2014 2015 (67) (69)
Company Profile • Lambda X
Fitting Background • Time for a change? • Scleral lens induced conjunctival prolapse
Business + Marketing • The legacy lab
Technology • Diamond tool care and handling
Professional Services Research & Development Marketing Technical Expertise Networking Clinical Support Committed to support your business
www.contamac.co.uk Contamac_Titel.indd 1 01_01_Titel.indd 1
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Boston GP Materials. ®
Where innovation takes flight. “Innovation” Through Education At Boston, our definition of “innovation” goes far beyond continuous improvements in GP technology, new lens materials and manufacturing advancements. We also offer a variety of educational materials, including publications and videos.
GUIDES: A GUIDE TO SCLERAL LENS FITTING GUIDE TO CORRECTION OF KERATOCONUS CORRECTION OF PRESBYOPIA WITH GP CONTACT LENSES
Guides are available in many languages, including Spanish, French, Polish, Serbian and German, to name a few.
VIDEOS: SCLERAL LENS FITTING TIPS VIDEO SERIES SCLERAL LENS HANDLING VIDEO FOR PATIENTS ORTHOK TRENDS BY MR. CRAIG NORMAN, FCLSA
Visit fit-boston.com for digital downloads of guides and videos. For printed guides, please contact your authorized Boston® laboratory.
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© Bausch & Lomb Incorporated. ®/TM are trademarks of Bausch & Lomb Incorporated or its affiliates. US/BNL/13/0008. RPL0305/01
1/29/15 9:37 AM 04.02.15 16:25
LETTER FROM THE PUBLISHER
What to do with weak employees? The attempt to build up a superlative workforce often comes
The scientists devised the following experiment: those taking
to nothing. On television, casting shows are the hit: in ever
part were split up into different groups and had to solve a
differing variations, aspiring models, singers and actors give
particular calculation task in a given time. In different variations,
of their all to secure a breakthrough. In the end, however, of
the participants were informed to greater or lesser extent about
the thousands of candidates only one winner gets the job which
the scores of the other groups. Thereby they were either paid
all have been fighting for.
for each problem solved, or they had to concede the entire
But now the virus has spread to businesses. Not only do
winnings to the best problem solver.
applicants have to prove themselves for days on end in assessment
Irrespective of how the participants were paid: the knowledge
centers where their suitability is tested through role plays and
of the performance of the others had a negative effect on the
group discussions (so that in the end the wrong person is
productivity of the entire group. While in some people a certain
selected). Today employees already in the company, too, have
sporting competitiveness was aroused, in others the mistakes
to work under casting conditions: it is no longer enough just
they made increased significantly. In particular, rather than
to do ones job well. Many companies now measure precisely
feeling motivated, weaker employees were disconcerted by
how their employees perform against each other.
knowing they were behind in the scores, and their performance
The daily struggle culminates in performance-related
got progressively worse.
payment. Companies agree individual bonuses with each
The scientists had one piece of advice for all employers:
member of staff linked to individual targets. Only those
companies should avoid any thoughts of introducing public
who fully achieve their target at the end of the year can
feedback systems if they are at all interested in maintaining or
expect to have their bonus paid in full. As a survey by a
even increasing the performance of their weaker staff.
respected f irm of consultants showed recently, some
But it is precisely this which seems to be a thorn in the eye of
companies simply deduct the performance-based payment
many employers: in seminars on ‘What to do about low
from the employees previous fixed salary. In this way,
performers’, the focus tends to be mainly on how to get rid of
employers aim to get the maximum productivity out of their
poor performers, rather than pointing out ways how to get
workforce and from each individual employee.
more out of them. Companies prefer to put their trust in ‘super
Some companies take these performance-related measures to
employees’ – idolizing those who score the most goals. But they
such an extreme that they even publish in-house rankings in
seem to forget the fact that every striker needs the support of
which the achievements of all employees are made available to
an entire experienced team behind him in order to get the
the whole staff. That they are doing no one any favors by doing
results. Unfortunately it is team spirit which is the first casualty
this was shown by a recent study published by the Institute for
when the working climate becomes strained.
the Future of Work in Bonn (Germany). According to this, such open competitiveness actually has an adverse effect on the quality of the work.
JÖRG SPANGEMACHER CEO and Publisher email@example.com
LETTER FROM THE PUBLISHER 3
What to do with weak employees?
COMPANY PROFILE 6
2014 2015 (67) (69)
Lambda X - from space to ophthalmology
• Lambda X
Fitting Background • Time for a change? • Scleral lens induced conjunctival prolapse
Business + Marketing
10 Diamond tool care and handling
• The legacy lab
Technology • Diamond tool care and handling
Professional Services Research & Development
BUSINESS + MARKETING
Marketing Technical Expertise Networking
16 Delegating - and how to do it
Clinical Support Committed to support your business
30 The legacy lab
www.contamac.co.uk Contamac_Titel.indd 1 01_01_Titel.indd 1
03.06.14 14:34 12.03.15 14:40
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Title: Contamac, www.contamac.com Inside front cover: Bausch + Lomb Inc., www.bausch.com Page 4: Paragon Vision Sciences, www.paragonvision.com Page 13: Efclin, www.efclin.com Page 15: DAC International, Inc., www.dac-intl.com Page 17: Sterling Ultra Precision, www.sterlingint.com Page 19: Larsen Equipment Design Inc., www.larsenequipment.com Page 23: FOCUS CN, www.focus-cn.com.cn Page 25: Rotlex, www.rotlex.com Page 29: LAMBDA-X S.A., www.lambda-x.com Page 35: Benz R&D, www.benzrd.com Page 37: K & Y Diamond Ltd., www.kydiamond.ca Page 41: TRIOPTICS GmbH, www.trioptics.com Page 43: Optocraft, www.optocraft.com Page 45: Contour Fine Tooling, www.contour-diamonds.com and Technodiamant, www.technodiamant.com Page 47: Optimec Ltd., www.optimec.com Inside back cover: MediaWelt Outside back cover: Benz R&D, www.benzrd.com
NAMES TO NOTE
Aalbers, Wim 40 Baugh, Tom 34 Bennett, Ed 38 Caroline, Patrick 26 Keating, Dennis 10 Larsen, Erik 30 Leicher, Rolf 16 Martin, Will 32 Molkenboer, Vincent 20 Roth, Hans-Werner 36 Tovaglia, Marco 44 van der Worp, Eef 20, 42
FITTING BACKGROUND 20 Time for a change?
Eef van der Worp and Vincent Molkenboer
26 Scleral lens induced conjunctival prolapse Patrick Caroline
44 A new era in RGP Marco Tovaglia
REPORT 32 Optometry Giving Sight Will Martin
34 Introducing the Ganzfeld contact lens Tom Baugh
38 The GP Lens Institute 2015 Ed Bennett
HISTORY 36 Thermoplastic molded scleral lenses Hans-Werner Roth
INTERNATIONAL NEWS 40 Column
Eef van der Worp
43 Conferences & Trade Fairs 46 Spotlights 48 Industry News 48 Yellow Pages 50 Masthead
COMPANY PROFILEâ&#x20AC;&#x2026;Lambda X
From space to ophthalmology Visit to Lambda X at Nivelles, Belgium In order to work with ophthalmic lenses, exact measurement data regarding the condition and the quality of optical surfaces is required. The Belgian company Lambda X developed a measuring technology using phase-shifting schlieren that within a few years has established itself as the standard measuring procedure used by many companies. By Silke Sage Let's start with something simple: Have you ever watched
the measuring instruments produced by Lambda X. Naturally;
the projection of hot air onto a wall? This can be observed
imaging elements are not enough on their own to analyze optical
when the hot air above a candle or a toaster is projected onto
surfaces: they have to be converted into data that can be
a bright wall by sunlight. Grey schlieren or streaks encircle
reproduced and compared with other data. That is how precise
the projection area, whirling around like grey smoke above
statements about the optical properties and surface quality of
it: this is how one can illustrate the basic principle of phase-
ophthalmic lenses can be made.
shifting schlieren. While when observing the shadow the shift in light beam can
INITIALLY A SPIN-OFF FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS
be measured, it is also possible to measure the angular
By applying this principle, the founders and staff of Lambda X
displacement of the light bundle using the right aperture and
found out by accident that they were able to precisely measure
suitable lenses. It is precisely this method which is applied in
optical lenses and surfaces. In fact they did it so well that within
Lambda X COMPANY PROFILE
a short time the company became the market leader in this field.
special phase-shifting schlieren method. In 2005, they finally
Initially, the company was aiming to break into an entirely
came up with an instrument for the inspection of ophthalmic
different field. When the present CEO, Olivier Dupont, founded
lenses such as contact lenses, intraocular lenses (IOLs) and
the company in 1996, as a spin-off from the University in
spectacle lenses for the first time with the catchy name of
Brussels, his aim was to analyze fluids and gases in zero gravity
“Nimo”. The name was the original working title used during
and to calculate their behavior. This was to be based, among
the development phase in French: “Nouvel Instrument de Mesure
other things on this imaging technique.
Optique” which translates as “New Instrument for Optical
In this way, over time, the company was able to send a variety
Measurement”. The basic optical system gives approx. 400
of instruments into space. Some are used to analyze specific
times more accurate results than a system based on
radiation, others help with the fine-positioning of satellites.
Currently, the company has 30 instruments which are either
Another device was developed to analyze diffractive optics.
already in space or soon to go there. Lambda X is a long-term
The PMTF (optical power and modulation transfer function)
partner of the ESA and a major player in European space optics.
can precisely measure and characterize any kind of intraocular lenses in real-time.
TAKING THE PLUNGE INTO INDUSTRY
Today, the Belgian company in Nivelles has 25 members of
In 2002, the team around Olivier Dupont pitched their expertise
staff and a state-of-the-art building covering 1,200 m². Almost
to the industry for the first time. Before long they were working
all members of staff have a background in Physics, Engineering
on a device based on their own patented implementation of this
or Software Design; seven have PhDs.
COMPANY PROFILE Lambda X
Around 35% of the turnover is generated by the manufacture
The prototype of the Nimo Matrix could also be seen. This
of these inspection instruments for ophthalmic lenses. Besides
device can check 121 lenses fully automated either wet or
orders from the aerospace industry, they also receive orders
dry. It doesn’t matter whether the lenses have been sorted
from the military but they did not talk about these: of course,
or not. The spectrum can be mixed at will: single vision,
they are strictly confidential!
toric or multifocal lenses, it doesn’t matter. Everything is
They only moved into the new building in the north of Nivelles
measured and in just a few minutes the results are displayed
a few weeks before our visit. The rooms in the new building
– proving very quickly whether the strengths comply with
are large and bright and the cleanroom offers perfect working
the requirements or not.
conditions; reason enough on its own to move from the other
In the cleanroom next door, where mainly research is carried
end of town. The old premises had become too cramped and
out, there are even stricter entry regulations. Some things remain
no longer met the expectations of the company.
secret and are hidden from view. On two standardized heavy benches, typical for optoelectronics, different arrangements
VISITING THE PRODUCTION
were being set up with a mass of cables, lenses and computers.
Some preparation is necessary before one can enter the production.
In the room next door, where the space projects are carried out,
Protective clothing has to be worn. The production area is designed
there was an even stricter level of cleanliness. We could watch
to have a constant temperature and to be completely free of dust
the staff at work through a window.
as far as this is possible. On the day of our visit, there was not much to be seen because all devices from the last batch had
already been sold and sent out. "We produce to order and always
The right ideas and a motivated team are almost always the
in batches of 10," explained Laurent Malfaire, Chief Commercial
key to success. Moving into the new modern facilities is likely
Officer at Lambda X. However, preparations for the next
to have proved an additional source of motivation for the
production run were well under way. Rows of machine parts
whole team. There are further innovations in the pipeline,
were already waiting, individual components had been
too, but the company said it was too early to give us any details
preassembled and the covers were also awaiting the next stage.
yet. Lambda X looks set to continue developing innovative
Before being sent off, each device is checked personally by Luc
devices in the future. Think about it the next time you make
Joannes, the CTO of Lambda X. Nothing is left to chance!
a slice of toast.
Lambda X COMPANY PROFILE
The measurement operation consists of applying the phase-shifting principle to obtain the mapping of the light beam deviation at as many points as available on the camera. The instrument resolution is therefore directly related to the number of pixels in the camera; this represents a significant increase in resolution by comparison to previous methods. Both x and y components of the light beam deviation are measured which taken together fully characterize the lens power because they are the derivative of the wavefront on each point on the lens. As with all power mapping devices, the instrument then uses customized software to calculate many different aspects of the power-related dimensions of the lens. The paraxial power, sphere, cylinder and axis, is calculated in any zone. To do this, the calculated wavefront is fitted to a Zernike polynomial combination; the paraxial sphere power is deduced from the defocus coefficient while cylinder and axis are deduced from the astigmatism terms. For IOLs, the Modulation Transfer Function is calculated from the wavefront. In addition, power maps with a very high spatial resolution are calculated for each pixel within the optic zone of the lens. The instrument software also allows wavefront analysis via Zernike polynomial decomposition to be made at any aperture diameter of the lens being measured. (Luc Joannes, GlobalCONTACT 2010_03)
2 Fig. 1: Schematic layout of NIMO based on the PSS technique Fig. 2: Schematic representation of light ray travel in the Schlieren method when a positive power contact lens is placed in the instrument Fig. 3: Live image of a single vision IOL as produced by this instrument
Fig. 4: A single vision spherical soft contact lens observed in a wet cell
LAMBDA X BULLETPOINTS: • Metrology for controlling ophthalmic lenses (RGP and soft contact lenses, refractive + diffractive IOLs, spectacles) • Wet or dry measurement (sphere, cylinder, addition, axis, micro-four-thirds (MFT), through focus MTF, power maps, power profiles, wavefront)
• Full assessment of complex lenses (torics, multifocal or multifocal torics, freeform) • Automated + custom solution
TECHNOLOGY Diamond tools
Diamond tool care and handling How to maximize your tooling cost Let’s start with the basics…“Diamonds are forever”: according to the jewelry industry, but not when you use them for manufacturing. Diamond may be the hardest material known to man, yet a diamond can be easily damaged if not handled or used properly. By Dennis Keating 10
Diamond tools TECHNOLOGY
Many factors come in to play which affect the tool cutting edge and can drive the tooling cost up so I will break them down in to an easy to follow format.
2. CUSTOMER IN-HOUSE QUALITY CONTROL Because single crystal diamond tools can be expensive, it behooves the customer to ensure there are adequate procedures in place to ensure tool quality is maintained through receiving
1. TOOL SHIPPING AND HANDLING Any reputable tool supplier will guarantee
and use on the machine. Anything less can result in higher tool cost.
the tool edge integrity allowing the
• As noted the tool supplier should guarantee the edge quality
cutting edge to be received by the
at time of shipping. If not it may be time to seek a new supplier.
customer chip free.
• The tool cutting edge is usually
• Any pre-inspection of the cutting edge can result in unintentional damage.
documented by visual inspection
• The tool should never be removed from the shipping container
under magnification of 500 to 800x power
and placed in a tool storage bin, as this can expose it to
and with Nomarski Filters that help illuminate the cutting edge.
• On a controlled tool the edge waviness is typically
• Anyone who must handle the tool should receive adequate training on the do’s and don’ts of tool handling.
documented with a peak to valley (P-V) measurement over
• The tool edge does not need to be cleaned or inspected
the full arc of the cutting edge. This is important as this
before it is put in the machine. That is the responsibility of
information can be used to optimize the machine set up.
the tool vendor.
• When the tool is ready to ship from the vendor it is placed in a crush proof shipping container that protects the cutting
• It would be best that a minimum number of people be allowed to handle the tool.
edge and also provides useful tool information to be used later by the operator during machine set up. If the packaging
3. MATERIALS TO BE TURNED
arrives damaged it should be reported, photo documented
Not all materials can be diamond turned. Ferrous material can
for the damage and sent back to the tool vendor for tool
have a reaction to the carbon in the diamond and cause premature
inspection. It is recommended that you do not remove the
wear of the cutting edge. With that said there is new technology
tool and inspect yourself. That is best done by the tool vendor.
becoming available with ultrasonic devices that allow steel parts
• When received by the customer it is highly recommended
to be turned with some success. Glass and ceramics are materials
the tool remain in the shipping container, untouched, until
typically not suitable for diamond turning, and certain polymers
it is needed at the machine. By doing this the customer can
can also react chemically to a diamond affecting the edge quality.
avoid unintentional damage to the cutting edge. It will also
Other materials such as silicon or materials that contain silicon
avoid any problem if the tool is accidently placed back in
can cause excessive wear to the tools edge. Some of the materials
a different container with incorrect tool height and radius.
coming to the market today such as silicon hydrogel’s can be
• The shipping container should remain at the machine as it
abrasive and result in excessive tool edge wear.
contains tool radius and height which the operator will need for machine set up.
• When the tool is ready for repair it should be placed back in the same shipping container to avoid any further damage and returned to the tool vendor for repair.
TECHNOLOGY Diamond tools
To try turning a specific (new) material it might be best to;
• Contact your tool supplier for their experience and specific recommendations.
• Seek experience from other resources within the industry. • Universities are a good place to start if they do diamond turning themselves.
• SETTING TOOL HEIGHT: There are different methods for setting tool height
• Optical tool set stations are the safest method to use when setting the tool height. These are non-contact and will not damage the tool cutting edge.
• Touch probe tool setting is another method used but this
• Try a lower cost non-waviness controlled tool or a tool that
has the potential to damage the tool cutting edge by the
is near its end of life to evaluate if the material can be
type probe used to set the tool radius. An air bearing
diamond turned or not.
LVDT (linear voltage displacement transducer) may be used and if the bearing is not maintained and cleaned
4. MACHINE SET-UP This is a time when the diamond can be damaged if certain rules
of contaminates the probe can stick and break the edge of the diamond due to additional force.
are not followed. The customer needs to make sure that whoever is of a job well done. If done properly the machine is set-up quickly
• SETTING TOOL LATERAL CENTER • Again an optical tool set station may be the best device
and production can begin with minimum delay. If not, there may
because it does not come in contact with the tool.
handing the tool is properly trained and understands the consequences
be significant lost time, damage to an expensive cutting tool, a scrapped work piece and delay completing a job on time.
• THE SHIPPING CONTAINER:
• TOOL SETTING WITH A FLAT PART A flat part may appear to be an easy and non destructive
important information for radius and height that the
way to set a tool but it has hidden problems.
recommended the container remains at the machine for quick access to this information and to put the worn tool
the edge of the diamond due to excessive probe force.
The tool arrives in a protective shipping container with operator needs to set up the machine quickly. It is strongly
• Touch probes are used as well but they can actually damage
• If the machine X and Z axes are set square then a flat can be turned with no problem.
back in the container for repair. Having the container
• Also if multiple passes are taken at the flat surface during
available at the machine can eliminate addition damage
set up a small facet may be worn in to the diamond radius
to the cutting edge that might result in lost tool life or
which could then appear on the surface of a sphere or
increased tool edge repair cost.
asphere when the tool is used.
Gentle wipe Never wipe up or down
around the edge
5. TOOL CLEANING
damaged. A C-axis that dithers can cause an upward work
The best way to ensure tool edge integrity is to not touch it. But
piece motion on the diamond which can chip the cutting
in the real world, a diamond may need cleaning to remove built
edge. Also a machine with poor vibration damping may
up materials from time to time. The best way to do that is;
cause very slight machine movements that could create micro
a. Use a clean lint free lens cloth each time the tool is wiped.
cracks within the diamond structure and cause premature
This will eliminate debris from damaging the tip by using
tool edge failure.
the cloth more than once.
Machine environment thermal control is very important as
b. Use a solution on the cloth like alcohol, mineral spirits, caustic soda to help dissolve the built up material. c. Allow the damp cloth to remain in contact with the built up for a few minutes then wipe around the tool radius. d. Then with a new clean cloth wipe from the front of the diamond
well. If a machine is allowed to drift thermally the tool may move vertically and the tool may then be turning above center. This can cause an upward force on the diamond tool which can cause internal damage to the diamond, and premature edge failure.
to the back. If wiped from the back to front debris can be pulled over the edge of the tool. The material then can be
7. COOLANT AND CHIP CONTROL
caught up in the turning process and damage the cutting edge.
With many single crystal diamond turning materials a
e. A very simple and inexpensive method is to use a roll of
light air/oil mist is used but in some cases flood coolant
toilet tissue. Make sure to buy the cheapest kind that does
may be used.
not include lotions or powder. Keep the roll handy near the machine and when needed take some tissue and roll
â&#x20AC;˘ AIR/OIL MIST
around the hand. The outside surface should roll inside
This type system is used to help provide some cooling of
around the hand. By doing this a surface that is clean of
the tool cutting edge and help with chip management.
any contaminates is ensured.
The attempt is to develop a continuous string for the chip if possible (dependant of the part shape and material
6. TYPE OF MACHINE AND THE SHOP ENVIRONMENT
being turned) and in conjunction with a vacuum chip
Is the machine being used appropriate for a single crystal
extractor help to remove the chip from the cutting area.
Excessive accumulation of chip in the cutting zone can
Machine design for servo control, loop stiffness and vibration
not only scratch a turned surface but may also cause
are all important in order that the diamond tool edge is not
damage to the tool edge. GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Diamond tools TECHNOLOGY
• FLOOD COOLANTS This is used primarily for spectacle lens manufacturing. It is a good method to help cool the tool cutting edge under very aggressive machining conditions and remove large volumes of cutting chips. However if not controlled properly those chips can come back to the diamond tool via the coolant delivery system and act like a sand blaster on the tool.
To do this you will need to know;
• The time it takes and the cost to set up a tool based on current shop rates.
• The cost of a roughing tool compared to the cost of a controlled waviness finishing tool.
• The number of re-laps that are possible when a finish tool is used for its intended purpose (not roughing).
• The number of re-laps that are lost due to excessive diamond • CUTTING CHIP BIRD NESTING
wear on a finish tool when it is used for roughing.
Improper chip management can cause the material to ball
With this information the bottom line cost can be calculated
up around the tip of the tool, resembling a bird’s nest. If
when using an expensive controlled waviness finishing tool
this happens, the chips can cause pressure from the bottom
for roughing. n
side of the diamond and result in chipping of cutting edge or micro-fracture within the stone. Dennis Keating
8. ROUGHING WITH A CONTROLLED WAVINESS TOOL Some companies feel that a finishing tool that is already set up on the machine can be maximized by using it as a roughing tool once it is worn. This may save time but is it really cost effective? A time study cost analysis should really be done to determine the real cost.
Dennis Keating, VP Sales & Marketing Contour Fine Tooling for the American Market. His career started with high production machines for automotive component manufacturing. He worked ten years as Asian Sales Manager for Precitech, Ultra-precision machines for optics manufacturing and the past 7.5 years for Contour.
!AZ.indd 2 10_Keating.indd 15
23.01.15 14:04 15:30 11.03.15
BUSINESS + MARKETING Management
Delegating – and how to do it There are various approaches to the topic of "delegating". Some say, "Why should I do everything myself, I have staff and they are paid to work here!" Other bosses have a different attitude: "Before I delegated something to someone else, I could have done it three times myself." Or: "Anyway I can do it better, I’m the boss!" By Rolf Leicher
Those who try to do everything themselves soon become bogged
Anyone who only delegates minor tasks or particularly urgent
down and their own staff becomes less independent. Delegating
ones to their staff is unlikely to boost their motivation. Well
presupposes you trust your staff and you only need to check up
qualified staff want to take on demanding tasks. For regular
on them during their initial training. However, staff must also
tasks, there are clearly defined responsibilities and everybody
have the appropriate qualifications to take on the delegated task.
knows what to do. In case of illness, delegation areas have to
Tasks can also be delegated on a temporary basis, e.g. while a
be reallocated spontaneously which requires a great amount
colleague is away on holiday. A long time ago your team should
already have acquired the skills necessary for dealing with
Changes in delegation are only defined in emergencies if the
special tasks when they suddenly arise.
tasks are urgent and there is no time to discuss who should do GlobalCONTACT 1-15
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what. It is to be expected that staff members do not limit themselves to their own area with statements like, "I am not responsible for this". Delegation is not a rigid process. And incidentally: tasks related to the core competencies of a staff member are particularly well suited for delegation.
• Readily integrates with existing Optoform® machines • “Lights-out operation” for unattended off shifts • Optional environmental control for hydrophobic and hydrophilic part storage
GETTING STAFF MEMBERS ON BOARD Delegation is an integral part of the management strategy of any successful business. The smaller a company, the more difficult it is to delineate responsibilities. In small companies, exaggerating a little, everybody does everything. Areas of responsibility cannot be strictly separated from each other along the lines of "I am only responsible for this". That would be equivalent to working to rule. Those who delegate a lot have enough time left over to concentrate on the key tasks of management and creative work. Staff quickly become experienced in carrying
out the tasks routinely delegated and work efficiently. However, in the delegated
area, the person concerned is given full responsibility and the boss should only
+1 727 538 6132
intervene in exceptional cases. Nevertheless managerial tasks and functions involving a lot of responsibility cannot be delegated, for example if an important customer has some special demands. Initially when starting to delegate, a certain lead time is necessary. This gives employees time GlobalCONTACT 1-15
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13.02.14 13:15 12.03.15 16:34
BUSINESS + MARKETING Management
Personal instruction of the member of staff by the boss himself is the best solution. The boss can then easily ascertain whether the employee is suitably qualified and understands how he wants the job to be done. For this reason, one should not rely on an employee being instructed by another member of staff. However, in practice this basic rule is often broken.
1 Choosing the staff
2 Roughly describing the task
3 Describing the details
Showing them and let them do it themselves
REQUIREMENTS When delegating the work, the boss can also find out if an employee tends to over- or under-estimate himself. The skill of the employee alone is not enough, he also needs to be motivated to do the new task. Another basic rule is to resist the desire to take the delegated
to grow into their delegated areas, gain the confidence that is
work back again if the employee makes a mistake. If the right
needed and acquire the skills necessary to complete the tasks
instructions were given, this shouldn’t happen. If checks are
without making mistakes. The boss must understand that initially
made at regular intervals, mistakes can be spotted early and
employees will need much more time to complete the task.
any serious setbacks avoided. Taking back the delegated task and assigning it to another colleague is sure to result in a poor
PROBLEMS WHEN DELEGATING WORK
The delegation of a new task is often rejected by staff. Anyone who already feels overworked is reluctant to take on any more work: "How am I supposed to do all this?" However the issue of feeling "overworked" is sometimes exaggerated. In order not to overburden an employee, it may be necessary to relieve him of other tasks. What worries employees above all is having to take on responsibility for the delegated area. Similarly, the boss handing over the responsibility also first has to get used to the new situation. Such concerns when transferring responsibility are often the biggest obstacle when delegating work. Does one have to fear a loss of authority and influence when delegating work? What will customers think when they find out?
DELEGATION RULES FOR THE BOSS • Be sure to give your comprehensive instructions personally • Transfer responsibility to the person concerned • Do not check up constantly on the work you have delegated • Only offer help if problems arise • Praise the employee’s achievements promptly without delay • Delegate tasks according to an employee’s skills • Delegate tasks as early as possible • Do not make too heavy demands on the person concerned • Challenge and encourage ambitious employees • Assign tasks fairly
And if it comes to a claim for damages, who will be responsible? For these reasons, the management tool “delegation” is often
WHAT TASKS CAN BE DELEGATED?
the subject of controversy. Nevertheless, the advantages of
Consider what tasks you have previously delegated and what
delegating far outweigh the disadvantages. And those in favor
other tasks you would still like to delegate. Make a list of all
of Management by Delegation have a lot of good arguments
the tasks that you currently do yourself. Keywords are sufficient
on their side. Those who remain worried about losing control
but every task should be listed, including checkups. Decide
if they delegate work, and regard themselves indispensable, do
which tasks could be done equally well by others. As a rule,
not place much emphasis on “delegation”.
you should not intervene in tasks you have already delegated, only taking an interest in the finished results. However, all
PROBLEMS OF DELEGATION FROM AN EMPLOYEE’S PERSPECTIVE
members of staff should know that if any problems arise they can always come to you. n
• Lack of clear instructions • Unclear assignment of tasks • Lack of trust on the part of the boss • Unwillingness of the boss to take responsibility for the necessary risks
• Worries that completion deadlines can’t be met • Anxiety on the part of the employee that he can’t do the job • The boss intervening in the delegated task • The boss’s expectations being too high • Uncertainty about separation of tasks 18
Dipl.-Betriebswirt Rolf Leicher is a marketing expert from Heidelberg and is well-known in companies for his seminars and as a communications trainer. He also works as author for several publications. His expertise is based on lectures and seminars he has given at well-known institutes and academies.
Larsen: "Satisfied customers are our mission" Marked resonance from Mediphacos LAB ENGINEER: DANIEL FILGUEIRAS
LAB TECHNICIAN: SANDRA APARECIDA
The Larsen Blocker is a great machine, with quick and simple
Larsen machines made my life much easier as they are simple
adjustments ensuring robustness and repeatability in operation
to operate, very reliable and precise. It is a real upgrade for the
and the Larsen Polishers are very simple to use and the results
production process, mainly for scleral lens manufacturing.
are the best I’ve seen. The technical assistance is another
Blocking, deblocking, base/front polishing and edge polishing
differential of the Larsen’s brand, with attentive professionals
became simple operations after we have replaced former
always willing to help with highest speed as possible.
equipments by Larsen Autoblocker and bladder polishers. My feeling is that we are making more lenses with less effort.
INDUSTRIAL DIRECTOR: MARCELO CAMARGOS The best of Larsen is that they are focused on lab productivity and customer satisfaction. It is impossible to work with them without making friends. Larsen equipments are robust, reliable, straightforward, easy maintenance and have good cost-benefit ratio. Fine tooling options together with right equipment made our life easier and have increased production and productivity in our lab. Although we have many years of RGP lens manufacturing knowledge, and proprietary base curve blocking and tooling systems, we decide to replace everything by Larsen equipments
LAB MANAGER: ALEXANDRE LOPES
and supporting tooling. Larsen Autoblocker with dual wax
It is an excellent machine. The Larsen Autoblocker is
dispenser allows us to work simultaneously with small diameter
synonymous with robustness, functionality and productivity.
regular lenses and large diameter scleral lenses. The flexibility
Easy to operate and does not require a long set-up for model
of polishing machines and tools has solved the problem of
efficiently polishing complex geometries produced by the
It comes to attend an old demand to ensure the centralization
lathes in a single operation. Some people may say that nothing
of the lathing process. Although we have bought the
can surpass pitch polishing for optical quality. I use to agree
autoblocker for contact lens production, it had also a very
with that in the past, since we manufacture contact lenses
good performance for blocking intraocular lenses when
since 1975. At that time, we had to master pitch polishing
compared to our current system. I will definitely consider
techniques in order to correct surface roughness to have an
having another Larsen Autoblocker for IOL production.
excellent surface and optical quality. Nevertheless, with the
Differently from custom RGP lens production, IOL production
use of most recent CNC lathes and good quality diamond
requires ver y low downtime losses in order to keep
tools, there is no need to “generate” anymore a good surface
productivity at high levels. Each machine in the production
by polishing; this is a task for the lathe, given that it is well
chain is key to keep those levels and the Larsen Blocker
adjusted. Polishing process should have minimum interference
surely plays its role well.
with the surface. Furthermore, current contact lenses have
The Larsen Company sells not only equipments but also
complex geometries that could not be polished by former pitch
processes. Larsen Bladder Polishers takes care that task fast and efficiently. Our overall productivity has improved around
MAINTENANCE PERSON: MARCOS RIBEIRO I am very pleased with the Larsen machines, in all aspects,
20% with very low reject rate, enhancing OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) performance.
because their maintenance is easy, have high performance, efficient technical assistance service and no difficulty on finding
Always improving the machines and tooling, they have good
replacement parts. Simple and smart adjustments are all we
solutions for everything, even for problems that have not yet
need to keep machines running two shifts without interruption.
FITTING BACKGROUND Corneal Topography
Time for a change? Corneal changes as a result of suboptimal soft lens fittings are not as uncommon as many may think. If practitioners would remove soft lenses at every follow-up visit and perform corneal topography, they would be surprised by the amount of unwanted changes that can take place beneath a soft lens.(1) By Eef van der Worp and Vincent Molkenboer
In refractive surgery clinics it has become clear that it is
outcomes: some subjects take significantly longer compared
critically important to cease soft lens wear for a substantial
to the average eye to reach stability.
period of time to let the cornea return to baseline before laser
But what is the best way to observe and/or to quantify topographical
surgery can take place. According to a study by Ng et al(2), it
changes in soft lens wear? To better understand this we
takes on average 10.7 ± 10.4 days before a stable refractive
retrospectively looked at the topographical changes after lens fit
state is reached based on corneal topography after cessation
in a group of normal, successful soft lens wearers in a large
of soft lens wear. From a clinical perspective in contact lens
contact lens practice in the Netherlands with a variety of lens
practice, it is interesting to note the large spread within these
types and brands – but all made of silicone hydrogel materials. GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Corneal Topography â&#x20AC;&#x2026; FITTING BACKGROUND
The tangential power map was used as this is considered the best
In our experiment, in 101 eyes of 52 subjects who had been
map for visualizing differences in shape. Topography changes
fitted successfully with contact lenses in the last year were
in optics and vision are best analyzed by looking at axial or
observed. The pre-soft lens fitting corneal topography
refractive power change within the pupil (e.g. sphere/cylinder/
(Medmont E300 Corneal Topographer, Nunawading,
and Zernike polynomials). If you want to know where the changes
Australia) was compared to the post-soft lens fitting
occur and to visualize them â&#x20AC;&#x201C; then tangential maps seem to most
topography map at several follow-up visits. A difference
likely be the best tool.(3) To the best of our knowledge, power
map was generated, in the same fashion as a difference map
maps (in diopters of change) best represent this change, rather
between pre and post fitting is created in orthokeratology,
than millimeters and radii of curvature, to quantify the soft
to see whether a consistent pattern was present in the potential
lens-induced changes that may occur on the ocular surface.
changes that are occurring d u r i n g s of t l e n s we a r. Medmont generated a custom concentric ring topography difference map tool that allowed us to analyze where on the cornea, and in what magnitude, the changes took place. The difference maps were generated in arbitrarily set 0-3 mm, 3-5 mm, 5-7 mm and 7-9 mm concentric rings. The intervals of the map displays were set to very small (sensitive) steps of 0.1D increments to best visualize the potential pattern in the tangential power maps used in this experiment. GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Fig. 1 21
FITTING BACKGROUND Corneal Topography
Lenses worn by the subjects were in the 2- or 4-weekly
diminished (as more than one follow-up visit was not available
replacement range, from different manufacturers and all were
to date in many cases).
made of silicone hydrogel materials. Subjects included in the
In the toric lens group (n=20), results were comparable to those in the myopic group (figure 2). Average
”IT SEEMS TO CONFIRM EARLIER FINDINGS THAT CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY CHANGES OCCUR UNDERNEATH SOFT SILICONE HYDROGEL LENSES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE.”
ametropia in this group was -1.79D ± 3.23 spherical power (ranging from +6.50D to -6.50D) with a mean cylindrical power of -1.31D ± 0.62. The results were also very consistent again for consequent visits. A very limited subject count was available for 4th and 5th visits in this group. The multifocal/hyperopic group (figure 3) was isolated to either spherical hyperopic or hyperopic-multifocal lenses (n=32). The mean amount of ametropia was +2.18D ± 1.88.
study were neophyte lens wearers (defined in this study as ”no
Again, similar results were seen for this group compared to the
previous contact lens experience” or ”at least one year of lens
other groups, and for consequent visits. A minimal subject count
cessation prior to lens fit”). The group was subdivided into
was available for the 3rd-5th visits in this group.
”spherical myopic” subjects, “toric myopic” subjects and
As minimal differences were seen between these sequential
“multifocal/hyperopic” subjects - to analyze potential inter-lens
subgroups, all data was added together (n=101) and averaged for
differences in topographical changes.
all visits (figure 4). This shows that the mean change in the central ring ranging from 0-3 mm was 0.57D ± 0.26, and this was 0.59D
± 0.25 in the second ring ranging from 3-5 mm. From there going
Average time between the lens fit and the first visit was 8.3
peripherally, the difference gradually increased to 1.00D ± 0.57
months. Consequently, if applicable, this was 18.4 months from
in the 5-7 mm ring and 1.83D ± 0.74 in the outer ring (7-9 mm).
start to the second visit, 24.9 months to the third visit, 30.2
The standard deviation increases as well in these latter cases,
months to the fourth visit and 34.2 months to the fifth visit.
indicating a less predictable outcome.
In the myopic group, 49 eyes were analyzed. The mean amount of ametropia of the subjects was -2.51D ± SD 1.56. The
maximum tangential dioptric difference within each region
This data of our clinical observations from a large contact practice
is displayed, as shown in figure 1. The results were very
in the Netherlands seems to show a few things. First of all, it
consistent in consequent visits (figure 1). The number of
seems to confirm earlier findings that corneal topography changes
subjects for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th follow-up data gradually
occur underneath soft silicone hydrogel lenses in clinical practice. If similar difference maps are used on normal eyes not wearing lenses, minimal differences are seen. Tear film instability may give rise to some irregularity in normal eyes not wearing lenses, but this is typically limited to within 0.25D within the 0-5 mm zone. What may be of interest is that the differences that were found i n lens wea rers i n t h is experiment appear to be minimal between groups (myopic, hyperopic/multifocal or toric, respectively). They all share a similar pattern of
Fig. 2 22
moderate change in the 0-5 mm GlobalCONTACT 1-15
YOUR GATEWAY TO SUCCESS IN CHINA... ... use the contacts and the trade journal FOCUS China The trade journal for the Chinese ophthalmic optics industry and labs, optometrists and ophthalmologists, managed by Europeans Founded in 2010 in Beijing and Xi‘An Well established and recognized in Chinese ophthalmic industry, labs, trade and associations Editorial content brought from MAFO, GlobalCONTACT and the german FOCUS Translations are done by professional Chinese interpreters and trade experts from universities and ophthalmic industry More than 9,000 stable contacts to Chinese industry, ophthalmologists, optometrists in clinics and big chain shops Content: Lens Technology - 镜片知识 Labs & Industry - 加工和制造 Optometry - 视光学 Ophthalmic Training - 眼视光和眼科培训 Contact Lenses + IOL - 隐形眼镜和人工晶体 Frames & Fashion - 镜架和时尚
Contact: MediaWelt GmbH Jörg Spangemacher Fon: +49 2104 958883, Cell: +49 172 6685550 Skype: joergspa1, QQ: 1417012494 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact: Beijing FOCUS Optical Culture Communication LTD. Jian Wang Fon: +86 (29) 89380269, Cell: +86 (139) 10771318 Skype: jennywang611, QQ: jenny E-Mail: email@example.com
FITTING BACKGROUND Corneal Topography
topography with Placido disk systems. However, as this was a ret rosp e ct ive st udy per for med in a real-life commercial setting, this disadvantage could not be overcome. To keep this effect to a m inimum, selected t o p og r a p hy m a p s we r e screened by an experienced ECP and excluded from the study if any signs of surface irregularity were detected (by looking at the raw Placido ring picture, and by taking four measurements of each eye and excluding any outliers). In Fig. 3
defence of the study methods: all contact lens specialists in zone – on average, in the 0.50D-0.75D range. Only very minor
their practices would to a large degree face the same limitations
differences in between follow-up visits seem to occur. Oftentimes,
in analyzing topographical changes beneath soft lenses. Also,
but not always, a ring pattern was seen as presented in figure 1-3.
the outcome of the study did not show large variations, even
Apparently, the dedicated change induced by the lens seems to be
between consequent follow-up visits. This gives us confidence
relatively stable. In clinical practice, eye care practitioners should
that the data was not largely diluted or distorted by the topographical
take into account that in some cases significant higher values can
arise, looking at the standard deviation (see figure 1-3). Outside of the 5 mm zone, the differences seem to increase up
to roughly 1.00D-1.25D in magnitude in the 5-7 mm ring and to
This retrospective observation with a variety of lens types
more than 1.75D-2.00D in magnitude in the 7-9 mm ring. It
appears to imply that whether we like it or not, in daily contact
should be taken into account that the data towards the periphery
lens practice we induce unwanted changes to the cornea – even
may not be as reliable as the central 5 mm zone data. Also this
when fitting soft lenses. If the traditional ”<0.5D” criterion is
would most probably fall mostly outside of the pupil zone diameter.
applied, then this actually affects a very large proportion of
A disadvantage of analyzing a topographical change difference
our lens wearers. But more than “the numbers” this observation
is that in the pre-soft lens fitting topography map, a pristine,
seems to point in the direction of where the changes occur,
undisturbed pre-ocular tear film is present. In the post-soft lens
rather than necessarily quantifying them. Follow-up studies
fitting, a topography map taken shortly after lens removal (typically
hopefully can help us further investigate the phenomenon and
by the lens wearer, on occasion by the ECP), as we did in this
better understand why this is happening.
study, can result in tear film disturbances that can influence the
The effect found could in theory be the result of the “peripheral strain” induced by soft lenses on the ocular
THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO SHARE THE OBSERVATIONS DONE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, WHICH MAY BE SEEN AS “FOOD FOR THOUGHT” FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION AND HOPEFULLY FOR FURTHER STUDIES ON THE SUBJECT. 24
surface, as proposed by Graeme Young recently in Optometry & Vision Science.(4) This mathematical model shows that “lens edge strain” in a normal eye, with a typical (8.6 - 14.2 mm) lens could be as much as 2.7% - but for the same lens on a flat cornea and/or ocular surface this would result in a tight fit showing 8.5% strain. Hence – a mechanical component of a soft lens to the eye seems plausible. Hopef ully new inst r uments, such as extrapolation with standard topography with Placido disc or Scheimpflug technology, or newer techniques such as optical coherence GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Corneal Topography FITTING BACKGROUND
tomography (OCT) or eye surface profilometry (ESP), will help
the soft lens geometries that are used today: are we following
us better understand the ocular shape – typically and specifically
and respecting the ocular surface enough with the current lens
beyond the corneal borders.
designs? Or can we do better?
The purpose of this article is to share the observations done in clinical practice, which may be seen as ”food for thought” for
further discussion and hopefully for further studies on the
The authors want to thank Randy Kojima FAAO, FSLS, FIAO
subject. It is not our intention to judge or to point toward any
from Pacific University (Oregon, USA) and the Medmont team
lens type or modality in particular.
in Australia for their help, support and contribution in generating
In our view, the changes in corneal topography we observed
the custom concentric ring topography difference maps. n
may indicate that it is time for a change going forward: a change in the way we assess ocular surface shape, and potentially in the way we fit and evaluate soft lenses on-eye. But work needs to be done – especially on the methods of how to best analyze ocular surface changes. Also we can, and should maybe, revisit Eef van der Worp, BOptom, PhD, FAAO, FIACLE, FBCLA, FSLS is an educator and researcher. He received his optometry degree from the Hogeschool
BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES 1 Schornack M. Hydrogel contact lens-induced corneal warpage. Cont Lens Ant Eye 2003;26:153-9. 2 Ng LT, Lee EM, Nguyen AL. Preoperative assessment of corneal and refractive stability in soft contact lens wearing photorefractive candidates. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 May;84(5):401-9. 3 Michael Collins, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia – personal communication. 4 Graeme Young. Mathematical model for evaluating soft contact lens fit. Optom Vis Sci. 2014 Jul;91(7):p. 810
van Utrecht in the Netherlands (NL) and has served as a head of the contact lens department at the school for over eight years. He received his PhD
Vincent Molkenboer is private practitioner and
from the University of Maastricht (NL) in 2008.
owner of a large contact lens practice in the
He is a fellow of the AAO, IACLE, BCLA and the
Netherlands. He received his optometry degree
SLS. He is currently affiliated with the University
from the Hogeschool van Utrecht (NL) in 2003. He
of Maastricht as an associate researcher, a visiting
is a contact lenses enthusiast in many aspects,
scientist at Manchester University (Manchester
especially when it comes to fitting the presbyopic
UK) and adjunct Professor at the University of Montreal University College of
eye. Vincent is the chairman of the scientific section
Optometry (CA) and adjunct assistant Professor at Pacific University College of
of the Dutch Contactlens Association (ANVC) since
Optometry (Oregon, USA). He is lecturing extensively worldwide and is a guest
2012 and is columnist for the Dutch contact lens
lecturer at a number of Universities in the US and Europe.
magazine “Contactlens Inside”.
!AZ.indd 12 25 20_Eef.indd
25.02.15 12:59 22:15 12.03.15
FITTING BACKGROUNDâ&#x20AC;&#x2026;Scleral Lens
Scleral lens induced conjunctival prolapse ... What we know in 2015 For eye care practitioners conjunctival prolapse is a new complication, never seen before in rigid, soft or hybrid contact lens wearers. Therefore it is appropriate that we review our current understanding of the condition from the perspective of its identification, etiology and management. By Patrick Caroline
Conjunctival prolapse is a scleral lens complication that occurs when the conjunctival tissue migrates over the limbus and onto the peripheral cornea (figure 1).
HOW OFTEN DOES THIS CONDITION OCCUR IN SCLERAL LENSES PATIENTS? I n ou r exper ience conjunctiva l prolapse occu rs in approximately 20-30% of scleral lens wearers and has been noted in patients with a wide range of corneal and/or ocular surface disease pathologies (figure 2). It occurs most often at the inferior corneal-scleral junction from 4:00 to 7:00 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock however, in rare cases we have seen it occur superiorly (figure 3). 26
1 Fig. 1: Conjunctival prolapse GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Scleral Lens FITTING BACKGROUND
2 Fig. 2: Conjunctiva prolapsed in a wide range of ocular conditions
HOW AND WHY DOES CONJUNCTIVAL PROLAPSE OCCUR? This question is best answered by first understanding why scleral lenses rarely center on the eye but, typically position more inferiorly and temporally. 3
INFERIOR DECENTRATION OF SCLERAL LENSES
Fig. 3: Superior positioned conjunctival prolapse
While the exact mechanisms for inferior decentration are unclear, we believe that it is multifactorial, involving 1, gravitational forces secondary to the weight of the lenses and the fact that the lenses are designed to completely clear the cornea and the limbus. 2, the “watermelon seed” effect of the upper lid pushing the lens down as it passes across the anterior surface of the lens. And, perhaps most importantly, 3, OCT observations at Pacific University have shown that the superior sclera is higher than the inferior sclera therefore, when the lens is placed onto the eye, it lands first at the point of greatest elevation (superiorly) which forces the lens towards the area of lesser resistance in the opposite direction inferiorly.
TEMPORAL DECENTRATION OF SCLERAL LENSES
We have a slightly greater understanding as to why scleral
Fig. 4: Temporal positioning of a scleral lens secondary to the nasal
lenses decenter temporally. We have observed that the nasal
sclera is significantly higher than the temporal sclera and that this finding appears to be greater in right eyes than in left eyes
flat (higher) nasal angle creates a horizontal asymmetry that
(figure 4). This height differential is related to the presence of
accounts for the temporal decentration of scleral lenses. It is
a “notch” on the nasal side of the sclera, at a chord of
no surprise that when the inferior and temporal decentration
approximately 13.0 mm (figure 5). The “notch” appears to be
forces are present that we see a quadrant of fluorescein thinning
related to the fact that as the nasal sclera approaches the
commonly located in the superior, nasal portion of the peripheral
peripheral cornea, it does so with a relatively flat angle. The
cornea (figure 6).
FITTING BACKGROUND Scleral Lens
TOPOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE IN CONJUNCTIVAL PROLAPSE
accurate assessment of the actual shape of the cornea (how
In assessing corneal topography two primary maps are used,
high or how low it is at any given point) is best seen with the
the axial display map and the elevation display map. The axial
map actually has little to do with the shape of the eye but instead,
The anterior corneal shape can influence the location of the
describes the dioptric power of the corneal surface. A more
prolapse. Figure 7 shows an eye with advanced keratoconus. The blue areas of the elevation maps represent the areas of greatest depression, thus the greatest tear layer depth. It is in these depressed areas that the conjunctiva is most susceptible, as the tear layer depth attempts to equalize its pressure. Just as epithelium is drawn towards the reverse curve of an orthokeratology lens, with conjunctival prolapsed the tissue is pulled (via negative pressure forces) into the area of greatest clearance. This can again be seen in a patient with advanced pellucid marginal degeneration in which conjunctival prolapse has occurred at both 4:00 and 8:00 (figure 8). Here, the axial display map shows the greatest dioptric curvature at 4:00 and 8:00 however, the elevation display map shows the corneal
surface highest from 10:00 to 2:00 and the lowest at 4:00 and
Fig. 5: The “nasal notch” (at approximately 13.0 mm appears
8:00. As with the previous patient, the conjunctival prolapse
to be related to the fact that as the nasal sclera approaches the
occurred exactly where the lens clearance was at its greatest.
peripheral cornea, it does so with a relatively flat angle)
It appears that in certain susceptible patients, the conjunctiva
The world benefits in motorized
will be “sucked” into any area in which significant lens clearance
exists. This environment is most often present inferiorly due to: 1. the slightly low positioning of scleral lenses and 2. the lower corneal height (inferior depression) commonly seen in pathologic
eyes like those with keratoconus or pellucid marginal degeneration.
WHAT ARE THE PRESSURE FORCES TAKING PLACE BENEATH SCLERAL CONTACT LENSES? The atmospheric pressure is greater than the pressure beneath a scleral contact lens, therefore a negative pressure system (suction force) is created, which “pushes” the lens onto the eye. The maximum pressure beneath a contact lens is provided by:
● Up to 121 D is lens diameter, and h is maximum tear layer depth. ● Flexible M The formula is complicated by the variation in tear layer depth ●lensOne time beneath a scleral lens. The tear film behind the scleral exerts a “squeeze film pressure” force, similar to that which takes place beneath an orthokeratology lens, in order to equalize tear ● theDry or W layer depth. In susceptible patients, the malleability of the conjunctiva makes it vulnerable to these forces, and ● it is “pulled” Non-mov onto the peripheral surface of the cornea, resulting in the prolapse. water mana ARE THERE ANY LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS Ppeak = 4.5(μVD2/h 03)
Fig. 6: The inferior/temporal positioning of scleral lenses results in the classic thinning of fluorescein noted in the superior/nasal quadrant
Where μ is tear viscosity, V is velocity of lens toward eye, 0
TO CONJUNCTIVAL PROLAPSE? Historically, we have always considered conjunctival prolapse
to be a relatively benign phenomena, however, recent observations
Fig. 7: The axial and elevation display maps of a patient with
of long-term prolapse have shown adherence of the prolapsed
advanced keratoconus with a subsequent scleral lens induced,
conjunctiva to the corneal surface. It appears that in some
patients, the prolapsed conjunctiva forms synechia that cannot Lambda-X s.a. • Av. Robert Schuman 102 • B-1400 Nivelle Lamb La Tel. : +32 (0) 67 79 40 80 • Fax. : +32 (0)GlobalCONTACT 67 551-1527 91 • inf Tel.Te:
conjunctival prolapsed at 8:00 28
Scleral Lens FITTING BACKGROUND
Fig. 8: The axial and elevation display maps of a patient with
Fig. 9: In some patients, the prolapsed conjunctiva forms synechia
advanced pellucid marginal degeneration with a subsequent
that cannot be easily broken by manual manipulation
scleral lens induced, conjunctival prolapsed at 4:00 and 8:00 be easily broken by manual manipulation (figure 9). Synechia
Prof. Patrick J. Caroline, Clinical Consultant in
are most commonly associated with internal adhesions of the
the areas of Contact Lens Research and New
iris to the cornea or to the crystalline lens however, external
Product Development for Contamac.
adhesions can be seen in conditions such as psudo pterygia and
He serves as an Associate Professor at Pacific University College of Optometry and Assistant
world famous NIMO technology and efits in a brand new ALL IN ONE orized instrument now... in some cases of conjunctival prolapse. This brings into
Professor of Ophthalmology at the Oregon
question: What are the long-term effects of conjunctival prolapse
Health & Sciences University in Portland, Oregon.
on the peripheral cornea, limbus and conjunctival tissues?
He team teaches the contact lens curriculum. He is a Fellow member and Diplomat of the
Further long term studies on this condition are clearly indicated.
Cornea and Contac t Lens Sec tion of the
Despite this finding, we continue to consider conjunctival prolapse
American Academy of Optometry. He is a Council member of the International
to be a relatively benign complication. We believe that as we learn
Society for Contact Lens Research as well as a member of the International Association of Contact Lens Educators and the American Association of
more about the complication, we will be better able to manage
Optometric Educators. For the past fifteen years Prof. Caroline has served
the condition. This will most likely take place in the form of
as a contributing editor for the Contact Lens Spectrum and is on the editorial
asymmetrical scleral lens designs in which corneal/limbal clearance
board for Contact Lens and Anterior Eye Journal. He is an internationally recognized lecturer and researcher on contact lenses.
can be better controlled 360 degrees around the eye. n
to 121 IOL measured in a single click ! xible Matrix tray definition e time calibration or Wet measurement The world famous NIMO technology and The world famous NIMO technology and benefits brand new ALL benefits inin aa brand new ALL ININ ONE ONE motorized instrument motorized instrument n-moving IOL Matrix tray for an easy r management
● Up ● Up toto 121121 IOL IOL measured measured in in a single a single click click! ! ● Flexible ● Flexible Matrix Matrix tray tray definition definition ● One ● One time time calibration calibration ● Dry ● Dry oror Wet Wet measurement measurement ● Non-moving ● Non-moving IOL IOL Matrix Matrix tray tray forfor anan easy easy water water management management
Nivelles • Belgium Lambda-X Lambda-X s.a.s.a. • Av. • Av. Robert Robert Schuman Schuman 102102 • B-1400 • B-1400 Nivelles Nivelles • Belgium • Belgium 91 • firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.Tel. : +32 : +32 (0)(0) 6767 7979 4040 8080 • Fax. • Fax. : +32 : +32 (0)(0) 6767 5555 2727 91 91 • email@example.com • firstname.lastname@example.org !AZ.indd 6 26_Contamac.indd 29
04.02.15 15:53 16:40 11.03.15
BUSINESS + MARKETINGâ&#x20AC;&#x2026;Manufacturing
The legacy lab First, what is a legacy lab? I define it as a lens producing facility that uses processes that are centered on machinery and tooling that has been superseded by equipment and procedures in use in the last decade. By Erik Larsen A short list of the legacy tools includes: manual lathes, three-
5. Tapered or screw-on blocking tools: These tools have poor
axis air-bearing CNC lathes, lens blanks in collets, tapered
security on the lathe spindle and internal debris affects prism
or screw-on blocking tools, spin blocking, pitch polishing,
control. Used with a collet blocker, this system can be prone
manual inspection and manual order-entry and tracking. Some
to poor centration.
of these items are still in use even in productive labs; producing
6. Spin blocking: This procedure is dependent on the skill and
spheres and aspheres. Here are the effects of each of the above
attention of the operator, and greatly limits the precision of
the blocking process. 7. Pitch polishing: This procedure has many operator influences
1. Manual lathes: These lathes are limited in the lens designs that they can produce. The poor surface quality requires
8. Manual inspection: This process can be dependent on the operator.
9. Manual order entry and tracking: The potential for lathe set
2. Three-axis CNC lathe: These lathes are limited to corneal and mini-scleral designs.
and is useful only for spheres.
up and date entry errors should not be underestimated. The continued use of these older items and practices can be a
4. Lens blanks in collets: This practice can result in poor
major source of reject lenses or may require substantial rework
centration control, distortion leading to poor optics and
of the lens at final inspection. The rejects can range from prism,
possible tilt leading to edge thickness variation problems
surface defects, and wettability problems, poor optics, radius/
especially with scleral lenses.
power errors, and data entry errors, among others. GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Manufacturingâ&#x20AC;&#x2026; BUSINESS + MARKETING
This is not to say that the legacy lab doesn't invest in new
both soft lens and RGP corneal designs. At some point in the
equipment. I have seen labs that buy a new lathe, blocker, and
future, they may produce scleral lenses, so it would be good to
polishers to an amount of a few hundred thousand dollars and
have an easy transition to that process. Their advantage, as I
then continue to use their old blocking tooling. The cost of new
see it, is the unbiased and "no baggage" approach to the
blocking tooling for a lab that is producing 100 corneal lenses
per day would be less than $1000. New precision tooling gives
We would recommend the machines and tooling and process
the lab manager a repeatable process that can be validated.
to produce these lenses. The benefit to the start-up is that we
This will give the production manager control over the system
will work with the production manager and staff to be trained
comprised of the lathe collet, blocking tool, and blocking
in contemporary CL manufacturing practices; keeping in mind
machine. By measuring radial run-out and making the indicated
that in five to ten years new processes and/or machinery will
adjustment, precision control of prism will be realized.
dictate production changes in the lab. This means the lab owner can be assured of having a state of the art facility that can
Here is an example of legacy blocking tools. There has been a
concentrate on the front office and sales, growing the company
notion to use oversize blocking tools (see GlobalCONTACT
rather than managing the minutia of lens manufacturing. It is
2014_03). The reason for this approach was to provide a firm
easier to leave that to the lab manager/support group partnership.
clamping force on the blocking tool while being able to place
By that, I am referring to the relationship the production manager
a lens blank in the same collet without needing to adjust the
has with the machinery/tooling/consumables vendors.
collet clamping force to provide a delicate force on the blank. The procedure does allow the use of one collet for both front
Now, let's look at the start-up from the veteran lab owner's
curve and base curve production. The problem with this
perspective. The concept of a start-up is foreign to most seasoned
procedure is the over-stressing of the collet and the lens blank.
lab owners. If he/she were to consider the four points listed
In the case of the collet, the oversize tools may permanently
above, they might decide not to get into the business. But let's
damage the collet. In the case of the lens blank, clamping the
assume that they want to stay in. They may be considering a
lens blank can yield poor optics.
new location or a secondary production facility possibly in a different country. This could be an opportunity to train new
There is a secondary effect that the legacy lab has had on our
people in contemporary lab practices as if it was truly a start-up.
industry around the world. This effect has happened many
This would require that the lab owner accept the contemporary
times in technology transfers to developing markets. I have
practices and hire a production manager who will promote
visited many labs where the owner partnered with a US or
them. This must be difficult, because I don't see that happening
European lab to start a lab in their country. Visiting such a lab
is like going back in time. Yes, they may have invested in new
There is a side benefit to adopting the contemporary process;
equipment, as I mentioned above, but they use the tooling design
if the implementation is successful, the lab owner can install
and the old processes, including pitch polishing from the parent
it in the original lab.
lab. As with the example about the collet above, the "daughter" lab adopted the same collet/lens blank procedure. Even with
The start-up culture is one of forward thinking process planning.
new equipment, they were still having random prism problems
It is a culture of improvement. I know of a few labs that maintain
due to the mismatch of the blocking tools and the lathe and
the startup culture. The goal is to improve the production level
blocker collets. I have found the resistance to improvement/
and or lens quality every year. Everyone in the company is
change is greater in the daughter labs than in the parent lab.
engaged in the goal. One could say, with reason, that this is an unrealistic goal after several years. But the culture that is
NOW LET'S COMPARE THE LEGACY LAB TO A NEW START-UP LAB
developed can stay in place and continue to generate a successful enterprise. One thing is for sure, this lab stays current. n
I'm going to make some assumptions about the new (ideal) lab owner. She/he is: 1. Well-funded.
Erik Larsen graduated from the University of Washington with a Mechanical Engineering degree in 1981 and started Larsen Equipment Design later
2. Understands the market.
that year. Erik Larsen has industry awards from
3. Understands the regulatory environment in the market.
CLMA and EFCLIN.
4. Understands the need for a trainable production manager. In the case of a new lab owner; going into the start-up process, this owner is looking into machinery and the process to produce GlobalCONTACT 1-15
REPORTâ&#x20AC;&#x2026;Prevention of Blindness
Optometry Giving Sight Ten year anniversary statement For the past ten years, Optometry Giving Sight has been the only global fundraising initiative to specifically target the prevention of blindness and impaired vision due to uncorrected refractive errors (URE). Our efforts generate the support needed to provide sustainable access to criticallyneeded vision care and eye wear.
Optometry Giving Sight and its project partners have made
their goal of eliminating blindness and impaired vision due
a significant impact on the lives of hundreds of thousands of
to uncorrected refractive error.
families and communities over the past decade, and w dedicated
Our yearly fundraising event coincides with World Sight Day
to having an even greater impact in the years ahead. Only
and is a global event where the optometry community comes
Optometry Giving Sight seeks to mobilize support from the
together to raise funds for our many eye care initiatives. In
vision care profession and optometric and optical industry to
2014 we had the enthusiastic participation of optometry
support high impact optometry education, training and
students from the Fielmann Akademie in Hamburg and the
advocacy projects from a broad range of partners, united in
Aalen University. n
The photo of the elderly woman from Africa: 72-year-old
The photo of the boys writing: As part of its outreach activities
Berenice had her eyes examined at the Vision Plus Eye Clinic
to celebrate World Sight Day, the India Vision Institute organised
in Cap Haitien and was given her very first pair of glasses.
comprehensive eye examinations for over 200 school children
"My view is much clearer now! I love my glasses," she said.
with support from Optometry Giving Sight and Alcon Foundation.
Optometry Giving Sight was pleased to fun the equipment
Students from government schools in Chennai were presented
for the Bobby and Jayne Christensen Refraction and Training
with free spectacles on World Sight Day. The students pictured are
Room at the clinic. (Photo courtesy from our Project Partners -
writing to express their thanks and sincere appreciation now that
Vision for the Poor, International Eye Foundation.)
they can see clearly. (Photo courtesy India Vision Institute.)
Dear Mr Spangemacher, the whole GlobalCONTACT-Team congratulates to your 70th birthday
REPORT Opaque contact lenses
Introducing the Ganzfeld contact lens Contact lenses are widely used for refractive correction of vision all over the world and are a great success. Our field has room to grow and expand into new markets that are not refractive. In this article, we will explore a non-refractive contact lens that has more uses than you think. By Tom Baugh
“Ganzfeld” is a term coined in 1930 by the famed German
or multicolored. While the lens comfort and feel would be very
Psychologist Wolfgang Metzger to describe a uniform,
important, a soft lens of disposable nature would be ideal with
featureless, full field of view often called an "empty field".
low solution expense and sterility assured in one time lens use.
Examples include the inside of clouds or fog, unlit cave interiors,
New cast mold lens reproduction may be ideal for a rapid, varied
and the view with the eyes blocked. Recently a device to create
SKU inventory. Our current lens production machinery can all
a Ganzfeld using tennis balls cut in two was published to the
be used with minor adaptation.
internet (in 2008) and had over two million views that year. Strap on featureless goggles are also made that create an
I have carefully thought about wearing and using the Ganzfeld
adequate Ganzfeld field of view. Could an opaque contact lens
lenses for several years. So has the US patent office where I
create a much better field to experience the effect now called
have a file pending. The US patent examiner has indicated that
the Ganzfeld Phenomena? A lot of things can occur in the use
Ganzfeld lenses can change everything about contact lens use.
of these lenses. Examples include meditation, lucid dreaming,
That is why I'm telling readers of GlobalCONTACT magazine
altered states of consciousness, hypnogogic and hypnotic effects,
now. Only USA sales would be subject to any patent expense.
music and auditory enhancement, extra sensory perception, “psi” phenomena, remote viewing, heightened sensory effects,
Many more Ganzfeld lens phenomena have just begun to be
including therapeutic massage, sexual touch experience, and
explored in this undiscovered land within our visual system.
as a tool in biological and psychological research.
Production of safely worn Ganzfeld soft contact lenses would offer a new opportunity for contact lens fitting and knowledge.
HERE IS A PROPOSED GANZFELD LENS:
Please contact me if I can help. n
A well-made, fully opaque soft contact lens could improve upon present goggles or mask devices in providing less compromise in the Ganzfeld visual field. Some contact lens measurements would be different. The lens might be larger, like 15 mm, to give good coverage of the cornea and occlude
D r. To m B a u g h (D e n i s o n , Te x a s) i s a n optometrist, contact lens inventor and writer for GlobalCONTAC T. Your comments are welcome at email@example.com
light. No lens Rx would be needed. Few base curves, either. Opaque tint color could include white to black and all colors in between, extending as far as lens edge to edge. Colors used affect the Ganzfeld. The lens material itself could be opaque 34
The Future of Hydrophilic IOL Manufacturing Efficient, Precise & Productive
For samples of this new product contact Lorrie Pomroy at firstname.lastname@example.org Benz Quality. Benz Innovation. benzrd.com
HISTORY Vision and Eyecare
Only after it became possible to replace glass – which was fragile and difficult to machine – by the plastic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was the way opened up for modern contact lenses. The new material known as Plexiglas, once heated, could be formed easily so that lenses could now be molded directly to fit the eye. And this was badly needed: the high number of eye injuries as a result of World War II called for new therapeutic approaches. Posttraumatic irregular corneal astigmatism could now be corrected by a contact lens. Their now historical shape as scleral lens or shell played a vital role here.
Thermoplastic molded scleral lenses Series on the Roth Collection In the middle of the last century, irregular corneal astigmatism was the most important indication for contact lenses. This was due to wounds sustained on the battlefield or injuries caused by bomb attacks. The best way to deal with the corneal scars which resulted was through optical contact lenses. But high myopia or aphakia, too, which could only be corrected with difficulty using glasses, soon became additional areas of application of early contact lenses. By Hans-Walter Roth
However the process of lens manufacture during the war and
turn was then used as a mold to create a thin plastic disc made
postwar years was complicated and expensive. First, a cast had
of Plexiglas pressed together under heat and high pressure.
to be made of the eyeball. For this, after administering a few
After cooling, the inner contour was an exact replica of the
drops of a cocaine solution to the eye, the cast of the front part
cornea and conjunctiva of the patient. As with implants the
of the eye was made, initially out of plaster and later with
plastic used initially came from the cockpits of aircraft which
hydrogels used in dentistry. This was certainly not without the
had been shot down.
added complication of tears, because the corneal epithelium had a tendency to stick to the cast material.
As it was already known at the time that a plane-parallel fitted scleral lens worn on the eye quickly led to the
After being allowed to dry and cure, the plaster mold thus
degeneration of the corneal metabolism, everything had to
created was filled with metal to create a positive form. This in
be rethought. Thus flattened surfaces, channels and holes GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Vision and Eyecare HISTORY
were tried in order to improve tear circulation. The edges
Such old scleral shells or lenses can be found occasionally at
of the lens were also deburred and rounded. After smoothing
flea markets or auctions on the Internet. Not many will have
and polishing the optical zone in the middle of the lens was
been preserved; the few remaining ones are likely to be in the
ground. These lenses were still not very comfortable and
showcases of collectors of old optical equipment. The undamaged
thus the wearing time was limited. Nevertheless such scleral
specimen shown here is from a kind patient with high myopia
lenses or shells remained available as a last resort, particularly
who donated this item to the collection. The lens, she assured
for compensating irregular corneal astigmatism or correcting
me, was once worn by her grandfather who presumably suffered
high refractive errors. Little is known about the comfort of
from the same condition. Today she herself is the satisfied
such lenses but it is likely they could only be tolerated by
wearer of two highly gas permeable corneal lenses from the
the eye for a few hours at a time.
same manufacturer. n
The power of the scleral lens shown here is -12.25D, the diameter of the optical zone 9.1 mm and the overall diameter 24.1 mm. The value of the central inner curve is from 7.2 to 7.9 mm. The peak height is 8.2 mm and the central thickness 0.4 mm. The surviving original box, made of Bakelite, reveals the name of the manufacturer to be Müller-Welt who produced such lenses by hand in Stuttgart until 1952. This one has the number 704 marked on the edge. Since the Müller-Welt archive was lost during a bombing raid, the total period of production can only be guessed.
Dr. Hans-Walter Roth The ophthalmologist Dr. Hans-Walter Roth from Ulm is the long-time Chairman of the Editorial Advisory Board of DER AUGENSPIEGEL and author of numerous articles on ophthalmology and contact lenses. He is planning to set up a technical museum, among other things to display his own extensive collection on the “history of the eye and seeing”. Already in the past, exhibits have been shown from time to time at exhibitions, such as on the occasion of the jubilee celebrations of the Ulm University and at the ECLSO Congress in Ulm. He is Director of the Institut für wissenschaftliche Kontaktoptik in Ulm, Germany.
ADVANCING THE ART OF
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www.kydiamond.ca 2645 Diab, St-Laurent (Qc) H4S 1E7, Canada T.: 514 333 5605 F.: 514 339 5493
36_Roth.indd 37 !AZ.indd 9
11.03.15 13.02.15 15:57 12:21
The GP Lens Institute 2015 The GP Lens Institute (GPLI) is the educational division of the Contact Lens Manufacturers Association (CLMA). The GPLI is dedicated to providing practitioners and students with a comprehensive array of resources and programs – most of which are online at www.gpli.info – to enable them to become more knowledgeable and proficient with the fitting and follow-up care of both GP and custom specialty soft contact lenses. By Dr. Ed Bennett
The GPLI was founded in 1985 when a small, independent
who regularly provide input – and often contribute content
group of practitioners and industry representatives met to
– to GPLI programs and resources.
discuss the need for GP lens education. From a modest beginning the GPLI has grown to become a focal point for worldwide specialty contact lens education. The GPLI-team
Most of the GPLI resources are available online under
includes Dr. Ed Bennett, who has served as Executive Director
“Education: Lens Types”. A large number of different resources,
since 1988, Jan Svochak, President of the CLMA, the CLMA
including archived webinars, are provided under each of the
Board of Directors, Daren Nygren, Chair of the CLMA GP
following seven topics:
Committee, Pam Witham, Administrative Director of the
• spherical GP lenses • bitoric/high astigmatism • corneal reshaping • scleral lenses • keratoconus/post-surgical • presbyopia/multifocals • soft specialty senses
CLMA, webmaster Ron Walker of Access Media Group and Publisher of allaboutvision.com, and Wink Productions (i.e., Sue Connelly Schnell and Ursula Lotzkat), who are responsible for producing many of the GPLI educational programs. In addition, the lifeblood of the GPLI is the GPLI Advisory Board, a group of 74 outstanding contact lens specialists 38
GPLI PROGRAMS AND RESOURCES
For example, for more basic tools,
HOW ABOUT THE CONSUMER?
there are several resources in the
There are several resources for the consumer as well. The
“Spherical GP Lenses” category.
“Building Your Practice with GP Bifocals & Multifocals”
“Click N’ Fit” is an interactive
module has a downloadable brochure as well as a reading
empir ical GP f luorescein
card available to consumers. In addition, the consumer
evaluation program with an 18
partner to www.gpli.info, www.contactlenses.org, has a large
lens diagnostic set. Changes in
number of articles, FAQs, and videos – with a GP emphasis
lens design can be viewed, the
– to benefit consumers.
impact of these changes on the fit can be viewed, and information
NEW AND UPCOMING PROGRAMS AND RESOURCES
pertaining to how to optimize the
The GPLI has recently introduced a “Laboratory Consultants
fit will be provided. A 52 case
Q & A” module, which consists of over 20 common questions
Grand Rounds Troubleshooting
asked to laboratory consultants and multiple responses to each
Guide provides unique concise
question. As no one knows a given design/material better than
cases in all areas of GP lenses (i.e.,
those who manufacture it and troubleshoot cases for a living,
spher ica l, tor ic, mu lt i fo ca l,
this is an important resource. The new “Coding and Billing”
keratoconus, post-surgical, and
module, under the direction of Dr. Clarke Newman, is a
c o r n e a l r e sh a pi ng). Seve r a l
valuable resource for those responsible for obtaining
ca lculators a re ava i lable for
reimbursement for specialty lenses. A new webinar, serving
determining empirical lens design
as a primer for anyone interested in GP spherical, corneal
parameters for both spherical
reshapi ng, bitor ic, a nd mult i foca l lens f it t i ng a nd
designs (i.e., the “GPLI Toric and
troubleshooting, has recently been introduced. Entitled: “GP
Spherical Lens Calculator”) and
Contact Lens Case Grand Rounds”, it includes cases pertaining
tor ic lens desig ns ( b ot h t he
to each of these areas and their management.
Mandell-Moore Guide and the
The GP Lens Institute, although based in the United States,
GPLI Toric and Spherical Lens Calculator). In addition, a
has made efforts, via having some resources translated, others
video program, entitled: “GP Fitting, Evaluation, and
made available to the World Council of Optometry, and via
Troubleshooting” provides videos on how to evaluate GP
support of Optometry Giving Sight, to be a valuable
lenses as well as common problems and their resolution.
international resource for GP and custom soft lens education.
The presbyopia/multifocals category includes a 17 component
Ideas for new programs and resources are always welcome
module entitled: “Building Your Practice with GP Bifocals &
and can be emailed to me at email@example.com. n
Multifocals”. This includes powerpoints and video programs that provide valuable information for practitioners on patient selection, communicating the options, lens design and fitting, and a dynamic fee calculator, which can be used for other contact lens designs as well. In addition, for staff there is a handling patient telephone inquiries, scripts to answer patient questions, a presenting options card, a glossary of terminology, and GP lens application and removal videos.
WEBINARS The GPLI hosts a monthly educational webinar provided by a renowned expert in the topic to be presented. Popular seminars have pertained to scleral lenses, multifocal fitting and evaluation, specialty soft lenses, corneal reshaping, toric GP lenses, and specialty lens care. Numerous opportunities are provided throughout the webinar for attendees to ask questions. If the time is not convenient to view the webinar all webinars are archived on the website to allowing viewing at one’s convenience. In fact over 35 webinars have been archived with numerous presentations pertaining to topics of most interest to practitioners. GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Edward S. Bennett, O.D., M.S.Ed. received his Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) degree from the Indiana University School of Optometry and his M.S.Ed. degree in Educational Psychology from the Indiana University School of Education. Dr. Bennett is currently Professor and Assistant Dean for Student Services and Alumni Relations at the University of Missouri-St. Louis College of Optometry. Dr. Bennett is currently Executive Director of the Gas Permeable (GP) Lens Institute, the educational division of the Contact Lens Manufacturers Association (CLMA) and is past Chair of the Association of Optometric Contact Lens Educators (AOCLE). He currently serves as Secretary of the Contact Lens and Cornea Section Council of the American Optometric Association(AOA). He is also the past President of the MD-OD Contact Lens Foundation of St. Louis. He is a Diplomate and is a past Chair for the Cornea, Contact Lens and Refractive Technologies Section of the American Academy of Optometry and is also a Fellow in the Scleral Lens Education Society.
How we communicate with figures Communication with words is not always easy. And when figures become a part of it, it might even be more complicated. By Wim Aalbers A few years ago, a very rich lady decided to build a house in
in Seattle told me it was 1,332 miles to Denver to meet
Palm Beach in the US. House is maybe not the correct description
Al Vaske, it turned out to be way over two thousand kilometers
for the palace she had in mind. Anyway, she hired a local
and not two…
constructor who was used to sometimes the strange wishes of
To make it all more confusing, there is a third way the “.” is
his Palm Beach clientele. She also hired a fashionable modern
used. In scientific circles “9.615” would be 9 times 615 = 5535
French architect who exactly understood the special requirements
(in the US 5.535, in Europe 5,535).
of rich ladies in Palm Beach.
But even that is not all…
The drawing came and the lady was very enthusiastic and accepted
In the UK there is a third notation system. Instead of the US
the final design from the French architect. The constructor started
notation 9.615, they still sometimes use “·”, a dot, placed a bit
building expeditiously and all went prosperous. Until they started
higher than the regular dot. Mathematicians all over the world
building the front door. The parameters of that door, according
might be tricked and read 9·615 as 5535. (I left out the “.” or “,”
to the drawing, had to be 25 feet high and 16 feet wide… The
to avoid any further confusion, if that is not the case already…).
French architect indeed clearly defined the door size as: 300 X 192. But he forgot to communicate about what standard to be used: centimeters or inches. Disturbed communication by different standards (figure 1).
SOME RESEARCH MADE IT CLEAR WHERE ALL THIS CONFUSION COMES FROM We learn that several scientists in the past have been working on a system that could be used universally. Simon Stevin was
BUT EVEN ONLY NUMBERS CAN CAUSE DRAMATIC MISCOMMUNICATION
one of the first in 1585. I will not explain his system because it was even more complicated than all the three systems together
When a European tells an American that he easily can do 100
we have now. (It had to do with circles around the figures,
meters in 9.615 seconds, the American might be very impressed
indication tenths, hundreds and so on).
because in his perception only Yohan Blake, Tyson Gay and
In his book Rabdology (figure 2), John Napier introduced in
Usain Bolt were faster at that distance.
1617 the dot to indicate that after that dot decimal figures were
What the European joker actually is saying that he did the
expected. In the same book however, he used the comma as
100 meters in 1 hour, 20 minutes and 15 seconds. That is
well, so confusion about the subject was born.
what 9.615 means in Europe: nine thousand, six hundred
In the 18th century, Gottfried Leibnitz proposed to use the
and fifteen seconds.
higher place dot (“·”) as multiplication sign. Then all over
The 9.615 in America would be noted as 9,615 in Europe.
Europe it was decided that the comma was used in decimal
When running in Europe seems to be easier, distances in the
figures. Except in Britain (of course…). They decided to use
US are much longer than Europeans expect. When Erik Larsen
the “X” in multiplication and the “·” in decimal figures.
Fig. 2: Page of the book Rabdology by John Napier
Fig. 3: Wine party, but where?
For unknown reasons the Americans chose for the comma
CONCLUSION • If there is a party, go to Europe. Preferably to Rome where
instead of the European decimal dot. And to make things worse, at a certain point in time, the English decided to replace the “X” for “.”.
you will lose track of how much you have been drinking after the first two liters anyway.
I will give you an example how all this could cause tremendous
• Athletics in Europe is more relaxed than in the US since
misunderstandings. Let’s analyze the volume of the wine served
you can take a few hours to reach the same result as Usain
at that party as our example (figure 3). In a press release it was
Bolt when he run his record.
mentioned that at this party 4.546 liters of wine were served. Europeans get the impression that far over four thousand liters of wine were consumed. Americans however believe
• The distance from Seattle to Denver is much longer than Europeans expect.
• And the English… well, the English… n
only a bit over four and a half liter was used, which is 1,2 US gallon (in the US notation). The British however are convinced that 2184 liters were used, which is exactly one Imperial Gallon.
Wim Aalbers was Executive Director of EFCLIN until 2011. He wrote the columns "Something Else" since 1992. Active in the industry since 1972. He wrote for GlobalCONTACT since it was founded in 1992.
And finally the Romans, they used MMMMDXLVI liters at the same party...
Prof. Patrick J. Caroline, Clinical Consultant in the areas of Contact Lens Research and New
OptiSpheric IOL PRO 2 ®
IOL Testing Fast and Automated
Product Development.for Contamac. He serves as an Associate Professor at Pacific University College of Optometry and Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology at the Oregon Health & Sciences University in Portland, Oregon. He team teaches the contact lens curriculum. He is a Fellow member and Diplomat of the
• Production instrument for simple and fast testing of IOL batches • IOL measurement in air or in situ according to ISO 11979 standard • Measurement of all types of IOLs: including multifocal, diffractive, trifocal and toric lenses
40_Wim.indd !AZ.indd 7 41 Tri_Anzeige_OptiSpheric_210x99_RZ.indd 1
Cornea and Contac t Lens Sec tion of the • Measurement parameters: Academy of Optometry. He is a Council member of the International power, add power,American cylinder, Society for Contact Lens Research as well as a member of the International MTF, toric marks, radius of Association of Contact Lens Educators and the American Association of curvature, throughOptometric focus Educators. For the past fifteen years Prof. Caroline has served as a contributing editor for the Contact Lens Spectrum and is on the editorial scans, energy distribution board for Contact Lens and Anterior Eye Journal. He is an internationally recognized lecturer and researcher on contact lenses.
12.03.15 11.02.15 16:28 12:35 05.02.15 16:25
Alcohol, Sewer, Statistics – Presbyopes: do I have your attention? By Eef van der Worp
Statistics: a fantastic subject. If you like it, that is. It can also
a given population. Back to our first example: the age at which
be pretty frustrating and confusing. Let me share some statistics
most people died in 1860 wasn’t 37, but 73 years of age. The
with you from my hometown and country. In 1860, the mean
difference can be explained by the high rate of infant mortality
life expectancy in the Netherlands was extremely low at 37
at the time. Today, the average life expectancy in the Netherlands
years. Not because the Dutch drink so much alcohol. Well, that
is 78 years of age, while the age at which there’s the highest
too actually (remember, the Dutch invented gin!). But there is
frequency of becoming deceased is 85 years of age.
another explanation. In today’s thinking, 37 years of age is extremely young. Maybe not for a 16-year-old, but to me it is,
Another example of the essence of good statistics is the
and also for the optical profession as a whole: where were the
Amsterdam sewer system. Up and well into the 1900s, faeces
presbyopes in 1860? It would be quite a drain for the optical
in Amsterdam were dumped into our famous canals. The smell
industry today if all presbyopes would vanish.
in the city was horrible. Epidemics occurred frequently because of this. With the introduction of statistics, one was able to prove
We love “mean”, or the equivalent “average”. But that is not
a correlation between the hygienic circumstances and the death
always the best statistic. Especially if there are outliers, then
rates in these years. In the second half of the 1900s, technical
mean or average is not always a good measure. For many statistical
and scientific developments helped improve the situation
instruments, the rule is that there has to be a “bell curve”
dramatically, with a huge impact on the general health of the
distribution. That means a normal distribution, with a peak in
citizens of the city.
the middle and increasing flatting at either side of the peak in frequency. The median, on the other hand, is the numerical value
Even if you don’t like statistics: this evidence solves the mystery
separating the higher half of a data sample from the lower half.
of the “missing” presbyope in the late 1800s. Surely, there are
In other words, 50% of the values are below the median and 50%
enough of them around today. All we need is some good
of the values are above the median. If we don’t see the “bell
multifocal contact lenses for them, as many of them would like
curve” distribution (or maybe a beer-belly curve in the Dutch
to see without reading glasses. Oh wait, we already have them:
case), then the “median” may be a better metric: here 50% of the
RGP multifocal lenses! Simply offering and trying them would
distribution is under this value, and 50% above that. A good
do. But let’s not forget the importance of lens care, and to wash
example is income: typically the average income is higher than
our hands. The relationship between hygiene and infections is
the median income value. A few super-rich “spoil” the data here.
– indeed – statistically significantly proven. n
Back to the presbyope: here the median is not all that helpful either, actually. In this case, the “mode” may be the statistic of choice. This is the distribution that is seen most frequently in 42
www.basisinkomen.nl www.wikipedia.nl www.onsamsterdam.nl GlobalCONTACT 1-15
CONFERENCES & TRADE FAIRS 2015
March 14 - 15 2015
World Cornea Congress
April 15 - 17 2015
San Diego, USA
April 16 - 19 2015
May 7 - 9 2015
May 14 - 17 2015
Freiburger KL Tage
May 16 - 17 2015
May 24 - 28 2015
Manchester, United Kingdom
May 29 - 31 2015
Liverpool, United Kingdom
July 10 -12 2015
Aug 29 - Sep 3 2015
St. Gallen, Switzerland
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FITTING BACKGROUND Contact Lens Design
A new era in RGP When a revolutionary RGP geometry fits like a soft contat lens When we talk about RGP contact lenses, often many contact lens opticians consider them to be an obsolete fitting solution, due to a recurring issue: discomfort. Discomfort is a specific feeling that occurs when two elements are not well balanced: a good fitting relationship between the contact lens and the cornea, due to an inadequate geometry and an excessive interference between edge and eyelids. By Marco Tovaglia
A new concept design, that has become a different fitting
The “E-value” is a parameter determined through topography;
philosophy for TSLAC, is “3L” a multi-conical profile that allows
knowing this value, allows using total diameters larger than
obtaining a bio-mechanical respect for the cornea and maximizing
traditional RGP geometries, following the corneal shape in
comfort. Slit lamp observations, in fluoroscopic checks and
both the peripheral and central area, consequently obtaining
topographical analysis at removal, have convinced TSLAC that
an important quality: comfort. Fitting a contact lens design
the revolutionary 3L design could create a new era in the RGP
that covers about 90% of the total corneal surface, reduces
fitting approach. Design and verification are the two main stages
interactions with the eyelids while blinking and gives the
of the practical process that thrill eye care specialists and enhance
the work of the manufacturer. For this reason, the new RGP 3L
Another successful factor is the particular front surface
design by TSLAC came under research and development. An
shape that minimizes transition areas between the front
optimal adjustment underlines the fact that the new 3L development
optical zone and peripheral curves. This makes blinking
enhances the quality of TSLAC production, making it one of the
effortless and comfortable. The 3L fluoresceinic pattern
leading products of its category (figure 1 + figure 2). The innovation
highlights a mimetic link with the topographical shape, this
introduced with 3L is based on multiple aspects that influence
permits maximum fitting-relationship between the contact
comfort and adjustment; the most important of which is the
lens and the shape of the cornea; for the entire inner surface
multi-aspheric design that ensures compliance with the corneal
the lens and the cornea are perfectly aligned, especially in
profile through an intimate morphologic adaptation.
the landing zone, where e-value changes due to eye GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Contact Lens Design FITTING BACKGROUND
Fig. 1, Fig. 2: Design and verification are the two main stages of the practical process that thrill eye care specialists and enhance the work of the manufacturer. morphology. The peripheral bevel raises the limbal ring
easier, even to those who stopped using soft contact lenses. In
profile and maintains a suitable proportion with the edge of
fact a 3L experience is so challenging it could become the first
the lens; this allows a high degree of subjective comfort.
choice in a new fitting approach for practitioners and could
Another key aspect to the 3L design is the implementation
re-evaluate RGP lenses as an important opportunity to obtain
of the epithelium and eye thelium and eye health (figure 3).
an excellent visual acuity with maximum comfort and corneal
Clinical trials, conducted by the TSLAC Professional Service
health results. n
during design development, confirmed 3L as a very efficient design and is now considered the company’s main answer to
Marco Tovaglia FBCLA, Professional Service
the needs of contact lens specialist and wearers alike, in the
Manager of TSLAC Italy. Also he has worked for
early stages of the contact lens fitting process. 3L is mainly for regular corneas, but it is also deduced to early keratoconus, with a high comfort success rate. This revolutionary geometry may also be selected in toric back-surface, in front surface and in multifocal. Fitting 3L lenses makes every RGP approach
many important contact lens companies since 1987. At the same time, private Contact Lens Practitioner. TSLAC Contact Lens Project Design Manager. Industry Contact Lens Educator (IACLE). He’s writing on several important italian optometry and contact lens magazines
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IACLE launches agenda for future of global contact lens education
In addition to IACLE members, delegates will attend from
How might augmented reality and wearable technologies be
(AOCLE) and British Universities Committee of Contact Lens
used alongside iPads and e-books in contact lens teaching of
the Association of Optometric Contact Lens Educators
the future? That’s just one of the intriguing questions to be Third IACLE World Congress on Contact Lens Education. The
Do you have a “hot shot” for the 2015 BCLA photo competition?
four-day meeting of the International Association of Contact
The British Contact Lens Association (BCLA) is inviting all
Lens Educators will be hosted by the University of Manchester,
“happy snappers” to now submit their entries online for this
UK from 24th to 28th May 2015.
year’s photographic competition, by the closing date of Friday
The theme for the congress is “Shaping the Future of Contact
24 April. The prestigious BCLA photographic competition
Lens Education”. Delegates will hear experts from a wide range
culminates during the Association’s Clinical Conference and
of backgrounds explore technologies and approaches that can
Exhibition and attracts entries from contact lens practitioners
be applied to contact lens teaching.
across the globe. As well as receiving the accolade of best
Sessions will also be broadcast live online as Web Lectures for
photograph of the year and a great prize, all winning entries
IACLE members around the world to take part.
are subsequently published in the BCLA peer-reviewed journal,
Keynote speakers and topics include:
Contact Lens & Anterior Eye.
Dr Helen Crompton, Assistant Professor of Instructional
Last year’s winner was Antonio Calossi from Italy with his
Technology at Old Dominion University Virginia, USA, who
piggyback contact lens image, and he received a prize kindly
will review the latest and future educational technologies such
d o n a t e d by D av id G o u ld .
as augmented reality, wearable technologies and robotics.
Immediate Past BCLA President,
posed when educators from around the world gather for the
Apple Distinguished Educator
Andy Yorke, presented Antonio
Joe Moretti, who will look at
with his winner’s certificate
the iPad as a powerful mobile
during the 38th Clinical Conference
tool for explaining concepts and
and Exhibition in Birmingham.
nurturing understanding, and for
All entries will be showcased on
creating electronic books to
display screens in the exhibition
distribute to students.
hall of the ACC Liverpool, and
The use of Cloud-based note-
the winner will be announced at
t a k ing, blended lea r n ing
2.30pm on Sunday 31 May at the BCLA stand. The winner and
approaches and teaching
runners-up in the 2015 Poster Competition will also be revealed
strategies for evidence-based practice will be among other
at this time.
BCLA President, Susan Bowers, said: “If you have taken a
Keynote speaker Professor Patrick Caroline of the Pacific
photograph of the anterior eye over the last year that you are
University College of Optometry in Oregon, USA will share
proud of, whether it was taken with a smart phone or a SLR
his expertise in inspiring optometric students and demonstrating
camera, we want you to share it.”
the importance of “life-long learning”.
The 39th BCLA Clinical Conference and Exhibition takes place
The program will also feature a special symposium discussing
at the ACC Liverpool from 29-31 May. Visit the BCLA website,
“How can educators grow contact lens penetration around
www.bcla.org.uk, for full details and to download a copy of
IACLE Vice President and Congress Chair, Professor Philip Morgan, commented: “This unique Congress will have a focus that’s very different from other contact lens events in that it’s
Contamac announced further
tailored specifically to the needs of educators. We look forward
enhancements to the Professional
to learning about these exciting technologies and their potential
Services Vision Care and Sales
Around 100 delegates are expected to attend the Congress,
Dr Jedlicka joins the Contamac
including educators from IACLE’s three global regions: Asia
team bringing nearly 20 years of
Pacific, Americas and Europe/Arica - Middle East. Participation
contact lens fitting and design
for IACLE members will be facilitated by IACLE, thanks to
experience. Having completed a
the generous support of Platinum Sponsors Alcon, CooperVision and Johnson & Johnson Vision Care. 46
Contamac: Expanding the team
Cornea and Contact Lens Residency in 1997, he subsequently was the GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Director of Contact Lens Services at the University of Minnesota
and 65 staff members providing
for 11 years, and is currently the Chief of Contact Lens Services
customer service at all levels.
at the Indiana University School of Optometry. He was a founding
Vanessa then expanded her
member of the Scleral Lens Education Society and is the Immediate
international interests living
Past President. He is a fellow of the Contact Lens Society of
abroad for almost 3 years working
America and a diplomate in the Cornea and Contact Lens Section
in the clothing retail and travel
of the American Academy of Optometry. He has been involved
industry. Vanessa has strong
with research and the design of lens materials and solutions for
language skills, speaking fluent
several companies over the last 10 years, and has served as a
French, German and English and
consultant to the contact lens industry. He brings a diverse
has developed a good understanding
background covering both the specialty and standard realms of
of customer relationship management, across cultures and markets.
both GP and soft lenses.
Vanessa stated: “I am very excited to be part of the Contamac
On joining Contamac Dr Jedlicka commented, “I am excited
team and will continue to develop my understanding of the
to have this opportunity to join Contamac's Professional Services
industry and the market. I look forward to supporting the
Team. The chance to work with a strong international company
delivery of outstanding customer service which Contamac is
as well as other leaders in the contact lens profession is a rare
proud of and moreover, being part of delivering unique value
opportunity. With an established product line as well as many
added services in support of our customers’ businesses.”
new products about to be released, Contamac is primed to have an increasing impact on contact lens practice around the world. I feel fortunate to be able to be a part of a team that brings such quality products to contact lens practitioners and their patients”. Vanessa Ruiz appointed as Sales Executive at Contamac Contamac is also pleased to announce the appointment of Vanessa Ruiz as a new Sales Executive. Having developed a passion for sales and marketing during a Business Administration Degree at the Berufsakademie of Thueringen, Germany, Vanessa decided to pursue an international sales career. She gained a strong sales background working for the grocery chain Lidl in Germany where she was District Manager, responsible for up to 5 stores
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13.03.15 04.02.15 14:06 16:37
TRIOPTICS DELIVERS THE FIRST OPTISPHERIC IOL PRO 2 SYSTEMS TRIOPTICS successfully delivered the first OptiSpheric IOL PRO 2 instruments for measurements of IOL lenses. The system is designed for high volume production and is fully automated. It measures up to 100 lenses on one tray. All measurements are carried out in accordance with EN ISO 11979, both in situ and in air, and comply with international standards. In addition, the measured data is stored and processed in accordance with the relevant FDA requirements. OptiSpheric IOL PRO 2 is designed for measurement of all kinds of IOLs, including multifocal, trifocal and aspheric lenses. Toric lenses can even be measured independently of the orientation. Furthermore, there are no restrictions with regard to material or structure. The increasing demand and first deliveries to customers show that a fully automated IOL testing system that complies with DIN ISO 11979 is capable of meeting the quality assurance requirements for IOL lenses that become more and more sophisticated. Find more information on www.trioptics.com
DAC International, Inc. Headquarters: 6390 Rose Lane Carpinteria, CA 93013 USA Phone: +1 805 684 8307 Fax: +1 805 566 2196 www.dac-intl.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Benz Research & Development 6447 Parkland Dr Sarasota, FL 34243 USA Phone: +1 941 758 8256 Fax: +1 941 758 1191 email@example.com www.benzrd.com
Contact Lens Material
Boston Products Group Bausch + Lomb Luisenstrasse 7 69469 Weinheim Germany Phone: +49 6201 17869 Fax: +49 6201 62184 firstname.lastname@example.org www.fit-boston.com
Contact Lens Material
Europe: Phone: +44 7769 646135 email@example.com www.dac-intl.com
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Contamac LTD Bearwalden Business Park Saffron Walden Essex CB11 4JX United Kingdom Phone: +44 1799 542000 Fax: +44 1799 543000 email@example.com www.contamac.com
Contact Lens Material
EyeBrid-inside EyeBrid-inside 14 place Gardin 1414000 place Caen Gardin 14000 Caen France France Phone: +33 688 248 855 Phone : +33231 688866 248 855 Fax: +33 686 Fax : +33 231 866 686 www.eyebrid-inside.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.eyebrid-inside.com
Contact Lens Material GlobalCONTACT 1-15
K & Y Diamond Ltd. 2645 Diab Street Ville St. Laurent Quebec, H4S 1E7 Canada Phone: +1 514 3335 606 Fax: +1 514 3395 493
LAMBDA-X S.A. Rue de l'Industrie 37 B-1400 Nivelles Belgium
Larsen Equipment Design 1117 N.W. 52nd Street Seattle, WA 98107 USA
Phone: +32 67 79 40 80 Fax: +32 67 55 27 91
Phone: +1 206 789 5121 Fax: +1 206 789 7756
Machinery and Tools
OPTOCRAFT GmbH Am Weichselgarten 7 D-91058 Erlangen Germany
Optimec Limited Unit B3 The Haysfield Spring Lane North Malvern WR14 1GF United Kingdom
Rotlex (1994) Ltd. Unit 2D P.O. Box 3039 Omer Industrial Park Omer 84965 Israel
Phone: +49 9131 691500 Fax: +49 9131 691511
Phone: +44 1684 892859 Fax: +44 1684 893037
Phone: +972 8 690 1144 Fax: +972 8 690 1155
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Media Service GlobalCONTACT 1-15
Media Service 49
NEXT TIME 2015_02
EFCLIN CONGRESS & EXHIBITION From 7 to 9 May, EFCLIN members will meet for their 42nd Annual Congress & Exhibition in Venice, Italy. The exhibition will showcase the latest machiner y, tools, mater ials, instruments, software, accessories, consumables and other products relevant to the manufacture of contact lenses and intra ocular lenses (IOLs). Read more in the upcoming issue!
GLOBAL CONTACT The Website and the Magazine: The complete communication system for the contact lens industry. The magazine, 2,500 copies, is distributed to contact lens laboratories, wholesalers and other organizations active in the contact lens and IOL industry. The website, www.global-cl.com is free for all industry related professionals PUBLISHERS ADDRESS MediaWelt GmbH Papiermühlenweg 74, D-40882 Ratingen Tel.: +49-2102-1678-0 Fax: +49-2102-1678-28 Website: www.global-cl.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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CEO AND PUBLISHER Jörg Spangemacher (SPA) E-mail: email@example.com EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Dipl.-Ing (FH) Silke Sage E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
MediaWelt Services Verlag für Optometrie Ophthalmo Verlag China FOCUS Publishers Beijing - Hong Kong - Xi'An
EDITOR Jörg Spangemacher E-mail: email@example.com USA CORRESPONDENT FOR CONTACT LENSES Tom Baugh E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
THE HIGH ART OF LOGISTICS – VISIT TO COOPER VISION IN LIÈGE To find out about how a contact lens order is processed by a major supplier, in August 2014 GlobalCONTACT met with Volker Lindner, CEO of Cooper Vision, Germany, and Michele Bosa, Logistics Director for Europe, in Liège, Belgium.
THEFT BY STAFF: PREVENTIVE MEASURES We don’t like to talk about theft by our own staff; after all there are other industries where the problem is far more acute. But in our industry there is obviously a temptation for certain employees to enrich themselves. Since we are only talking about a few Euros in each cases, it is hardly worth going to great lengths to control the problem. In the end it is a matter of trust and the boss cannot imagine having "thieves" among his own employees. The perpetrators do not think of it as "stealing" but rather as "helping themselves" because it is not about very much. The taking of items of low-value is not considered serious by the offenders, not least because they are usually unaware of the consequences if they get caught.
IN ADDITION • Meeting on site with Erik Larsen – a visit to Accu Lens, Lakewood, CO • Manufacturers’ Forum The information above may be subject to change.
TRANSLATIONS John Saniter, Bopfingen, Germany EDITORIAL BOARD Wim Aalbers, Dr. Thomas Baugh, Dr. Patrick Benz, Erik Larsen, Eef van der Worp PRODUCTION & LAYOUT Efstathios Efthimiadis E-mail: email@example.com Data Transfer: +49-2102-1678-240 DISTRIBUTION PressUp GmbH, Postbox 70 13 11, D-22013 Hamburg Tel.: +49-40-41448460, Fax: +49-40-41448499 MEDIA CONSULTANT Constanze Classen Tel.: +49-2102-1678-26 Fax: +49-2102-1678-28 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISING AGENT GREAT CHINA Beijing FOCUS Optics Culture Commnication Co. Ltd. Room 319, Building 2, Nr. 1, Northbank 1292, Nr. 15 Jianguo Eastroad, Beijing 100024 (Chaoyang), P.R. China Mrs. Jian Wang Tel.: +86-10-8537-6529 Email: email@example.com Skype: jennywang611 焦点视光（北京）文化传播有限公司 北京市朝阳区建国东路15号院甲一号北岸1292 二号楼319室 邮编：100024 电话：+86-10-8060 2704 电邮：firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISEMENT RATES Price list No. 6, valid from January 01, 2014 Publication Schedule 3 issues 2014: March, August, October SUBSCRIPTION COSTS PER YEAR European Union 80,00 € (plus VAT for German companies), Overseas Seamail 90,00 €, Overseas Airmail 110,00 €, United States Seamail 95,00 €, United States Airmail 125,00 €, Single issue 20,00 € (plus mailing costs) The Publisher requires three months written notice on cancellation. Subscribers please note that proof of notice may be required. BANK DETAILS Bank account: Commerzbank AG Bank No.: 300 800 00 Acc. No.: 0303 108 100 IBAN: DE 72 30080000 0303108100 SWIFT: DRES DE FF 300 PRODUCTION & PRINT Stürtz GmbH, Alfred-Nobel-Str. 33, D-97080 Würzburg The publisher takes no responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts. Please note also that photographs submitted for use in GlobalCONTACT cannot be returned. The publisher's written permission is required for any reproduction, translation or recording of material published in GlobalCONTACT, including extracts of such material. Permission will normally be given, subject to the usual acknowledgement. Copies made of published items must be limited in number and for personal use only. PHOTO CREDITS P.10: istockphoto.com/procurator • P.16: shutterstock.com/Juergen Priewe • P.20: shutterstock.com/Centurion Studio • P.26: Silke Sage • P.30: shutterstock.com/Churikov Eduard • P.32: shutterstock.com/ARZTSAMUI • P.34: shutterstock.com/VetrovaMaria • P.38: shutterstock.com/baranq • P.38: shutterstock.com/Dennis van de Water • P.50: shutterstock.com/leoks • P.50: istockphoto.com/chestnutphoto •
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