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3 •Temporal lobes Noises picked up by our ears goes to the temporal lobes. This area proces languages and to makes up our replies.

4 •Brainstem The brainstem is the most primitive part of the brain. It is responsible for sustaining the basic functions of life such as breathing, digestion, hunger, thirst, sleep and blood pressure regulation. •Parietal lobes Sensation is processed by an adjacent part of the brain in the parietal lobes.

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Even though there is an incredible variation in body shapes and sizes, all humans share common features and the same working parts. The human body is built from trillions of cells. Similar cells group together to form tissues (a Latin word that means “woven”). Types of tissues include nervous tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue and epithelial tissue. And when tissues group together, they can make organs that pump blood (heart), digest food (stomach) and breath air (lungs). The Bio Signs series is an assortment of 6 human anatomy models. The detailed models are the: Brain and Skull, Eye, Head and Torso, Heart, Skin, and Teeth and Gums.

This I Know Guide provides an introduction to: the Head & Torso

Ears are the organs of hearing. The ear is divided into three parts:

The Head

Outer ear: this includes the ear flap, or pinna, and the outer ear canal, which ends at the eardrum.

The HEAD contains the brain, and the organs that help detect the five senses. The Brain The brain is responsible for our thoughts, memory logic, movement, emotion, and language. Among many responsibilities, it enables us to eat, walk, speak, think and act. •Frontal lobes Voluntary movements are controlled by a part of the frontal lobes. Speech is also controlled here.

Middle ear: this is the space between the eardrum and the inner ear. It contains the three smallest bones in the body: the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup). Inner ear: this is a maze of bony chambers called the bony labyrinth, including the snail-like cochlea, To hear, we need the nerves from the cochlea to transmit nerve impulses to the brain.

The Nose The nose contains olfactory receptors

The Skin

A sense of taste protects you from unsafe foods. For example, if someone ate poisonous or rotten foods, they would probably spit them out.

The skin allows the sense of touch.

The sense of taste also helps to maintain good chemical balance in the body. For instance, liking sugar and salt satisfies the body's need for carbohydrates and minerals.

Taste buds

•Cerebellum Its main functions are to control muscles, keep our bodies in balance, maintain posture and coordinate body movement.

The tongue has around 10,000 taste buds. Every taste bud detects five primary tastes: sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami (acids salts like monosodium glutamate or MSG).

6 that help to identify smell and taste. Without the sense of smell, even the strongest-smelling foods taste bland.

Ein-O Fact •Your sense of smell is 10,000 times more sensitive than your sense of taste.

The Eyes Eyes are the organs of sight. They are hollow fluid-filled spheres and their walls have three different layers: •The Outer layer is the white sclera, which has a transparent window at the front of the eye called the cornea to let in light rays. •The middle layer includes the coloured iris. •The inner layer at the back of the eye is the retina, where light rays are interpreted into images.


The Tongue

•Occipital lobes Our sense of vision is processed in the occipital lobes. This area also helps us to understand language.

5 The Ears


The Torso The TORSO is the trunk of the body without the head, arms or legs. It contains the majority of the body’s organs. Their organs include the: stomach, small intestines, large intestines, liver, kidneys, lungs and the heart.

The Small Intestine The small intestine is a 5 metre long narrow tube thatl digests food and absorbs nutrients into the blood.

The skin and deeper tissues contain millions of sensory receptors. They register what's happening on the body's surface and then send signals to the spinal cord and the brain. Skin receptors do not just respond to touch. They also register pain as well as warmth and cold.

The Large Intestine The large intestine is a 1.5 metre-long tube that reabsorbs water and eliminates undigested food and fibre.

Ein-O Facts •Every square centimetre of skin contains around 200 pain receptors. •And every square centimetre of skin has only 15 receptors for pressure, 6 for cold and 1 for warmth.


10 The Stomach The stomach is a J-shaped elastic sac that stores and breaks food down, mixing it with juices secreted in the stomach lining. As soon as food enters the stomach, the stomach lining releases enzymes and that start breaking down proteins in the food. Hydrochloric acid also kills bacteria, protecting the body from harmful microbes which can enter the body in food.

Ein-O Fact •When full, the stomach can hold around one litre of chewed up food.


12 The liver is like a chemical processing factory. It: •controls sugar levels. •breaks down fats. •makes blood proteins. •cleans up drugs and alcohol. •makes bile, which breaks down fats in food. •removes damaged red blood cells. •destroys microbes and cell debris.

The Liver

The Kidneys

The liver is a wedge-shaped, spongy organ. Its purpose is to get rid of toxins, to regulate blood sugar levels and to produce bile.

The kidneys are lemon-sized and they make urine from waste products and excess water. Each kidney contains more than one million nephrons, which are cell-sized

13 filter units. The main substances nephrons filter out of blood are: water, nitrogen-compounds, salts and acids.

Ein-O Facts •In 24 hours, the kidneys filter around 150 litres of blood and produce roughly 1.5 litres of urine.

The Lungs The lungs are in the chest, inside the rib cage. They are large, rounded, light, spongy, inflatable organs that deliver oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from blood. We need lungs to breath.

Ein-O Facts •In one day the heart pumpss blood around the body about 1000 times.

14 Ein-O Fact •The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung, to make space for the heart.

The Heart The heart is a grapefruit-sized and cone-shaped organ. Its function is to pump oxygen-rich blood throughout the body and oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. The heart beats constantly without pausing to rest. It is made of cardiac muscle, which is only found in the heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never tires. The heart is divided into four


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