Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area Master Plan

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silver bow creek conservation area

master plan


Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area Master Plan is a SITES®-registered project. SITES®, The Sustainable SITES Initiative® and the related logo is a trademark owned by Green Business Certification Inc.™ and is used with permission. Illustrated and described features are conceptual in nature and subject to change during the remedial design process. Completion of the work portrayed and described within this Master Plan remains contingent upon execution of the Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit Consent Decree. Front and Back Cover photo source: Atlantic Richfield Co.

 2020 Land Design Inc. All rights reserved. This document has been prepared for Atlantic Richfield Company, Butte-Silver Bow, the State of Montana and the United States to use in public communications about potential future land uses in the creek corridor area of Butte, Montana. No other persons are authorized to reprint, reproduce,or make a copy of this document, in whole or in part, without written permisson from Atlantic Richfield Compnay, Butte-Silver Bow and Land Design Inc. Unless otherwise noted, all maps and aerial map images are oriented with North at the top of the page.


silver bow creek conservation area

master plan


4 Source Credit: Atlantic Richfield Co.


CONTENTS Project Team

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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INTRODUCTION Introduction Project Context Project Definitions and Acronyms Project Description Superfund Cleanup Process History Approach Treatment Levels Process and Schedule Phasing of Projects Vision Planning Principles

COMMUNITY VISION

Public Process Workshops Programming Socioeconomic Benefits Media Coverage Connection to Community The Sustainable SITESï‚®

11 12 14 16 17 20 26 28 30 32 34 36

40 44 48 51 52 54 56

RESEARCH & strategies Existing Site Systems Existing Parks Existing Vegetation Existing Ecology and Wildlife Vegetative Biomass Baseline Connections Through Materials Remedy Considerations Soil Considerations Defining Ecological Typologies Vegetation Considerations Plant Communities Irrigation Habitat Strategy Open Water Circulation System Wayfinding Developing a Language

Project programming Design Development Northside Tailings Diggings East Buffalo Gulch Blacktail Creek Lexington Wetlands Grove Gulch Lower Area One Butte Reduction Works In Summary

61 64 66 67 68 70 72 74 76 80 86 94 96 100 102 106 108

112 116 120 124 126 128 130 121 132 136

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PROJECT TEAM

IN ASSOCIATION WITH:

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area represents the final component of a complex environmental remediation project. The project site lies in the heart of Butte, Montana. The project sites straddle residential, commercial, and industrial zones. The project area provides a physical and visual connection between historic Uptown Butte and the more recent development on the Butte flats. Butte was the source of much of the copper (and other metals) needed to bring electricity to American consumers and businesses, to connect people across the nation through telecommunication lines, and to produce the metal products that brought America into the modern industrial age. These metals were obtained through large scale mining operations – first by underground mining operations that extended into thousands of miles of shafts, adits and stopes, and then by open pit operations. Active mining in Butte continues to this day at the Continental Mine, and copper continues to be an essential metal that is used to produce cell phones, laptop computers, electric ovens, cars, and many other products that we use every day. Past processes used to mine, recover and process the metals-rich ore resulted in contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. Remediation actions have been on-going across the Butte Hill for many years and the final phase of intensive remediation work is poised to start soon. If the Consent Decree for the Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit (Butte Site Consent Decree) is approved by the ButteSilver Bow Commissioners after a public education period, and if it is also approved by the United States District Court of Montana after a public comment period, then work will begin to construct the amended remedy (2020) and related land uses described below. Integration of the remedial actions with the surrounding land use component – the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area – presents a unique challenge. The proposed remedial plan includes removal of large amounts of contaminated mine waste, removal of contaminated sediments from streams, reconstruction of streams, capture and treatment of stormwater, and additional capture and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The stormwater basins will be lined to prevent infiltration to the underlying groundwater aquifer. The combined remedial efforts will result in protection of both human health and the environment. Concurrent with implementation of the remedy-specific work items, the project sites will be reconstructed and reclaimed as clean fill materials and soils are imported and contoured across the project sites. Unlike some previous remediation projects, the focus of this conceptual design required consideration of the future long-term uses and value of the sites once the remedy construction was complete. Once remediated, how would this 120-acre area fit within the City and the larger regional context? How would the remediated landscape at completion of the work serve and benefit future generations? In addition to looking at the future of the sites, the project team recognized the need to have a robust public outreach that included the views of the community. Hearing the concerns and opportunities important to the community is the key to attaining design solutions that both fit the community and protect the environment. By listening to the voice of the entire community, a baseline for the designs and the future of the sites could be established. The need to collect this information framed the planning process, which began with the EPA’s release of its proposed plan for the final remedy in April 2019.

Source Credit: Atlantic Richfield Co.

This Master Plan for the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area is a product of those community visioning sessions and workshops. This Master Plan has been developed to prioritize community uses, develop standardization across all project sites, and incorporate sustainability and longevity in design choices. The recommendations within this Master Plan are a guide for the next phases of design and development of the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area. They identify areas of community input and focus with the goal of accomplishing a project that integrates the final remedy with a community area that ultimately benefits the end users – the citizens of Butte.

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INTRODUCTION

Source Credit: Google Earth

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"Butte was mercurial - The wicked, wealthy, hospitable, full blooded little City welcomed me with wild enthusiasm of the most disorderly kind."

-President Theodore Roosevelt after a trip to The Mining City

10 View of Butte looking NE ca. 1890 - Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives - PH459


INTRODUCTION How the Master Plan is Organized

The intent of this Master Plan is to provide documentation of this process and provide long-term vision of how the end-land use is implemented and maintained. The following chapters are organized to reflect the development process of the end-land use design recommendations. The Introduction gives background on the project and begins to describe how and why the Master Plan is needed. In this opening chapter, the Master Plan process is outlined in detail and the Superfund process is explained. It also discusses the history that resulted in the conditions that are seen in Butte today. Community Vision documents the public engagement phase of the project. Public input is one of the most important elements of this Master Plan. The final design goal is to reflect places that align with community input and expectation. This Master Plan aims to show the community the potential of the planning area and allow delivery of a project as envisioned by the citizens of Butte. The next section, Research and Strategies, takes a deeper look at the existing project area and how to approach the design phase. It looks at the project sites as complete systems rather than as singular components.

Once the public meetings were complete, the next step was analysis of the public engagement outputs needed to stitch the project sites together and weave them into the broader community fabric. The recommended programming elements were derived from the public process and were carried forward in the next steps. The strategies in this section explain each program element as a part of the continuous system, not as individual, separate components. Project Programming is next. This section looks at the entire project site as the continuous 120-acre green space, and how the redefined space will be integrated with the adjacent residential, commercial and industrial sectors of the community it borders. Then, the overall project is broken down into its component parts and project focus sites to explain the process for each from concept to final design.

"This project needs to recognize the past, respect that past, and look to the future."

-Design Charrette comment

11 Source Credit: Land Design Inc.


YANKEE DOODLE TAILINGS

BUTTE AND SURROUNDING AREAS

INTERSTATE 15

WALKERVILLE BIG BUTTE

CONTINENTAL PIT

UPTOWN BUTTE INTERSTATE 90

MONTANA TECH

OUR LADY OF THE ROCKIES

BERKELEY PIT

SILVER BOW CREEK

MASTER PLAN AREA SEE PAGE 13

FLATS

EAST RIDGE CONTINENTAL DIVIDE

TIMBER BUTTE

BERT MOONEY AIRPORT BLACKTAIL CREEK

MISSOULA HELENA BUTTE

MONTANA BOZEMAN

INTERSTATE 90

BILLINGS

Source Credit: Google Earth

PROJECT CONTEXT FITTING INTO THE LARGER PICTURE

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BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

LOWER AREA ONE

Butte Reduction Works is the most heavily industrialized site of the project area. It is home to the current gravel crushing and asphalt hot-plant of ButteSilver Bow. Slag walls define the boundary of the site and create a constructed screen from neighboring properties.

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

Bound by Silver Bow Creek and the railroad, Buffalo Gulch lies within short walking distance of the Butte Chamber of Commerce Visitor’s Center. Though previously reclaimed, portions of the site remain sparse of vegetation and plant diversity.

The Northside Tailings has an existing trail and open space, providing linkage from the commercial properties of Harrison Avenue to the remainder of the project sites of the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area. Today, Northside Tailings exhibits the presence of mining contamination and channelized stormwater infrastructure.

SIL VE

R

MONTANA AVE

BO W

CR EE K

Lower Area One, previously remediated in the 1990s, contains a rerouted section of Silver Bow Creek. The banks of this reach have been enclosed by willows preventing view of the stream and visual connection to the adjacent floodplain.

BUFFALO GULCH

DIGGINGS EAST

W KA .

E AV

INTERSTATE 90

BLA CK

TAI L

CR

EEK

The largest of the project sites, Diggings East is directly adjacent to residential and commercial properties, across the street from a campground, and easily walkable from several entrance points. Once used as an unconsolidated landfill, the site is interspersed with trails worn into the soil by vehicles and ATVs. GROVE GULCH

BLACKTAIL CREEK

All sites, together as a whole, make up the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area, or SBCCA.

Master Plan aREA

Blacktail Creek is home to an existing nature trail, large canopy trees and a wetland ecosystem. This site will be reconstructed by the State to remove contaminated sediments from the streambed and wetland and returned to the beneficial use of the Butte community.

LEXINGTON WETLANDS This existing wetland complex is not a component of the remedial actions but remains integrated within the end-land use plan of the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area. The Lexington Wetlands functions as a refuge and has a rich diversity of plant and wildlife species. Access to this project site is currently very limited.

Grove Gulch is the smallest of the project sites and will provide stormwater control for upstream drainages. The site is adjacent to a wetland ecosystem and is highly visible from Interstate 90.

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Project Definitions and Acronyms ACRE-FEET

The volume of water required to cover 1 acre of land (43,560 square feet) to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to 325,851 gallons or 1,233 cubic meters. 87

AGENCY

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the 1980 federal law that established the Superfund program. See “Superfund” below or visit the EPA website for more information. 89

The government entities responsible for enforcing Superfund orders and overseeing remediation activities.

CHRONIC

AQUATIC

CLEAN WATER ACT

Habitats and ecosystems that exist in bodies of water.

AQUIFER

A geologic formation composed of materials such as sand, silt, or gravel that can store and supply groundwater to wells or springs.

An illness or condition that is long-lasting or constantly recurring. Codified in 1972, the Act establishes structures for the regulation of pollutant discharges into the waters of the U.S., giving the EPA the authority to establish water quality criteria and set wastewater standards for industry.

CLEANUP

Sustained flow of a stream, in the absence of direct runoff from storm events or snowmelt. Natural or base flow is sustained largely by groundwater. 88

Actions taken to deal with a release or threatened release of hazardous substances that could affect public health or the environment. The term “cleanup” is sometimes used interchangeably with the terms “remedial action,” “removal action,” “response action” or “corrective action.”

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs)

CONFLUENCE

BASE FLOW

Usually refers to an approach designed to utilize best technological and maintenance procedures to reduce water pollution. With regard to remediation construction, BMPs are used to minimize impact to water quality, such as preventing erosion and runoff.

ENVIRONMENT

The sum of all external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism.

EPA

The federal Environmental Protection Agency which was established in 1970 by President Nixon. The EPA brought together parts of various government agencies involved with the control of pollution.

FEASIBILITY STUDY (FS)

The analysis of potential cleanup actions for a Superfund site. The FS usually recommends the selection of a cost-effective and long-term alternative and starts as soon as the remedial investigation (RI) is complete. Together they are commonly referred to as the RI/FS.

FLOODPLAIN

CONSENT DECREE

GROUNDWATER

BUTTE TREATMENT LAGOONS

CONTAINMENT

CAP

A land area where precipitation runs off into streams, lakes, rivers and reservoirs.

The relatively flat and typically dry swath of land that runs alongside a stream, river, or lake that may become flooded during storm events or snowmelt.

The historic mining district in the city limits of Butte, atop a rich deposit of copper and other minerals. The groundwater treatment facility operated by Atlantic Richfield in a wetlands setting.

DRAINAGE BASIN

Where two or more rivers or streams flow together. A legal document, approved by a federal court judge, that formalizes an agreement reached between the EPA and potentially responsible parties (PRPs) on cleanup actions. A Consent Decree describes the action PRPs will take and is subject to public comment. It is used for remedial designs and remedial actions or final cleanups.

BUTTE HILL

A remediation method that seals off all possible exposure pathways between a hazardous disposal site and the environment. It generally includes capping and institutional controls.

The supply of fresh water found beneath the earth’s surface (usually in aquifers) which is often used for supplying wells and springs.

HEAVY METALS

Metallic elements with high atomic weights such as mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper, arsenic and lead.

HYDRAULIC CONTROL

The use of science and engineering to control the flow of water. At BPSOU, hydraulic controls will control the movement of contaminated groundwater and stormwater into the creeks.

A layer of soil, clay or other material installed over the top of a closed landfill or repository to minimize water from seeping into the enclosure. A cap also acts as a barrier to keep people or animals from coming into contact with the covered substance.

CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN (COC)

(Also refers to “constituents of concern.”) Contaminants that have been shown through chemical analysis to pose potential risk to human health or an ecological system.

MDEQ

CATCH BASIN

CONTAMINATION

METRO SEWER

CUBIC YARD

MINE WASTE

A receptacle located at the point of discharge into a sewer, designed to retain materials that could potentially block up a sewer pipe. A manhole in a city street is an example of a catch basin. A system of channels and catch basins have been installed to capture storm water runoff in Butte. Additional catch basins will be included in the proposed modifications.

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CERCLA

The presence of chemicals in the air, water, or soil that may harm people or the environment. Often these chemicals are the result of human activities. Defined as the volume of a cube with sides of one yard in length. A cubic yard of material can be spread to cover 100 square feet (10 x 10 ft. area) at 3 inches of depth.

Montana Department of Environmental Quality, the state agency responsible for laws and regulations designed to protect human health and the environment. Butte’s wastewater treatment plant that was upgraded starting in 2014 to improve quality of Silver Bow Creek and water in the Clark Fork River basin. By-products of mining activities where minerals are separated from ores.


MONITORING WELLS

Wells drilled at specific locations where groundwater can be sampled at selected depths and studied to determine the direction of groundwater flow and the types and amounts of contaminants present.

NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST (NPL)

The EPA’s list of hazardous waste sites targeted for cleanup under Superfund.

OPERABLE UNIT

REMEDIAL DESIGN (RD)

After a cleanup method is selected, a specific design is developed for the cleanup action.

REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION (RI)

A study designed to determine the nature and extent of contamination at a Superfund site. The RI lists cleanup alternatives and is conducted prior to the feasibility study (FS).

SOURCE AREA

(Also non-point source and area source.) Water pollution caused by stormwater or snowmelt moving over an area, washing natural and man-made pollution into a water body. In BPSOU, 178 source areas spanning 422 acres have been reclaimed since the 1990s.

STORMWATER

Water that runs off from land as the result of precipitation events, such as heavy rainfall or snow melt.

A sub-area or sub-unit of a Superfund site. Superfund, or NPL, sites are often divided into operable units to make cleanup more manageable, especially with large sites such as those in the Clark Fork River Basin.

REPOSITORY

In relation to remediation, a location where excavated wastes and materials can be stored safely.

STREAMFLOW

OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE

RESTORATION

SUPERFUND

POLLUTANT

RETENTION AND DETENTION BASIN

Activities conducted at a Superfund site after the cleanup is finished to ensure the remedy is effective and operating properly. Generally, any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

POTENTIALLY RESPONSIBLE PARTY (PRP)

Those entities or individuals identified by the EPA as potentially liable under CERCLA for cleanup costs. PRPs include generators and present or former owners of facilities or real property where hazardous substances have been stored, treated or disposed of, as well as those who accepted hazardous substances for transport.

RAILROAD CORRIDOR

An example of successful re-use in Butte. A combination of waste removal and capping took place along railroad tracks throughout Butte. Abandoned tracks were removed and replaced by pedestrian trails. Active lines were cleaned.

RECLAMATION

Under the Montana Metal Mine Reclamation Act, the return of lands disturbed by mining to a post-mining use. (Note: this does not mean that lands are required to be returned to a pre-mining condition.)

RECORD OF DECISION (ROD)

A public document that specifies which cleanup alternative EPA has selected for a Superfund site. The ROD is created from information generated during the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS).

REMEDIAL ACTION (RA)

The actual construction or implementation phase of a Superfund cleanup that follows remedial design.

Any action or combination of actions to restore, rehabilitate, replace or acquire the equivalent of injured natural resources and services. Man-made water features designed to control runoff, flooding or stormwater and improve the quality of downstream water. Detention ponds, known as “dry ponds,” provide flood control measures. Retention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and are referred to as “wet ponds.” Some ponds are constructed to serve as both detention and retention facilities. 91

RIPARIAN HABITAT

Areas adjacent to rivers and streams that support plants and wildlife.

RISK ASSESSMENT

A study to estimate the potential health and environmental effects of exposure to chemicals. A risk assessment supplements a remedial investigation.

SEDIMENTS

Loose particles of sand, clay, silt and other substances that settle at the bottom of a water body. The particles originate from eroding soil and from decomposing plants and animals.

SITE

The property addressed by remediation activities that are intended to improve the conditions of soil, surface water, groundwater or air associated with the property.

The water discharge that occurs in a natural or man-made channel. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 that authorizes the federal government to respond to actual or potential releases of hazardous substances that may endanger the public health or the environment. The act was amended in 1986 by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA).

SURFACE WATER

A river, lake, creek or other body of water that formed above the ground.

TAILINGS

Waste separated out from the milling of mineral ores.

UNILATERAL ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER (UAO)

Under Superfund, gives EPA the authority to order parties to perform cleanup work under certain conditions.

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

Adopted by states and approved by the EPA. Standards cover the use of a water body and the water quality criteria which must be met to protect the designated use.

WETLANDS

An area that is regularly saturated by surface or groundwater.

SLAG

A glass-like by-product of the smelting process, where a metal has been separated from its ore (rocks or materials that occur naturally in the Earth).

SNOWMELT

Surface runoff produced by melting snow. Photo Credit: Land Design Inc. 15


PROJECT DESCRIPTION Reimagining a green corridor

TO MISSOULA

WARM SPRINGS PONDS

TO ANACONDA

This graphic shows the approximate boundary of the Superfund area in Butte, along the Silver Bow Creek corridor and heading to Warm Springs Ponds.

In 1983, Silver Bow Creek and surrounding areas were designated by EPA for inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund Sites. The Butte area was added to the Silver Bow Creek Superfund site in 1988. The Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area NPL site includes the greater area of Butte, approximately 27 miles of Silver Bow Creek, and the Warm Springs Ponds located near Opportunity, Montana. Within the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area NPL site there are several operable units. This Master Plan focuses on the Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit (BPSOU). The BPSOU covers over 4,200 acres, containing within its boundary historic Uptown Butte and portions of both Blacktail and Silver Bow Creeks. The proposed plan describes further remedial projects throughout BPSOU. The SILVER BOW CREEK

PLANNING AREA

Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area focuses on work areas located adjacent to Blacktail and Silver Bow Creeks, at the base of the Butte Hill. This specific area is comprised of approximately 180 acres bordered by industrial, commercial, and residential properties, Interstate 90 and active railroads. This open space is in an ideal location to provide an amenity for the community through creation of a continuous green corridor that integrates the final components of the BPSOU remedy. Project Intent The landscape within Butte has changed in response to historic mining activities. It is the intent of this Master Plan to respond to these changes from the natural system and create a plan that is sensitive, progressive, and justified within the larger context.

BERKELEY PIT

BUTTE TO HELENA

Source Credit: Google Earth

16

TO IDAHO FALLS

TO BOZEMAN

N

A closer image of the Butte Priority Soil Operable Unit (BPSOU).


SUPERFUND CLEANUP PROCESS UNDERSTANDING the steps involved PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT & SITE INVESTIGATION

Site Assessment

National Priorities List (NPL) identifies which sites warrant cleanup. It is a list of the worst hazardous waste sites identified by Superfund. It is based largely on the score from the Hazard Ranking System.

nATIONAL pRIORITIES lIST sITE lISTING pROCESS Remedial Investigation & Feasibility Study records of decision

Review of historical information and evaluation done on site to determine the potential for release of hazardous substances. Determination if the site poses a threat to people and the environment and whether hazards need to be addressed immediately or more information collected.

Site Characterization

Evaluating the extent of the contamination and the nature of the contamination. Assessing the potential threats. Evaluating potential performance and cost of treatment options.

Remedy Decision

Record of Decision (ROD) explains cleanup alternatives. Prior to issuing the ROD, the EPA presents a preferred remedy and cleanup plan for public comment. After the comment period, the EPA releases a final ROD.

remedial Design & Remedial Action

The RD/RA stage involves the detailed cleanup plan and development of design drawings and specification. After design, the construction phase of the site cleanup begins.

construction completion

Cleanup milestone. Physical cleanup activities on site have been completed even if final cleanup levels may not have been reached.

post construction completion

Work including monitoring, reviews of cleanup effectiveness, and enforcing any long term restrictions. Ensuring that cleanup work at site continues to protect human health and the environment.

national priorities list deletion

Cleanup goals have been satisfied and the sites fully protect human health and the environment.

site reuse & redevelopment

This step can occur at any point of the process and makes sites considerable for reuse that is consistent with the likely future use of that site.

This chart shows the complex process of a Superfund Site from start to finish.

Source Credit: www.epa.gov

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"The town grew on the side of The Hill and it was Butte all at once, out of the copper womb."

-Richard K. O'Malley

Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, PH510.01 (.003,.004,.005)

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Panorama of Butte in 1925 looking Northeast. Handwritten notes point to the headframes, mines, and processing areas. Today, many of the brick buildings still stand in Uptown as one of the largest national historic landmark districts in the United States. 19


HISTORY

Looking Back : The richest hill on earth

To understand where Butte is today, it is important to know the history of this western town and how its past has shaped it. The difficulty then becomes summarizing a history that is as rich as the land it was built on.

"Now don't forget, Lizzie, when you get to the new world, don't stop in America. You go straight to Butte Montana."

-Mary Hagan, mother of an immigrant

Known as the “Richest Hill On Earth,” Butte came to prominence in the late nineteenth century as a mining town located on top of an extraordinarily rich concentration of mineral-laden ore. While gold, silver, and other precious metals were extracted from its veins, it was copper that truly became the life blood of Butte. Immigrants from around the globe began flocking to this boomtown and by the turn of the century, the “Copper City” boasted a population that made it one of the largest cities west of the Mississippi River. The immigrant groups banded together to form residential pockets in the town defined by their nationality and lead to many neighborhoods that remain in the town today. With immigrants from Britain, Ireland, Italy, Eastern Europe, China and other countries, Butte embodied the American melting pot. With this influx of labor and promise of riches, numerous mining companies began to extract and process ore on the Butte Hill from the 1860s through the early 1900s. The Anaconda Copper Mining Company was incorporated in 1895 and grew by acquiring other companies’ mining assets, becoming the dominant mining operation on the hill shortly before World War I.

1. Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul, eds. (2013) [1996].The Americas: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge.ISBN 978-1-134-25930-4.

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Labor-intensive underground mining continued on Butte Hill into the 1970s. Open pit mining was conducted on a small scale before the 1950s, when The Anaconda Company opened one of the most visible features of the Butte landscape – the Berkeley Pit. This open pit mining operation began in the mid-1950s and slowly began to replace the neighborhoods around it, including Meaderville, East Butte, and McQueen1. In the 1970s the East Berkeley Pit (now known as the Continental Pit) was opened adjacent to the Berkeley Pit, on the site of the former Columbia Gardens, an amusement park and gathering area for generations of Copper City residents. Shortly after, Atlantic Richfield Company purchased the Anaconda Company in 1977 and the companies merged in 1981. After several years of operating the Butte mine, Atlantic Richfield shut down its operations in 1983 and put the mine up for sale. The pumps that kept groundwater out of the Pit were turned off at that time, and groundwater began to fill the Pit and the underground workings that empty into it.


Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, Smithers.108.079.07

Source Credit: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1914

Water from Silver Bow Creek (left) and Blacktail Creek (right) converge as two distinct waters. Notice the barren banks of Silver Bow Creek in response to the industrial waste and raw sewage carried in its waters.

The carousel at Columbia Gardens prior to being closed down the property swallowed by the open pit mining operations at Continental Pit.

Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, PH459

Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, Smithers.07.055.01

Slag walls lined the banks of Silver Bow Creek creating an artificial canyon. The slag piles can still be seen along the banks of Silver Bow Creek today.

The landscape of Butte prior to the expansion of the underground mines and installation of the headframes (gallus frames) that define the landscape of Uptown Butte today. 21


Used with permission ď‚Š Scott Wheeler

In the mornings, when the clouds quietly settle down on the flats and the blanket of white rolls up the hill of Uptown, the tall black headframes of the underground mines stand as a stark reminder of days past. On the top of the East Ridge of the Rockies Mountains, Our Lady of the Rockies, a 90-foot statue of the likeness of the Virgin Mary stands overlooking the mining town. This enormous undertaking stands as a symbol to neighbors that came together when the mine was at a standstill and the City’s morale was low, literally helping each other rise. It is in moments like these that the people of Butte shine – when the task at hand is overwhelming and the odds are stacked against them. This is when the determination

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of her people, sometimes misconstrued as stubbornness, mixes with the hardworking pride and tenacity to produce astounding results that only Butte could muster. Another example of Butte camaraderie and follow-thru is the recent redevelopment and visioning happening in Uptown buildings and City parks. What once was a bustling Uptown, had become a hollow shell compared to the cosmopolitan era at the turn of the century. As the 1900s drew to a close and rolled into the 2000s, Butte began to look at its past as a tool to compel it the future. Set against a vernacular landscape, the mining City


Understanding the history and context of the planning area informed discussion topics at the public meetings to define the future outcomes. started to catch the attention of large festivals like the National Folk Festival and hosted events that drew in crowds of hundreds of thousands. At the same time, The Montana Technological University, adjacent to Uptown, began expanding its campus with several new buildings and research opportunities. All around Uptown, businesses had begun popping up and occupying the historic buildings and reestablishing a hum in the community. In 2018, a group of dedicated individuals realized their dream of rebuilding the carousel from Columbia Gardens and the “Spirit of Columbia Gardens” opened in Stodden Park next to a brand new playground and water park1. While there is still a long way to go to realize the future for Butte and define what this future is, the community is ready. Today, the history of Butte is as much a part of the people as it is written in the landscape. From the largest population per capita of Irish Americans outside of Ireland to the identity of Butte itself as “Butte, America” -an identity that ties them to their home of Butte and their varying heritages on the world map. You would be hard pressed to find a Butte native who doesn’t know the meaning of “Tap ‘er Light” and be able to tell you with raw, unwavering pride that the Copper City, together with all of her flaws, is the best City in the world.

Source Credit: Library of Congress, Aug 79 Jan 80 Historic American Engineering Record shoot

Above: The Berkeley Pit in 1979, prior to the pumps being turned off and water filing the pit.

Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, Smithers.11.114.01

Right: The undefined banks of Silver Bow Creek looking toward Uptown Butte. The 'creek' carried raw sewage from the city, industrial wastes from the mines and runoff from tailings piles and the Butte Hill to the watershed and left the banks devoid vegetation.

1. https://mtstandard.com/news/local/it-s-open-the-spirit-of-columbia-gardens-carousel-ready/ article_117aa713-3ff1-5161-a519-42d55c0252c2.html, 12/11/2018

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MONTANA ST

HOW DOES THE GOVERNING BODY OF BUTTE RESPOND TO SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES IN THEIR PLANNING?

In 1995, Butte-Silver Bow updated their community growth policy to ensure that community benefit from Superfund cleanup was included in the master planning of the City. The growth policy was again updated in 2005 to further emphasize the importance of working cooperatively between the City and cleanup efforts. FUTURE LOCATION OF THE BUTTE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE VISITORS CENTER, NEAR THE CONFLUENCE OF BLACKTAIL AND SILVER BOW CREEK

LOWER AREA ONE PRIOR TO REMOVAL OF THE COLORADO TAILINGS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SILVER BOW CREEK

LEXINGTON AVE

INTERSTATE 90

TRAILS INSTALLED ALONG BLACKTAIL CREEK

SBCCA: 1995 24

Source Credit: Google Earth


SBCCA: 2014

INTERSTATE 90

LEXINGTON AVE

THE BUTTE TREATMENT LAGOONS, FULLY MODERNIZED AND ABLE TO TREAT OVER 1,800 GALLONS PER MINUTE OF CAPTURED GROUNDWATER

MONTANA ST

STORMWATER BASINS INSTALLED TO CAPTURE WATER RUNOFF FROM THE HILL

Source Credit: Google Earth 25


APPROACH a sHIFT IN THE pARADIGM

foundation of the master plan - top-down design Top-Down Design

End-land Use Opportunity Community involvement to identify end-land use opportunities that exceed the requirements established in the remedy.

Remedy Proposal The parties agree to a proposal that calls for the removal of tailings, mine wastes, and other contaminants and/or implementation of stormwater remedy. The sites will be reconstructed and vegetated following the removals.

Site Identification

Isometric view of the Northside Tailings site showing the progression and levels of treatment to the final design. In a traditional process, the design would progress from the bottom-up - with the remedy driving the design for the end-land use. In top-down design, the end-land use pushes back to the remedy and the remedy responds.

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A site is identified where tailings, mine waste, or other contaminants are present or where contaminated stormwater may be captured and treated.

If the proposed Consent Decree for the Butte Priority Soils site is approved by the court, Atlantic Richfield Company will design and construct the remedy described in the Consent Decree, in order to improve and protect water quality in Silver Bow Creek. This remedy has a clear end goal, to protect human health and the environment. Historically, the design process was clear on the remediation approach for Butte. The sites were defined and immediately the design process was focused at a micro level looking at the remedy - what are the contaminants and how do we clean them up? The remedy drove the design - it outlined the goals, defined the scope, and ultimately dictated what the end result of the site would be. The process was working, however, the outcomes were always the same - sites that had been cleaned up but lacked context in the larger picture to the community. The bottom-up design approach put the experience of the user as a secondary goal to the performance of the remedy. What was the future of these sites without the community to support them? As the sites for this project were identified, Atlantic Richfield and Butte-Silver Bow started a conversation early on that would drive the design. Was it possible to complete this work, not only to meet requirements of the remedy, but to provide beneficial end-land use to the community? And if this was possible, what would the endland use be?


The remedy outlined how to clean up the planning area but did not encompass a vision for what the area could become. CONCEPT CONSTRUCTED

e Georg

t Stree

w Ka

With many years of neglect and existing contamination further increasing the complexity of the sites, it was important for all parties to be at the table early on and establish an iterative process. This process would mean repeated rounds of discussion between consultants to better the design with each progression.

APPLIED

Source Credit: Pioneer Technical Services

The theory behind top-down design is simple - to start with the future land user, and consider how the remedy might be designed to accommodate their desired future uses. This would mean starting with the public and seeing what the needs of the community were in order to define the goals and programming.

Top: Early design of stormwater ponds in Diggings East considering only the goals of the remedy. Bottom: Collaborative design looking at the same location with end-land use as a priority, while still remediating the site.

ue

en Av

Oversight

Source Credit: Land Design, Inc

t e Stree Georg

e

Following completion of the remedial actions, long-term performance and compliance monitoring will be implemented to assure the remedy is effective in perpetuity.

ORGANIC

nu Ave Kaw

The remediation and ultimate remedy will be governed by the terms of the proposed Consent Decree for the Butte Priority Soils Operable Unit (BPSOU), and subject to direction and review by the overseeing agencies. The end-land use of the project will be community driven. The remedy will be designed to accommodate future public use and enjoyment of the creek corridor area, so long as it is compatible with the remedy goals and requirements.

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TREATMENT LEVELS

remediation and End-land Use sites vs. end-land use Only Sites REMEDY Sites

Within the boundaries of the project, the sites are divided into two classifications, those that are in need of remediation work to remove contaminated mine waste, tailings, or soils, and those that have previously been reclaimed or have had no impacts as a result of historic mining activities (adjacent area). The chart to the right is a simplified version of the design processes for each of the treatment levels - remedy sites and adjacent areas.

IDENTIFY SITES to include in Master Plan

DETERMINE WHAT IS NEEDED TO REMEDIATE SITE based on record of decision AMENDMENT

design

Source Credit: Jim Collins

The end land use became the unifying component across all project sites. 28

remedial action

End-land USE installed to all sites

Site is within the BPSOU and has been impacted by historic mining activities

Remediation

Remedial investigation and design required to address the objectives of the EPA’s final remedy plan. Plans must be approved by the regulating agencies prior to construction. Completion of remedial actions as defined in the agencyapproved remedial design documents.

ADJACENT AREA (End-land Use Only) Contamination not present or the site has already been remediated.

No remediation required.

Standard design development without the need for remedy or agency involvement.

No remediation required.


treatment levels on sites LOWER AREA ONE

BUFFALO GULCH

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

Remedy

Remedy

Remedy

SIL VE

R

MONTANA ST.

BO W

CR

EE K

Adjacent Area (Reclamation/Cleanup Complete)

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

W KA .

E AV

DIGGINGS EAST Remedy

INTERSTATE 90

GROVE GULCH Remedy

WHY ARE ADJACENT AREAS INCLUDED IN A REMEDY PROJECT?

The sites identified as “Adjacent Area” are included because of their proximity to the remedy sites. Together with the remedy sites, these areas create a cohesive green corridor. This will provide larger habitat and recreation opportunities across all project sites.

BLACKTAIL CREEK Remedy

LEXINGTON WETLANDS Adjacent Wetland Area (End Land Use Only)

Source Credit: Google Earth 29


tIMELINE of HISTORICAL EVENTS AND REMEDY MILESTONES

Source: Montana Standard Source: armontana.com Source: Atlantic Richfield Source: busy.org

PROCESS AND SCHEDULE

1990

1992

1994

1997

Remedial investigation and feasibility study investigations begin in the 1990s. Thirty waste dumps are addressed by Atlantic Richfield under the Butte Priority Soils TRCA, resulting in removal or remediation of 100,000 cubic yards of waste.

Atlantic Richfield removes and consolidates ~40,000 cubic yards of impacted materials under the Colorado Smelter TCRA. The Lower Area One Expedited Response Action (ERA) is initiated by Atlantic Richfield, eventually removing over 1 million cubic yards of accessible mine waste and tailings along Silver Bow Creek. A consent order with EPA is signed by Atlantic Richfield and other Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) to conduct a Remedial Investigation/Feasibilty Study (RI/FS).

Walkerville TCRA II is completed by Atlantic Richfield, addressing 12 additional waste dumps. The Butte Priority Soils ERA for Residential Soils/Source areas begins, leading to ongoing metal abatement for contaminated residential yards and attics under what is now referred to as the Residential Metals Abatement Program (RMAP).

Atlantic Richfield begins work under the Stormwater TCRA to control stormwater flow, minimize erosion and reduce transport of contaminated sediment to Silver Bow Creek. Work included reclamation of the Alice Mine dump, reclaiming ~ 2,000,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and waste rock.

addressing 40,000 cubic yards of contaminated soils.

1989 Atlantic Richfield completes the Timber Butte TRCA, 1988

Atlantic Richfield removes ~ 300,000 cubic yards of mine waste under the Walkerville Time Critical Removal Action (TCRA)

1987 The Silver Bow Creek Site was modified by EPA to include the Butte area, and the site is renamed "Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area NPL Site." EPA begins conducting and ordering responsible parties to conduct strategic removals and expedited response actions to reduce potential exposure to mining waste. 1986

Mining operations resumed in the Continental Pit (formerly known as the East Berkeley Pit) under new mine ownership. Washington and Montana Resources Inc.

1985 The Butte mining business was purchased by Dennis 1983

Atlantic Richfield Company suspended its mining activity in Butte and offers its Butte mining business for sale. EPA placed Silver Bow Creek Site and associated areas on its National Priorities List of sites for investigation and remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).

1980 Smelting operations in Anaconda closed.

1971

The majority of The Anaconda Company's global assets, in Chile and Mexico were seized by foreign governments and nationalized.

1977 Atlantic Richfield purchased The Anaconda Company.

1955

ACMC changed its name to The Anaconda Company; open pit mining began in the Berkeley Pit (adjacent to the BPSOU)

incorporated.

1895 The Anaconda Copper Mining Company (ACMC) 1864 Gold is discovered in Butte; mining camp is formed.

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This site was among the first sites in the United States to be entered into the National Priorities List in 1983. Since then, numerous events have taken place over the span of almost 40 years to get to the creation of this master plan.

1860s-1890s - Silver production expanded and then declined when the silver market collapsed

1875-1955 - Large-scale underground mining in Butte. Period known as the “heyday� of milling and smelting in Butte. 1875-Current - Copper is mined in Butte.


Source: armontana.com

2026 All BPSOU remedial actions are completed. 2024 Begin work at Butte Reduction Works. 2023 Begin work at Blacktail Creek. 2022 Begin work at Buffalo Gulch. 2021 Begin work at Northside Tailings and Diggings East. 2020 Lexington Wetlands and Grove Gulch begin. 2020 February 13, 2020 - U.S. EPA, the State of Montana, the consolidated City and County government of Butte-Silver Bow (BSB) and Atlantic Richfield Company announce a proposed partial Consent Decree for the Butte Priority Soils site. 2019

2014

2015 Atlantic Richfield completes demolition and reclamation of the former Wetland Demonstration Area, covering approximately eight acres in the center of Butte.

2010

2003

2005

2006

2008

The remainder the BPSOU RI/FS is completed. EPA releases proposed plan for remediation in the Butte and Walkerville areas.

U.S. EPA issues a Record of Decision (ROD) containing the selected, final remedy for BPSOU. Butte-Silver Bow (BSB) and Atlantic Richfield reach an agreement that provides funding to BSB to complete certain portion of the remedy. The Butte Historic Landscark Distric is expanded. Design and construction of the final BPSOU remedy begin.

The State, the U.S., and Atlantic Richfield reach a final settlement for remediation of the upper Clark Fork River site and settle all remaining State claims for natural resouce damages and restoration costs for Butte Area One, the Smelter Hill Uplands and the upper Clark Fork River.

1998

1999

Phase I of the BPSOU Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is completed. Atlantic Richfield enters into agreements with the U.S. EPA, State of Montana and other trustees on certain natural resource damages and remediation claims relating to Clark Fork RIver Basin sites.

The court approves settlements among Atlantic Richfield, the State, and the U.S. to resolve: some claims for natural resource damages and restoration activities in portions of the Clark Fork Basin, claims for remediation of most of Silver Bow Creek, and past costs incurred during litigation.

Sports and Recreation Complex to the public.

2001 Atlantic Richfield opens the Copper Mountain

2002 Phase II of the BPSOU RI/FS is completed.

Atlantic Richfield begins construction of the Metro Storm Drain (MSD) subdrain system, now referred to as "Upper Silver Bow Creek," that captures contaminated groundwater beneath the upper Silver Bow Creek corridor for treatment at the Butte Treatment Lagoons system.

construction of Mountain Con Mine Yard.

2009 Atlantic Richfield begins cleanup and redevelopment

Atlantic Richfield completes the Granite Mountain Memorial and begins Silver Bow Creek stream bank and floodplain removal near the confluence with Blacktail Creek. Atlantic Richfield expands groundwater capture system of Lower Area One during the Butte Reduction Works Open Area Excavation project. EPA reports that the majority of capping is complete.

2011 EPA issues a BPSOU Unilateral Administrative Order to Atlantic Richfield and Butte-Silver Bow, with additional remedy analyses and requirements that are needed to complete the 2006 BPSOU ROD remedy. Atlantic Richfield begins to upgrade the Butte Treatment Lagoons and West Camp Pump Station, modernizing the groundwater collection and treatment system at Lower Are One.

2012 Atlantic Richfield opens Foreman's Park and recreation area at the Mountain Con Mine Yard and completes a onemile extension of Mine Yard and Butte Hill Trail System.

Atlantic Richfield begins the Lower Area One Surface Enhancements to improve vegetative cover throughout Lower Area One.

the historic Lexington Hoist House and Mine Yard.

2016 Atlantic Richfield begins reclamation and preservation of

2006 BPSOU ROD remedy for public review and comment.

2018 EPA releases potential concepts for modifications to the

On April 11, 2019, EPA published an amended proposed remedy plan for BPSOU, for public review and comment. The comment period closed on July 11, 2019.

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Source: Atlantic Richfield Source: Atlantic Richfield Source: Montana Standard Source: mtpr.org


PHASING OF PROJECTS sCHEDULE OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

If the Consent Decree is entered by the Court, construction will begin in the spring of 2020 and work across the sites until approximately 2026, when all sites are expected to be complete and open to the public. Stormwater will be controlled during plant establishment to prevent a major storm event from compromising the plant communities before they have had a chance to establish.

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

LOWER AREA ONE

BUFFALO GULCH

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

W KA

MONTANA ST.

.

E AV

INTERSTATE 90

DIGGINGS EAST

GROVE GULCH

INT

ER STA TE

ESTIMATED CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE

32

Begin in 2020

Begin in 2022

Begin in 2020

Begin in 2024

Begin in 2021

Begin in 2021

Begin in 2023

Begin in 2024

LEXINGTON WETLANDS BLACKTAIL CREEK

90


This aerial photograph shows Butte before the construction of the Berkeley Pit. The planning area can be seen in this photograph, largely devoid of vegetation as a result of historic mining activity and ore processing. Conversely, Blacktail Creek has a large vegetative buffer and forms a corridor of open space through the City.

Source Credit: Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives, PH434

Pre-Berkeley Pit Construction

NORTHSIDENorthside TAILINGS Tailings BUFFALO GULCH DIGGINGS EAST BLACKTAIL CREEK

LEXINGTON WETLANDS GROVE GULCH

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Source Credit: camelCitydispatch.com

INSPIRATION AND Solutions

The primary purpose of the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area is to remediate contamination caused by over 100 years of historic mining activity and convert the space into a multi-purpose community amenity. The final plan should aspire to:

• Provide substantial habitat for local wildlife as well as potential for safe observation and interaction with this wildlife. • Enhance the recreational amenities within the larger regional area. • Encourage walkability and outdoor enjoyment to the community. • Capitalize upon the need for stormwater basin and water quality output as a catalyst for transforming a necessary function into an example of exceptionalism.

LEXINGTON WETLANDS Source Credit: Pinterest.com

• Utilize materials that encourage sustainability and longevity both in implementation and in maintenance. • Understand the opportunities and constraints that come from the complex environmental and geographical landscape and how these can and will influence the design nature.

Existing open greenspace lends itself as an excellent opportunity to provide amenities and uses in the center of Butte.

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BLACKTAIL CREEK Source Credit: Pinterest.com

Source: mansfieldmagazine.com

• Promote education and awareness of the unique process and remedy that will occur and the new environments that will be established.

Source Credit: segd.org

VISION

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

The vision board became the defining prototype for the Master Plan designs.


Source Credit: Pinterest.com

Source Credit: Pinterest.com

Source Credit: opsisarch.com

Source Credit: Pinterest.com

Source Credit: Pinterest.com

Source Credit: Pinterest.com

BUFFALO GULCH NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

DIGGINGS EAST

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PLANNING PRINCIPLES lOOKING TO THE FUTURE

ANALYZE EXISTING SITES

COLLECT PUBLIC INPUT

• Understand which sites need remedy coordination, what is needed to remedy the sites, and what has already been completed • Study existing pedestrian and vehicular patterns and anticipate future needs • Analyze existing habitats and study opportunities for enhancing wildlife and environmental health • Coordinate on basis of design for stormwater capacity and storm event needs

• Identify the end-land users and describe the opportunities for enhancement above and beyond the required remedy • Provide multiple opportunities for public input with different data collection methods • Create baseline concepts for the community to react to and discuss

Panorama from Kaw Ave and George Street BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS SILVER BOW CREEK

BIG BUTTE

BUFFALO GULCH GULCH BUFFALO KAW AVENUE

GEORGE STREET

Photo Credit: Google Earth

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The programming should challenge the design to create an embraced and unique identity for an area that has largely had a negative connotation. DETERMINE PRIORITIES

CREATE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEFINE FUTURE SUSTAINABILITY AND RESILIENCY

• Create hierarchy of action items based on remedy necessities and end-land user experience • Coordinate the remedy and end-land use as one complete, integrated design • Conserve and enhance habitats, including aquatic ecosystems and threatened species • Connect multi-modal systems and enhance pedestrian thoroughfares to adjacent neighborhoods • Employ water conservation and native planting strategies • Design for adaptability and longevity

• Define strategies for implementing the end-land use that are compatible with the remedy • Develop standards that are maintainable and appropriate while creating a unique identity • Create wayfinding continuity across all sites to weave them together • Protect aquatic resources and ecosystems and improve the water quality

• Determine an operational plan that ensures the end-land use is maintained without compromise to the remedy actions • Provide guidance for replacement and maintenance that extends amenity life cycle • Place plant materials appropriately, taking into account life expectancy and maintenance needs • Calculate sequestration baselines for implemented comparisons • Allow for opportunities to occur within the sites that connect people to nature - improving environmental and community health • Communicate and educate for conservation awareness

SILVER BOW CREEK

EAST RIDGE

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

DIGGINGS EAST

GEORGE STREET

KAW AVENUE

37


QUARTER MILE SERVICE AREA

NOR TAI

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

BUFFALO GULCH

DIGGINGS EAS

BLACKTAIL CREEK

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

GROVE GUCLH


QUARTER MILE SER VIC

ST

E AREA

RTHSIDE ILINGS

2

COMMUNITY VISION


PUBLIC PROCESS A VISION FOR THE COMMUNITY

In order to fully embrace top-down design, the end user, the community, was the most important piece of the puzzle. The public engagement was extensive and consisted of presentations, focus discussions, worksheets, comment sheets, image board preferences, and working group breakout sessions. Two days of public workshops were held, one on August 7th and one on August 30th, 2018 with two meetings taking place each day to offer a wide variety of times to accommodate the public. The final presentation, which displayed the compiled information and comments, was held on November 2nd, 2018. This process was more than a presentation to the public. The entire workshop was designed to allow the community the opportunity to voice their opinions and participate in the design rather than react to a design that had been presented to them. All of the workshops were intended to be exciting and engaging and help spur interest in this part of the City.

"Create a place in Butte that doesn't remind us that we are in a Superfund site"

40

Photo Credit: Land Design Inc

-Written comment from an anonymous participant


who is the community?

*Data source: US Census Bureau

Source Credit: Atlantic Ritchfield

Public meetings allowed for dialogue to take place and talk about the associated perception of the community and how the citizens would like to take this opportunity to change that perception.

41


Photo Credit: Montana Standard

Contributions of ideas from users helped steer the designs to better serve the people most affected by the site.

42

In addition to the public workshops completed specifically for this master plan, public meetings have taken place throughout the project to inform the community about the process taking place and provide opportunities for public comment to the proposed plan.


gRAPHIC sYMBOLS: IDENTIFICATION

Treatment Level Classification

Early in the planning process, the design team recognized the need to graphically represent features of the project sites for presentation to the community to help organize the discussion. These symbols are shown throughout the Master Plan to organize the larger sites as well as the programming later in design development.

Remedy

Active Recreation

Public Art Installations

These sites have known contamination and require remediation before development

Development that involves cooperative or team activity. Includes playgrounds, bike trails and programmed athletic areas

Outdoor art, both permanent and seasonal installations

End-land Use

Passive Recreation

Wayfinding/Signage

Low intensity recreation that preserves habitat and open space while allowing users to explore the space. Includes trails, plazas, fishing, and picnic areas

Communication method to convey information to visitors of the sites. Signs can be educational, interpretive, wayfinding, or safety

Liner

Connectivity

Parking

Separation and between surface water and underlying contaminated groundwater

Hierarchy of systems that link sites through trails, sidewalks, roads as well as integration into existing neighborhoods

Surface for vehicle parking and site access not accommodated by pedestrian facilities

Community Events

Shelter

Gathering spaces that range from small intimate spaces to large event and performance spaces

Refuge from seasonal outdoor conditions. Can vary from small bench overlooks to large architecture to accommodate gatherings

Habitat

Children's Play

Restrooms

Areas that have plants and animals that are able to grow and live within the site

Areas designated for children under 12 years old to facilitate exercise, learning, and play

ADA accessible facilities located near high volume traffic locations for permanent installation

Areas that have habitat, connectivity, recreation, and other site amenities that are separate from the requirements of the remedy. The end-land use will be compatible with the requirements of any underlying remedial work

Safety Function to elevate the level of precaution taken to avoid damages or injury

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WORKSHOPS

The two days of workshops were attended by approximately 70 people each day with the final presentation attracting about 75 community members. With members from the City and the design team present at each meeting, thoughtful dialogue and discussion facilitated the needs and desires of the community. Several comments were resounding and repetitive throughout the groups and captured common themes:

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

gOAL: TO IDENTIFY End-land USE OPPORTUNITIES

“Create an economic asset with destination features to attract people from other communities and from the interstate”

“Sustainable, native vegetation and stormwater reuse for irrigation” “Create an opportunity for economic growth and redevelopment on the areas around the site” “Dog and kid friendly” “Use the signs to tell the story on the sidewalks and trails” “Connect all of the spaces with safe crossings”

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

“Develop a maintenance plan to maintain the facilities and the perpetual upkeep associated with the proposed development”

Upper Right and Middle: Participants from the August 7th, 2018 workshop in the meeting room at Butte Brewing Company discuss their vision for the project sites. Bottom Right: Attendees to the November 1st, 2019 public meeting review the presentation boards. Left: Written comment was gathered and participants were given the opportunity to take the packets home and spend time thinking about their responses. 44

Photo Credit: Atlantic Richfield Co.

“Include public art”


Park Shelters

Parking Lots

Boardwalks Wildlife Viewing

August 7, 2018

Pedestrian Trail Lighting

Interpretive/Wayfinding Signage

Maintenance

Recreational Lighting

Pedestrian Trail Lighting Maintenance

Parking Lot Lighting Recreational Lighting Plaza Lighting

Year Round Year Round Year Round

Seasonal Seasonal Seasonal

Educational Opportunities

Multiple Material Surface Gravel Lot Grasscrete Parking

Multiple Material Surface Gravel Lot

Paved Concrete Bioswales

Community Garden

Paved Asphalt

Architectural Amphitheater

Movies in the Park

Food Truck Plaza

Farmer’s Market Events Pavilion Natural Amphitheater

Community Concerts

August 7, 2018

Safety and Security/Operations and Maintenance

August 7, 2018

August 7, 2018

Public Art

August 7, 2018

Restrooms

Winter Activities

Winter Sledding Hill

Dog Park

Natural Play Natural Play

August 7, 2018

August 7, 2018

Community Events

Secondary Trails - Soft Surface

Primary Trails - Paved

Passive Recreation

Imaginative Play

Traditional Play Equipment Imaginative Play

Discovery Play Equipment

Traditional Play Equipment

Discovery Play Equipment

Children’s Play

August 7, 2018

August 7, 2018

Using the symbols to organize example photos, the planning team developed a series of image boards to spur discussion and present several different types of styles and options for programmed elements. The public was then given the opportunity to voice their like and dislikes with each image. These image boards were the result of the August 7th afternoon workshop. This also helped outline desired programming as the design team was able to identify trends in positive (green dots) and negative (red dots) feedback. 45


Source Credit: Jim Collins

From the image boards and worksheets, data was compiled to give an order of magnitude to determine the importance of each element from the community perspective.

46


Upper Silver Bow Creek Corridor Proposed Remedy

parking

Upper Silver Bow Creek Corridor Proposed Remedy CHARLIE JUDD PARK

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS W KA UE EN AV

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

CLARK PARK

BUFFALO GULCH

MONTANA STREET

GEORGE STREET

G GEORGE EORGE S STREET T

DIGGINGS EAST I90/VETERANS MEMORIAL HWY

BLACKTAIL CREEK

KAW AVENUE VEN NUE

GROVE GULCH

Composite Analysis Combined Meetings

August 7, 2018

trails

Upper Silver Bow Creek Corridor Proposed Remedy CHARLIE E JUDD PARK RK K

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS W KA UE EN AV

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

CLARK PARK

BUFFALO GULCH

MONTANA M ONT STREET

GEORGE G EORGE ST STREET REEET

GEORGE STREET

DIGGINGS EAST I90/VETERANS MEMORIAL HWY

BLACKTAIL CREEK

KAW K AW AVENUE AVEN ENUE

GROVE GULCH

Composite Analysis Combined Meetings

August 7, 2018

children's play

Upper Silver Bow Creek Corridor Proposed Remedy CHARLIE JUDD PARK

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS W KA UE EN AV

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

CLARK PARK

BUFFALO GULCH

MONTANA STREET

GEORGE STREET

GEORGE GE E STREE STREET ET

DIGGINGS EAST I90/VETERANS MEMORIAL HWY

BLACKTAIL CREEK

KAW AVENUE

Before breaking the sites their smaller pieces, the design team presented the community with Composite Analysis 6:00into Meeting

GROVE GULCH

Composite Analysis Combined Meetings

August 7, 2018

the entire site so they could see the relationship with the surrounding neighborhoods as well as the relationships between parks. They were invited to place stickers of the symbols where they felt it was most important in relationship to the entire site. From these separate program boards, a composite analysis was created and overlaid into one overall program map.

August 7, 2018

47


PROGRAMMING A VISION defined

After the community identified the types and styles of programmed elements that they wanted to see in their parks, the design team handed out rolls of stickers with the symbols on them. The participants were then invited to place the stickers on the large maps where they felt the programming should take place. This process was interactive and engaging and allowed for groups of people to breakout and discuss each map in groups as well as move between boards to physically place the stickers where they felt the programming was most appropriate. These boards were the result of the August 7th afternoon workshop.

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49


Context Map and Trail Connectivity Connectivity: neighborhood/existing trail connection

Public Art Opportunities: all sites

Parking Lots: 6

Overlook: all sites

Shelter: (1) large community, (5) medium private

Interpretive Signage: all sites PARROTT TAILINGS

Restrooms: (4) year round/full service

Passive Recreation: 5 miles of trails, seasonal, dog friendly approx. 1,050 trees

Natural/Discovery Play: (1) developed, (4) natural

Community Events: (1) events plaza, (2) amphitheaters

QUARTER MILE SERVICE AREA

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

E AREA

BUFFALO GULCH DIGGINGS EAST

BLACKTAIL CREEK

QUARTER MILE SER VIC

QUARTER MILE SERVICE AREA

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

GROVE GUCLH

Existing Trails Proposed Trails QUARTER MILE SERVICE AREA

At the end of the public process, the teams combined the findings to produce one final map. This map showed the areas the public identified as wanting 0 300 600 900 1200 programming to happen as well as look at how the project fit into the City networks. Existing trails were reviewed and proposed trails presented as a recommendation to connect Silver Bow Creek Corridor Conservation Area to City parks, amenities, and neighborhoods.

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August 30, 2018


SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS EFFECTS ON LONG-TERM SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

It has been well researched and studied that open spaces and park areas within cities are beneficial for the health and wellness of its patrons, but how do these areas benefit the community in an economic sense? Recent studies have assessed that the economic benefits for direct, indirect and induced effects are quite significant on the local community as well as nationwide. The National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) came out with a study in 2015 and was revised in 2018, that examines the economic impacts of local parks. Theses impacts were generated using the US Census Bureau’s Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll in correlation with the IMPLAN economic input-output model. They found that in 2015, it was estimated that public parks and recreation area agencies nationwide generated more than $154 billion in economic activity and over 1.1 million jobs. In Montana alone, public parks and recreation agencies have created 1,610 employment opportunities across the state which have generated $56.5 million in income to those employed and over $165.5 million in economic activity statewide.

The existing trail that runs along Blacktrail Creek provides connection from residential and commercial areas, habitat along either sides of the trail. This combination along with easy access encourages residents to utilize the trail as an alternative mode of transportation instead of vehicular paths.

It is no surprise then that designed spaces need to be supported and maintained, not only as an economic driver for the community but also for the other socioeconomic drivers that help to create security and sense of place within a city. Green spaces, parks, open areas for recreation, conservation areas, etc. are all places where the community can come together, equally, to share in the experiences or situations offered. Children, families and individuals who live within a closer proximity to a green space are more likely to use the space as a place of social bonding and create an attachment to the space. This attachment and created ‘sense of place’ to a space is a foundation for the citizens of Butte, MT. The project areas lie central within the city. When completed they will act as a green belt to tie the various parks together as well as to conserve the natural resources in the area and provide health and wellness opportunities to the community. These local impacts act as drivers for the socioeconomic factors in the city. Maintaining the sense of place within the city is paramount for the citizens to thrive in a healthy atmosphere. Beyond these benefits stated above, the park agencies provide other benefits to the communities they serve. These include factors such as: visitor spending, property values, economic development, health and wellness, conservation and resiliency. Together these factors with the economic benefits provide a healthy argument for park and recreation agencies to continue to promote and maintain their impact within the communities they serve.

Conservation Health and Wellness Social Equality Economic Activity The socioeconomic impact to the community can be fundamentally measured on these criteria. (above)

As the project areas move forward and into completion phase, socioeconomic factors can be re-evaluated to highlight the public park systems within Butte, to show just how vital they are to the community, not only from an economic value but how they improve the citizens quality of life.

"The design and the end use of the site need to respond to the community need." -Comment from a design team member during a public meeting

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MEDIA COVERAGE rADIO - Montana Public Radio

rADIO - KBMF 102.5

pRINT - ASLA Idaho/Montana

In response to the community workshops, several articles from newspaper and radio were released to document the process and bring awareness of the project to a larger audience. Articles and recording appeared in publishings by The Montana Standard, American Society of Landscape Architecture-Idaho/Montana (ASLA), Montana Public Radio, and KBMF 102.5. 52


pRINT - The Montana Standard inserts

CONSENT DECREE DEFI DEFINES

CLEANUP CLEANU

COMPLYING WITH STANDARDS

MAINTENANCE

250

Consent Decree (CD) (2020) 200

Remedian Investigation (RI) Period (up to 1998) 150

Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) (2011)

100

50

1993

1997

2001

2005

2009

2013

2017

2021

BUTTE, MONTANA

PRECERTIFIED GOLD

JANUARY 2020 - JANUARY 2023

First project in the united states precertiFied at any level Mahesh Ramanujam President & CEO, Green Business Certification Inc.

First superFund reclamation project to achieve sites® precertiFication SITES®, The Sustainable SITES Initiative® and the related logo is a trademark owned by Green Business Certification Inc.™ and is used with permission.

timelines Legend

construction timeline

Precipita�on collects

2 and travels down the

surfaces on Bu�e Hill, mobilizing par�culates (contaminants, sediments, etc.) as it flows.

5

Stormwater

3 is diverted to

collec�on areas, known as forebays. Most debris falls out into the forebay before moving on to the stormwater basin.

In Bu�e, urban stormwater is contaminated by not only mine waste sediments and metals, but also oil, debris, garbage and other typical municipal sources. Today, this water and all it contains ends up in our creeks. The Consent Decree includes the installa�on of stormwater basins designed to give contaminants some �me to drop out of stormwater before the water flows into the creek. In Bu�e, stormwater will flow through municipal pipes into a forebay structure where large sediments and debris will be captured. The stormwater then flows into the larger stormwater basins, where the water will spend some �me to allow smaller sediments and metals in the water to se�le out and sink to the bo�om. This cleaner water can then flow into the creek.

{ {

Lexington Wetlands

{ {

Buffalo Gulch

{

Butte Reduction Works

2020

PERIOD 3: >ŽŶŐ dĞƌŵ ŽŵƉůŝĂŶĐĞ DŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ͘ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌ ǁĂŝǀĞƌƐ ƉĞƟƟŽŶƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ƐƵďŵŝƩĞĚ͘

habitat, and solitude for people who seek it throughout the park space. Grab some shade under one of many trees that will be planted. There will be a fishing pond at Northside Tailings to wet a line on a summer afternoon. A gathering area will be constructed at Diggings East that can be used for family barbeques or larger events such as art in the park, farmers market, outdoor education seminars, plays or small concerts. And just one more thing, there will be an amphitheater at Butte Reduction Works. The design and placement of the amphitheater is being carefully considered so that it integrates into our local festival scene (without detracting from it) while also providing an enticing venue to artists of a broader regional scale. The amphitheater will make use of the reconstructed slopes near the slag walls and provide an epic view of not only the stage, but also of Timber Butte and of our Highland Mountains at the southern end of the valley.

HOW DO STORM WATER BASINS WORK?

BUTTE’S STORMWATER CYCLE

The vast majority of the remaining sediments se�le out in the basins. Wetland plants further filter the water, removing fine par�cles. These wetlands provide natural cleaning for the water as well as wildlife habitat.

SILVER BOW CREEK CONSERVATION AREA HAS FULFILLED THE PRECERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE SITES v2 RATING SYSTEM, AS VERIFIED BY GREEN BUSINESS CERTIFICATION INC.

COMPLIANCE DETERMINATION

ĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ ƌĞŵĞĚLJ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŽ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞ ĐŽŵƉůŝĂŶĐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ^ĐŽƉĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞŵĞĚLJ͘ /Ĩ ĞdžĐĞĞĚĂŶĐĞ ŽĐĐƵƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ Ă ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĞdžĐĞĞĚĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐ ŵŝŶĞ ǁĂƐƚĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ KΘD ĐŽƌƌĞĐƟŽŶƐ ŵĂLJ ŽĐĐƵƌ͘

4

Atlantic Richfield, Butte-Silver Bow, the State of Montana and the US EPA have engaged in numerous public meetings to ask the community what they want the center of Butte to look like, after the clean-up work is done. The community responded, and the parties have worked hard to capture the community’s vision. The stormwater and groundwater remedies will be located in the Silver Bow and Blacktail Creek corridors, and the proposed Consent Decree sets aside approximately 120-acres for these remedies and surrounding land uses. These areas will be converted into connected greenways – natural park spaces that have reconstructed wetlands, flowing water, abundant native plants, and habitat for wildlife. Nearly 8-miles of trails and boardwalk will be constructed allowing users to access all corners of the park during all seasons. There will be play areas, interpretive and educational features for the inquisitive type, wildlife

2021

TIME 9-12 years

ΎKƚŚĞƌ ŽŶƐĞŶƚ ĞĐƌĞĞ ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐLJ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ŶĞǁ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶͬƵŶŬŶŽǁŶ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ƌĞŽƉĞŶĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƌĞƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƌŝŐŚƚƐ ǁŝůů ĂƉƉůLJ ĂƐ ƐƚĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĮŶĂů ŽŶƐĞŶƚ ĞĐƌĞĞ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͘

Cleaned water exits the basins and is returned to Silver Bow and Blacktail Creeks.

The project areas surrounding Blacktail and Silver Bow Creeks have been identified for remedy and also a higher level of end-land use which includes wildlife habitat, community spaces, trails, and much more. The remedy area, which combined with the Lexington and Lower Area One sites, creates the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area.

MILESTONE 3:

PERIOD 2: ŽŵƉůŝĂŶĐĞ ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ Period

Water vapor condenses and falls to the earth as precipita�on in the form of rain, snow, hail, or sleet.

silver Bow creek conservation area (sBcca)

‘23 ‘22

Record of Decision (ROD) (2006)

PERIOD 1: Key Remedial Elements Design, ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŚĂŬĞĚŽǁŶ͘

1

Richfield and Butte-Silver Bow spells out what the money in the trust accounts can be used for. For the most part, the money is used to implement the Residential Metals and Abatement Program (RMAP), to pay for improvements to municipal stormwater infrastructure, to fund the Superfund Advisory Redevelopment Trust Authority (SARTA) account, and to pay for the salaries and benefits of BSB staff that support and perform Superfund remedy work in Butte.

the sustainaBle sites initiative precertification

Standard Copper Concentration Average 300

0

REMEDY COMPLETION APPROVED

TIME 4-9 years

to pay for the work in the future. If Atlantic Richfield does not perform or pay for the work as required in the Consent Decree, then the EPA could use money from the financial assurance to complete the work. Financial assurance includes the money that Atlantic Richfield has set aside in trust accounts for use by BSB to complete and maintain certain parts of the clean-up. The trust accounts grow with the interest they receive. An agreement between Atlantic

RECOVERABLE COPPER CONCENTRATIONS GOING DOWN

COMPLIANCE PROCESS

CD LODGED

There is a lot of work to be done in Butte as a result of the Consent Decree. It will take over $150 million to complete the remedies and other projects included in the Consent Decree. Atlantic Richfield will provide the funding to complete this work. Because this work will take place over many years, the Consent Decree requires Atlantic Richfield to provide financial assurance (trust funds, bonds, insurance policies, or other instruments) to ensure there will be funds

Total Recoverable Copper (CuTR) Concentrations during Normal Flow Sampling

MILESTONE 2:

MILESTONE 1:

funding & financial assurance

PROGRAMS EXPANDED

2024

The compliance plan requires the soil caps, stormwater basins, and groundwater capture and treatment systems to be properly built, operated and maintained to capture metal contamina�on that would otherwise flow into the creek. If the metal concentra�ons in surface water exceed State water quality standards, these remedies may need to be repaired or adjusted, and newly iden�fied sources of historic mine waste may need to be addressed. If exceedances con�nue to occur, then Federal water quality standards for those metals will then apply.

Metal levels in Silver Bow Creek have declined drama�cally since cleanup began. Today the creek meets State water quality standards most of the �me, but when it rains, metal levels in the creek increase (see inset). Because it is not technically prac�cable to achieve the State’s total recoverable copper and zinc standards at all �mes, Federal standards for copper and zinc will be used to measure water quality. There are also elevated levels of cadmium, arsenic, aluminum and other metals in our creeks during storms. Modeling indicates that if the work outlined in the Consent Decree is performed, the concentra�ons of these metals will meet State water quality standards. The Consent Decree includes two key documents that focus on compliance. The surface water management plan and compliance determina�on plan outline a period of �me where water quality will be monitored to determine compliance with standards. This is called a compliance determina�on period.

MONITORING AND

The Bu�e Priority Soils cleanup is planned for a variety of loca�ons. If you live on the Hill or near the creeks this work will likely take place in your neighborhood. The Silver Bow Creek flood plain and Blacktail Creek west of Kaw Avenue will see major a�en�on. Historic mine wastes have been in the ground in this area for over a century. The groundwater beneath this area is impacted and can poten�ally make its way in to Blacktail and Silver Bow Creeks. Six project loca�ons generally located near Blacktail and Silver Bow Creeks will see extensive work. Grove Gulch, Northside Tailings, Diggings East, Buffalo Gulch, Blacktail Creek and its confluence, and Bu�e �educ�on Works will see removal of historic mine waste, stream reconstruc�on, expansion of groundwater capture and treatment systems, and installa�on of stormwater treatment ponds. Areas across the Hill will be evaluated again to determine if more cleanup is necessary and if protec�on from stormwater flow is required. In addi�on to work happening on the Hill and in the creek corridor, drainages that discharge to the creeks will be controlled to prevent contaminated sediments from entering the creek.

A�o�e: �onceptua� ren�erin� sho�in� the transfor�a�on of �u�e �e�uc�on Works site. Inset: Historic photo of �u�e �e�uc�on Works at the turn of the century.

Recoverable Copper (CuTR) (ug/L)

pRINT - The Montana Standard

Grove Gulch Northside Tailings Diggings East

Blacktail Creek

Lower Area One (LAO)

*Timelines are approximate and subject to change. Years reflect when projects are scheduled to begin.

overall sBcca timeline 2020

2037-2040

2026

Consent Decree: Consent Decree is finalized

Construc�on Complete: SBCCA Projects Complete Construc�on Begin SBCCA Projects: Construc�on starts

2021

Compliance Determina�on: Agencies determine and begin CMP Remedy Comple�on: Begin Compliance Determina�on Period

2028

*Unreclaimed Areas, Insufficiently Reclaimed Sites, and Uncontrolled Surface Flow Area Projects will be performed concurrently with the corridor projects.

Want to learn more? For further information, please visit armontana.com

53


CONNECTION TO THE COMMUNITY Linking TO THE LARGER CONTEXT

In addition to the work being designed around the physical project sites, an additional effort is being made to outreach in alternative ways within the community. One such project is the trails map brochure. This updated map will be distributed throughout the community and into the larger region as an effort to provide updates to future trails connections and show the linkage to the larger trail network. The map encompasses Butte as well as the Thompson Park Recreation Area south of Butte, a popular trail-goer destination. In addition to trails, the brochure also provides a printed guide to historic landmarks, community parks, and points of interest.

BUTTE BROCHURE LOGO #1

#3

#2

#4 EXPLORE

#5

54

ALL RENDERINGS AND ASSOCIATED FEATURES ARE CONCEPTUAL IN NATURE. FINAL FEATURE SIZE AND POSITIONING TO BE DETERMINED DURING PROJECT CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT PHASE.

As part of the Trails Map design, a discussion on marketing and branding the projects arose. Logo designs for the trails map were developed and created to reflect the regional mountain ranges while allowing for flexibility in use. This logo is intended to be utilized in future pamphlets and brochures to create a complete package of pamphlets relating to different areas of interest around Butte and their connection to the project sites.


This map provides another tier in the foundation for

building community recognition ULRICH-SCHOTTE ULRICH-SCHOTTE TRAILHEAD TRAILHEAD

TRAILS TRAILS--PARKS PARKS--DESTINATIONS DESTINATIONS

legend

Connect Connectwith withhistory historyby byvisiting visiting cultural culturallocations locationspreserving preservingthe the history historyof ofButte. Butte. Come see wildlife and natural systems Come see wildlife and natural systems up close through the trails and up close through the trails and boardwalks at Lexington Wetlands, or boardwalks at Lexington Wetlands, or visit the new Ridge Waters Waterpark visit the new Ridge Waters Waterpark and Spirit of Columbia Gardens Carousel and Spirit of Columbia Gardens Carousel located at Stodden Park and learn more located at Stodden Park and learn more about what is being done to create about what is being done to create a better environment for Montana’s a better environment for Montana’s G wildlife and the Butte Community. wildlife and the Butte Community.

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connections within Butte.

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TRAiL oVeRLooKiNG BUTTe

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on d The riety aand hilethroughout Butte roun parks vatrails fe w ide nd ildli A wconnect in a townature, but also to many tted r this r e spohistorical fo e t sites. D ou eye ntures. nd Mule owl a aterf ve adVisit the Granite Mountain Memorial, etail er W gbirds n oth Whit • honoring the victims of the June 8, 1917 and ident So e s x e o ut F , Ge nd Res • Granite Mountain Speculator Mine kes rook Tro ucks a Sna • D igratory les and at and B tragedy. , Turt tthro • M •

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• Wnd more Also visit the many headframes around • A town, like the Original, Mountain Con and Lexington Mine Headframes.

MOUNTAIN CON HEADFRAME

locations key trails

Parks

Historical sites

otHer sites of interest

Silver Bow Creek Greenway Trail

Knob Hill Park

Slag Canyon @ Butte Reduction Works

Visitors Center

BA&P Rail Trail

Foreman’s Park

Steward Mine Headframe

Naranche Stadium

Clark Park

Mountain Con Mine Headframe

Maroon Activity Center

8 Miles, 519 FT Elevation Change

3.3 Miles, 519 FT Elevation Change

Alice Trail

.4 Miles, 27 FT Elevation Change

Mountain Con Trail

1.5 Miles, 156 FT Elevation Change

Lexington Wetlands Coming Soon

Father Sheehan Park

Granite Mountain Speculator Mine Memorial

Stodden Park Thompson Park

Lexington Mine Headframe

original Mine Headframe (See inset)

Walkerville Little League Ballfields Butte Civic Center Copper Mountain Sports & Recreation

Ulrich-Schotte Nature Area

Big Butte Park

A wide variety of wildlife can be Berkeley Pit Viewing Stand Complex Tech spotted in and around Montana Butte! Keep an Copper King Mansion

Continental Drive Trail

Copper Mountain Park

Belmont Mine Headframe adventures.

3.6 Miles, 13 FT Elevation Change 3 Miles, 123 FT Elevation Change

eye out for this wildlife while on your

• Whitetail and Mule Deer • Fox • Ducks, Geese and other Waterfowl Big Butte Trail • Migratory and Resident Songbirds 1.5 Miles, 177 FT Elevation Change • Frogs, Turtles and Snakes DiSCLAiMeR: This map and route delineation is provided for information purposes only. The preparer, distributors and sponsors this map are not responsible for the condition of any of the travel • ofWestslope Cutthroat and Brook Trout segments herein identified; nor for any injuries or damage occurring in connection with the use of this map. The users of this map assume all risks hereafter. The map makes no representations or • And more! warranties with regard to the safety or condition of the route. Travel the route at your own risk. The route may be along open roads, subject to traffic and large moving vehicles or along steep and Maude ‘S’ Canyon Trail

Skyline Park

4 Miles, 994 FT Elevation Change

www.ButteChamber.org

unstable trails. Please remember to wear your helmet and take all other necessary safety precautions.

INSIDE FLAPS

FULL FOLD-OUT MAP 55


THE SUSTAINABLE SITES

QUANTIFIABLE CONNECTION TO SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES

The Sustainable SITES Initiative, or SITES, is a program that offers a systematic, comprehensive rating system designed to define sustainable sites, measure their performance, and ultimately elevate the value of landscapes. Similar to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification which focuses on architectural elements, SITES is also overseen by the Green Business Certification Inc. (GCBI) with synergies between the two rating systems that are complementary. SITES is based on a point system – the number of points that a project earns determines the precertification level it receives. GOLD is the second highest increment level that a project can achieve in for Precertification. The precertification involves 10 sections that range from conservation of existing healthy systems, to promoting equitable site use, to planning for sustainable maintenance. Within the 10 sections, there are prerequisites that must be met before a site can even be considered for precertification. Once these prerequisites are met, there are 48 credits that can be pursued. Each credit has very specific requirements and submittal documentation to be able to measurably earn the desired credit. To become precertified, a project must earn at least 70 points. The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area project earned 130 points putting it at GOLD level precertification, the second highest increment level that a project can achieve. The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area project utilized the SITES precertification to positively influence the long-term outcomes of the project, as well as to conserve and restore existing resources within the region. The precertification framework served as a measurable ‘checksystem’ throughout the initial design phase of the project to make certain the project did not stop by implementing a sustainable present, but defined a resilient future.

56

This conceptual rendering shows the transformation of the Butte Reduction Works (BRW) site. The inset picture is a historic photo depicting BRW at the turn of the century. Note to location of the bin structure in each picture to see the dramactic changes that have occured on this site.

PRECERTIFIED GOLD


57



RESEARCH & STRATEGIES

Source Credit: USGS Water Supply Paper, 1914

3


NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

DIGGINGS EAST

GEORGE STREET

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

EAST RIDGE

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

LOWER AREA ONE

BERKELEY PIT

BIG BUTTE INTERSTATE 90

BERKELEY PIT

60

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

LEXINGTON AVE

EAST RIDGE

Panoramas across the sites. Top: Diggings East looking East from Kaw Avenue. Middle: Lower Area One and Butte Reduction Works looking North from Interstate 90. Bottom: Lexington Wetlands looking Northeast toward Berkeley Pit.

EAST RIDGE


EXISTING SITE SYSTEMS Characterization across all project sites

WHAT IS THE ELEVATION OF BUTTE?

Create a healthy vegetative community in an area where the threat of frost is present year round.

12:00 PM

Jan 30

Feb 35

Mar 42

Apr 52

May 61

Jun 71

Jul 80

Aug 79

Sep 68

Oct 55

Nov 39

Dec 30

Yearly 53.5

Average low °F

5

10

18

26

34

41

45

44

35

26

15

6

25.4

Record high °F

58

61

69

83

90

97

100

99

93

85

69

66

100

Record low °F

−48

−52

−36

−16

9

22

28

23

3

−23

−42

−52

−52

Precipitation (inches)

0.53

0.47

0.83

1.02

2.02

2.07

1.47

1.36

1.09

0.79

0.6

0.53

12.78

Average snowfall (inches)

8.4

7.6

10.7

8.6

3.3

0.2

0

0.3

1.1

4.5

7.4

8.3

60.4

Average precipitation days

7.9

6

7.6

8.1

9.4

9

6.1

5.1

6.1

6.7

6.7

7.6

86.3

Average snowy days

7.8

7.6

9.6

6.6

2.7

0.4

0

0.1

0.8

3.2

7.2

8.5

54.5

Average wind speed (mph)

7

6.7

6.5

6

5.4

5

4.6

4.5

5

5.6

6.2

6.7

5.8

Evapotranspiration Rates (inches)

0.73

1.13

2.62

3.98

5.78

6.65 9.07 Jun 15th

7.5

4.76 2.58 Sept 6th

1.19

0.57

46.55 81 Days

Growing Season

Data source: NOAA.gov Evapotranspiration Rates from Deer Lodge Agrimet Station, all other data collected from Bert Mooney Airport in Butte

x. ro

W

e 21

ept 21 ar/S M ox uin inds Prevailing W

61

°

Eq

e

- Jun

So er int

e lsti c

c 21 - De

39°

. ox pr

Ap p

Average high °F

Ap

The USDA Plant Hardiness Map classifies Butte as a Zone 3B, which lists average annual extreme minimum temperatures from -35 to -30 degrees Fahrenheit. Because of the open exposure on the project sites, elevation near a mile above sea level, and the extreme variations in temperature, plant varieties should be selected for substantial hardiness and grouped together when possible.

x

m um .S

e lsti c r So

Below: This chart shows the sun angles, wind directions, and shadow lengths of the project sites. These will be used to identify locations for shade structure, wind breaks, and plant locations.

S

20°

Ap pr o

The weather patterns in Butte are a perfect metaphor for the town itself - the highest highs, the lowest lows, with cloudless summer days and long cold winter darkness. The climate is classified as an arid mountain desert and is categorized by large daily temperature shifts and low precipitation rates. The growing season is very short, approximately 81 days, and temperatures dip low at night even in the middle of summer. Frost is a year round risk at this high elevation of 5,518’.

Generally, Uptown Butte sits between 5,600-5,800 feet above sea level. The southern part of the City is predominantly between 5,4605,500 feet. The project sites lie at approximately 5,450-5,460 feet making the grade change across the project very flat.

W

:48

16

19:46

21:25 *Shadow le

08:08

ngth of a 1

07:28

June

Ma

r/Se

De

E

8 5:3

0

c2

1-

2.7

0m

pt 2 1

*

- 1.

21

m object

21 -.5

6 m*

m*

N

Data source: www.suncalc.org

61


This area physically separates Uptown Butte from the rest of the city but has never been a place of connection. understanding movement to and from the sites

ROADS

5 Minute Walk A quarter mile from the site boundary is designated as the ‘5 minute walk’ zone. This is the approximate distance that people will choose to walk rather than drive to a destination. Several factors limit the pedestrian walking radius such as weather, existing pedestrian facilities, and limited crossing opportunities. Areas within this walking zone should be identified as pedestrian opportunities and accommodations made to encourage walking and biking. Pedestrian Trail Presently, a large paved trail runs through much of the sites and provides a connecting link that should be capitalized upon. Several soft surface trails shoot off from this link and interweave near the convergence of Blacktail Creek and Silver Bow Creek. Currently, safety at crossings is of concern as crosswalks on streets are loosely defined and clustered closely together.

BUS ROUTES

Vehicular Traffic Kaw Avenue and Montana Street provide major North/South connections as arterials and collectors. Across the site, George Street links the sites East to West and allows easy access for parking, maintenance, and events. Curb Walk One of the obstacles that pedestrians face when trying to get to the site is lack of continuous curb or boulevard sidewalk. Sidewalks are disconnected and often lead to a dead end or do not provide adequate crossings. Interstate In many places, the interstate overlooks the various sites and a visual connection can easily be made from drivers on the interstate to the programming within the sites. Adequate vehicular and pedestrian facilities exist on the overpasses to the interstate to allow access to and from the sites.

TRAILS

Railroad BNSF currently has a railroad link that loops around the boundaries of the sites. Railroad traffic on this section is light and is not expected to impact circulation to and from the sites. Zoning Existing zoning varies greatly adjacent to the sites from industrial to residential. Within the project, zoning also is disconnected and the land use types within the project areas will need to be addressed. With a high concentration of commercial and residential in proximity to the project spaces, the need for pedestrian mobility into the sites will be a priority. 62

RAILROAD


LOWER AREA ONE

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

GROVE GULCH

Photo Credit: TREC

DIGGINGS EAST Photo Credit: TREC

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc.

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

BUFFALO GULCH

Photo Credit: TREC

Photo Credit: TREC

Photo Credit: Montana Standard

EXISTING terrain and topography The Movement of Water Much of the western portion of the planning area lies within the 100-year floodplain boundary as outlined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Because the sites will be regraded significantly, this floodplain is anticipated to change and allow for more capacity in storm events.

FLOODPLAIN MAP

Water is the one element that provides a link between every single site of this Master Plan. Topography At one of the lowest points of elevation in the City, the stormwater from the surrounding elevations ultimately drains to Blacktail Creek and Silver Bow Creek. In some areas of the project, such as Lexington Wetlands, large portions of the land remain inundated with water year round and have hydric soils and hydrophytic vegetation necessary to a wetland. There is little rise in topography across all of the sites making drainage from within the sites a challenge. Because of the relatively flat nature of the sites, there is little change in exposure and slope across the project boundaries.

TERRAIN ASPECT MAP

63


URE A

FOREMANS PARK

BIG BUTTE OPEN SPACE

PA

RK HOW MANY ACRES OF EXISTING PARK SPACE IS IN BUTTE?

64

There are approximately 450 acres of developed and undeveloped park land in Butte. Adjacent to the city of Butte, there are an additional 422 acres of natural areas as well as a 3800 acre forest that is the only ‘park’ in the country co-managed by the municipality and US Forest Service.

Within the larger City context, several developed and undeveloped parks provide a wide range of uses and programming. The graphic on these pages depicts the existing parks and their approximate service area in green. Notice how the area surrounding the SBC Conservation Area currently has no neighborhood park service - pointing to a need for park space to service these locations.

Credit: Montanastandard.com

Credit: COSkate.com

REA/REGIONAL PARK

TY PARK

Size: Up to 25 Acres Service Area: 1 Mile

NAT

UNI

HB O R H O OD

MM

IG Size: Less than 10 Acres Service Area: 1/2 Mile

CO

NE

Size: Over 80 Acres Service Area: Approximately 30 minute drive time.

Credit: us.geoview.info

park system and service distance

Credit: everipedia.org

EXISTING PARKS

MCGRUFF/SKATE PARK

COPPER MOUNTAIN PARK


Credit: mainstreetbutte.org

Parks are often an indicator of the livability and health of a city.

Credit: think1.com

THE ORIGINAL

Credit: Montanastandard.com

CLARK PARK

MASTER PLAN AREA

Credit: Montanastandard.com

SKYLINE PARK

STODDEN PARK

65


Existing Vegetation In 2018, as part of due diligence needed before the project could be designed and constructed, the sites were delineated and mapped for wetland characteristics. Several species were observed at that time including trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and forbs. In addition to these, several noxious weeds and undesirable species were also identified.

Facultative Occur in wetlands and non-wetlands

Facultative Wetland Usually occur in wetlands, but may occur in non-wetlands

Obligate Wetland Almost always occur in wetlands Leafy Tussock Sedge Nebraska Sedge Northwest Territory Sedge Common Spike-Rush Water Horsetail Fowl Manna Grass Three-Square Pale Bulrush

Marsh Arrow-Grass Broadleaf Cattail Nodding Burr-Marigold Water Hemlock Silverweed Shore Buttercup Bog Yellow Cress Hemlock Water-Parsnip Water Speedwell

Peach-Leaf Willow Red-Osier Dogwood Gray Willow Booth's Willow Narrow-Leaf WIllow Geyer's WIllow Tufted Hairgrass Fringed WIllow Herb Tall Scouring-Rush Smooth Scouring-Rush Baltic Rush

Dagger-Leaf Rush Spreading Alkali Grass Alkali Cord Grass Common Willow-Herb Panicled Willow-Herb Field Mint Western Willow Dock Willow Dock Hairy Hedge-Nettle Leafy American-Aster

Black Cottonwood Golden Currant Ticklegrass Breading Bent Grass Creeping Meadow Foxtail Field Meadow Foxtail Canada Wild Rye Bearded Wild Rye Field Horsetail Foxtail Barley Lesser Poverty Rush

Great Basin Lyme Grass Fowl Blue Grass Kentucky Blue Grass Large-Leafed Avens Rocky Mountain Iris Birds-Foot-Treifoil Graceful Cinquefoil White Clover Canada Thistle** Perennial Pepperweed** Little Hog-weed**

Facultative Upland Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands Wood's Rose Smooth Brome Western Wheat Grass Big Bluestem Meadow False Rye Grass Common Yarrow Pacific Woodworm Curlycup Gumweed Golden-Aster Povertyweed Yellow Sweetclover

Variable-Leaf ScorpionWeed Canada Goldenrod Western American-Aster Prickly Lettuce** Russian Thistle** Tumbling Hedge Mustard** Field Sow-Thistle** Common Dandelion** Mullein**

Obligate Upland Almost never occur in wetlands Crested Wheatgrass Beautiful Fleabane Alfalfa Catchfly

Baby's Breath** Toadflax** Common Tansy** Pennycress**

Plants not listed in the National Wetland Plant List but observed on the site

**indicates undesirable weedy species and noxious weeds

66

Rubber Rabbitbrush Fringed Sage(wort) Whitetop** Spotted Knapweed** Tansy Mustard** Leafy Spurge** Toadflax**


Existing Ecology and wildlife Mammal Observations Generalized observations within a quarter of a quarter latitude/longitude to the sites on Montana Natural Heritage Map (mtnhp.org) American Mink Beaver Big Brown Bat Black Bear Bobcat Canada Lynx Columbian Ground Squirrel Coyote Deer Mouse Elk Gray Wolf Hoary Bat Little Brown Myotis Long-eared Myotis Marten

Montane Vole Moose Mountain Cottontail Mountain Lion Mule Deer Muskrat Northern River Otter Porcupine Pronghorn Red Fox Red Squirrel Western Small-footed Myotis Wyoming Ground Squirrel Yellow-Bellied Marmot

2018 Bird Observations Top 25 sightings Ulrich-Schotte Nature Trail Observations from ebird.org Bohemian Waxwing European Starling Rock Pigeon Canada Goose Mallard Red- Winged Blackbird American Crow Brewer's Blackbird Green-winged Teal Yellow-rumped Warbler Northern Shoveler Common Raven American Robin

Song Sparrow Ring-billed Gull Black-capped Chickadee Cinnamon Teal Ruby-crowned Kinglet Yellow-headed Blackbird Marsh Wren Yellow Warbler Eurasian Collared-Dove Black-billed Magpie Tree Swallow Barn Swallow

Fish Observations Generalized observations within a quarter of a quarter latitude/ longitude to the sites on Montana Natural Heritage Map (mtnhp.org) Brook Trout Central Mudminnow Columbia Slimy Sculpin Longnose Sucker Rainbow Trout Rocky Mountain Sculpin Westslope Cutthroat Trout Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout

This corridor in the City is already home to several species of birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles. It is an important piece of the project to re-establish this habitat and intensify species diversity in both the plant materials as well as the animal populations. With the added amenity of restored wetland areas, the expectation would be to see the frequency of sightings increase with the addition of native tree and shrub species for habitat.

Reptile/Amphibian Observations Generalized observations within a quarter of a quarter latitude/longitude to the sites on Montana Natural Heritage Map (mtnhp.org) Painted Turtle Snapping Turtle Terrestrial Gartersnake Columbia Spotted Frog Long-toed Salamander Western Toad

Endangered and Threatened Species As identified in the 1993 report by Atlantic Richfield titled Wetlands and Threatened/ Endangered Species Inventory with Determination of Functionally Effective Wetland Area Bald Eagle - Migratory Bird Treaty Act Peregrine Falcon - Migratory Bird Treaty Act Bull Trout - Threatened Species

*Numerous insects and pollinators have also been observed on site. No data collection available for species at this time.

Creating a conservation area means observing current habitats and understanding how these plants and animals are using the area under existing conditions.

67


VEGETATIVE BIOMASS BASELINE existing Vegetative cover by percentage

ADJACENT AREAS legend

Lexington Wetlands

Lower Area One 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Remedy Sites Grove Gulch

Tree Canopy Dryland Grass Wetland Vegetation Open Water Creek Vegetation Bare Soil Structure/Concrete Trail Gravel Slag

Blacktail Creek

Diggings East

Northside Tailings

Buffalo Gulch

On all sites, the existing vegetation was analyzed to determine a percentage of vegetative cover by type. This cover will be used as a baseline for future metrics to show the changes on the sites from existing conditions to construction and into the future.

Butte Reduction Works 0 68

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

*Data compiled from iTree information on itreetools.org


existing woody plant benefits NORTHSIDE TAILINGS NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

SEQUESTRATIONS AND REMOVAL OF cO, co2, AND o3 After implementation and establishment of the vegetation, data can be compiled to show the realized difference between the sites before and after remediation in terms of woody plant material. These numbers can be used to quantify the annual benefits of landscape improvements on remediated sites.

0

197 tons 7.86 tons 76.94lbs 1.42lbs 200

400

600

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

LV E

R

BO W

CR

107 tons 4.26 tons 41.7lbs 12.2lbs

1200

SI

0

EE K

BUFFALO GULCH

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS 0 tons 0 tons 0lbs 0lbs

No existing vegetiation onsite 200

400

600

800

1000

1200

9.0lbs 0

INTERSTATE 90

489.2lbs 200

400

DIGGINGS EAST

.

1,255 tons

50 tons

E AV

AREA ONE LOWERLOWER AREA ONE

W KA

MONTANA ST.

0

600

800

1000

1200

0

106 tons 4.25 tons 41.5lbs 12.2lbs 200

400

600

800

1000

1200

400

600

800

1000

1200

BLACKTAIL CREEK

legend

C02 Stored in Trees CO2 Sequestered (Tons) 03 Removed (lbs) CO Removed (lbs)

0

12.7 tons 124.25lbs 2.29lbs 200

318 tons

400

GROVE GULCH 600

800

1000

1200

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

0

10.2 tons 99.6lbs 1.8lbs

200

0

73 tons 2.95 tons 28.8lbs 8.4lbs

200

255 tons

400

600

800

1000

1200

Aerial Source Credit: Google Earth *Data compiled from iTree information on itreetools.org 69


CONNECTIONS THROUGH MATERIALS IDENTIFYING MATERIALS THAT PROVIDE CONTEXT ACROSS ALL SITES

Copper

Copper (Patina) Relating to but distinct from the copper material, copper with a patina gives a definite blue-green patina hue which can be found around Butte from the copper-saturated bones laying along Silver Bow Creek to the waters of Yankee Doodle Tailings. This is a nod of recognition to the contamination on the site and the beauty that can come from careful restoration. This articulation could be used in playful pops of color across the sites in signs, benches, or playgrounds.

Granite The City sits in the shadow of the East Ridge - a portion of the Rocky Mountains. This ridge is comprised of several rock types but one that is definite is the granite. This chunky grained rock is found not only in the mountains but in the pillars and building blocks of many of the historic buildings of Uptown Butte. Granite can be used in numerous ways across the project from rocky outcroppings that play off of the rugged landscape to polished surfaces for pausing and taking in the minute crystals of the formation.

Wood

It wouldn't be a fair material board for Butte to not pay tribute to the natural beauty of the Montana landscape that skirts the City. Evergreen forests mix with aspen groves to provide a contrast of color in the fall that is a bittersweet reminder of the cold harsh winter ahead. Wood could be utilized as a softening material to contrast the cold, strong lines of the metals.

Staying true to the lifeblood of the City, copper is a continuous element that binds the history of Butte to the people of today. For a modern take on copper, this element could be used in its metal form as a bracket or as a coloring element in a play structure piece or groundcover type.

Black Slag A stark contrast from the mellow coloring of the dried grasses around it, the slag piles are a recognizable feature of the sites. These dark, matte black layers define the edges of sections of Silver Bow Creek and narrow the waters into the artificial canyon. To incorporate this into the site, the coloring and finish could be used on finishes of various site amenities as a matte powder coatings or layered into architectural elements to mimic the stacked quality.

Steel

Forged in the industrial era of Butte, steel was to the built environment what copper was to the earth. It was the material for the black headframes (or gallows/gallus frames) that lowered miners into tunnels below and the skeleton of the early skyscrapers that remain today.

Montana Limestone

One material that is prevalent throughout Butte is red brick. It is the veneer of the buildings, used as pavers, and incorporated into monuments across the Copper City. To modernize this layering and rectilinear nature of bricks, Montana limestone could be incorporated not only as a method to modernize a material, but as a way to extend the life expectancy of the built structures beyond what brick could reasonably be expected to withstand in the freeze-thaw patterns near wetlands and stormwater ponds. 70


Conceptual site amenities flow chart

Photo Credit: imgur.com

Tailings Water

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc

Headframes

Photo Credit: hgtv.com Photo Credit: katemaestri.com

Photo Credit: iworthpoint.com

Copper

HOW WILL YOU RESPECT THE PAST?

example of material use

With all materials, sustainability and longevity should be taken into consideration while maintaining a respect for the historic context. Each selection needs to be made as a reference to the surrounding City without dwelling on the past. The material selections look to contemporary and modern application as directed by the public meeting outcomes to define a future of Butte without the Superfund site as its primary distinction. When possible, local materials should be used first, then materials from within 200 miles, then materials that are from outside of the region but have a high level of sustainable construction or material use within their assembly. All components should be selected based on a life cycle cost, not on implementation cost when possible.

Photo Credit: thomassteele.com

material Photo Credit: iworthpoint.com

Vernacular Landscape Elements

The public meeting was clear, the citizens don’t want a reminder of the Superfund site. Because of their prominance in the landscape, replicas of the headframes can be seen in every element of town - in benches, in playground equipment, in signs. The designs will aim to take elements of the rich history and translate them into conceptual references without being overt.

Photo Credit: goric.com

Photo Credit: Land Design, Inc

Historic Structures

Source Credit: Jim Collins 71


REMEDY CONSIDERATIONS Contamination Removal and Liner

The Master Plan focuses much of the discussion on the end-land use and the overall outcomes to the end-land user: the community. It is imperative to understand that while the end-land use is the driver for the design, the remedy is the impetus. The potential for contaminated materials to come into contact with humans, wildlife, and the landscape initiated the project necessity. As determined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Montana Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the ultimate remedy for these sites will be accomplished through removal of contaminated mine waste and soils, capture and treatment of stormwater and expanded capture of contaminated groundwater. Following excavation and disposal of contaminated mine waste and soils, the sites will be backfilled and graded for placement of impermeable liners below the stormwater basins and channels. The liners will prevent infiltration of stormwater to the underlying, contaminated groundwater aquifer.

Finish Grade

Groundwater level will be directly below the liner in most locations

Native plantings for soil stability over the liner

During storm events, the level of the water will spill over the level of the wetlands and into the stormwater basin

Constructed Wetlands with Low Flow Channel

Cross section Thru Wetlands with liner 72

Impermeable liner will provide a barrier between captured stormwater and the underlying contaminated groundwater. The liner will also prevent the potential of upward migration of contaminated groundwater to overlying clean soils.

Existing Grade


In 2013, a study was done to quantify the amount of contamination. This study, completed by the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology under the Natural Resource Damage Program estimated over 600,000 cubic yards of overburden and contaminated materials across all sites in the creek corridor.

HOW MUCH CONTAMINATED SOIL AND TAILINGS WILL NEED TO BE REMOVED?

The liner presents several unique constraints to the project: »» Water will be present on both sides of the linergroundwater on one side and stormwater/water features on the other »» Growing medium will be confined to the newly imported soil on top of the liners, creating a closed system. »» Drainage will need to be designed to reduce over-saturating soils above the liner and promote sub-surface water drainage to stormwater facilities. The soils above the liner should vary in depth to replicate a natural landscape with rolling berms, different slopes, and contouring that masks the underlying smooth consistency of the liner. The design team's ability to communicate and work together to create solutions that address the remedy and end-land use collaboratively will be imperative to the success of the project.

DRAFT

MAINTENANCE ACCESS

HEADWALL/ INLET

PRIMARY ORIFICE PLATE

54

55

STONE SLAB SPLASH PAD

1800 W. Koch, Suite 6 Bozeman, Montana 59715 406.586.8364 www.woodardcurran.com

A Woodard & Curran Company

POTENTIAL FUTURE BRIDGE 1 STONE SLAB SPLASH PAD

MAINTENANCE ACCESS

WOODARD

5455

&CURRAN

TREC, Inc.

Engineering & Environmental Management

MO

COMMITMENT & INTEGRITY DRIVE RESULTS

FOREBAY

BYPASS WEIR POTENTIAL FUTURE BRIDGE 2

N TA N A

STACEY T. ROBINSON

D

D

G I S TE RE

5455

IT

LAN

RE

SC

EC T

DRAFT 127

AP E AR CH

FUTURE TRAIL 60

54

55

54

HARDSCAPE ----------

BYPASS CHANNEL

5460

55

54 54

55

54

55

INTERPRETIVE OVERLOOK

5455

MICRO POOL

DISCHARGE WEIR STONE SLAB SPLASH PAD 1670 South 48th Street West Billings,MT 59106

406.655.3550

30% NOT FOR CONSTRUCTION

LS1.0

The image above shows the different storm inundation levels. The red line shows the 90th percentile storm level while the yellow lines depicts the 100 year storm inundation level. Stormwater facilities are designed and models run to identify the various sizes of storm events and their impacts on the surrounding landscape. During times of no storm events, pumps are used to recirculate permanent ponds and wetland channels to help establish and maintain plant health.

POTENTIAL FUTURE BRIDGE 3

VEGETATED SWALE

OUTLET

TERRACED HEADWALL

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN - FOREBAY

design DEvelopment - FOREBAY 73


SOILS CONSIDERATIONS growth beneath the surface

Soil is a living dynamic medium composed of solids, gases, liquids, and living organisms. In a soil system, plant materials break down and decompose and are eaten by microscopic bacteria and fungus in the soil. These in turn are consumed by protozoa and nematodes which are then cycled to insects and worms. These larger organisms make tunnels and voids in the soil, providing open pockets for gases and water for easy plant root uptake. While this overall process is happening, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen cycles are also taking place simultaneously to provide necessary nutrients to the life in and around the soil. In portions on the project area, entire contaminated soil sections will be removed and replaced with an impermeable liner and clean soil. In these areas, the challenge will be to jump start a healthy soil biome and processes and foster an environment where healthy soils can establish and thrive. The soils profile should: • Develop and maintain soils structure and pore space for nutrients, water, and air flow • Support healthy plant growth • Encourage nutrient cycling • Balance the upward pressure from the groundwater on the impermeable liner to prevent liner movement • Prolong the life of the liner by providing a buffer from physical penetration as well as by blocking ultraviolet light • Allow plant material to grow and provide stability on slopes and berms

nutrient availability for plant uptake pH 4.0

4.5

Acidic

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

Alkaline 8.5

Ideal Soil Composition 25% Water

45%

Mineral

25% Air

5%

Organic

Compacted Soils 9.0

9.5

10.0

25% Water

Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Calcium Magnesium Iron Manganese Boron Copper and Zinc Molybdenum

(Right) Proper soil composition provides infiltration rates for healthy vegetation, allows for voids for air and water movement around root systems, and allows for uncompacted growing conditions. This composition becomes even more important when placed on an impermeable liner where water has the potential to create conditions unfavorable to many plants and organisms. (Left) Final soils mixes should take the pH, among other markers, into consideration when analyzing ideal plant growth conditions. Knowing that stormwater entering the site will be high in certain mineral loads, such as zinc and copper, will help determine the implemented soil pH for the soils profile to provide a long-term buffer for plant material.

1%

Organic

Mineral

Poorly Drained Soils 40%

45%

Water

Mineral

Organic 74

Air

69%

5%

5%

10% Air


Be

nef

icia

lM

Remediation Site Amended Soils (Without Liner)

Remediation Site Wetland Soils (On Liner)

Remediation Site Amended Soils (On Liner)

Remediation Site Fill Soil (On Liner)

Ideal Soil

soil amendements

icro

bes

Hu

mu

s/C

om

po

st

Mycorrhizae

Healthy soil can increase water-retention capacity. Organic matter holds 18-20 times its weight in water and recycles nutrients for plant use1. (1) www.nrcs.usda.gov

In an ideal condition, the soil horizon would be comprised of layers that vary in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Pore spaces would allow for water and air movement and water would drain down until finally reaching the groundwater level.

Key Organic Debris (Partially Decomposed) Topsoil

With the implementation of the liner, this connection with groundwater will be intentionally separated to prevent contaminated groundwater from entering the new soils profile. The chart above shows a typical remediated fill soil on the liner with minimal organic material and little horizon development.

Subsoil (Majority Mineral Content)

The stratagies outlined in this master plan look at developing a soil horizon with new soils that mimic a natural system - increased soil organics, stratification of soil layers, and gravels above the liner for drainage.

Field Capacity Potential (Water)

Parent Material (Gravels, Water Movement) Bedrock (Semipermeable) Liner (Impermeable)

Native Soil

75


DEFINING ECOLOGICAL TYPOLOGIES Strategies FOR creating systems within a REGIONAL context

34%

11%

HUMAN LAND USE

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

76

6%

BY

18%

The first step in determining the palette for plant communities STORMWA was to look at regionally appropriate land cover types. Land cover types from within a 10 mile radius formed the basis for developing typologies within the project area that would sustain plant communities and wildlife appropriate for the area.

11% ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE_ UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST

10%

2%

Understanding how native plant communities develop at different elevations and aspects became a driver in determining the final plant palette. During this process, the idea of creating representations of each land cover type on the project area emerged as a way to educate visitors on the larger environment within the region while providing a habitat corridor for animals.

MEDIUM SHELTER

2% ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL< AND VALLEY GRASSLAND

Existing Ecotypes within a 10 mile radius by percentage

MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND

NORTHErN ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND

1% ALPINE-MONTANE WEST MEADOW

1% EMERGENT MARSH

4% OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN


UPLAND ZONES

land cover types

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND

North and East facing aspects. Minimal understory shrubs, predominately grasses and forbs.

Higher elevation. Predominately grasses. Occurs below alpine forests creating a higher transitional zone.

South and West facing aspects. Minimal understory shrubs, predominately grasses and forbs.

Transitional mix between the forested zones and grasslands.

MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND

N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND

ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW

Dominated by Mountain Big Sagebrush on mild slopes.

Between lower riparian zones, grasslands and forests in soils that are continually moist either in basins, swales or slopes.

Along streambanks and in the floodzones of rivers. Periodic flood events are crucial for this system to thrive.

Seasonal marsh with dominant grasses and water loving shrubs.

WETLAND ZONES

basins ZONES

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

EMERGENT MARSH Commonly found near mixed prairie grasslands, shrub steppe and forest systems.

OPEN WATER Areas include: wetland ponds, fishing ponds, streams, channels, and stormwater basins.

In creating representative ecological zones, the project expands its boundaries from a specific locality to one connected region. All image and source data: fieldguide.mt.gov

77


Existing Ecotypes

HUMAN USE SPACE IMPACTED AREA

78

MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND

ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST

EMERGENT MARSH

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND

OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN


Proposed Ecotype Diversification

Diversification not only provides a larger regional approach to organizing the sites but also a risk management strategy for establishment.

After defining the regional ecotypes, the sites were examined to determine the existing ecotypes on the project sites. It became clear that diversification in ecotypes would allow for a more balanced approach, especially in those areas of contamination.

79


VEGETATION CONSIDERATIONS native selection and placement for reclamation

The most adaptable and environmentally responsible choice for plants would be species that are native to the area. Native plants are more suited to local climate conditions and are able to respond and adapt to changes in their environment more quickly than non-native species. Plants listed in the following pages are suitable species for rehabilitation of native habitat and are more specifically pared down to a regional palette that is recommended for the project sites based on zone, exposure, inundation tolerance, dryland tolerance, root depth and commercial availability. The strategy for placing plant material should reflect the ecologic typology planting zones. Within each zone, structural layers (trees) should be laid out first to define the canopy and implement screening areas. Next, shrubs are placed for forest floor or open grassland communities for habitat and secondary definition. Next perennials and grasses provide seasonal themes and can be grouped for impact.

Source Credit: Jim Collins 80

Creating plant communities is of high importance to establish cultures of plants that are complementary of one another. Trees and shrubs should be clustered into ‘fingers’ that establish a canopy and understory that is attractive to multiple wildlife families. Consideration should be made for all times of year – for foragers in the winter, for seasonal migrant birds in the summer, and for small mammals in the fall and winter when the leaves have all left the trees. Once the plants have been installed, establishment maintenance will need to take place to ensure the long-term success of the project sites. It is not as simple as placing new material and letting it grow, consistent and continual monitoring will need to occur to ensure establishment success.

Establishment constraint

DESIGN and maintenance

• Control of weedy species that can easily reestablish in the disturbed soils. These weedy species can be brought to the sites in many different ways and be spread by wind, improperly checked products that contain weed seed, or wildlife carrying.

Continual monitoring and removal of weed species by non-invasive methods.

• Monitoring damage from animal and human interaction with the vegetation as well as weather damage.

Installing wildlife protection for 50% of new trees - allowing for a portion of the trees to acclimate to wildlife damage while providing a level of protection to remaining trees. Monitoring for damage and disease to prevent catastrophic loss while still allowing succession to take place.

• Controlling erosion during storm events and irrigation run off to seeded areas during establishment period.

Installation of control mechanisms to bypass storm events in the first several years of establishment. Installation of irrigation controls for soil and pressure monitoring.

• Watching for signs of over and under watering with the new irrigation system and responding quickly to these influences to correct the detrimental condition.

Especially on areas that will be lined, installation of soil moisture sensors to closely track watering and respond to irrigation as well as natural precipitation. Mulch around bases of shrubs and trees to help retain soil moisture.


vegetation species selection

100' 80' 50' Height of Plants

Vegetation selection on site not only effects the aesthetics of the design, but also the stability of the soils, habitat for wildlife, and biodiversity of the ecosystem.

vegetation heights by species - all sites

3

20' 12' 6

6' 3'

10

4

1

7

4

5

2

3

3

3

3

3

2 3

4 1 This graph depicts the height spread of the various species outlined in this Master Plan. Safety and zoning requirements will influence the use of species between 3 feet and 10 feet near vehicular paths and pedestrian paths. Other influences such as utility lines and residential buffer zones will also drive the decision on placements of tree and shrub species across the landscape.

20

6

18" 12" 6"

1

2 Quantity of Plants

SOIL PH TOLERANCE 10.0

pH Range

7.5

Careful placement of vegetative heights can help with safety, maintenance, and experience. In this example, plants below 3 feet are placed near to the path for safety and maintenance clearance while larger trees and shrubs are placed a distance from the path to still provide shade and aesthetics. Utilizing the height information with topography also changes the experience and the relationship with the ground plane.

5.0

On remediation sites, soils will be imported from clean borrow sites and amended for optimal soil stabilization and planting medium for the conditions. On sites endland-use-only improvements, soils will be tested to determine pH. In both cases, plant species have been categorized by pH to help determine appropriate placement on the project sites.

2.5

0.0

6.6 - 8.4 pH

6.1 - 7.8 pH

5.6 - 7.3 pH

3.5 - 9 pH

pH Range 81


Root depth at maturity - Liner considerations To ensure the integrity of the liner and encourage healthy plants, root zones should be located where they will have minimal interaction with the liner. While it is unlikely for the roots to puncture the liner, the primary concern is the health and establishment of the plant materials on a soil profile that is unsustainable in the long term. As such, the following are recommended planting depths to liner.

Small trees Native grasses and wetland plants Perhaps one of the biggest challenges will be to establish native species on top of the liner. These native species tend to have very deep root structures, sometimes deeper than 6 feet. Proper soil profile will need to be assessed to make sure that these plants can find available nutrients and water within a narrow soil profile.

Where trees are desired within the basin areas and on top of the liner, small trees are encouraged, particularly multi stem varieties. These trees have a shallow root sytem and less mass above ground for instability. These trees should be placed on berms to create greater soil depth to liner.

Large Trees While most roots of large trees are located within the top 18 inches of the soil profile, large trees are discouraged from being planted on top of liner because of stability and tree longevity. In areas where trees, especially phytoremediators, are needed above the liner, berms should be created to allow a greater soil depth. Tap root varieties are discouraged entirely from lined areas.

Shrubs Shrubs, especially small shrubs, are encouraged above the liner, especially in areas with greater than 3’ of soil coverage over liner. These plant materials provide woody structure for erosion control and animal habitat.

Perennials

While most perennials pose little to no risk for interaction with the liner, native perennials tend to have deep root systems that seek water in the arid desert environement. Similar to native grasses, proper soil profiles should be established to provide easily available nutrients and water.

1 2 3 4 5 6 82

Soil depth in feet

0


Phytoremediation Phytoremediation uses plants to clean up contaminated environments. Plants can help clean up many types of contaminants including metals, pesticides, explosives, and oil. However, they work best where contaminant levels are low because high concentrations may limit plant growth and take too long to clean up. Plants also help prevent wind, rain, and groundwater flow from carrying contaminants away from the site to surrounding areas or deeper underground.

PHYTOVOLATILIZATION Through this process, contaminants are taken up through plant root systems and released into the atmosphere through transpira�on in the plant leaves.

Certain plants are able to remove or break down harmful chemicals from the ground when their roots take in water and nutrients from the contaminated soil, sediment, or groundwater.

TOVOLATILIZATION PHY

PH

N

PHYTODEGREDATION

P H YT AT

O

IO

YT

TR

This process, also called phytostabiliza�on, can involve the roots absorbing contaminants, contaminant absorp�on at the root surface, or the plant releasing biochemicals into the soil or groundwater around the roots to sequester contaminants.

HY

ES

DR

QU

AU

Phytoremedia�on is the process of degrading or removing contaminants in the soil and groundwater within the environment. This process cleans up the soil, air and water that contains hazardous contaminants.

OSE

PHYTOSEQUESTRATION

This process takes the contaminants and biotransforms them in the plant �ssues. This can occur in the plant roots, stems or leaves, depending on the type of plant.

LIC S

N ATIO AD GR DE O YT

PHY TO EX TR AC TI O

PHYTOEXTRACTION This process, also known as phytoaccumula�on, is where plants collect contaminants through their root systems and store them in the stem or leaf �ssues. The contaminants are removed from the environment but not degraded.

Certain plants are better at removing contaminants than others. Plants used for phytoremediation must be able to tolerate the types and concentrations of contaminants present. They also must be able to grow and survive in the local climate. Depth of contamination is another factor. Small plants like ferns and grasses have been used where contamination is shallow. Because tree roots grow deeper, trees such as poplars and willows are used for hydraulic control or to clean up deeper soil contamination and contaminated groundwater.

PH

N RHI

ZODEGRADATION

RHIZODEGRADATION This process takes place in the soil and groundwater that surrounds the plant roots. Substances released from the plants ac�vate rhizophere bacteria to promote biodegrada�on of soil contaminants.

PHYTOHYDRAULICS In this process, trees and other plants with deep root systems capture or degrade contaminants that contact their roots in the groundwater.

*Data obtained from EPA & CLU-IN Detailed information regarding phytoremediation can be found at: https://clu-in.org https://www.eps.gov 83


CONTAMINANT treatment Contaminants known to have existed in Butte are shown in the chart below. Many of the plants proposed within the various sites collect and treat the contaminants through one or more types of phytoremediation. CONTAMINANT LEVELS CONTAMINANT

SS-06G* Loading Levels

SS-07* Loading Levels

Aluminum

94 µg/L

Arsenic

Al As Cd Cu Fe Hg Pb Zn

Cadmium Copper Iron

Mercury

Lead Zinc

Normal Flow Compliance

TREATMENT PLANTS

Wet Weather Compliance

(Human Health Standard)

(Acute Aquatic Standard)

22 µg/L

87 µg/L

750 µg/L

Bouteloua curtipendula Sideoats Grama

Agrostis stolonifera Red Top

12 µg/L

10 µg/L

10 µg/L

340 µg/L

Phacelia hastata Silverleaf Phacelia

Typha latifolia Ca�ail

0.46 µg/L

0.36 µg/L

0.097 µg/L

0.52 µg/L

Leymus cinereus Basin Wildrye

Achillea millefolium Yarrow

62 µg/L

52 µg/L

2.85 µg/L

3.6 µg/L

3,136 µg/L

2,349 µg/L

1,000 µg/L

N/A

0.07 µg/L

0.062 µg/L

0.05 µg/L

35 µg/L

22 µg/L

N/A

155 µg/L

132 µg/L

37 µg/L

Deschampsia cespitosa Tu�ed Hairgrass

Juncus balticus Bal�c Rush

Artemisia frigida Boreal Sagewort

1.7 µg/L

Populus deltoides Eastern Co�onwood

Salix amygdaloides Peachleaf Willow

0.374 µg/L

Pascopyrum smithii Western Wheatgrass

Populus tremuloides Quaking Aspen

Penstemon eriantherus Fuzzytongue Penstemon

Pseudoroegneria spicata Bluebunch Wheatgrass

36 µg/L

Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine

µg/L

WHAT DOES µg/L MEAN? µg is the symbol for microgram. µg/L means microgram per liter. This is the equivalent of one ppm (parts per million).

*Two compliance stations, SS-06G and SS-07, are located on Silver Bow Creek within Lower Area One. The data values presented in this chart represent the average 2019 contaminant concentrations measured during wet weather events.

84

Sources: cumulis.epa.gov steviefamulari.net/phytoremediation


bioremediation

The treatment and removal of contaminants within the soil and groundwater on a site is not limited to the plant material through the phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation is part of a more expansive set of biological processes called bioremediation. Bioremediation is the treatment or removal of contaminants through microbial means and organisms, as well as plant material. Shown are three organisms used to treat contamination within the soils and groundwater of polluted sites. These micro-organisms are also part of two different types of bioremediation processes: ex-situ and in-situ bioremediation.

TYPES OF BIOREMEDIATION Bioremedia�on, or the removal of contamina�on within a site, is divided into two types: ex-situ and in-situ. Ex-situ bioremedia�on requires the physical extrac�on of contaminated materials from the site and treatment in another loca�on. In-situ bioremedia�on treats the contaminants at the site itself and does not require extrac�on to another loca�on. EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION: - Compos�ng: Mixing of contaminated waste is mixed with straw, hay or other organic materials to promote biological ac�on to break down contamina�on. - Bioreactors: Vessels where contaminated material is monitored and addressed through mixing, temperature changes, pH adjustments, etc. while organisms break down the contaminant. - Landfarming: Spreading contaminated soil in a lined bed and applying nutrients and mixing the soil to boost biological ac�on. - Biopiling: Contaminated soils are placed into well-aerated piles and given nutrients to speed up organism breakdown of contaminants. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION: - Natural A�enua�on: The natural breakdown of contaminants without human interven�on to promote biological ac�on. - Phytoremedia�on: The use of plant material to treat contamina�on through containing or degrading of contamina�on.

BACTERIA

FUNGI

Bacteria and other microbes take in contaminants and store them within their systems. The contaminants and waste are digested and metabolized, turning them into water and harmless gases. The water and gases are released back into the soil and groundwater around the bacteria.

Organic debris, such as leaves and dead grasses, as well as pollutants in the soil are broken down by fungi at the soil surface and surrounding plant roots. Organic ma�er is released back into the environment and the contaminants are stored within the fungi �ssues.

TERRESTRIAL ISOPODS Terrestrial isopods, also known as roly-poly bugs or pill bugs, collect waste and debris. They then break down the materials to form balls of organic material that are released back into the soil.

Throughout the multiple project sites in Butte, a focus is to be placed on incorporating both bioremediation treatment techniques with organisms, bacteria and fungi, as well as the incorporation of plant materials to treat the contamination and be a means of removing it from the sites. Specific plant materials and treatment practices will be finalized through the development of design specifics and maintenance plans to be implemented for each site.

Source: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 85


PLANT COMMUNITIES PLANT PALETTE DEVELOPMENT WITH ECO TYPOLOGY DESIGNATION

The ecotypes provided the base for establishing plant communities. Plants were then further broken down by type, size, phytoremediation qualities, and by native status. Of this list, over 90% of the selected plants are native to the county of Silver-Bow.

ECOTYPE LEGEND HUMAN USE SPACE IMPACTED AREA ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW EMERGENT MARSH OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN

86


87


ND ND ND ND SLA A LA LA L AS B S D R D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D A D N M T T T AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

HUMAN USE SPACE

MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

IMPACTED AREA

ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND

ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST

EMERGENT MARSH

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND

OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN

ECOTYPE LEGEND

trees

Abies grandis - Grand Fir Acer ginnala - Amur Maple Acer glabrum - Rocky Mountain Maple Acer negundo - Boxelder Maple Acer tataricum - Tartarium Maple Alnus incana - Thinleaf Alder Amelanchier alnifolia - Serviceberry Betula occidentalis - Water Birch Betula papyrifera - Paper Birch Crataegus douglasii - Douglas Hawthorn Juniperus scopulorum - Rocky Mountain Juniper Picea engelmannii - Engelmann Spruce Pinus contorta - Lodgepole Pine Pinus flexilis - Limber Pine Pinus monticola - Western White Pine Pinus ponderosa - Ponderosa Pine Populus angustifolia - Narrowleaf Cottonwood Populus balsamifera - Black Cottonwood Populus deltoides - Eastern Cottonwood Populus tremuloides - Quaking Aspen Picea glauca - White Spruce Pinus albicaulis - Whitebark Pine Prunus americana - American Plum

Photo Credit: Hobbyseeds.com

Prunus pensylvanica - Pin Cherry

88

Prunus virginiana - Chokecherry Pseudotsuga menziesii - Douglas Fir Quercus macrocarpa - Burr Oak Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Thuja plicata - Western Red Cedar Tsuga heterophylla - Western Hemlock


ND D ND ND SLA AN A LA S L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D D TA T N M T AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

shrubs HUMAN USE SPACE IMPACTED AREA

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW EMERGENT MARSH

Photo Credit: Hobbyseeds.com

OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN

ECOTYPE LEGEND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi - Kinnikinnik

Rhus aromatica - Fragrant Sumac

Artemisia cana - Silver Sage

Rhus glabra - Smooth Sumac

Artemisia tridentata ssp. Vaseyana - Mtn. Big Sagebrush

Rhus trilobata - Skunkbush Sumac

Aronia melanocarpa - Black Chokeberry

Ribes cereum - Wax currant

Berberis thunbergii - Japanese Barberry

Ribes ssp. - Currant

Caragana arborescens - Siberian Pea Shrub

Oplopanax horridus - Devils Club

Ceanothus velutinus - Snowbrush Ceanothus

Rhamnus alnifolia - Alder buckthorn

Cercocarpus montanus - Alderleaf Mountain Mahogany

Vaccinium scoparium - Grouse Whortleberry

Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus - Green Rabbitbrush

Rosa rugosa - Rugosa Rose

Cornus sericea - Red-Osier Dogwood

Rosa woodsii - Woods Rose

Dasiphora fruticose - Shrubby Cinquefoil

Rubus parviflorus - Thimbleberry

Diervilla lonicera - Bush Honeysuckle

Salix drummondii - Drummonds Willow

Ericameria nauseosa - Rubber Rabbitbrush

Salix exigua - Sandbar Willow

Ilex verticillata - Winterberry Holly

Salix leuta - Yellow Willow

Juniperus communis - Common Juniper

Salix planifolia - Plane leaf willow

Juniperus horizontalis - Creeping Juniper

Sambucus racemosa - Red Elderberry

Juniperus sabina - Tam Juniper

Sheperdia canadensis - Canadian Buffalo Berry

Lonicera caerulea - Honeyberry

Sorbaria sorbifolia - False Spiraea

Lonicera tatarica - Tatarian Honeysuckle

Spiraea betulifolia - Birch leaf Spriea

Mahonia repens - Creeping Oregon Grape

Spiraea japonica - Japanese Spirea

Parthenocissus quinquefolia - Virginia Creeper

Symphoricarpos ssp. - Snowberry

Paxistima myrsinites - Oregon Boxleaf

Syringa vulgaris - Common Lilac

Physocarpus malvaceus - Common Ninebark

Thuja occidentalis - American arbovitae

Physocarpus opulifolius - Ninebark

Vaccinium membranceum - Mountain Huckleberry

Picea pungens 'Glauca Globosa'

Viburnum dentatum - Arrowood Viburnum

Pinus mugo - Mugo Pine

Viburnum lentago - Nannyberry

Potentilla fruiticosa - Shrubby Cinquefoil

Viburnum trilobum - American Cranberry Bush

ND D ND ND SLA AN A LA S L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D D TA T N M T AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

Prunus pumilia var. besseyii - Sand Cherry Prunus tenella - Russian Almond Prunus tomentosa - Nanking Cherry Prunus triloba - Flowering Almond Prunus virginiana - Chokecherry Purshia tridentata - Antelope bitterbrush

89


D D D AN ND AN AN SSL LA L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D TA T T D N M AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

grasses HUMAN USE SPACE IMPACTED AREA

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE, FOOTHILL, AND VALLEY GRASSLAND MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW

ECOTYPE LEGEND

ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

EMERGENT MARSH

Photo Credit: Hobbyseeds.com

OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN

90

Achnatherum hymedoides - Indian Ricegrass

Elymus elymoides - Bottlebrush Squirreltail

Achnatherum nelsonii - Columbia Needlegrass

Elymus glaucus - Blue Wildrye

Achnatherum occidentale - Western Needlegrass

Elymus lanceolatus - Thickspike Wheatgrass

Achnatherum richardonsii - Richardsons Needlegrass

Elymus trachycaulus - Slender Wheatgrass

Agrostis stolonifera - Red Top

Festuca campestris - Rough Fescue

Andropogon gerardii - Big Bluestem

Festuca glauca - Blue Fescue

Bouteloua curtipendula - Sideoats Grama

Festuca idahoensis - Idaho Fescue

Bouteloua gracilis - Blue Grama

Festuca scabrella - Rough Fescue

Bromus carinatus - Mountain Brome

Festuca subulate - Bearded Fescue

Calamagrostis canadensis - Bluejoint Reedgrass

Juncus balticus - Baltic Rush

Calamagrostis rubescens - Douglas Fir Pinegrass

Juncus tenius - Lesser Poverty Rush

Calamagrostis stricta - Slim Stem Reed Grass

Koeleria macrantha - Prairie Junegrass

Carex aquatilis - Water Sedge

Leucopoa kingie - Spike Fescue

Carex filifolia - Threadleaf Sedge

Leymus cinereus - Basin Wildrye

Carex geyeri - Geyers Sedge

Pascopyrum smithii - Western Wheatgrass

Carex hoodsii - Hoods Sedge

Poa palustris - Fowl Bluegrass

Carex lenticularis - Lakeshore Sedge

Poa secunda - Sandbergs Bluegrass

Carex microptera - Small Winged Sedge

Pseudoroegneria spicata - Bluebunch Wheatgrass

Carex nebrascensis - Nebraska Sedge

Schizachyrium scoparium - Little Bluestem

Carex pellita - Woolly Sedge

Schoenoplectus acutus - Hardstem Bulrush

Carex petasata - Liddon Sedge

Schoenoplectus americanus - Chairmaker's Bulrush

Carex reynoldsii - Reynolds Sedge

Scirpus microcarpus - Red Tinge Bulrush

Carex rossii - Ross Sedge

Scirpus validus - Soft-stemmed Bulrush

Carex stipata - Prickly Sedge

Sorghastum natans - Indiangrass

Carex utriculata - Northwest Territory Sedge

Sporobolus heteroliepis - Prairie Dropseed

Carex vericaria - Inflated Sedge

Typha latifolia - Broadleaf Cattail

Chasmanthium latifolium - Northern Sea Oats Danthonia californica - California Oatgrass Danthonia intermedia - Poverty Oatgrass Danthonia ssp. - Oatgrass Deschampsia - Tufted Hair grass Eleocharis paulstris - Creeping Spikerush Elymus canadensis - Canada Wild Rye

D D D AN ND AN AN SSL LA L BL S A D U S W R D R O A OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D A D N T T T M AN ON RES , AN H S OO D A ET R EST R M FO HILL RUS D WLAN E W H AS O R S E N IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT R M E U L E S RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P O U O PH D SU LO M M AS RI AL EM H NA


perennials

D D D AN ND AN AN SSL LA L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D TA T T D N M AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

D D D AN ND AN AN SSL LA L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D TA T T D N M AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

Achillea millefolium - Yarrow

Doronicum macrophyllum - Heart Leaf Bane

Oenothera caespitosa - Evening Primrose

Agastache urticifolia - Nettleleaf Giant Hyssop

Echinacea angustifolia - Purple Coneflower

Opunita fragilis - Brittle Prickly Pear

Alcea rosea - Hollyhock

Echinops ritro - Globethistle

Opunita polycantha - Missouri Prickly Pear

Amorpha canescens - Leadplant

Equisetum arvense - Field Horsetail

Osmorhiza occidentalis - Western Sweet Cicely

Angelica arguta - Sharptooth Angelica

Erigeron compositus - Cut-leaf Daisy

Oxytropis ssp. - Crazyweed

Antenaria microphylla - Rosy Pussytoes

Erigeron ssp. - Fleabane/Daisy

Papaver niducaule - Iceland Poppy

Antennaria racemose - Pussytoes

Erigonum ssp. - Buckwheat

Penstemon barbatus 'Prairie Dusk' - Beard Tongue

Aquilegia flavescns - Yellow Columbine

Eryngium alpinum 'Blue Star' - Sea Holly

Penstemon confertus - Sulphur penstemon

Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus - Mt. Atlas Daisy

Fragaria virginiana - Wild Strawberry

Penstemon eriantherus - Fuzzytongue Penstemon

Anaphalis margaritacea - Pearly Everlasting

Gaillardia aristate - Indian Blanketflower

Phacelia hastata - Silverleaf Phacelia

Arnica latifolia - Lanceleaf Arnica

Galium boreale - Boreal Bedstraw

Phlox alyssifolia - Alyssum leaf Phlox

Arnica sororia - Prairie Arnica

Gentiana affinis - Prairie Gentian

Phlox hoodsii - Hoods Phlox

Artemisia frigida - Boreal Sagewort

Geranium richarsonii - Richardsons Geranium

Phlox longifolia - Long-leaf Phlox

Artemisia ludoviciana - Western Sagewort

Geranium viscossisimum - Sticky Geranium

Potamogeton gramineus - Variableleaf Pondweed

Asclepias speciosa - Showy Milkweed

Geum macrophyllum - Large-leaved avens

Potamogeton natans - Broadleaf Pondweed

Asclepias syriaca - Swamp Milkweed

Geum triflorum - Prairie Smoke

Potamogeton pectinatus - Sago Pondweed

Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly Milkweed

Helianthus annuus - Common Sunflower

Potentilla glandulosa - Sticky cinquefoil

Aster ssp. - Aster

Hemerocallis - Daylily

Potentilla gracilis - Prairie cinquefoil

Astragalus canadensis - Canada Milkvetch

Heracleum maximum - Common Cow Parsnip

Potentilla palustris - Marsh Cinquefoil

Balsamorhisa sagittate - Arrowleaf Baslam Root

Heuchera parviflora - Prairie Alumroot

Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata - Common Selfheal

Baptistia australis - False Indigo

Iris missouriensis - Rocky Mountain Iris

Pulstilla patens - Prairie Crocus

Bidens frondosa - Devil's Beggarticks

Liatris punctate - Gayfeather

Ranunculus flammula - Greater Creeping Spearwort

Campanula carpatica - Bell Flower

Linnaea borealis - Twinflower

Rudbeckia hirta - Black Eyed Susan

Castilleja ssp. - Inidan Paintbrush

Linum lewisii - Blue flax

Rumex salicifolius - Willow Dock

Centaurea montana - Mountain Coneflower

Lithospermum ruderale - Stoneseed

Saponaria ocymoides - Rock Soapwort

Cerastium tomentosum - Snow in Summer

Lomatium triternatum - Nineleaf Biscuitroot

Sagittaria latifolia - Broadleaf Arrowhead

Chamerion angustifolium - Fireweed

Lupins argenteus - Silver Lupine

Solidago canadensis - Canada Goldenrod

Cleome serrulata - Rocky Mountain Beeplant

Lupinus sericeus - Silky Lupine

Solidago missourisensis - Missouri Goldenrod

Clintonia uniflora - Queen Cup Beadily

Lychnis coronaria - Rose Campion

Streptopus amplexicaulus - Clasping Leaf Twisted Stalk

Coreopsis tinctoria - Tickseed

Maianthemum stellatum - Starry Solomons Seal

Thalictrum occidentale - Western Meadow Rue

Dianthus deltoides - Pinks

Mentha arvensis - Field Mint

Valeriana occidentalis - Western Valerian

Digitalis lanata - Foxglove

Mimulus guttatus - Seep monkeyflower

Xerophyllum tenax - Beargrass

Delphinium bicolor - Little Larkspur

Nepeta x faassenii - Catmint

Yucca glauca - Soapweed Yucca

D D D AN ND AN AN SSL LA L L B S D RA D RU OW AS OO G GR PPE LAND SH EAD W NE E D D TA T T D N M AN N ES , AN H S OO A T ST MO FOR ILL US D W AND WEH S R E O R R E H R N L E S A IAT FO PE IN OT EB A OD AN AR RE ED FIR E-UP LE P , FO SAG EST WO ONT T M SE A ANT M S E E R U L RE LA PIN EPO AN N FO AN -M EN N P TO UG BAL DG NT NTAPEN ARI PINE ERG MA TIVE Y O P PH DO SU LO M MO AS RI AL EM HU NA

91


Tree Size at Implementation *Assuming a 15% Mortality Rate between installation and 50 years.

Installation Model assumes planting seven trees of varying species: Black Hawthorn, Hackberry, American Plum, Quaking Aspen, Bur Oak, Plains Cottonwood, and Chokecherry.

20 Year Growth Over 20 years, the variable sized caliper trees have intercepted an estimated 30,916 gallons more stormwater than their consistent caliper counterparts.

50 Year Growth 69,920 gallons more stormwater have been estimated to be intercepted by the variable caliper group.

Stormwater Intercepted: 1,801 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 79 Lbs Stormwater Intercepted: 289,631 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 9,278 Lbs Stormwater Intercepted: 67,914 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 2,689 Lbs

Variable Caliper at Install (1.5"-6" Caliper)

Stormwater Intercepted: 464 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 42 Lbs

Consistent Caliper at Install (2" Caliper) 92

Stormwater Intercepted: 36,998 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 2,002 Lbs

Stormwater Intercepted: 220,011 Gallons Carbon Sequestered: 8,333 Lbs

*Information compiled using iTreetools.org


Implementation oVER TIME - succession planting 0 YEARS

10 YEARS

30 YEARS

50+ YEARS

PROVIDE BIRD AND BAT HOUSES UTILIZE DEAD MATERIAL FOR HABITAT

RECYCLE DEAD SMALL CALIPER TREES AS MULCH

50% TREE WILDLIFE PROTECTION

CONTINUAL MONITORING FOR DAMAGE/ DISEASE RETAIN SNAGS WHEN SAFE TO DO SO

ALLOW SEEDLINGS AND SUCKERS IN NON HUMAN AREAS

INTEGRATE DECOMPOSING WOODY MATERIAL

CULTIVATE SUCCESSION

Fewer Species - Less Diversity

More Species - Increased Diversity Predation, Competition, Environmental Factors

Nature Modified INPUT

Colonization

Pioneers

Herbaceous Plants

Shrubs

Climax

Increased Ecological Integrity human modification Establishment

Dispersal

Species Assembly

Ecosystem Development

Survivors

93


IRRIGATION SUPPLEMENTING WATER ON SITE

Irrigation Before and After a storm event In a typical project, an irrigation system is designed and installed as a standard component of a managed landscape filled with plant materials that need to be supplemented with water in addition to natural precipitation in order to survive and fulfill the design intent. As such, the irrigation system plays a major role in the success or failure of the establishment and longevity of installed plant materials. In this project, the design is developing and replicating a natural system; so why is an irrigation system needed?

Upland Zone: Irrigated based on evapotranspiration (ET) rates and on site weather data. Basin Zone: Irrigated based on ET rates and on site weather data along with Soil Moisture Sensors to prevent irrigating during time of inundation. Wetland Zone: Irrigated based on Soil Moisture Sensors.

There are several reasons informing the selection of an irrigation system, the primary reason being an assurance for unknown changes in the weather. The Butte area receives about 13 inches of precipitation annually, the majority of which falls during the growing season. However, much of this project is being constructed over an impermeable liner system, intended to prevent infiltration of stormwater to the underlying aquifer while also preventing upward migration of contaminated groundwater to clean, imported soils. Because of this, the system will function as a closed circuit. Costs associated with the scale and complexity of the project drive the need to provide measures of thoughtful design and research against failure. The guiding principles of the site and irrigation system design include using proven commercial technologies for ease of installation, management and replacement. While all design is site specific, it is the careful and thoughtful application of the technologies in conjunction with horticultural best management practices and the use of native plant materials that allow the design to function at its highest potential.

Irrigation During a Storm Event

Upland Zone: Irrigated based on ET rates and on site weather data. Basin Zone: Irrigated based on ET rates and on site weather data along with Soil Moisture Sensors to prevent irrigating during time of inundation. Wetland Zone: Irrigated based on Soil Moisture Sensors. 94


Drip irrigation will need to be run to all tree and shrubs for establishment. In areas of upland seed mixes, native seeds have been selected to allow plant establishment without the use of irrigation.

95


HABITAT STRATEGY

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Bull Trout

Brook Trout

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LES EPTI

er

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Yl

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N. ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOWER MONTANE RIPARIAN WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND

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Elk

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ASPEN FOREST AND WOODLAND

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MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

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ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUBALPINE-UPPER MONTANE GRASSLAND ROCKY MOUNTAIN LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST

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ROCKY MOUNTAIN MONTANE DOUGLAS FIR FOREST AND WOODLAND

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us

M

HUMAN USE AREAS

WY Ground Squirrel

Providing passive and active recreation for the human community is of high priority. The open space is home to numerous plants, animals, birds, insects, and reptiles that will be displaced during the remediation. Once the land has been remediated and the end-land use is constructed and in place, how do the inhabitants of the past landscape become incentivized to call this new place ‘home’? Within the center of the City, this project is an opportunity to provide refuge as well as education pertaining to animals within a reconstructed, natural environment.

Am. C row Am. R obin Bald Eagle Bar n Sw Blk allo -bi lled w Bl

SPECIES ANALYSIS FOR HABITAT generation

ALPINE-MONTANE WET MEADOW EMERGENT MARSH OPEN WATER AND RIPARIAN An analysis was completed on the existing mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fish and their ideal habitat conditions for return to the completed sites. Using this chart, species of concern were identified and their habitats situated so that they would optimize their ideal habitat location requirements. 96

Source: mtnhp.org


designing FOR pollinators  Bats

Bees

Beetles

Birds

Butterflies

Flies

Moths

Wind

Dull white, green or purple

Bright white, yellow, bule, UV

Dull white or green

Scarlet, orange or white

Bright, red and purple

Pale and dull to dark brown or purple

Pall and dull red, purple, pink or white

Petals absent or reduced

Absent

Present

Absent

Absent

Present

Absent

Absent

Absent

Strong musty

Fresh, mild, Pleasant

None to strongly fruity

None

Faint but fresh

Putrid

Strong sweet, emitted at night

None

Nectar

Abundant

Usually present

Sometimes present

Ample, deeply hidden

Ample, deeply hidden

Usually absent

Ample, deeply hidden

None

Pollen

Ample

Limited, sticky, scented

Ample

Modest

Limited

Modest in amount

Limited

Abundant, small, smooth, not sticky

Regular bowl shaped

Shallow, tubular, landing platform

Large, bowl-like

Large funnel, cupped, strong perch

Narrow tube, wide landing pad

Shallow, funnel like or complex

Regular; tubular without a lip

Small, stigmas exerted

Bloom Times - all sites

WETLAND ZONES

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*Bloom charts compiled using ThePlantium.com.

g

g

UPLAND ZONES

g

BASIN ZONES

Sp

(Right) A preliminary bloom analysis was conducted to analyze and coordinate bloom colors and timing with a concept vegetation planting across the sites. By using this information, the design aims to sequence the blooms of different species, especially those of native perennials, to ensure food availability for pollinators as well as maintain a visual interest across the sites at all times of year. It is recommended that the final planting plan utilize this same strategy for the benefit of pollinators .

bloom color

rin

(Top) This chart outlines flowers and flowering plants that are prefered by different pollinator groups. This chart can be used to inform design decisions based on preferential areas. For example, near playgrounds, bees might be less desired while butterflies may be more prefered. Following this chart, it shows that butterflies prefer bright red and purple flowers while bees prefer bright white, yellow, blue or UV.

Sp

Flower Shape

Mi d

Odor

rly

 

Nectar Guides

Ea

Color

97


DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS for habitat

ideal shelter (general)

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

BATS

• Utilizes tree cavities, snags, loose bark, bat houses, buildings, caves, and rock fissures.

Create and enhance features that attract nocturnal flying insects. Retain standing and fallen dead wood. Incorporate bat houses away from human areas where no mature trees exist.

CARNIVORES

• Wide territories, vary depending on food availability. Largely avoid humans.

Due to potential encounters with human spaces, utilize the corridors as pass-thru spaces only, limiting potential for conflict.

HOofED MAMMALS

• Wide territories. Generalized shelter as open canopy areas or along edges. Some shrubs preferred.

Utilize the corridors as largely pass-thru spaces. Establish open grassy areas with shrub cover for young as they travel.

RABBITS/RODENTS

• Uses hollow logs, burrows, abandoned shelters of other animals. Need abundant cover.

SMALL BIRDS

• Varied shelter locations. Nesting in crooks of trees, thickets, along wetland edges, cavities and more. General requirement is plentiful food source and safety from predators. • Perching area such as large trees, snags, poles for viewing prey. Nests of branches and twigs.

Retain downed logs for habitat. Create shrub cover areas adjacent to open canopy area. Retain abandoned burrowed unless they fall within human use areas or otherwise become a nuisance. Build tree communities for well defined canopy cover near water areas. Allow wetland plantings to grow to mature sizes to provide cover and food sources.

LARGE BIRDS

Retain fallen branches and twigs so long as they do not pose a safety issue.

AMPHIBIANS/REPTILES

• Shallow water and soft bottoms, logs and rocks for basking. Wetland vegetation areas for hiding.

Shallow water and soft bottoms, logs and rocks for basking. Wetland vegetation areas for hiding.

FISH

• Cold, clear pooling waters with vegetation coverage and clean gravel substrates.

Line areas of permanent pools with gravel to facilitate habitat. Encourage water circulation and maintain fishing pond at a depth that allows for cold water mixing and over-wintering of fish.

pollinator insects

• Uses fallen logs, debris, sandy soils, bank sites, pithy stems, under boards, dead wood, bare ground, under leaf litter.

Establish un-mown areas and don't over tidy dead or downed plant material and leaf litter. Plant wide varieties of plants to encourage diversity of insects. Leave some weeds for food for pollinators.

Water

Shelter Food

98


Avoid human areas near sensitive nesting areas

downed logs

dry grasses and twigs bird and Bat Houses

Basin

Inund

ation Zo

nes

99


OPEN WATER integrated SYSTEMS

Throughout the planning of the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area, water has always been an integral part of the conversation. Whether it is in conjunction with the contamination of the water, stormwater management, or the restoration of riparian environments, the story wouldn’t be complete without showing the water and the different forms that it takes – wetlands, creeks, ponds, and stormwater basins. Educational and telling the story of the sites must be translated from the Master Plan, into design, and continually transformed after implementation is complete.

Conceptual Rendering of implemented wetlands Boardwalks over water and wetland areas for unique wildlife viewing experience. Identify low impact construction techniques to minimize wetland disturbance

Berming and planting to screen residential areas

Photo Credit: TREC

Educational Overlook

Cross section of lexington wetlands

100

Existing Condition


Edge treatment of ponds

Planting Zone Similar to the safety zone, this area provides a buffer to the water as well as provides a shelf for wetland vegetation to grow along the pond edges with a liner below them

Boulder Zone To break up the planting and safety zones and provide a natural appearance, boulder zones will provide the look of a stone outcropping Source Credit: Land Design, Inc.

Safety Zone Areas near pedestrian facilities that need an extra level of protection against user potentially coming into contact with the edge

Preservation and enhancement of existing wetlands provides educational opportunities immediately that can make connections to the constructed wetlands and show the various stages of wetland development. 5-year storm event, recirculation pumps off 10-year storm event, recirculation pumps off

2-year storm event, recirculation pumps off Normal operating level, recirculation pumps on

Lined Ponds In areas where permanent wet ponds are designed, pond liner will be put in place to define the pond bottom and sides and contain water. The liner will be fish friendly to encourage a livable habitat for aquatic life.

water levels during storm events in permanent pools 101


CIRCULATION SYSTEM MOVING IN AND AROUND THE SITES

Sidewalks and Trails

The trail and sidewalk network should establish a consistent look and feel across all sites while taking into consideration basic safety for various transportation activity that may occur on them (pedestrian, bicycle, scooter, wheelchair, etc). Depending on the level of anticipated activity and the need for accessibility, the materials for the trails and sidewalks may range from gravel, asphalt, or concrete. Comments from the community convey a desire to have trails that offer opportunity for wildlife viewing as a first priority, as so, the layout of the circulation must reflect this programming. • Trail and Sidewalk Width • Taking into consideration the different uses that may occur on the site as well as winter maintenance and snow removal, hardscaped sidewalks should allow for bicycles, pedestrians, and ADA movements that are comfortable in passing but not over designed to increase the amount of impermeable surface when it may not be warranted. • • Clearance Height • Shade is desirable along trails and sidewalks and with it comes the forethought into design to keep branches and overhangs out of user interference. There should always be a safe level of clearance above all trails and sidewalks and branches should be pruned in a way that facilitates a safe line of sight for pedestrians while still maintaining a natural appearance. In the design, snow load should also be taken into consideration during winter months to ensure that no branches bow into the trail and create an overhead clearance conflict that will lead to maintenance issues and potential removal of plant material. • • Clearance Width • Similarly, with the clearance height, the clearance width should be designed so that it allows users a safe and easily navigable experience. Shrubs should be located a distance from the trail edge on both sides of the sidewalk or trail and seed mixes kept short on either side to provide a shoulder and visibility to the sides of the pedestrian facility without the need for heavy maintenance. A level of transparency should exist along the sidewalks and trails for security and to allow for views across the sites from different perspectives while still providing a sense of enclosure and serenity. Trees and shrubs should be designed to reduce damage to the trail/sidewalks caused by root upheave from planting too close. 102

• Slopes • The community workshops pointed to a park system that is reliant on the contact with the natural environment to shape the user experience. As such, the trails and sidewalks are no exclusion and should not be a means to get from one point to another, but should facilitate a connection from the user to their surroundings. Through careful design, slopes can be utilized to take the user above, and at grade with the landscape and provide perspectives that normally wouldn’t be achieved. For instance, by contouring the hardscape along the elevation of a berm, one does not see the ground from a standing position looking down, but rather sees it at the level of their eyes and can see the insects, plant life, and ground plane from a new perspective. This allows for a tangible connection with nature that may otherwise not be catalyzed upon. •

Source Credit: Jim Collins

Specialty Plazas and Gathering Areas

Across all sites, areas should be carefully designed for thoughtful community gathering areas, intimate trail nodes, and prominent entry spaces. In these plazas and gathering areas, a higher level of detail should be taken into consideration as a user will experience it from a stationary position rather than one walking or bicycling. The details should be designed to foster a desire in the users to stop and gather, rather than only allow the opportunity for these activities to take place. An example of this would be a bench. Stationary benches may allow for the opportunity for someone to sit and take in their surroundings, but often they are placed only as a means for rest. When clustered together, they may allow for conversation and gathering but do they facilitate the conversation and expedite the human connection to each other and to nature? What if that bench could do more than simply provide a horizontal surface within the environment?


Photo Credit: TREC

Boardwalks

Boardwalks provide users the ability to experience views and wildlife on the sites that traditional sidewalks and trails would not be able to offer. Boardwalks must weave in and out of wetland plantings, over open water, and allow connections between dryland trails that only animals would have otherwise been able to make. These boardwalks should allow users of all ages to interact with nature – to see frogs hopping into the water, to feel the stalks of the wetland plants, and to experience bird watching from an upclose vantage point while respecting sensitive habitat areas. They should invite curiosity and pull a person off of the ‘beaten path’ to be encouraged to continue searching for what is up ahead in their surroundings.

boardwalks over wetlands Permeable Pavers Low traffic areas in parking lots and potentially large pedestrian gathering spaces should utilize permeable pavers to reduce the amount of impermeable paved areas.

Decomposed Granite or Crushed Gravel

Secondary trails should provide connections and pathways for meandering off of the primary trails and be composed of a soft surface. Gravel or decomposed granite should be used on these trails for cost effectiveness and longevity dependant on availability at the time of construction.

Asphalt

High traffic areas in parking lots should be completed in asphalt at the recommended profile of the Geotechnical Report. Water should sheet flow off of these hardscapes and be collected in adjacent bioretention swales.

Concrete Pedestrian gathering spaces and walkways directly adjacent to playground and parking lots should be concrete. To provide slip protection in the winter, the finish should be textured.

Playground Surface and Fall Protection Locally sourced playground mulch should be organic and tested for safe fall compliance and ADA accessibility. Engineered wood fiber should be used for both accessibility and cost effectiveness.

Source Credit: Jim Collins

103


Parking Lots and Access Roads

In the overall narrative of the sites, stormwater collection is a major element and a primary function of the landscape. As no exception, the parking lots should be designed to convey the stormwater with the least amount of underground infrastructure and mechanical means as possible and bring the stormwater to the surface to tell its story. Low impact design principles should be executed in parking lot design and should look to incorporate features such as pervious paving, bioretention, and vegetative swales. • • Vegetated Swales • Parking lots should be designed so that surface water is directed into vegetation rather than conveyed through mechanical means and in-ground infrastructure. The vegetated swales should be composed of plants that require little to no mowing and can establish with little to no supplemental irrigation. Shade Trees are recommended to be planted along the side slope of the swale to capitalize on the water collecting in the swale as well as provide shade to the parking areas. These trees should be planted so their trunks are kept from the edge of the parking lot to reduce the likelihood of trunk damage by vehicular traffic.

Sidewalks and hard surface trails

soft surface trails 104

• • Parking Lot Vegetation • Turf grass is discouraged in and around the parking lots to alleviate the irrigation and maintenanceheavy vegetation from growing in an area where it cannot be used for recreation nor easily cared for. Native seed mixes should instead be implemented and mowed periodically alongside the pavement edges for vehicle overhang as well as visibility in and around cars in the parking lot. • • Access Roads • Maintenance and access for large vehicles will be important to ensure long term function and upkeep of the various components within the design. Access roads should be incorporated into sidewalks and trails whenever possible, allowing for dual purpose of the hardscape. Where no pedestrian facilities are planned or where the safety of the pedestrian would be a concern, access roads are to be disguised within the landscape. The road should be indistinguishable from the surrounding landscape and only be defined by boulders or other landscape materials placed intermittently at its edges to help delineate the drivable surface.


Drive Isles Two directional traffic, asphalt pavement

Parking Stalls Perpendicular stalls that are paved with either asphalt or permeable pavers, depending on cost effectiveness and appropriate placement

Bioretention Swale Stormwater flows to open swales to capture, treat and infiltrate stormwater runoff and eventual consumption by plants or transport to the stormwater basins

Parking Stalls Pin down curb or curb cuts allow stormwater flow to penetrate the curbline and flow freely to vegetative swales

Drive Isles Slopes of impervious areas are to be directed toward bioretention areas

bioretention parking lot design

105


WAYFINDING SIGNAGE AND TELLING THE STORY

With the implementation of the wayfinding and educational signs within the site, the design should create continuity between the existing heritage tourism trails in Uptown Butte. Heritage tourism trails are outlined in a 2012 plan created by Heritage Strategies and Walden Mills Group entitled ‘Building Montana’s Copperway: An action plan for Heritage Tourism’ as well as in previous plans created by the citizens of Butte. The action plans within this document focuses on three goals: heritage tourism, interpretation, and community revitalization. All three of these goals are recommended to be recognized in the Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area Master Plan to provide continuity with existing trails and newly incorporated trails. The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area will provide a place for historical education along the trail systems and in the main gathering areas.

Entry and Identification signs

Signs are recommended to: • • • • •

Create a distinct identity while respecting the larger trail networks Provide organization cues and establish hierarchy for navigation Speak to the historical and remedy context Promote connection to place through education and curiosity Provide artistic elements or have art value

Signage should also maintain the goals and concepts outlined in the Regional Historic Preservation Plan for Butte. Signs of all types on the sites should provide continuity with these existing concepts that are woven into the greater trail network of Butte. The concepts of the Regional Historic Preservation Plan are:

• • • • •

The Richest Hill on Earth Smelting the Ore Pre-History and Early Settlement Gold and Silver Reclamation and Ongoing Activities

educational and interpretive signs

"The signage should be able to tell the story of the site even when there is no one there to tell it"

-Internal design charrette comment

106

wayfinding signs


design criteria

As the first and last impression of the park, these signs announce and differentiate the various sites. They should be able to communicate a sneak peek of what can be found within each site while maintaining continuity between all of the sites.

These signs are an opportunity to do something more than simply put writing on a plaque. They should be able to be understood and utilized by people of all ages and without reading and language being a necessity to understand its reasoning.

Wayfinding should be done in a way that creates a language of its own – possibly through symbolism. While written words can supplement wayfinding, they pose their own challenges with font consistency, readability longevity, and legibility from different distances. Ideally, a child should be able to interpret the signage and form memories that are easily describable and understandable rather than having to recall a given name. An example of this would be using a bee symbol on all the signs of a particular trail and a leaf on another trail. It is easily understood that the user can follow the bee trail but it may be less easily recallable to go to John Smith trail. The former of these relies on visual memory while the later requires a reading comprehension to form the memory.

recommendations

CONCEPTUAL IMPLEMENTATION

• Built using materials outlined in this chapter that fit in with surroundings • Welcome and orient visitors to site • Provide safe access and visibility from roadway and/or primary pathways

Present overall landscape context Depict programming and special features within the site Highlight historical context of features within the site Can direct visitor to uses outside of the immediate site Placed in main parking and gathering areas as well as key points along trails • Built using materials and similar theme to Entry and Identification Signage • • • • •

• • • •

Identify and depict trails, directional use and placemaking Placed along primary and secondary trails in sites Simplified graphics for trail use Built using similar theme to other signage types

107


DEVELOPING A LANGUAGE CREATING A HIERARCHY OF WAYFINDING with inclusive legibility

Site Name

Site Color

Color Blind Study

LEXINGTON WETLANDS DIGGINGS EAST NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

108

Blue Weak - Tritanomaly

Red Weak - Protanomaly

Blue Blind - Tritanopia

Green Blind - Deuteranopia

LOWER AREA ONE

Red Blind - Protanopia

BLACKTAIL CREEK

Greyscale - Achromatopsia

GROVE GULCH

Green Weak - Deuteranomaly

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

Blue Cone Monochromacy - Achromatomaly

BUFFALO GULCH

Source Credit: Jim Collins

Colors for the sites were selected to have the highest degree of contrast for several color blindnesses. The colors will be used predominately to communicate for non-English speaking users, users with cognitive disabilities, and children.


inclusive signage

Wayfinding shouldn't stop at the boundaries of the sites. In this example, technology is used to be able to relate to other historic and landmark significant elements that are all around Butte. From within the sites, users could look around and 'scan' the horizon for other point of interest - helping to link the significance and vastness of the region.

A variety of signage styles will be incorporated across all the sites, from trail markers to entry signs to informative plaques. Just as colors have been selected to provide enough contrast to be recognized by everyone, signage will need to be accessible for all visitors. The graphic below shows the range of sign placement heights to address visibility from multiple heights and mobility levels. This information is especially crucial in informative plaques and general site signage. Also shown are ranges for interactive signage heights as well as heights for interactive elements based on the user, such as children versus adults.

Butte's lower west side to be lit with low-energy, high efficiency red LED light strings. Leading up to that watershed event, Montana Tech students studied and measured the structure and tested different lighting configurations. Lighting the Travona was made possible by the contributions of benefactors Jon Sesso and

TRAVONA MINE

Barb Kornet who donated the funds to purchase the lights (to be lit in honor of their parents) and took the all-important first steps to ensure the project's success

the larger context For eye-level viewing, signage should be placed between 3’-5’ above the ground.

Interactive signage should be placed at both eye-level and within reach of the user.

Where a sign can be blocked by large crowds, snow, etc., place the sign at least 61/2‘ above the ground.

Adult-size tactile signage should be located within 3 3/4’-5 3/4’ above the ground. Child-size tactile signage should be located within 2 1/2‘ -4’ above the ground.

Comfortable Viewing Distance : 6’-0”

20°

30°

In 2003, the Travona on was the first headframe

2’ 3’-9” - 5’-9”

3’

5’-0”

2’-6” - 4’-0”

3’-0”

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PROJECT PROGRAMMING

Source Credit: Atlantic Richfield Co.

4


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Bringing it All ToGETHER

Circulation, Wayfinding and Site Amenities

Canopy Cover

Wetland Vegetation

Basin Vegetation

More than a remediation and restoration project, this coordinated effort has the potential to become a model for transforming degraded waterways and land into a thriving, sustainable catalyst for revitalization within communities. It stands as a chance to elevate the image of the community and provide fresh, replicable solutions to rehabilitation of mining sites. The system as a whole will need to provide functional purposes while allowing the community to drive the site amenities and shape the end-land use with respect to the remedy. To illustrate the complexity of the various layers of the system, this graphic breaks down the site into its levels and how they fit together in context of the entire site. Following this break down, the layers will be further deconstructed to narrate the intent and function of each piece. It is from here we can begin to reconstruct the site.

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Upland Vegetation

Surface Water

Contamination Removal and Liner Existing Sites


SI LV ER

BO W

CR

EE K

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS

BUFFALO GULCH

MONTANA ST

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

W KA .

E AV

DIGGINGS EAST INTERSTATE 90

CAN A SUPERFUND SITE BE SUSTAINABLE? OR EVEN RESILIENT?

As guidelines, the design team hopes to use the core principles of environmental design and sustainability to outline a basis of design. This includes researching options such as solar power, sustainable hardwoods, and water efficiency. Restoration of these sites hopes to be regenerative in social, economic, and environmental aspects.

BLA CK

TAI L

BLACKTAIL CREEK

CR

EEK

GROVE GULCH

LEXINGTON WETLANDS

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This view looking from the southeast corner of Diggings East toward the northwest of the sites shows the impact of the green conservation corridor within the City. The nearest existing neighborhood park space is over a mile away.

LOWER AREA ONE

BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS

BUFFALO GULCH

NORTHSIDE TAILINGS DIGGINGS EAST

BLACKTAIL CREEK

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                 

          

                 

                 

           

          

Comments by members of the public are taken into consideration during the programming and design phases.

               

                

                    

                     

                                             115


NORTHSIDE TAILINGS A PLACE FOR montana outdoor recreation

Northside Tailings will feature the deepest and only separately lined pond utilized for fishing. The pond is designed to be stocked by Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks with various fish species and surrounded by overlooks, docks, and crossings for accessible fishing for all ages and abilities. Trails link existing and future pathways. Together with bicycle racks, playgrounds, and benches, these trail connections encourage outdoor physical activity for a variety of user groups. The hope is for this site to enable all citizens and visitors the ability to participate equally and fully enjoy the features and amenities it has to offer.

Acres: 21 Acres Trails: 1.42 Miles Features: Fishing Pond, Docks, Stormwater Forebay, Parking Lot, Picnic Shelter, Playground, Trail Network, Layered Habitat

Source Credit: Jim Collins

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PLAYGROUND

PARKING LOT

SLEDDING HILL

TRAILS

GREAT LAWN

FISHING POND

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FOREBAY PLAYGROUND

PAVED TRAIL WATERFOWL ISLAND

SOFTSURFACE TRAIL TURF SHADE STRUCTURE

FISHING POND

playground, FISHING POND AND forebay feature

118

Source Credit: Jim Collins


Because of the cold climate in Butte, use during all times of year will be assessed to ensure four season park use as well as habitat areas that function throughout the year. This rendering (top right) looks at a potential waterfowl island to separate sensitive nesting bird species from recreation activities. The fishing pond at Northside Tailings will be a focal point to the site. With numerous fishing access points of all accessibilities, the pond will provide a recreational opportunity unique to the project for year-round enjoyment. The centerpiece to the site is the playground featuring natural climbing elements as well as constructed play equipment for a range of play opportunites. The renderings show examples of the types of play equipment that could be implemented.

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DIGGINGS EAST

A PLACE FOR COMMUNITY GATHERINGS AND EVENTS

At the heart of the entire project is Diggings East. This central park offers something for everyone - playgrounds, picnic areas, quiet spaces, vendor areas, and more. The opportunity for large community events such as outdoor concerts in the grass or farmers markets on the plaza will be considered and designs anticipated for spaces that accommodate a wide variety of events. Amenities will not only include multi-sensory aesthetics but take into consideration site assessments to provide wind blocks, sound buffers, and filtered shade throughout the year.

Acres: Trails: Boardwalks: Features:

WETLAND PONDS

PAVED TRAILS

35 Acres 2.16 Miles .25 Miles Community Events Plaza, Multiple Shelters, Trails, Parking Lot, Playgrounds, Boardwalks, Water Features, Wetland Habitat, Connection to Residential Neighborhoods

PERFORMANCE SPACE TURF

PLAZA

PARKING LOT SOFTSURFACE TRAILS

PLAYGROUND

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TURF SHADE STRUCTURE PLAZA

PERFORMANCE SPACE

BOARDWALK

TODDLER PLAY RESTROOMS

WATER FEATURE

PAVED TRAILS

SITTING AREA

ENTRY SIGN

SHADE STRUCTURE PLAYGROUND

TURNAROUND LOOP SOFTSURFACE TRAILS

Community Events Plaza Area 121


A large gathering area and plaza space provides opportunities for food trucks, festivals, fairs, and more. A nearby playground offers a chance for children to play in close proximity and a multipurpose shelter offers year round use. With a multitude of spaces within the plaza, and the site, Diggings East can accommodate groups ranging from large public events to small family outings to enjoy the great outdoors.

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The features at Diggings East are focused on bridging the divide between nature and the built landscape. A water feature and various planting areas weave through the plaza area, blending with the hardscape elements to provide different spaces in which to enjoy the surrounding nature and human activity happening all around. The boardwalks on all sites provide the opportunity to interact with nature in a way that was previously unattainable. Wetland vegetation will grow close to the surface of the walk and allow users a chance to experience the wetlands from within. The site changes throughout the year as well. For example, the amphitheater is located within the wetland basin area and may be partially submerged when water levels are higher. This creates an adapting site that responds not only to human influence but natural events as well.

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BUFFALO GULCH A PLACE FOR HABITAT AND OBSERVATION

PERIMETER PLANTINGS BOARDWALK Acres: Trails: Boardwalks: Features:

14 Acres .29 Miles .2 Miles Habitat, Stormwater Basin, Boardwalks, Parking Lot, Pedestrian Bridges, Water Features, Connection to Commercial Areas

RAILROAD TRACKS

STORMWATER BASINS

PARKING LOT

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This quiet nature park utilizes recirculated water features at either end with potential for reuse of stormwater to sustain the wetland habitats as well as extensive boardwalk networks for a direct connection to nature. Restored native plant communities will help encourage healthy habitat environments and encourage wildlife shelter and food.

PAVED TRAIL

OBSERVATION AREA


Source Credit: Jim Collins

Water from the forebay of Buffalo Gulch flows under the existing railroad tracks and into the first pond. The water enters the stormwater basin through a structure with orifices that are designed to control flows into the basin. Boardwalks cross the basin over wetland areas as well as over the open water. Because of the necessity for stormwater treatment, forebay designs will continue to be investigated to provide a functional basin, without sacrificing habitat, aesthetics, and usable space. This rendering shows stepped walls with wetland plantings along the edges as well as a hidden maintenance access tucked behind a curvilinear wall.

The boardwalk will be a prominent feature of Buffalo Gulch and encourage a strong connection to the natural environment. The materials of this boardwalk are to be designed for sustainability where possible and the boardwalk should be adaptable and maintainable as the sites change over the years. As wildlife comes and goes, sensitive nesting and breeding areas should be avoided or incrementally closed during times of heightened sensitivity to respect the needs of the natural ecosystem restoration.

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BLACKTAIL CREEK A PLACE FOR connected green networks

PAVED TRAIL BLACKTAIL CREEK Acres: Trails: Boardwalks: Features:

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16 Acres .31 Miles .2 Miles Trails, Wetland Habitat, Connection to Existing Trail System, Boardwalks

POND BOARDWALK SOFTSURFACE TRAIL


"This is going to put us on the map with Bozeman and Missoula. We're Butte, and we can still be beautiful." -Citizen comment, public meeting

Source Credit: Jim Collins

Blacktail Creek is one of the few existing trail networks on site. This corridor provides an important physical connection to all sites as well as a potential economic connection linking two commercial districts across town to residential areas within. This site is also located directly behind the Butte Chamber of Commerce and has the potential to be an important entry point for visitors to the City and their first experience of Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area. Because of this proximity, awareness and education will be a center focus of the development along Blacktail Creek.

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LEXINGTON WETLANDS A PLACE FOR wildlife viewing

Acres: Trails: Boardwalks: Features:

22 Acres .42 Miles .14 Miles Outdoor Classroom, Boardwalks, Wildlife Observation, Parking, Trails

POND & WETLANDS SOFTSURFACE TRAIL PARKING LOT

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Source Credit: Jim Collins

BOARDWALK

Protection and sustainable construction practices will be an important factor at Lexington Wetlands. These sensitive wetland areas offer an enormous opportunity for education while needing to be respectful to the existing ecosystem and how any impacts could affect the environment.


Lexington Wetlands exists today as a functioning, high quality wetland area. Multiple animal species use this area for seasonal nesting grounds. Because of this, the boardwalks will take into consideration the areas of sensitivity for nesting birds and avoid these areas. Where highly suseptible species are of concern, boardwalks can be closed down temporarily during nesting times to discourage unnecessary stress to nesting birds. 129


GROVE GULCH A PLACE FOR STORMWATER

This small site offers a potential for improved water quality through natural wetland environment. The design will look to use the least impacting design and construction techniques necessary as well as developing an adaptive operation and maintenance strategy to react to changes that may influence ecosystem and water quality function.

Acres: 3 Acres Features: Stormwater Basin, Maintenance Access, Habitat Delineation

STREAM & WETLANDS

t: Credi e c r u So

PARKING LOT

"The sites need to be restorative - physically, socially, and mentally."

-Design team member, charrette comment

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ollins

Jim C


LOWER AREA ONE A PLACE FOR TRAIL CONTINUATION

Acres: 41 Acres Trails: 1.8 Miles Features: Existing Reclaimed and Reconstructed Silver Bow Creek, Trails, Connection from Butte Reduction Works to trails further West As one of the few previously reclaimed sites on the project, Lower Area One will provide the connection from the center of Butte to the trailhead just west of the site. Existing willow stands will be evaluated for health and habitat benefit, while trees will potentially be added for noise reduction and buffering from the interstate corridor.

SILVER BOW CREEK PAVED TRAIL

131


BUTTE REDUCTION WORKS A PLACE FOR cultural and historical connection

Silver Bow Creek will be rerouted and vegetation established across Butte Reduction Works. Vegetation and trail updates will also be completed through Lower Area One. This connection will provide a larger link in the trail system in Butte - one that has been a missing piece.

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Connection to the cultural and historic past is what Butte Reduction Works will be uniquely situated to showcase. The slag walls are expected to be left in place and provide a vivid educational and wayfinding opportunity to tell the story of the history. As one of the most degraded areas on the project, Butte Reduction Works is seen as the location for a translation of a stark, barren landscape to one of important and blossoming cultural significance through art, music, education, and conservation.

SLAG CANYON OVERLOOK

INTERACTIVE RECREATION AREA TREE PLAZA

ENTRY PLAZA

Acres: 29 Acres Trails: 1.41 Miles Features: Amphitheater, Parking Lot, Shelters, Trails, Rerouted Section of Silver Bow Creek, Connection to Commercial Development, Pedestrian Bridges, Potential Art Installations AMPHITHEATER & STAGE RE-ROUTED SILVER BOW CREEK

PARKING LOT

133


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Source Credit: Jim Collins

From the public meetings, an amphitheater was seen as a priority to provide a seasonal outdoor space for concerts, plays, and community gatherings. One area being considered for the amphitheater space is Butte Reduction Works. Several factors will be evaluated including noise pollution from nearby roads and interstates, topography, and parking for larger events. Butte Reduction Works is an important location to explore the cultural and historical impacts of the past, and how that past can shape the future of Silver Bow Creek.

AMPHITHEATER DRAWING/RENDERING

As seen in the historic photographs, Silver Bow Creek has run between the ‘Slag Canyon’ since the early 1900s. With the rerouting of Silver Bow Creek away from these canyons, the existing slag will remain in place and become a reminder to the history of the sites. Educational stations are seen as being located near these walls to inform users of the past and what transformations have taken place across all sites.

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IN SUMMARY NEXT STEPS AND ACTION ITEMS

The Master Plan for Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area is more than an outline of design, it is a change in thinking and to the way things have been done in the past. It places unique design, communication, and problem-solving demands on all members of the team – from the project owner and designers to the reviewing agencies. This process for implementing these design strategies at a Superfund level are rare with potential for far-reaching and impactful outcomes, not only to the community, but to the entirety of the remediation process. The next steps in the project will involve a great deal of teamwork and ambitious exercises during design, construction, and beyond.

regulatory approvals - Approval of Consent Decree by all negotiating parties - Approval of Consent Decree by the United States District Court of Montana - Completion, submittal, review and approval of design submittals and operation and maintenance plan.

design and construction - Project prioritization - Design submittals to regulatory agencies - Analysis of renewable resources and sustainable materials - Community updates during design - Continued coordination between team groups - Limit disturbances during construction to sensitive areas - Analysis of stewardship plan

operations and maintenance - Life-cycle cost analysis - Day-to-day operations - Long-term operations - Develop materials replacement and management plan - Plan for reduced energy and water consumption - Community outreach, awareness and education - Monitoring and reporting

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The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area project is capable of transforming the center of a community - from one scarred by over 100 years of historic mining operations to one of ecologocial rebirth and immense social value. The narrative of Butte, good and bad, is deeply rooted in the history of the place. The Silver Bow Creek Conservation Area begins a new script for our community, one in which we move forward, beyond Superfund. 137