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STUDENT JOURNAL Megan Rodgers 588229 ABPL30048: Design Studio Air Semester 1, 2014 The University of Melbourne Tutors: Haslette Grounds & Bradley Elias

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TABLE OF CONTETNS A1. Design Futuring A2. Design Computation A3. Composition / Generation A4. Conclusions A5. Learning Outcomes A. Bibliogrphy

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B1. Research Field B2. Case Study 1.0 B3. Case Study 2.0 B. Context Analysis B. Design Development Precedents B. Renewable Energy Technology B4. Technique: Development B5. Technique: Prototypes B6. Technique: Proposal B7. Learning Outcomes and Objectives B8. Bibliography

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C1. Design Concept C2. Design Tectonics C3. Design Final C4. LAGI Brief Requirements C5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes C6. Bibliography

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PART CONC


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A. CEPTUALISATION.

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A1. Design Futuring Introduction

“[A]ny serious “rethinking” of architecture at the start of this century cannot be undertaken without upsetting the structure and emphases of the traditional profession, of traditional typologies, and of traditional modes of envisaging the architectural subject […].”1. As a processive society we have created a defuturing condition of unsustainability. A new form of architecture is needed for us to move forward. The concept of design futuring can lead to the process of designed things to keep designing; that being a piece of architecture having the ability to change and adapt with the future.

1. Vidler, Anthony (2000). ‘Review of Rethinking Architecture and The Anaesthetics of Architecture by Neal Leach’, Harvard Design Magazine, 11, pp. 1-4, p. 3

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A1. Design Futuring

LAGI Compeition Entry Review - Solar Pixels

The design entry ‘Solar Pixels’ puts forth the idea of creating these dome like structures created from photovoltaic panels that capture energy by day and can be programmed to emit colour by night. This captures both visual interest as well as practicality. The individual installations are a great visual attraction to bring people to the site and are extremely efficient in the small footprint that they occupy on the site.

This installation is very adaptable as the number of solar pixels installed can change and they can also be modified to any topography. This means that this same design idea has the potential to be taken up and installed in completely different parts of the world. 1.

The great multi-functional proposal of this design is the idea of creating advertising at night from the energy that the photovoltaics panels collect during the day. This allows the design to have a completely new scale of interaction as the main target for the advertising is passengers in planes travelling to or from the new by airport. This design is really effective in its interaction on multiple scales; individuals on the ground at the installation, those on ground on the other side of this site, travelers in cars nearby and travelers in planes overhead. The advertising potential can also be adapted to produce three different images, therefore three potential advertisers, from different angles or viewpoints.


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This installation is very practical in its potential to produce energy and money. The amount of energy captured by the photovoltaic panels is enough to power the advertising at night as well as pushing extra energy into the grid. The advertising at night can be used to further promote renewable energy/ green initiatives or advertisers can pay money for the use of the installation and this money can be put towards other green projects. This shows how this design can have an on-going good effect.

Some of the negative aspects that could be viewed of this design include; an over-dominating advertising presence in an otherwise very natural looking environment and any potential side effects to the native flora or fauna as this installation is designed to span such a large area.

1. Land Art Generator Initiative; ‘Solar Pixels’, Ana Saiyed, 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/AS03AJ90/

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A1. Design Futuring

LAGI Compeition Entry Review - Fresh Hills

This past LAGI entry titled ‘Fresh Hills’ is an example of the type of design that I do not wish to do. While it does have some positive attributes, in its essence it is simply the cladding of a renewable energy source, in this case wind turbines. In the attempt to generate energy from wind I believe this would be making the site uncomfortable for users. Having past smaller areas where wind tunnels occur, I know that these environments are not comfortable for the smallest amounts of time, and I believe these structures will have created them all over the site.

This design would have worked better if there was more integration with the renewable energy source and the form of the structure. Each of these components could be separated and stand of its own accord. For my own design I wish to create something that cannot be separated because all the components are integrated together. This design also has little to no interaction with users, it has only framed areas of the park land that was already there. This is another aspect would not include in my own design.


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Some of the positives of this LAGI entry are its use of a natural looking material and non-dominating forms. They appear to flow well through the site and could potentially frame a nice natural park area in the centre. Its forms are said to be based off wind rose data and therefore is an example of data abstraction into form which is a common thing that could be looked at for my own design. Their research into the wind behaviour of this site

is extensive and gives the understanding that this installation would be successful in generating significant energy from wind. Acting as a symbol for a renewable and sustainable future, it has been successful.

1. Land Art Generator Initiative; ‘Fresh Hills’, Matthew Rosenberg, 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/ LAGI-2012/8Y8B8U8R/

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A1. Design Futuring

Renewable Energy Technologies - Kinetic Energy Harvesting

Kinetic Energy is the energy produced through motion and specifically I wish to look at that which is produced through human motion. “There are many forms of kinetic energy - vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion), rotational (the energy due to rotational motion), and translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another).”1. “At its most basic, a kinetic/inertial energy harvester is a small box with a weight attached to a spring. When the spring moves, the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy, usually by means of piezoelectrics or MEMS (microelectromechanical systems). If the spring moves with more force, or it bounces back and forth rapidly, more energy is produced.” 2. There are varying types of kinetic energy harvesters: •electroactive polymers—which produce an electrical current from a change in shape or size as they are stretched and relaxed •electromagnetic generators—which require relatively sophisticated mechanical transmission in order to operate at the speeds needed to efficiently

produce power due to their low energy density. •piezoelectric ceramics—which produce electricity resulting from mechanical pressure 3. The limitations of kinetic energy harvesting occur in the actually harvestable amounts of energy. Depending on the designed harvester this can be potential low. Illustrated below are some of the potential energy gains from basic everyday motions deducted from a study using a harvester in the form of a wristband.


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Kinetic Energy Harvesting that exists today has been done so in many different forms. A popular form that has been under recent development is through the use of a wristband, such as implementing it in the nike fuel-band product. This makes it an easy energy harvesting tool in everyday life. Implemented into public spaces as another easy form of kinetic energy harvesting is a paver or floor surface that collects the energy from a person’s tread. A popularised form by the company Vodafone is a pair of shorts with what is called a ‘power pocket’ 4. Targeted towards music festival goers, the pocket harvests the energy from

the user dancing to keep charged their mobile phone. Other forms such as shoes, a soccer ball with a light and a bed with lights and music also exist in harvesting kinetic energy. In terms of applying this form of energy harvesting to the design brief I believe there is endless potential to create an installation that truly involves the visitor in the entire process and purpose and that is something I would like to achieve. There is also the potential for further educational benefits through such a strong visitor involvement.

1. The Physics Classroom; ‘Kinetic Energy’, 1996-2014, http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/u5l1c.cfm 2. ExtremeTech; ‘Kinetic Energy Harvesting: Everyday human activity could power the internet of things’, Sebastian Anthony, July 11 2013, http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/161079-kinetic-energy-harvesting-everydayhuman-activity-could-power-the-internet-of-things 3. SPIE; ‘Solar & ALternative Energy A Scalable Solution to Harvest Kinetic Energy’, Roy D. Kornbluh, Joseph Eckerle, and Brian McCoy, July 18 2011, http://spie.org/x48868.xml 4. Inhabitat; ‘Vodafone’s new Energy-Generating Sleeping Bag charges your phone while you sleep’, Mark Boyer, 13 June 2013, http://inhabitat.com/vodafones-new-energy-generating-sleeping-bag-can-charge-your-phone-asyou-sleep/

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A2. Design Computation Introduction

Computerization vs. Computation; all designers today are familar with taking conceived conceptual ideas and using computer aided drawing techniques to enhance them, in comparison too having conceptual design ideas driven by data input into the computer and an output being produced by the computer not the designer. Design computation uses algorithms as the parameters for design. Algorithmic thinking is the ability to understand, execute, evaluate and create algorithms. This process of design is still uncommon and has not been fully utilised by the industry yet, as it is still a very new concept that is developing more and more everyday. Those designers who have chosen to take on board this new way of designing, are now at the fore-front of the progressing architecture into a whole new stage in histroy.

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A2. Design Computation

Precedent Research - National Bank of Kuwait Headquarters

The design for the new National Bank of Kuwait Headquarters used a design process with integrated computational design. This form of design was achieved in a successful manner as it was brought in at an early stage of the design process. A parametric model of developed which became easy to shape and change with a variety of parameters for form and performance. This model was later taken to form the complex final design to be constructed. “The major elements that drive the overall geometry of the design are the orientation of the fins, profile of the edge fins, saw-tooth cladding between the fins, and the arcs that form the north facade�1. These major design elements of the fins for this building have been established in design through

the use of the parametric model. Architects in conjunction with engineers used this model to solve the issues of construction for these fins, with the input and linking of data spreadsheets. Computational design for the NBK headquarters allowed for multiple and quickly formed variations of the design. It allowed for a wide range of unconceivable forms or geometries that could not be achieved without the use of this technology.


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Building performance was a strong factor for this design and the use of computational modelling helped with this. Performance parameters necessary for its specific site were input into the parametric model. This model could be used for calculations of solar, wind and acoustic analysis. Therefore computational design allowed for a strong emphasis on performance-orientated design.

I believe this design shows a great use of computational design because it has allowed for the creation of geometries, has made ease of inputting and assessing parameters, and created a building form that isn’t necessarily unconventional or abstract like other results of computational design, therefore showing the potential ability of computational design to form designs everywhere and everyone.

1. Popovska, D. (2013), Integrated Computational Design: National Bank of Kuwait Headquarters. Archit Design, 83: 34–35. doi: 10.1002/ad.1550

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A2. Design Computation

Precedent Research - Digital Grotesque

“By using computational design and additive manufacturing, we can design architecture with a complexity and richness that would be impossible to draw by hand,” 1. These are the words of Michael Hansmeyer, designer of the architectural installation ‘Digital Grotesque’. Through algorithmic design, Hansmeyer created the largest 3D printed room. “The algorithms are deterministic as they do not incorporate randomness, but the results are not necessarily entirely foreseeable. Instead, they have the power to surprise”1. He has

created geometries that appear both synthetic and organic, chaotic and balanced. Any references to nature or existing styles are not integrated into the design process, but are evoked only as associations in the eye of the beholder. This installation shows advancements in technology of new materials and fabrication methods. Its geometry consists of hundreds of millions of individual facets printed at a resolution of a tenth of a millimetre, constituting a 3.2-meter high, 16 square meter large room 1.


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Through the use of algorithms, forms have been created that would be unconceivable otherwise. A defined input has created an undefined output in a geometric form. This installation is extremely interactive on an individual scale. The forms can be viewed at multiple levels and visualised into recognisable forms. From the tiniest detail of an individual segment, to the whole architectural design. Computational design has been the absolute driver behind ‘Digital Grotesque’. I believe it is successful because you can see it for its quality

of being unconceivable to the normal designer, un-formable with pen and paper. This aspect makes the design take on a whole new nature or feel. Hansmeyer explains that the name came from the way the project explores the “delicate balance between the expected and the unexpected, between control and relinquishment” 2. he installation was produced through the 3D printing on sand-printed elements (silicate and binder). It took a whole month to complete the entire printing of this architectural piece 1.

1. Michael Hansmeyer Computational Design, http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/digital_grotesque_info5.html?screenSize=1&color=1#undefined 2. Mashable; ‘Digital Grotesque’ Structure Takes 3D Printing to New Heights, October 1 2013, http://mashable.com/2013/09/30/digital-grotesque/

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A3. Design Composition/Generation Introduction

Computational design and algorithmic design is all about the process of generation and not always knowing what that generation might turn out too be from the prescribed data inputs. It’s about producing a generation that could only have been done through computational design and not just conceived by a designer. It is this that sets it apart from a regular design method, it has brought fourth a whole new array of possibilities for generation. Computational design allows composition and generation to be taken above the mind of the designer.

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A3. Composition/Generation

Precedent Research - Kuwait International Airport

Symmetry as geometry to form algorithms which act as generators is the process by which the Kuwait International Airport was designed. Designed by Foster + Partners, it has a triple rotational symmetry around its origin. “T-Splines was used to automatically give curvature matching of edges. The interfaces between the bays are highly complex in terms of curvature and benefited from the symmetry-encoded representation”2. The repeating symmetry of this building design made for an easier construction process through communication with contractors. As long as one part was communicated clearly and properly, the others of an identical nature would be constructed in the same correct manner 2. The design of the concrete bays and complex interior roof structures shows the potential of computational

design to create forms of a changing, intricate nature. The connection of this building to its exterior environment is very strong, while the harshness of the Kuwait environment should not affect negatively on the interior environment quality. I think this work, along with a lot of Foster + Partners’ work, is a great application of computational design because of its practical application. It has not created some abstract form that decreases practicality for the sake of a desired aesthetic which is often controversial or only appreciated by few.


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Diagram representing the 17 different ways of tiling a plane using discrete translations, rotations and mirroring 2.

1. Foster + Partners; “Kuwait International Airport”, 2011, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/ kuwait-international-airport/ 2. Josefsson, K. (2013), Symmetry As Geometry: Kuwait International Airport. Archit Design, 83: 28–31. doi: 10.1002/ad.1548

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A3. Composition/Generation Precedent Research - ‘Tree Hugger’

‘Tree Hugger’ is an architectural installation by Prof. Holger Hoffmann in-conjunction with the University of Applied Sciences, Department of Digital Deisgn, Trier Germany. It was first exhibited in the National Garden Show in Koblenz in 2011. This installation came with the purpose of further educated students and craftsman of the potentials and qualities of computational design and manufacturing.

The design has created a blurred line between the interior and exterior with the use of printed glass, timber plywood, enclosing within its centre an existing tree and the use of angled, branching columns that resemble the trunk of a tree. The installation really comes to life at night when a selection of the geometric roof panels come alight and will change colour and luminosity based on the interaction of users 2.


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“Our main aim was to give students as well as craftsmen a broader understanding of recent computational design and computer aided manufacturing technology. During planning and building period this knowledge should ideally be shared between the disciplines in a kind of a “digital mason’s lodge” setting. Thus it is not just the pavilion itself but even more the back and forth of a development-process that we see at the core of our efforts.” 3. - Holger Hoffmann. The above diagram shows some of the steps in the design process of this installation, where computational design was used to create the basic geometry. Formed, altered, abstracted and then applied is the process

in use here. The geometric forms of the roof, floor and columns all stem from these base geometric patterns. It is these computationally developed forms that were the generative forces for this design 1. A rotational process was taken for the arrangement spaces, with the tree-like columns being rotated around the central tree to create a central space for lectures or exhibitions as well as smaller cubicle spaces. Through the use of Rhinoceros 4.0, Grasshopper, Visual Basic/Rhinoscript, this pavilion was fabricated with automated factory machine cutting tools, and a connection of very intricate detailing was established for assembly (see below) 3.

1. Designboom; ‘FH trier + One Fine Day: Treehugger, 10 May 2011, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/fh-trier-one-fine-day-treehugger/ 2. Archdaily; ‘Treehugger/Holger Hoffmann/One fine Day’, 05 May 2011, http://www.archdaily.com/132639/ treehugger-holger-hoffmann-one-fine-day/ 3. Architonic; ‘one fine day (desseldorf) Treehugger’, 2011, http://www.architonic.com/aisht/treehugger-onefine-day/5100933

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A3. Composition/Generation

Precedent Research - Centennial Chromagraph

The process illustrated in the diagram above shows; 1. Historical ranges, 2. transformation to splines, 3. construction curves, 4. surface generation, 5. sectional ribs, 6. engravings heads of school, 7. pencils coloured by degree type proportional by year 2.


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Centennial Chromagraph is an artistic installation representing the 100 years of the University of Minnesota School of Architecture. Through the use of computational design, this installation was able to be formed to represent the 100 year history of the UMN’s architecture school in a structurally formal way. Bulges in the curves and the gradient colours of the pencils each represent different information; for example one extended part of a curve symbolises the tenure of Ralph Rapson as head of the architecture school, while the prominent red coloured pencils represents the 60-year period of their Bachelor of Architecture 1. This is an excellent example of taking numerical and meaningful data and going through a process of translation and computation to create a formal expression.

The installation has 100 plywood ribs robotically cut and joined together with 8,080 #2 pencils 3. It is excellent in its design as it can be read as being both quantitative and qualitative with its portrayal of information and producing of abstract effects of light and colour. Being both functional and beautiful makes this installation a great precedent as this what I will really be trying to achieve with my own design. The vast array of information from the universities history lead to the process of mapping that resulted in a spatial and chromatic design strategy. Chronological mapping, diagrammatical abstraction and superimposed curves were the main driving process for the form of this design 2.

1. Desingboom; ‘8,080 colored pencils chronicle university of minnesota’s history ‘, November 24 2013, http:// www.designboom.com/art/8080-colored-pencils-chroicle-the-university-of-minnesotas-history-11-24-2013/ 2. ILikeArchitecture; ‘Centennial Chromagraph by Variable Projects’, November 2013, http://www.ilikearchitecture.net/2013/12/centennial-chromagraph-variable-projects/ 3. Variable Projects; ‘Centennial Chromagraph’, 2013, http://www.variableprojects.com/centennial-chromagraph/

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A3. Composition/Generation Precedent Research - Vana (2013)

Vana is an architectural installation by Orproject for the India Design Forum exhibited in The Brick House in New Delhi. This project works with the ideas of simulating the growth of topiaries, and therefore is a precedent of biomimicry. Orproject created a series of algorithms that could turn the principles of this growth into form. Specifically these algorithms mimic the veins found in leaves. The process identifies certian ‘seed’ points from which the branching pattern grows and extends out of. These are recognised as the points connected to the floor in the final installation. Driven also by the idea of the ‘leaves’ growing in a way to obtain maximum sunlight 1. This project has been exceptionally finished. The entire structure is a single surface that is hung from the ceiling. All the triangular surface tessalations are stiched together to give beautiful detailing, which is further highlighted by the LED back lighting in the structure 2. This lighting also give an immersive glow and very impacting feel to the space.

This project is a good example of generational design because the designed algorithms are ‘growing’ the form and final generation. It has taken the properities of nature and combined it with the potentials of computation to create a beautiful installation. Vana would be a very impacting installation on any visitor. The ‘tree canopy’ envelopes you in the same way as entering into a dense forest. The mood of the room is directly set by the ombient lighting. This installation would have the ability to evoke a range of emotions and feelings from the visitor and I believe this is an excellent quality that this computational design outcome has achieved.

1. “Vana: A Nature-Inspired Structure that Grows Like a Tree” 11 Jan 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 05 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=465433> 2. dezeen magazine; “Growing indoor forest made from paper by Orproject”, 23 Feburary 2014, http://www. dezeen.com/2014/02/23/glowing-indoor-forest-made-from-paper-by-orproject/


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A4. Conclusions Readings Analysis

Through part A of my design process I have established a varied basis of precedents to inform my own design. Extensive research has shown the vast array of applications for computational design and therefore the many built results. After looking at the many different examples I believe that ‘Treehugger’ and ‘Centennial Chromagraph’ are two precedents that will strongly influence my design. This is because they both have taken computational design and applied it in an artistic way that is very practical. By ensuring the practical aspect of my design in terms of the generation of sustainable energy and the interaction with users remains the core goal and is highly achieved, all other artistic aspects to make the installation visually appealing are an extra. I wish for my design to have the practical and the artistic as one and the same. Using computational design to create forms that simply clad a sustainable energy generator is not something a wish to do. This type of design which can be seen in some past LAGI entries shows a very unintegrated form of design that I believe also doesn’t promote sustainable forms of design.

I have gained a far greater understanding of algorithms and how they can work with design. They have “qualities of being finite, unambiguous and simple to follow, definite and effective”1. This tells how, while it might seem like the computer is responsible for design as it producers the form, it is still the designer that has to input these extremely exact algorithms. “Algorithmic thinking means taking on an interpretive role to understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code to explore new options and speculating on further design potentials” 2. As I begin to undertake this for my own design I must learn how to achieve this algorithmic thinking rather than the form design thinking that I am use too.

1. Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 2. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15


A5. Learning Outcomes

From Part A of Design Studio Air I have gained a comprehensive knowledge of computational design using algorithms and began my journey of learning how to use this design method myself. When first looking at the concept of computational design it was very daunting and confusing. However after breaking the whole idea down into its basic elements I could wrap my head around the concept of driving a design not by your own formal ideas but through the outcomes of a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;designedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; algorithm.

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The prospect of creating forms that could never otherwise be possible is very exciting. The idea of a computer being used to create design rather than just aid in the documentation of an already formed design is a whole new concept to me; computerization vs. computation. Computational design is giving us a taste as students of what we will be at the forefront of when we are practicing for ourselves. I could have used this knowledge to improve some of my past designs through opening me up to the potential of millions of new forms and outcomes.

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A. Bibliography - Vidler, Anthony (2000). ‘Review of Rethinking Architecture and The Anaesthetics of Architecture by Neal Leach’, Harvard Design Magazine, 11, pp. 1-4, p. 3 - Land Art Generator Initiative; ‘Solar Pixels’, Ana Saiyed, 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AS03AJ90/ - Land Art Generator Initiative; ‘Fresh Hills’, Matthew Rosenberg, 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/8Y8B8U8R/ - The Physics Classroom; ‘Kinetic Energy’, 1996-2014, http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/u5l1c.cfm - ExtremeTech; ‘Kinetic Energy Harvesting: Everyday human activity could power the internet of things’, Sebastian Anthony, July 11 2013, http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/161079-kinetic-energy-harvesting-everyday-humanactivity-could-power-the-internet-of-things - SPIE; ‘Solar & ALternative Energy A Scalable Solution to Harvest Kinetic Energy’, Roy D. Kornbluh, Joseph Eckerle, and Brian McCoy, July 18 2011, http://spie.org/x48868.xml - Inhabitat; ‘Vodafone’s new Energy-Generating Sleeping Bag charges your phone while you sleep’, Mark Boyer, 13 June 2013, http://inhabitat.com/vodafones-new-energy-generating-sleeping-bag-can-charge-your-phone-as-yousleep/ - Popovska, D. (2013), Integrated Computational Design: National Bank of Kuwait Headquarters. Archit Design, 83: 34–35. doi: 10.1002/ad.1550 - Michael Hansmeyer Computational Design, http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/digital_grotesque_info5. html?screenSize=1&color=1#undefined - Mashable; ‘Digital Grotesque’ Structure Takes 3D Printing to New Heights, October 1 2013, http://mashable. com/2013/09/30/digital-grotesque/ - Foster + Partners; “Kuwait International Airport”, 2011, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/kuwait-international-airport/ - Josefsson, K. (2013), Symmetry As Geometry: Kuwait International Airport. Archit Design, 83: 28–31. doi: 10.1002/ad.1548 - Designboom; ‘FH trier + One Fine Day: Treehugger, 10 May 2011, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/fhtrier-one-fine-day-treehugger/ - Archdaily; ‘Treehugger/Holger Hoffmann/One fine Day’, 05 May 2011, http://www.archdaily.com/132639/treehugger-holger-hoffmann-one-fine-day/ - Architonic; ‘one fine day (desseldorf) Treehugger’, 2011, http://www.architonic.com/aisht/treehugger-one-fineday/5100933 - Desingboom; ‘8,080 colored pencils chronicle university of minnesota’s history ‘, November 24 2013, http://www. designboom.com/art/8080-colored-pencils-chroicle-the-university-of-minnesotas-history-11-24-2013/ - ILikeArchitecture; ‘Centennial Chromagraph by Variable Projects’, November 2013, http://www.ilikearchitecture. net/2013/12/centennial-chromagraph-variable-projects/ - Variable Projects; ‘Centennial Chromagraph’, 2013, http://www.variableprojects.com/centennial-chromagraph/ - “Vana: A Nature-Inspired Structure that Grows Like a Tree” 11 Jan 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 05 Apr 2014. <http:// www.archdaily.com/?p=465433> - dezeen magazine; “Growing indoor forest made from paper by Orproject”, 23 Feburary 2014, http://www.dezeen. com/2014/02/23/glowing-indoor-forest-made-from-paper-by-orproject/ - Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 - Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15


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PART DESIG


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B. GN CRITERIA.

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B1. Research Field Biomimicry - Precedents

Biomimicry in computational design is an extremely interesting discipline that holds so much potential. The juxtaposition of the purest, natural forms and the use of computer aided design is the driving force behind many of the following amazing built examples.

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart uses a skeleton like a sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Fabricated of polygon plywood timber plates and joined together using finger joints in the same manner as the sea urchin. A collaborative design piece by the Institute for Computational Design (ICD), the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) and students at the University of Stuttgart. The computational design process exstablished a formal process created from biomimicry that could be taken from this pavilion and applied to other geometry and built forms 1.

VoltaDom, by Skylar Tibbits - for MITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 150th Anniversary Celebration & FAST Arts Festival (Festival of Arts, Science and Technology). This installation gives a new light to the traditional vault structure. It populates the space of a corridor between two buildings and a very different and emphasised


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feel for users of the space. The design intention was to expand the potential of the ‘surface panel’, as the entire structure has been fabricated by simplified strips of these complex vaults 2.

CLJ02 designed ZA11 Pavilion for the ZA11 Speaking Architecture event in Cluj, Romania. For this project computational design controlled from exact geometry generation to piece labeling, assembly logic and actual fabrication (CNC milling). It was successful in providing a piece of intrigue for the community and being of shelter for particular events in ZA11. Intricately designed, this pavilion has a strong emphasis on detailed which allows it to be viewed completely differently on different scales 3.

1. de zeen magazine; ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart’, 31 October 2011, http://www.dezeen. com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ 2. SJET; ‘voltaDom: MIT 2011’, http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html 3. Design Playgrounds; ‘CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION’, http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/clj02-za11-pavilion/

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B1. Research Field Biomimicry - Precedents

Aranda Lasch - The Morning Line, created for the 3rd Bienal Internacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla (Biacs). It is created of ‘universal’ pieces which can be reconfigured into hundreds of architectural form possibilities. It is a platform for music, as visitors enter and move around the structure reacts and changes with music. “It offers a site primarily concerned with generating infinite potential meanings and uses. In other words, it is not only designed for the future, it creates it”. 8 metres high and 20 metre long frame, built of 17 tons of coated aluminum 1.

Fallen Star @ AA DLAB Visiting School, an installation based around the ideas of biomimetics, interaction, and perception. It is completely interactive, a live animation vessel that students could influence using an iPad with video mapping controlled by natural growth algorithms produced by the students.


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Based around the biomimicry ideas of natural growth processes, such as the Lindenmayer system, fractal theory, reaction-diffusion systems, and Voronoi algorithms 2.

Canopy by United Visual Artists using biomimicry of the geometry of a leaf, growth patterns and creating the experience of walking through a forest. Filtering natural light by day and emitting articifcal light by night for which “the result simultaneously recalls the activity of cells within a leaf, leaves in a forest canopy, or a city seen from the air”. The canopy is produced of one geometric form assembled in a non-repeating pattern to give a dynamic appearance. 90 metres long and 3 metres wide, made of powder coated steel, anodised aluminium, injection moulded polycarbonate, LED, Code 3.

1. TBA21; ‘Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line’, http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/ page_2?category=pavilions 2. Furuto, Alison. “‘Fallen Star’ Installation at AA DLAB Visiting School” 22 Aug 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 01 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=265116> 3. Design Playgrounds; ‘Canopy by United Visual Artists’, http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-unitedDesign visual-artists/

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B2. Case Study 1.0

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Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom

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B2. Case Study 1.0 Iterations

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0


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B2. Case Study 1.0 Analysis

From working with the grasshopper definition for the precedent VoltaDom, I have established, together with my group, some interesting results. The three examples above are those I have identified as the best or hold the greatest potentials for further design work leading to fabrication. Number 1. has taken the cone shape and populated it over a base cone geometry. The forms have been altered to be planar with the base geometry rather than populating the geometry on the X Y plane. This therefore makes for easy modification by changing the base geometry, the cones will remain planar with the surface. I believe this has potential because any surface can be used an adapted to fit with a form of renewable energy and the produced cone forms will adapt with it.

Number 2. shows a very abstract use of the definition producing these cone shapes. Using the ideas established from the online tutorials on evaluating fields and point charges, this form was produced and then the cones populated onto it at the centre and very ends of the radiating lines. While this overall form in its current state would be very difficult to fabricate and have practical use I believe in a formal way it has interesting, eye-catching qualities. It could be developed further into a form that might be fabricated. Number 3. shows qualities of a more sphere like geometry as well as interesting surface patterning. The overall form is very basic but the bass geometry and patterning are aspects that could be applied to a more formally interesting design.


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B3. Case Study 2.0

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 at the University of Stuttgart uses a skeleton like a sea urchinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Fabricated of polygon plywood timber plates and joined together using finger joints in the same manner as the sea urchin. A collaborative design piece by the Institute for Computational Design (ICD), the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) and students at the University of Stuttgart.

The computational design process exstablished a formal process created from biomimicry that could be taken from this pavilion and applied to other geometry and built forms 1. There is a high adaptability in the form of this pavilion meaning a relaised form could be produced at multiple scales, in multiple geometry undertaking the same principles. Computational design was used with a model beginning with the ideas of a polygonal modular shape always joining at a point by three modular plates in order to allow for normal and shear forces but no bending moments 3.


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The common ‘finger joint’ used in this pavilion has taken on a new meaning from how it was adapted from the qualities of the sea urchin and wasn’t just selected for convenience. This jointing gives the pavilion an excellence in detailing that allows the overall strucutre to have a higher quality aesthetic. The use of thin plywood gives this pavilion a very light and non-intrusive impact on the site despite its size. It also makes it more inviting, enhanced particularly with its lighting feature.

This design has a dynamic structure that has naturalistic qualities without being able to directly identify them. Research shows the inspiration of the sea urchin shell, however without knowing this, a very organic feel can still be gained from the pavilion. I believe this is a good example of computational design because it has been used to apply natural principles which hold so much potential for architecture if they can be converted and adapted properly. It has a highly flexible nature meaning it can be changed or applied to other architectural pieces.

1. de zeen magazine; ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart’, 31 October 2011, http://www.dezeen. com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ 2. “ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart” 18 Jan 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 04 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=200685> 3. Inhabitat; ‘Amazing Bionic Research Pavilion Explores the Sand Dollar’s Skeleton Morphology’, 31 October 2011, Bridgette Meinhold, http://inhabitat.com/amazing-bionic-research-pavilion-explores-the-sand-dollars-skeleton-morDesign phology/

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B3. Case Study 2.0

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 - Reverse Engineering


Various attempts at reverse engineering the ICD pavilion using different methods and producing different results, each with certain aspects of the pavilion design.

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B3. Case Study 2.0

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 - Reverse Engineering


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B3. Case Study 2.0 Final Outcome

This is the final outcome achieved for reverse engineering the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011. It resembles and holds many of the same qualities as the built pavilion. It has; - hexagonal 3D forms populated over a curved surface - the overall curved surface resembles the basic form of the pavilion with the same â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cut-outâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; shapes - all the hexagonal cells have three cells meeting at every vertice


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B. Context Analysis

Refshaleoen; Copenhagen


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A key aspect for our design was ensuring that it was engrained in its context and not just an installation that could be placed anywhere. Therefore we did a comprehensive context analysis. The LAGI site is called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Refshaleoenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in Copenhagen. It is surrounded on three sides by water and is just off from the city centre of Copenhagen. We identified the best views too and from the site particularly; from the tourist attraction of the little mermaid towards the site, from the site out towards the ocean or back towards the city.

1. Land Art Generator Initiative; http://landartgenerator.org/index.html

The historical aspects of the site were also a point of research and something we would like to incorporate into our design. The site was a major industrial area of shipping docks prior to 1996 with 8,000 workers at its peak. Therefore it is ingrained as a part of Copenhagenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and is regarded as a Danish industrial icon. Since 1996 it has begun to be redeveloped into more of a recreational area with the presence of flea markets and music concerts, and the remaining industrial presence changing to a renewable energy source with a large wind turbine farm set out in the water.

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B. Context Diagrams & Design Intent

Access

Design Intent

We aim to build a heightened awareness of the environment and environmental issues in Copenhagen through the creation of space - firmly entrenched in its context - that harnesses movement and interaction as a means of energy generation.

Selection Criteria:

- Connection to Context - Awareness of the environment and environmental issues - Movement - Energy Generation


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Views

From our context analysis we were able to develop context diagrams identifying important site aspects, as well as a design intent. These diagrams identify the two points of access to the site; from the road to the East or from a boat taxi terminal at the South - West corner of the site. We wish to have a focus on movement through our site so these two access points and main axes of movement are key to our design. The main views out from the site are; out to water, towards the little mermaid and towards the city. We would like to emphasis these views through our design. Finally the sun path was a site aspect we also wished to incorporate into our design

Sun Path

Our design intent was derived from our context analysis, the LAGI brief and design features we wish to achieve. Our emphasis on movement will connect with our renewable energy source of kinetic energy and we plan to use the movement of users through the site as one point of energy generation, and the movement of users has been identified from our context analysis; showing the connection of all our design elements together into a coherent whole.

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B. Design Development Precedents

This precedent is the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2013 by Sou Fujimoto. This pavilion shows a connection with nature by blurring the lines between interior and exterior, between nature and artificial. The intricate latticework pattern rising out of the ground like a shimmering matrix , or from particular views looks like a grounded cloud. Some key aspects of this design that we hope to take towards our own is its changing quality depending on which angel or scale you view it from as well as its ability to have no defined interior or exterior.

Fujimoto describes his pavilion; â&#x20AC;&#x153;A new form of environment will be created, where the natural and the manmade merge; not solely architecture nor solely natural, but a unique meeting of the twoâ&#x20AC;?. This is an amazing quality that if mimicked in our own design has remarkable potential for an outstanding result.


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This precedent is the Sensing Space Exhibition 2013-14 by Kengo Kuma. Kuma wished to create a full body experience and this exhibition achieves that through light and form and smell. These are thin bamboo structures that are infused with aromas. “The concept was to minimise materials but to maximise senses” - Kuma He identifies architecture lacking in shadow as lacking in soul. These qualities that Kuma has achieved through this design has created a space that would be very powerful to users and this ia a quality that we would like to replicate in our own design, to create something that provokes emotions and invades the senses.

Megan Rodgers

1. Archdaily; “Serpentine Pavilion/Sou Fujimoto”, June 7 2013, http://www.archdaily.com/tag/serpentine-gallery-pavilion/ 588229 2. Serpentine Galleries; “The Cloud Pavilion” June 1 2013, http://www.serpentinegalleries.org/exhibitions-events/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2013-sou-fujimoto 3. Archdaily; “Kengo Kuma”, Feburary 12 2014, http://www.archdaily.com/475585/siza-souto-de-moura-kuma-reflect-on-their-sensing-spaces-exhibitions/ Design Studio Air ABPL30048 4. de zeen magazine; “Sensing Spaces exhibit opens at Royal Academy”, January 21 2014, http://www.dezeen.com/2014/01/21/sensing-spaces-exhibition-royalacademy/


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B. Renewable Energy Technology Piezoelectric Kinetic energy

The renewable energy technology we have chosen to use for our design is kinetic energy. Specifically we have been looking at the piezoelectric panels being produced by MIT called micro-electromechanical system or MEMS. We have chosen these specific devices because; they are said to produce 100 times more energy than others similar and they are very small in size but can be scaled for use on a single person up to use of a bridge harvesting energy from its movement. The device is essentially a microchip with piezoelectirc imbedded into it, which is a sort of crystal that naturally produces energy when put under stress.

Due to their small size these devices will be easy to populate over any surface or form to harvest its energy. One device measuring the size of a coin, produces approximately 45 microwatts. With the size of our site, the amount of devices put in place would produce a valuable amount of renewable energy. We would also like to implement these devices in such a way that they can be taken out and replaced as the technology develops, as MIT are said to already in the stage of developing the same device which generates 100 microwatts.

1. Inhabitat; “MIT’s Tiny Kinetic Generator Produces 100 Times More Power from Small Vibrations” September 15 2011, http:// inhabitat.com/mit-unveils-tiny-kinetic-generator-that-produces-100-times-more-power-from-small-vibrations/ 2. Materiability; “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication” January 21 2013, http://materiability.com/electroactive-polymer-fabrication/ 3. Youtube; “Shape Shift”, September 27 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XGVMXCxBNA


B. Renewable Energy Technology Use

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Electroactive Polymers

In conjunction with the piezoelectric technology we have also looked at using electroactive polymers. These are sheets of layered materials that when connected up with electrical currents will move and change in shape. These polymers can be built around a frame structure which would be part of our design. They have the potential of creating a very dynamic and interactive design for our site which our aspects we hope to achieve.

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B4. 62. Technique Development Iterations Matrix


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B4. 64. Technique Development Iterations Matrix


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66. B4. Technique: Development

Analysis


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These are the three outcomes from producing iterations that we wished to focus on further. The first is derived directly from the ICD pavilion reverse engineering exercise. It holds similar qualities in its cell structure but is being derived away from the pavilion design as I develop it. We felt as a group there was less potential for the design type in moving forward to gain a final proposal. The second is retreating from the ICD pavilion and taking on a grid structure inspired by our precedent of the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion. It exists as a patterned form or line structure at this point. The third also takes on a grid structure but works with form extrusion from populating the grid with a certain shape. There is a lot of potential here for making this design site specific.

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B4. Technique: Development Further Development


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B5. Technique: Prototypes

Taking our ideas out of grasshopper, we tried to produce some prototypes that played with forms and concepts. Above, I developed some very simplified form based models based from the hexagonal cell based designs that we began with after reverse engineering the ICD pavilion. Along with this I also created a triangular frame based cell structure from some of my developmental work.

Moving away from these designs, a prototype was created based off concepts derived from our precedent of the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion. It looks at a grid frame structure and how light might play with this.


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72. B6. Technique: Proposal


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Following all this we came to a more realised proposal form. This design works on a grid based system populated with shapes; circles, hexagons, etc., that are extruded upwards. All of the factors related to this design are input from our context analysis; - area of populated forms - height of extrusion - density of structures This design has the potential of creating a very dynamic installation that is ingrained in its context. It brings in influence from our precedents. A form has been created with no defined bounding of interior and exterior. It sits with its natural environment and is not detached from it. It has the potential of creating a grand experience for users, particularly when our kinetic energy generators and electroactive polymers are brought in.

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B6. Technique: Proposal Developmental Diagrams

1. Main circulation axis 2. Main view paths

1. Points populated over dominate site axes 2. Points as force attractors for the distribution of kinetic energy pavers and design structure

Design structure heights; z-axis extrusion value

1. Populated area of kinetic energy harvesting pavers 2. Densly populated area of design structure

Surrounding context; building heights


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From the basis of our design proposal we identified exactly how we wished to lay out all our design components. From our context analysis we identified this. From the main circulation axes and axes created from main view paths these points were populated and force attractors were used. This allowed for the distribution of the kinetic energy generators as surface pavers to collect energy from users waling across them and the distribution of the design structure becoming more dense as it mores away from the main axes and force attractors. This has created a design where the energy generators are placed in areas of high movement and therefore more open sections of the design where as low areas of movement are densely populated by the design thus limiting movement. The extrusion factor of the design structures is also influenced by site context. We decided to base this off surrounding building heights

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B6. Technique: Proposal System Diagrams

The piezoelectric panels are populated over the surface of the site in areas of high movement in a form similar to that seen below.

This produces energy harvested from the movement of users walking over them.

This energy is connected up to the electroactive polymers. Specfic piezoelectric pavers are connected to specifc polymers so when you step in one place it corresponds to the movement of a specific polymer.

Design structure as a frame with electroactive polymer material as infill for interactive movement Piezoelectric panels as surface pavers Design structure populated over site


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This brings in a high interactive element to our design. The polymers can be assembled in a frame as seen above and this would be a frame extracted from the the extruded forms populated over the site as seen below.

The polymers can then be laced with the piezoelectric panels because they are so small and adaptable.

The energy from the movement of the polymers would also be harnessed because the piezoelectric panels are very effiecent at extracting energy from small vibrations. This energy as well as any not used from the paver generators can be feed back into the grid

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B6. Technique: Proposal

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This is representative model of our final proposal for Part B. It is a form of extrusions in a dynamic arrangement with interactive polymers that engages visitors to move around the space and therefore produce energy. This design has the potential to have monumental qualities and this will draw more visitors to the site. With its size and form this installation will be directly visible from across the river at the Little Mermaid where many tourists already go. That will therefore be an attraction point. Evoking a strong experience for visitors is something we wished to achieve and I believe this design has the potential of doing this. The large extrusions can envelope the visitor into its own world and could potentially bring about a similar experience to that of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin. This design has a lot of potential to be developed further into an extremely refined piece of architecture with a further emphasis on integrated the generation of renewable energy.


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B7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

I believe this design has the potential to be refined into something exceptional. Following the interim presentation I have a clear view of where this design is developing towards. We will alter the use of renewable energy in our design, changing it in order to produce a larger amount of energy as well as produce it without the presence of users on the site. This technology will also be more integrated into our design. Some ideas involve the same use of kinetic energy but generated by the strong winds of the site rather than human movement. The form and the experience produced by our current design will be refined but not dramatically altered as they are already quite successful. The design will be refined to better equip the use of the electroactive polymers in a framed structure to encourage their movement as an interesting part of our design. This movement could potentially be representative of the energy generated or be kept as an interactive user design element. Keeping in mind our specified design intent, our proposal will be changed and refined to better suit the use of renewable energy, and emphasis our desire for movement and interaction.


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B. Bibliography - de zeen magazine; ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart’, 31 October 2011, http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ - SJET; ‘voltaDom: MIT 2011’, http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html - Design Playgrounds; ‘CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION’, http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/clj02-za11-pavilion/ - TBA21; ‘Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line’, http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/page_2?category=pavilions - Furuto, Alison.“‘Fallen Star’ Installation at AA DLAB Visiting School” 22 Aug 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 01 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=265116> - Design Playgrounds; ‘Canopy by United Visual Artists’, http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-byunited-visual-artists/ - de zeen magazine; ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion at the University of Stuttgart’, 31 October 2011, http://www. dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ - “ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 / ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart” 18 Jan 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 04 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=200685> - Inhabitat; ‘Amazing Bionic Research Pavilion Explores the Sand Dollar’s Skeleton Morphology’, 31 October 2011, Bridgette Meinhold, http://inhabitat.com/amazing-bionic-research-pavilion-explores-the-sand-dollars-skeletonmorphology/ - Land Art Generator Initiative; http://landartgenerator.org/index.html - Archdaily; “Serpentine Pavilion/Sou Fujimoto”, June 7 2013, http://www.archdaily.com/tag/serpentine-gallerypavilion/ - Serpentine Galleries; “The Cloud Pavilion” June 1 2013, http://www.serpentinegalleries.org/exhibitions-events/ serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2013-sou-fujimoto - Archdaily; “Kengo Kuma”, Feburary 12 2014, http://www.archdaily.com/475585/siza-souto-de-moura-kuma-reflect-on-their-sensing-spaces-exhibitions/ - de zeen magazine; “Sensing Spaces exhibit opens at Royal Academy”, January 21 2014, http://www.dezeen. com/2014/01/21/sensing-spaces-exhibition-royal-academy/ - Inhabitat; “MIT’s Tiny Kinetic Generator Produces 100 Times More Power from Small Vibrations” September 15 2011, http://inhabitat.com/mit-unveils-tiny-kinetic-generator-that-produces-100-times-more-power-from-smallvibrations/ - Materiability; “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication” January 21 2013, http://materiability.com/electroactive-polymerfabrication/ - Youtube; “Shape Shift”, September 27 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XGVMXCxBNA


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PART DETAIL


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C. LED DESIGN.

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C1. Design Concept

Intent - Review - Realisation Following the presentation from Part B, we took the advice given into consideration. The use of the electroactive polymers was discarded. The extrusion of hexagons is a core concept we wished to carry through. Keeping our design intent and not sacrificing these key points was something very important to us. We also decided to include another form of energy generation in order to provide while there are no visitors at the site. We chose wind generation through piezoelectrics. We followed the process of Intent (what we wanted our design to be) - Review (what we had already done) Realisation (our design manifesting into form) and then back to Intent and Review until our Realisation was our final design proposal.

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C1. Design Concept Development

In the process of looking at lots of different ideas to refine our design concept following the Part B presentation, I created these basic skecth models of different forms our hexagonal extrusions could take on. The first, looks at the idea of creating a bunker like structure with extrusions being removed from the ground to allow movement underneath and shelter above. The second is a large circular form that extends up and then collapses down in the centre with large dominating extrusions that were intended to catch wind for energy generation.


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The third is a semi-enclosed pathway with the large extrusions intended to catch wind and the small hexagonal structure for climbing over around the base. The fourth looks at these almost tree-like structures that branch out and create a shelter with the hexagonal form around the base.

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C1. Design Concept Development

This was the initial design concept we wished to move forward with following the Part B presentation. It has a base structure made up of the hexagonal pattern of extrusions to varying heights for visitors to climb over and for electricity to be generated from this. It then has a canopy structure that would extend across all or a portion of the site. Also made up of the same hexagonal extrusions at varying heights, the canopy would be connected to structural extrusions that extend from the base plane up to the canopy. Hanging from the canopy would be a thin material (lycra was the discussed option), that would blow in the wind and create vibrations that could be harnessed for energy. These hanging materials would create an amazing visual effect. The idea was that the design was extremely engaging for the visitor as they are creating energy through their steps and visualising the energy from the wind.


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C1. Design Concept Refinement

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The previous design was then refined to the above, which became the core design concept for the final proposal. This concept has maintained a similar base plane of hexagonal extrusions. At a certain height though, the extrusions stop and become a flat plane. On top of this flat plane are hexagonal extrusions in the form of frames to different heights. This will create an interesting feature for visitors to walk through and become emerged in. The frame will also be the holding element to apply wind generating piezoelectrics.

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C1. Design Concept Diagrams

1. Paths are designated across the site based off extensive site research and context

2. The areas surrounding these paths are defined as the areas of built structure

4. Areas of the built structure are identifies as the areas for framing to be applied above

5. The frame is built above and the renewable energy technologies are applies; Pavegen to the base and wind Piezos to the frame


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3. The base plane is laid across the site with its varying extrusion heights

6. Interactive lighting is applied such that when a person steps on one Pavegen, a hexagonal platform a few ahead of them will light up as if depicting a path and as a physical representation of energy generated.

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C1. Program: Stage

Bringing more visitors to the site

Stage Standing/Mosh Built structure/seating


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We have designed our structure to accommodate a music stage. This will allow the continuation of already existing music festival at this site, including; -Copenhell -Electro music festival -Scandinavian Reggae Festival -MAD symposium -Refshaleoen music festival -Asteroiden theatre festival The hexagonal structure will act as a seating or standing area. The activity of people from a music festival will greatly increase the energy produced from the Pavegen. With the use of Pavegen as our core energy generator, drawing visitors to the site is extremely important. Therefore having an area available for music concerts or events of any other nature, will greatly increase visitor numbers and therefore energy generated.

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C1. Program: Water Taxi Bringing more visitors to the site

COPENHAGEN

As a program to increase the number of visitors to the site I have proposed a new water taxi route. Looking at the surrounding areas the main tourist attractions were identified above. These are; - Cruise Ship Dock - Langelinie Esplanade - The Little Mermaid - The Old Citadel - The Gefion Fountain - The Resistance Museum Over 2000 people visit the Little Mermaid in one day along. New boat docks would be put at the Little Mermaid, the Cruise ship dock and near the museum and fountain. This would allow the direct passage of tourists from these attractions across to our site, and therefore greatly increase the energy produced at the site.


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C1. Program: Education Bringing more visitors to the site

As another program to increase the number of visitors to the site I have proposed an education program to run in conjunction with the site. The use of the Pavegen and wind generator piezoelectrics across the site are amazing tools for educating everyone on alternative forms of renewable energy rather than the basic solar or wind generators that everyone know about. Specifically the design would work well for school groups to come and learn first hand. The Pavegen particularly is a good tool as it has a immediate response of light as a representation of energy generated. These programs would not only increase the energy generated at the site by having more visitors, but also has the potential of increasing renewable energy by encouraging visitors to use this technology elsewhere.


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C1. Renewable Energy Technology Maximising Energy Production

PAVEGEN - Kinetic energy generation technology - Produces energy from the vibrations of a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s step - 7 Watts of power per step on one paver - Made of 100% recycled materials

WIND ENERGY GENERATORS - Piezoelectric wind energy harvesters - 5-50mW from 5-10mph wind speeds - Developed by the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) - Moved by wind on a hinge to create a fluttering effect similar to that of the facade at Brisbaneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Domestic Terminal


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1. Pavegen Systems; http://www.pavegen.com/ 2. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Wind Drives Piezoelectric Generatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Power Electronics, Novemeber 30 2005, http://powerelectronics.com/news/wind-drives-piezoelectric-generator

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C1. Pavegen Layout Maximising Energy Production

Covering the entire site in Pavegen - Will produce the most energy because every visitors step will be on a Pavegen - However hundreds of Pavegen would be inactive in areas of the site with low circulation - Covering the entire site also takes away any space for natural grassed areas and would appear over-dominating on the site

Covering the walkways and a portion of the built up structure in Pavegen - Will produce an efficient amount of energy as the walkways would be the main areas of circulation, energy is still produced on the structure and there would be less Pavegen unused - Still encourages an interaction with the structure through climbing on it and producing energy

Energy produced from an average day:

5250-8400Kw

3937.5-6300Kw


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Covering only the built structure in Pavegen - Will produce a less efficient amount of energy because the walkways are the main paths of circulation and therefore there would be a large amount of lost potential energy - Strongly encourages an interaction with the structure through energy only being produced from visitors climbing on it

1312.5-2100Kw

Covering only the walkways in Pavegen - Will produce an efficient amount of energy as the walkways would be the main areas of circulation - However this discourages people from having an interaction with the built structure through climbing on it

2625-4200Kw

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C1. Wind Energy Generators Layout Maximising Energy Production

Investigating Types: 1. Small fluttering piezoelectrics applied just to the frame

2. Small fluttering piezoelectrics applied over a capping element on the top of the frame

3. Small fluttering piezoelectrics applied over a capping element on the top and sides of the frame

4. Fur-like piezoelectrics applied to the frame based off the Soder Torn building in Stockholm

5. Piezoelectrics applied as sheets to the top and sides of the frame

Chosen Type 1. - This specific application of the wind generators will not be enclosing in the framing structure and will create a beautiful visual fluttering effect. Specific Technology - Bimorph Transducers that layer piezoelectrics and a nonconductive material created by the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). Producing results of 5 - 10mW from 5-50mph wind speeds


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Layout: 1. Covering the entire site with the framing structure

2. Framing structure across all areas except the pathways

3.Framing across large portions of the built structure

4. Framing across small portions of the built structure

Chosen Type 3. - Keeping clear open spaces across the pathways and some of the built structure which are the areas of Pavegen application, with framing structure that does not overdominant the site but is still enough for energy efficiency. Wind Energy Generators: 0.2-5.0m/s = 10mW - 42.7% - 10 hours/day 5.0-11.0m/s = 50mW - 51.7% - 12 hours/day >11.0m/s = 100mW - 3.6% - 2 hours/day 10x10 = 100mW, 50x12 = 6000mW & 100x2 = 200mW

Total = 6300mW per wind generator per day = 2.29kWh per wind generator per year No. of wind generating piezoelectrics: 50,400

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


108.

C1. Energy Production Maximising Energy Production PaveGen: No People:

On days of bad weather or other factors resulting in no visitors, this will result in no energy production. This is an attempt to further encourage visitors to the site and get them involved in renewable energy production.

0MW

Wind Harvesters

Based off the specific type and layout of the wind generators. Sourcing the wind data from Copenhagen data sources in order to accurately predict the energy production from wind speeds. With 36 wind Piezos per frame and 1800 frames in total across the site but only 1400 populated, this creates a total of 50,400 wind piezos generating:

317kW per day 115MW per year

Average Day:

Approximately 500-800 visitors spending an average of 30 mins, taking approximately 1500 steps each, 75% of which land on pavgen. In one day this will produce 3937.5-6300KW This is amount of energy could power a large residential or commercial building.

3.93 - 6.3MW per day


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Music Festival/Event:

Approximately 1000-1500 visitors to any music festival spending 3-4 hours on the site with approximately 6000 steps on pavgen per person. On these days this will produce 42-63 Megawatts This would be able to power many large commercial buildings

42 - 63MW per day

Site Total:

Total:

Taking the assumption of 5 Average Dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a week for 9 months of the year and 10 music festivals to calculate a yearly total.

1,206 - 1,890MW per year

1321 - 2005MW per year Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C1. Prototypes

This prototype looked at the assembly of the base structure with a highly extruded framing structure. It also testing the application of the wind piezos over a capping elements. From this prototype it was decided this wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ideal, and wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t the effect we desired. The high extrusion was also something we did not desire at the starting point of the framing structure, but instead we wanted a grading height in the same way as the base structure.


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This prototype is similar to the final design outcome. It looked at the shorter, grading frame height with wind piezos applied just to the frame and the application of Pavegen up to but not including the flat plane height of the framing structure. From this prototype I altered the physical assembly of the framing structure to ensure it was a cohesive whole rather than individual framed cells

This prototype looked at initial form and framing. The first idea was to use a timber frame structure in the same way as a stud wall, then clad with timber sides and Pavegen top.

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C2. Design Tectonics The materiality and construction of our design is an aspect that we began considering prior to design concept finalisation. We have chosen the materials to have a warming appearance for the site and not to harsh or intrusive. I believe material selection is very important for our particular design because it is so large it is so necessary for the materials to help the appearance of being welcoming and inviting to visitors.

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C2. Material Selection Originally looking at a timber frame structure, the final chosen material is a steel frame structure. This will provide more than enough support for the entire built structure, for loads from visitors and the aesthetic framing elements.

This built structure will be clad in beautiful plywood to give a natural aesthetic.

For the framing above the built structure we have chosen to have a bronzed or copper appearance. This is to not have the cold appearance of steel but something more warming.


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The Pavegen elements will infill the hexagon shapes between the steel structure.

These LED lights will be inbuilt into the Pavegen surface

The piezoelectric wind generators that will be attached along the aesthetic framing.

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


116. BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT DUCED

C2. Structural System

Asethetic Framework

Piezoelectric Wind Generators

Pavegen

Energy Storage

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Lighting

Structural steel framework

Plywood cladding


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Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUC 118.

C2. Pavegen & Wind Generators detail diagrams

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PROD

Shown here is the assembly of all components of one cell for the base plan with attached Pavegen. With the Pavegen sitting atop a formed box underneath which allows room for the deflection of the top surface and all necessary equipment for the harnessing and storage of energy. This box sits within the structural steel frame and allows space for cables into the ground for the transmission of the generated energy. The steel frame is shown above, bolted together with plates at the corners.

DUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Shown is the assembly of the wind piezos to the aesthetic frame. The frame will be hollow to allow the passage of the wires from the piezos. Energy will be harnessed at the piezo and travel through the frame to either a point of storage on the site or taken off the site for use elsewhere. The piezos will populate 18 along the top of the frame and further 18 along the legs of the frame.

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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121.

C3. Design Final

‘Stepping Stones’

We have titled our design ‘Stepping Stones’ to emphasis the interactive and engaging quality of our design. It is not just something that has been placed on the site for visitors to walk around and see but is a design that visitors will become submerged within. Emphasising also the importance of stepping for energy generation across all the hexagons or ‘stones’. I believe that our initial design intent of wanting to create an interactive design ingrained in its context and promoting an evironmental awareness has been achieved.

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C3. Final Model Stepping Stones


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C3. Final Renders Stepping Stones

Partial Reference: Hana Nihill


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Partial Reference: Hana Nihill


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Partial Reference: Hana Nihill

Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048


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C3. Site Plan Stepping Stones


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C4. LAGI brief Requirements Description: We have titled our design ‘Stepping Stones’. It consists of an array of haexagonal extrusions. Pathways are carved through the site with a built structure of extrusions growing and surronding up from these. The extrusions are designed at varring heights to create an uneven ‘stepping stone’ type design that visitors can climb all over. At a height of 2 metres these extrusions as a base plane plateau out and a new extrusion in the form of a frame begins. This framing structure grades up in varrying height in the same way as the base plane to a height of 6 metres. Visitors can walked throughout the frame which creates a very impacting experience. Across the base plane up to the 2 metre height, the hexagonal cells are cap with the renewable energy technology Pavegen. This will harness energy from every visitors step. Across the framing are Piezoelectric wind energy harvesters in order to harvess more energy. This design has created a space for relaxation, for play, for entertainment, for intrigue and discovery, and for energy generation. Technology: The renewable energy technology used in this design is kinetic energy harvesting with the specific use of Pavegen; harvesting the energy from the force of a persons step, and Piezoelectric wind energy harvesters; harvesting the energy from the vibrations produced by the wind. Energy Generated: Pavegen: 1,206 - 1,890MW per year Wind: 115MW per year Total: 1321 - 2005MW per year Materials: - Structural Steel Framework for base plane, 100x100x300-2000mm - Plywood cladding, 1000x 300-2000mm - Pavegen, 2000x2000x170mm - LED lighting, 200x200mm - Light-weight steel with bronzed/copper finish for aesthetic framework, 100x100x2000-6000mm - Piezoelectric wind energy harvesters, approximately 300x300mm Environmental Impact: This design proposal will have a limited negative environmental impact. The Pavegen technology uses 100% recycled material and the cladding would be sustainably sourced plywood. The current site is vastly empty with only grasses as the existing flora, therefore covering the entire site with the design proposal is not taking away in any environmental sense. With the amount of renewable energy produced, this gives the opportunity to take away the same amount from environmentally damaging energy sources.


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C5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes Following the Final Presentation we received great feedback in terms of our actual design. Due to lack of time, certain material had not communicated all aspects of our design adequately. This has now been corrected with diagrams, models and renders which show all components of the design working together. Learning Objectives: 1. “Interrogate[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies With the brief designating the use of renewable energy in the design of an art installation on a particular site in Copenhagen, the use of parametric design is optimal for this brief. It allowed the quick and easy manipulation of design and application energy technology. I strongly interrogated the brief to understand the importance of using renewable energy and the site context for design. This interrogation has shown through into the final design proposal with an emphasis on education and the design being ingrained in its context. 2. Developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive designspace exploration Through learning grasshopper in this subject I have acquired the great skills of being able to easily produce design parametrically and alter them in many different ways extremely easily and quickly producing a variety of outcomes. This skill will be very helpful in future design work in initiating a project to push out a range of ideas. 3. Developing “skills in various three-dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication This subject has allowed me to refine my existing skills in 3D modelling with Rhino and fabrication. My previous skills in Rhino, mainly from Virtual Environments, were very basic and now have developed strongly, particularly with the use of plug-ins like grasshopper, kangaroo and v-ray. 4. Developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere I found the process of prototyping in this subject a very helpful process to take your design out of a purely digital world. I have developed all my models by hand and while aided fabrication is of easy use for designs like these, I found a greater sense of understanding for the design and how it works in both good and bad ways through the model making process. 5. Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse This design studio, like all the others offered at Melbourne University, puts the necessary emphasis on being able to sell your idea. As I take on further more studio classes these skills progressively develop, which is essential for when I come to acquire a job and will need to do this towards clients. This subject in particular, has been beneficial because it has introduced this skill and concept in terms of a group. In the industry, designs are rarely completed by one person and therefore designing and selling as a group is an experience I have now had and have benefitted from.

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C. Bibliography - Pavegen Systems; http://www.pavegen.com/ - â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Wind Drives Piezoelectric Generatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Power Electronics, Novemeber 30 2005, http://powerelectronics.com/ news/wind-drives-piezoelectric-generator - Renders pp127-129 partial reference Hana Hihill but dramatically manipulated and edited by Megan Rodgers


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THE END MEGAN RODGERS 588229 GROUP 41 TUTORIAL 10

TUTORS: HASLETTE GROUNDS & BRADLEY ELIAS


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Megan Rodgers 588229 Design Studio Air ABPL30048

Land Art Generator Initiative Design  
Land Art Generator Initiative Design  

My full student journal of work for the LAGI design competition, using computational design, within Architecture Design Studio Air

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