space which is not too tight. NB. For the diagrams sections of the sytem have been take, the sides are not shown of the diagrams so the internal can be clearly viewed.

A

B

C DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

SYSTE M & PA R A M E T E R S

[COLUMN LENGTH, ARCH EXAGGERATION]

4500 mm

SECTION A

A rc h h e ig h t 4500 : 1 9 0mm 0 mm I n t e rn a l h e ig h t : 3 0 0 0 mm

SECTION B 4500 mm

A rc h h e ig h t : 2 9 0 0 mm I n t e rn a l h e ig h t : 2 0 0 0 mm

SECTION C

A rc h h e ig h t : 1 3 5 0 mm I n t e rn a l h e ig h t : 3 9 0 0 mm

4500 mm

4500 mm

4500 mm

4500 mm

4500 mm

4500 mm

* Sides removed to show both internal and external

20


Setup:

C onclusion:

From this experiment you can see how the curve of the arch would flatten under maximum loads. The scale model shows that even with a maximum load the area underneath would still be enough for a person. This is the maximum load, in reality this amount of weight would not be applied and the fabric used would have no stretch in it so the structure would not move at all.

Model scale 1:20

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

TES TI NG

[ARCH DEFORMATION WITH EXCESS LOADING]

0cm1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0cm1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Physical experiment to see how the model of the arch in tension reacts to forces. For the experiment a 1:20 model was built and stacks of 2 pence pieces were used to simulate people. The force amount applied was much more than would ever be.

21


D ES I G N P R O GR E S S IO N Using the principles to create the Arched tension system, they can then be varied, to abstract the form, having larger Arched areas and smaller arched areas, to created differentiating spaces. This model began to form a more organic shape with a separate chill out pods.

INTERNAL

22

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

DEV E LO P I N G F O R M

[PHYSICAL MODELLING]


Setup:

Now that the system has been modelled physically and digitally to show an arch can be formed from the stick and tension fabric system, the form of the structure can be developed, aesthetically, programmaticallyand towards the environment. The arch structure can be overlapped with a flat area to form various resting layers. The diagrams show experimentations with form, digitised using Rhino, giving the form a scale and an explanation for the reason for the form (Aesthetically, structurally, circulation, environment and program). The images are quick sketch designs with the white tube simulating the stretched tensioned fabric. Options A to C work with the axis of the site .

Elevation

Plan

O p ti o n A: 2 si mpl e Ar ches : Aest het ically sim ple and elegant , st r uct ur ally sim ple 2 ar ches cr eat ed by t he st ick and

tensi oned fabri c system . Cir culat ion: t he 2 ar ches pr ovide cir culat ion under neat h t he st r uct ur e ( 3 exit ent r ances) . E nvi ronment: Internal l y; t he st r ucut ur e pr ovides a sof t r est ing space. Ext er nally; ar ches at cer t ain t im es of t he day provi de shade, at ni ght under neat h t he ar ches t he t her m ochr om at ic f abr ic shows bodies inside .

Elevation

Plan

Option C: 2 a rc h e s c o llid in g : A e s t h ic a lly s imp le s y me t ric a l a n d imp re s s iv e . Fo rm e mp h a is e s a we o f s t ru t u ra l a rc h s y s t e m. S t ru c t u ra lly f o rm wo u ld h a v e t o b e a t a s ma lle r s c a le t h a n p re v io u s t wo , a s d o u b lin g a rc h s p a n , la rg e r s t ru c t u ra l e le me n t s re q u ire d a t t e n s io n e n d p o in t s t o a c h iv e s t ru c t u re . Circ u la t io n : E x t e rn a lly : d o u b le a rc h p ro v id e s la rg e e x p a n s e u n d e rn e a t h . I n t e rn a lly : c irc u la t io n a n d re s t in g s p a c e wit h in t h e 2 jo in in g a rc h e s , 4 e n t ra n c e / e x it s .

Elevation

Plan

Option E: 2 we a v e d a rc h e s : A e s t h ic a lly s imp le y e t c re a t e s le v e ls t o d e s i g n . C u r v e s a n d a r c h e s a r e s m o o t h s o

s tr uc tur a l l y w i th s y s te m e a s y to a c hi e v e . E n t e rwin d e d f o rm le n d s it s e lf t o c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n g l e v e l s a n s s p a c e s f o r re s t in g s p a c e s a n d mo v e mn e t in s id e a n d o n t o p o f t h e s p a c e . 4 e n t ra n c e / e x i t s .

P ot ent ial f or acess t hrough layers

Elevation _ 1 Site p l a n of t h e P l a ya , sh o wi n g t h e a xi s

Plan

O p ti o n B: 4 arches, cent r alised lar ge pinch point : Aest hically sim ple sym et r ical and good on t he cent r al axis of t he

pl aya. S tructural l y si mple 4 ar ched syst em s which com e t oget her in t he cent r e, wit h a lar ge int er nal pinch point f eat ur e. C i rcul ati on: 4 arches pr ovide cir culat ion ar ound t he st r uct ur e ( 4 ent ances on each ar m , wit h possible ent r ance exit s in the centre. E nvi ronmnta and pr ogr am sam e as pr evious.

Plan

Option D: 2 wra p p e d a rc h e s : A e s t h e t ic a lly mre c o mp le x , s t ru c t u ra lly p e rh a p s mo re di ffi c ul t t o c re a t e t ig h t c u rv e a n d h ig h a rc h e s wit h s t ic k f a b ric s y s t e m. Fo rm p ro v id e s mo re in t e re s t in g s p a c e s f o r re s t in g s p a c e s in , o n a n d a ro u n d . 4 e n t ra n c e / e x it s .

Elevation

Plan

Option F: k n o t : A e s t h ic a lly c o mp le x a n d ha r d to a c hi e v e i n r e a l i ty. Tig h t c u r v e s a n d h i g h o v e r l a p p i n g a r c h e s w o u l d b e p e rh a p s mo re d iff ic u lt t o a h ie v e wit h s t ic k f a b ric s y s t e m. Ho we v e r c re a t e s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g s p a c e s o f a ll s t rc u ry u re n o lo n g e r b e c o me s mo s t ly u s a b le in t e rn a lly a ll s p a c e s in , o n a n d a r o u n d c a n b e u s e d f o r r e s t i n g s p a c e . 4 e n t ra n c e / e x it s .

23

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

FOR M FI NDI N G

Elevation

[DIGITAL TESTING]


Plan

Elevation

View into Internal

singular span module

Setup:

To be able to find out which form works the best for this system three of the options have been developed using Kangaroo. NB. In t he t es t images fi xi n g elem ent s h a v e n o t

th e been

e n tra n ce/ d e ta i l e d.

Mo delling us ing k a n g a ro o a n d th e GH s c ri p t i s done on point s , s o th e fo rm i n th e s e i ma ges are mor e s pik y th a n i n re a l i ty, w h e re t he peaks on t he c olu m n s w o u l d h a v e a c i rc ul ar fi xi n g plat es m ak in g th e a n g l e s m o re g e n tl e.

Conclusion:

Appr ox 60 m

From this further testing, we can see that with option F the form become too complex and with budget and time restraints perhaps is not the best to develop at the festival. Option B having 4 arches perhaps become too large., so the best option is Option 2.

Option B:

4 ar ches, centr al i sed l ar ge pi nch poi nt

singular span module

Plan A pprox 5m

Appr ox 30 m

Option C:

2 ar ches col l i di ng

singular span module

3.5 m

A pprox 5m

Appr ox 75 m

Option E:

2 weaved arches: T h e c u r v e d s h a p e is di ffi cul t to model , w hi ch m ay al so pr ove pr obl emati c w i th the sti ck system.

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D EV E LO P I N G F O R M

[FORM SCALE AND SIZE]

24


MAT ERI A L EX P LO RATIO N: THERM OCHROM AT IC T EST ING Having developed a form with an arched system, it means the structure will be viewed from beneath. As the structure is made from fabric, being able to view bodies and body heat from below seemed like an interesting idea. I explored a range of different Thermochromatic materials, beginning with Thermochromatic photographic film and then Thermochromatic dye and fabric. _ 1 T h e r m o c hr o m a t i c p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m _ 2 T h e r m o c hr o m a t i c f a b r i c _ 3 T h e r m o c hr o m a t i c d ye _ 4 I d e a of v i e w f r o m a b o ve o f b o d y h e a t _ 5 1 :2 0 M odel s how i n g t h e a f f e ct o f wa r m b o d ie s on t he T h e r m o ch r o m a t i c m a t e r i a l

_1

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Tes ti ng out Thermoc hromati c fabri c . Bel ow i s a s ampl e of Thermoc hromati c fab r i c I m a d e b y u si n g t h e r m o d ye .

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

MATE RI AL T E S T I N G

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_3

[THERMOCHROMATIC FABRIC]

_4

_5


F I NA L P R O P OS A L PINCH ME AM I DREAMING? Final proposal for Burning Man Festival The title of my proposal for the Burning Man festival, ‘pinch me, am I dreaming?’ is a play on words. The festival is know for its ‘trippy’ nature, self induced or brought on by the heat and lack of water in Desert conditions. The use of the proposal is a chill out zone, a resting space or dream tent. The structure is made of a system of pinch points, hence ‘pinch me’. It also refers to the system which almostly unbelieveably seems to effortlessly float across the Nevada, held by the tension system. The need for this Chill out zone is very important for the Burning man festival. The nights are packed with parties and the day conditions are extremely harsh, it is very important to have a calm chill out space for people to conserve their energy. The chill out zone will be made from white tensile fabric which will provide a cool space in the heat of the day. _1 High energy parties _2 Day conditions in the Black Rock City, tenperatures that reach 125 Fahrenheit degrees _3 An packed chill out zone in 2007 festival _4 Concept image for my final proposal

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DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

FIN AL P RO PO S A L

[INTRODUCTION]


F I NA L P R O P OS A L

The proposal for the festival is a Dream space, a chill out zone. It is a tensile membrane structure of columns and pinch points which allows it to float off the ground. Underneath the structure there is room for people to walk underneath and admire this spectacle. The form of the building it lends itself to the centre of the Axis of the Playa. The central spot will be for the Burning Man itself but an area in this axis would be an ideal spot for the Dream tent. _1 Site Plan of the Playa. Indicaticates main axis and the area where the Dream space would be best located onsite. _2 Plan of the Double Arched Dream space _3 Section through proposal showing use and system. Site location of Dream space

Burning Man

Ce n t r a l Ca mp

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DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

FIN AL P RO PO S A L

_2

[INTRODUCTION]


To show the sort of spaces and the to test the physicality of the the proposed double arched system , a 1:20 physical model of the centre section of the proposal was created. The photographs show the spaces created in and around the proposal. _1 An aerial view _2 The space created under the structure _3 The model has some of the external walls to show the internal spaces

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DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

FIN AL P RO PO S A L S

_2

[PHYSICAL MODEL]


This is a diagram to show the use of the Chill out space in a day of the Burning Man Festival and the effects of the heat of the sun on the Thermochromatic fabric. In the early morning it is not used by many people as most are sleeping. By midday more people will start to use the tent, the fabric will provide a cool shaded space. By early afternoon the thermochromatic fabric may start to warm by the sun, perhaps changing a slight colour. The space will also be used in the evening, the fabric will be back to white with peoples body heat warming up patches creating a fun space from inside and externally these glowing spots will be able to been seen underneath.

DAY CYCLE

Early morning. Fabric not heated [white] not used by many people

Evening. Fabric not heated [white] people use for party, movement from body generates heat

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FIN AL P RO PO S A L

Midday. Thermochromatic dyed fabric warmed by sun, used for rest and shade

[DAY CYCLE OF PROPOSAL]


DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

FIN AL P RO PO S A L

[INTE RNAL RE NDE R]

I N TE R N A L D R E A M S PA C E

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FIN AL P RO PO S A L

[E X TE RNAL NI G HT RE NDE R]

EXTERNAL NIGHT VIEW SHOWING I NT E RACT I V E THERMOCHOMATIC MATERIAL


HO W I S I T C ON S T R U C T E D ?

1:5 DETAIL MODEL

To work out how this system would be constructed 1:1, I had to develop the details of the coulumns, their fixing to the fabric, how the tension is spread in the fabric and how the pinch point works. After reading into how tensile fabric structures are created, I decided the columns needed a fixing plate which was larger than the columns diameter, to spread out tension in these points. The similar fixing plate could be used for the pinch point, however a circular ring plate was created, to let sunlight through. The diameter of the ring would have to be wide enough to withstand the tension, as it would be also weaken by the bolt holes.

_1 Stress Points

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

DETAI LS

[CONNECTIONS AND CONSTRUCTION]

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1:5 DETAIL MODEL

Fabric

Column fixing plate

Pinching plate

Columns

Kit of Parts

DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

D E TAI LS

[CONNECTIONS AND CONSTRUCTION]

Pinch ring fixing- allows light through and views of sky from underneath

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O FFS I T E: PAT T E R N C U T T IN G

O NS I T E : CO NS T RUCT I O N

Offsite:

Constructing the tensile membrane structure requires the fabric to be cut in a pattern offsite before it is brought to site and stretched into place. In my previous physical test models I have been using material with a slight stretch for ease, so that the fabric is stretched to its full potential. In reality the fabric would be normal tensile structure fabric, without any stretch, making the structure itself fully taught in all places. To create the pinch points the material would have to be cut in a pattern to achieve these shapes.

Onsite:

The advantage of using a tensile membrane system as a temporary structure for the Burning Man festival is that it is: -Rapid construction and deconstruction -Little on site detailing -Material efficiency -Extremely light weight structure C o l u m n s h e l d i n p l a c e b y te m p o r a r y c a b l e s , a s s tr u c tu r e i s n o t y e t i n E q u i l i b r i u m

Stre ss Point s

C onnecti ng pi nch pl ates i ncreases the tensi on i n pattern cut fabri c s o fabri c becomes ful l y tense.

Columns in compresion, f abric in t ension, wit h t he f ixing plat es reducing t he st ress concent rat ion at t hese point s.

S tructure i n E qui l i bri um

C onnect pi nch pl ates

The system works in an equilibrium of tension and compression, however neither element works alone. In construction the primary structure must be constructed first and temporarily supported.

connect fabri c col umn fi xi ng pl ate

E rect col umns

Sk i n and Bones Cons truction

In order to avoid stress concentrations at the high and low points, the system has been designed so there is fixing plates or a pinch ring, with large enough radius to support this tensioning and reinforce the fabric in this area. _ 1 E x a mple of fabric shape a pinch point _ 2 P l an o f th is a rea, with dotted line of fab r i c p a t t e r n. To create this shape fabric is removed a t d i a g o n al lines.

Pr e c e d e n t d e t a i l i n g o f l a r g e te n s i l e m e m b r a n e s t r u c t u r e s . I m a g e s s h o w s t r u c t ur e i n c o n s tr u c ti o n .

_ 3 T h e se p attern shapes as a template on a lar g e p i e c e o f the tensile fabric

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C O NS TRUCT I O N P R O P O S A L

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[PREPERATION OFSITE AND ERECTION ON SITE]


DS 1 0 ME GA N S A D LER

Megan Sadler  

Portfolio 25/01/12