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Floriculture Today November 2012


Floriculture Today November 2012

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Floriculture Today January 2013

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Floriculture Today January 2013


Floriculture Today January 2013

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www.floriculturetoday.in

Contents 10 Editorial

Chief Editor

S. Jafar Naqvi

Consulting Editors T.V. Satyanarayanan K Dharmarajan Chief Coordinator M.B. Naqvi

12 Cover Story Indo-Dutch Joint Work Plan 2012-15

interview 18 Maharashtra has always Taken Initiatives to Adopt

New Technologies

Editorial Coordinator Syed M K

News Editor General Manager Layout & Design

Anwar Huda Lalitha V. Rajan Mohd. Iqbal Faiyaz Ahmad

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Subscription India : Rs. 1000/- for 1 Year Rs. 1950/- for 2 Years Overseas : US$ 120 for 1 Year US$ 230 for 2 Years Single Copy in India : Rs. 50/ Single Copy Cost for Overseas : US$10 Printed, published and owned by M.B. Naqvi, Printed at Everest Press, E-49/8, Okhla Industrial Area Ph-II, New Delhi - 110 020 and Published from E-11/47 A, New Colony, Hauz Rani, Malviya Nagar, New Delhi-110017 (INDIA) Editor : S. Jafar Naqvi Vol 17....... Issue 8...... January 2013

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Floriculture Today January 2013

Shailendra Kumar Leads Horticulture Delegation to Holland

— Delegation Report

.... Machindranath Devanikar, MD, MSHMPB, Maharashtra

22 Farmers are Encouraged to Adopt Greenhouse

Cultivation Technologies

.... Dr. Satyavir Singh, DG, Horticulture, Haryana 26 Farmers are Taking Floriculture as an Alternative to

Traditional Crops

.... Dr. L. S. Brar, Director, Horticulture, Punjab 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 50

Dr. Satbir Singh, Deputy Director, Horticulture, Jalandhar Kulwant Singh Atwal, Owner, Atwal Farms, Jalandhar Vinod Gupta, Farmer, Raowali, Jalandhar Rahul Gupta, Farmer, Narangpur, Adampur, Jalandhar Harman Randhawa, Farmer, Punjab Sarbhjit Singh, Monakala, Hoshiapur Harsunjit Singh Thiara, Khanpur, Thiara, Hoshiapur S. P. Singh Dua, MD, Falcon Garden Tools (P) Ltd. Amit Kumar Singh, Proprietor, Demand Agro Seeds Parvinder Singh, Director, Blue Stallion Equipments (P) Ltd. Raman Satyarthi & Praveen Satyarthi Owners, Gromor Food Nursery

event report 54 Open Season Where Passion Meets Purpose

— Bharat S. Bhojane, GM (Business Development), & Bhagyashree Prasadrao Patil, Director, Rise N Shine Biotech Pvt. Ltd, Pune

56 Open Season 2013 KF Bioplants adds ‘Salad Preparation’ This Year 58 GREENHOUSE Plastic Gutters

New Innovation in Greenhouse Structures — Anand Zambre, Vice President - Agri business ESSEN Multipack Ltd.

62 CURTAIN RAISER

International Flower Show Sikkim 2013 February to Become Festival of Flowers

68 flower packaging

Advanced & Environment-Friendly Packaging of Cut-Flowers

— Shivani Sharma & Dr. R. Chandrashekhar, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University

90 News


Floriculture Today January 2013

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Edit orial C

ome winter. It is the season of flowers and flower shows in Delhi and other cities. Horticulture departments, civic bodies and private organizations vie with one another to hold flora exhibitions that attract hordes of nature lovers. A major attraction in the National Capital this time was the annual exhibition of Delhi Ikebana International, with 12th Asian Regional Conference as the concurrent event. Delegates from over 200 countries participated in the twin events. Founded in mid-sixties, Delhi Ikebana Int’l holds monthly programmes of demonstrations and workshops by masters of the art from all over the world to keep the tradition alive. According to the organizers, the aim of this year’s exhibition was to enable people to learn from each other and to generate interest in the younger generation. The flower shows galore, held in gardens, parks and sprawling exhibition halls, underscore people’s growing interest in flowers, ornamentals, greens and floral art. Thanks to the activities of the National Horticulture Mission, commercial floriculture is on a growth path in various states. According to official figures, floriculture exports from the country in 201112 in value terms were Rs 365.3 crore, against Rs. 296 crore in the previous year, the top destinations for Indian flowers being USA, Germany, the Netherlands, U K and Japan. While commercial floriculture in green houses as well as well-tended open fields is gaining in popularity all over the country, a major impediment to its progress is lack of proper market infrastructure. Some cities like Pune, Hyderabad and Bhubaneswar can at least boast of having a pucca building for wholesale flower trade, but places like Delhi, considered as the largest market in the country, and Kolkata are woefully lacking in proper trading facilities.

Delhi’s is a classic case of indifference and broken promises. The city had four flower Mandis, all of which were functioning in outmoded conditions, and the Delhi Agriculture Marketing Board chose to shift all of them to a new place, Gazipur, on the outskirts of city, bordering Uttar Pradesh. Before shifting, promises were aplenty that the new Mandi was being planned as a world-class one, equipped with all modern facilities. The reality, however, has turned out to be different. The Mandi at present functions with no proper infrastructure or facilities worth the name, from an area designated as a parking place for the nearby fruits and vegetables market. The shifting has also caused a lot of inconvenience to growers, traders and flower lovers, who have now to travel a long distance to buy or sell flowers. However, some of the affected flower vendors have subsequently leased some land near Qutab Minar, and set up business on a smaller scale near the place where the old Mandi was flourishing. Initially, business was a little dull, as not many people knew about this market having sprung up, but the festival season brought them some cheer. To give a fillip to floriculture, which has high income and employment potential, creation of wellequipped modern markets, complete with facilities for cold storage and proper transportation, is a ‘must’. The Agriculture Marketing Boards in the cities, Mandi Samitis and other stakeholders need to sit together and thrash out feasible plans of action for this purpose. The sooner it is done, the better it would be for promotion of floriculture in the country. The existence of antiquated structures and obsolete facilities for marketing of farm produce reflect poorly on India’s agriculture plans and their execution. Media Today Group wishes you all a Happy New Year.

Comments are welcome at: MediaTodayMails@gmail.com

Views expressed by individuals and contributors in the magazine are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of Floriculture Today editorial board. Floriculture Today does not accept any responsibility of any direct, indirect or consequential damage caused to any party due to views expressed by any one or more persons in the trade. All disputes are to be referred to Delhi Jurisdiction only. .....Editor

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coverstory

Indo-Dutch Joint Work Plan 2012-15 Shailendra Kumar Leads Horticulture Delegation to Holland — Delegation Report

A

n Indian horticulture delegation, led by Shailendra Kumar, Director (NHM), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Government of India, recently visited Holland. The visit was extremely fruitful as the Netherlands has been a tremendous player in the horticulture/floriculture segment, and shares ideas and technologies on the same with India in a big way.

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Floriculture Today January 2013

Delegates The delegation included S.K. Singla, Director, HMNEH, SK Kaul, Assistant Director (NHM), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Government of India, Dr. SVSK Sarma, Principal Secretary (Horticulture), Andhra Pradesh, Rani Kumundi, Mission Director, Horticulture, Andhra Pradesh, Satyabir Singh, Director General, Horticulture, Haryana, Dr K G Jagadeesh, Mission Director, Horticulture, Karnataka,

Dr K Prathappan, Mission Director, Horticulture, Kerala, B S Patel, Mission Director, Horticulture, Gujarat, O.N. Singh, Mission Director, Horticulture, Uttar Pradesh, Dr B S Negi, Mission Director (HMNEH), Uttarakhand, A K Gupta, Mission Director, Horticulture, Himachal Pradesh, L S Brar, Mission Director, Horticulture, Punjab, A K Haral, Joint Director & Nodal Officer (NHM), Maharashtra. The horticulture officials from Bihar, Tamil Nadu, J&K, West Bengal and


coverstory Sikkim could not undertake the visit. These states are also under Indo-Dutch Action Plan. States under the Plan Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, J&K, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. What is Indo-Dutch Joint Agriculture Work Plan? Simply known as Indo-Dutch Action Plan, this is an ambitious 3-year plan to increase horticulture productivity through enhanced use of Dutch technology and expertise. It was signed on May 23, 2012, at Hague during the visit of Indian delegation led by Indian Ambassador to the Netherlands. The Action Plan covers many states, and would be implemented with technical assistance from identified agencies of Holland. The cost and creation of infrastructure will be met from the existing components of NHM and HMNEH. Mission Objectives l To hold meetings with officials of ministry of agriculture of Holland with focus on finalization of projects for implementation under Indo-Dutch Plan. l To undertake field visits to Greenport Holland International (GHI), Flower Auction Centres, Green Q, Research centre of Wageningen University, KOPPERT Biological Systems, Veiling BE Berkel en Rodenrijis, etc, so as to see the latest technologies in horticulture and to interact with domain experts.

Mission Accomplishments The Mission so far accomplished the task of finalization of draft detailed project reports to be taken by participating states under the Plan. These states will finalize the DPRs in the identified areas for approval under Annual Action Plan.

range and also about the Bumblebees to promote natural pollination, also about the consultancy services at global level. Bumblebees are known to be the best pollinators for horticulture crops particularly under protected cultivation. Bumblebees are a necessity for a country like India.

Delegation’s Visits, Meetings & Presentations: KOPPERT & Bumblebees The Shailendra Kumar-led delegation visited a number of establishments and met experts and officials to great effect. The delegates stopped at KOPPERT Biological Systems and Veiling BE Berkel en Rodenrijis. KOPPERT is a global player in the field o biological pest control and natural pollination. KOPPERT and Hoogendroom made a good presentation to make Indian delegates aware about the latest technologies. Henri P. P. Oosthoek, MD, KOPPERT, made another presentation about the mission of the organization, its products

Green Q & Wageningen University Research Centre The delegation also visited the famous research centre of Wageningen University and Green Q to have the first hand experience of Dutch working system in the field of research. They were given a presentation about the various research work, projects, training and consultancy services offered by Green Q. They also saw Green Q Improvement Centre which is a stateof-the-art green house complex. Here, a presentation was made for them on new growing concepts and technical installations. A part of the Improvement Centre is known as Horticulture Experience Centre that offers training to learners and visitors. It has facilities for development, testing and demonstration of new growing concepts. While the green house uses latest methods like precision farming techniques, scientific water management system, drip system, and artificial LED lights. The experiments are done on crops like tomato, capsicum and flowers. They

The visits were very enlightening and gave birth to a longlasting mutual cooperation between world’s biggest agricultural country and world’s greatest farming technology supplier country. Peerenboom, while giving a farewell to Indian delegation, said that he looked forward to an early approval of projects by different participating states under Indo-Dutch Action Plan

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coverstory

also hold seminars and workshops. The same things are done at the Research Centre of Wageningen University. The visit was of extreme use for the delegates who found these things as worthy for Indian agriculture. Auction Centres The delegates were amazed to see world’s largest flower auction centre at Naaldwijk, Westland. Flora Holland’s other five auction centres are located at Aalsmeer, Rijnsburg, Venlo, Bleiswijk and Eelde. Flora Holland is a cooperative of 6000 flower-growing members. At auction centres, around 12 billion flowers and potted plants are auctioned through auction clock each year. This generates an annual turnover of 4 billion Euros. Each day, 48 million flowers are sold and bought. Naaldwijk has 4 auction rooms with 10 clocks. It is located in the world’s largest green house area. Many traders have their own buildings and processing facilities on the auction site. The delegates saw the live auction clock. The officials of Flora Holland made a presentation for them. GHI The delegates also stopped at Greenport Holland International (GHI), Zoetermeer. It is coordinating the implementation of Indo-Dutch Action Plan. The delegation received a warm welcome by Roland Peerenboom, Director, GHI. They also met officials of the Ministry

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Floriculture Today January 2013

of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and innovation. The meeting threw lights on subjects like protected cultivation, coldsupply chain, auctioning, bio-control, fruit ripening, among other topics. The delegation from Madhya Pradesh met potato experts to learn about potato technology. This was a separate delegation roaming The Netherlands at the same time. GHI was set up by Greenport Holland and the Dutch Horticulture Industry. It is regarded as a global leader that set the standards in the field of horticulture technologies and research. It undertakes major cluster projects in international markets. The delegates also received presentation from the officials of GHI. The Indian delegates also made presentation about the Indo-Dutch Plan, following which three working groups were formed to deal with these issues: Production and productivity, protected cultivation and post-harvest management and supply chain management. The outcome of these working groups was discussed and state-wise project framework was formulated. The possibility of including states like Jharkhand under the Action Plan was also discussed. The final project report will be submitted by participating states to DAC. And following which final action plan will be approved as part of Annual Action Plan of NHM and HMNEH schemes by March end without any enhanced allocation. Provision for the project will be made in the Annual Action Plan 2013-14 of HMNEH/NHM.

Floriade The delegates also visited Floriade in Limburg province where they met W. Tanis, Chief of Protocol, Beck, Director of Floriade, and Mark Verheijen, Vice Governor of the province. A presentation was made for the Indiuan delegates. The delegation saw various pavilions including those from India. Mission Director of Uttrakhand and Himachal Pradesh and Drector, HMNEH, also visited apple nursery of Wageningen University. Royal Pride Holland & Exotisch Natura The delegates saw growing methods of different types of tomatoes in green house clusters at Royal Pride. It does use chemicals. Frank Van Kleef made a presentation on climate management and farming. Grontmij made another presentation on Agropark A7. The delegates learned about drip irrigation, artificial lights use and adopting rain-water harvesting. By adopting these technologies the growers managed to grow 70 kg tomato per sqm. They used a very modern packing method and used bumbles for pollination. The visits were very enlightening and gave birth to a long-lasting mutual cooperation between world’s biggest agricultural country and world’s greatest farming technology supplier country. Peerenboom, while giving a farewell to Indian delegation, said that he looked forward to an early approval of projects by different participating states under Indo-Dutch Action Plan. n


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interview

Maharashtra has always Taken Initiatives to Adopt

New Technologies ..... Machindranath Devanikar Maharashtra has been doing well in the field of horticulture including floriculture. The farmers are progressive, and the state government is open to new ideas and ready to adopt latest technologies to remain competitive as the horticulture hub in the country. But there are bottlenecks like ‘marketing constraints’ that need to be addressed. In a brief chat with Firoz Haider recently, Machindranath Devanikar (IAS), Managing Director, Maharashtra State Horticulture & Medicinal Plants Board, Pune, spoke on the current status of horticulture in the state and issues and achievements, among other things. Excerpts: Maharashtra is known as a trendsetter in horticulture production including fruits, vegetables and commercial floriculture. What is the current status of horticulture in the state—area under production, variety of crops and the like? Maharashtra ranks foremost on the horticulture map of the country and a forerunner in increasing area under horticulture by more than 600% within a span of a decade. The current status of horticulture is as follows (year 2010-11): Geographical Area: 307.52 lakh ha. Cultivable Area: 225.56 lakh ha. Land under Horticulture: 23.46 lakh ha. Fruit Crop: 15.37 lakh ha. (Mango: 4.77, banana: 0.82, citrus: 2.78, guava: 0.36, grapes: 0.86, papaya: 0.09, pomegranate: 0.82, sapota: 0.70, others: 4.17) Vegetable Crops: 6.11 lakh ha. (Potato: 0.18, onion: 4.15, tomato: 0.52, brinjal: 0.35, cabbage: 0.18, cauliflower: 0.12, okra: 0.19, peas: 0.09, beans: 0.12, others: 0.22)

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Floriculture Today January 2013

Flowers: 1.85 lakh ha. (Chrysanthemum: 0.20, gladiolus: 0.071, jasmine: 0.19, marigold: 0.60, rose: 0.55, tube rose: 0.07, others: 0.17) Spices: 0.18 lakh ha. Pune was the hub of greenhouse production in floriculture, but due to real estate and other reasons such as labour shortage, several units have been either closed or shifting to interior parts of the state. What is the impact of this shift on productivity and exports of flowers? The greenhouse floriculture in Maharashtra is mainly concentrated in Pune, Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur and Nashik districts. The export oriented units especially roses are mainly concentrated in Pune because of its fertile soils, water availability, congenial climate, access to good transport. It is a face that with increasing urbanization the floriculture units are facing a shortage of labour which has influenced the cost of production. However no sudden decline in productivity or exports has been noticed.

The increasing trend of greenhouse production and floriculture activities in other regions of Maharashtra should not be linked to closing down of activities in Pune regions but to the special efforts undertaken by the government to promote these activities in other parts of the state. The following numbers of the greenhouses in various districts have been promoted through NHM in last three years. (please see table 1) Any possibility to make new floriculture parks like Talegaon Park where a cluster of units are working? Maharashtra stands sixth in respect of area under floriculture in the country with approximately 7000 ha. under cultivation. The major flower crops grown are Roses, Chrusanthemum, Aster, Tuberoses, Jasmine, Gailardia, Marigold, etc. These flowers are mainly grown in Pune, Nashik, A.nagar, Sangli, Satara and Nanded Districts. Recently many private companies and progressive farmers in the State have started export oriented cultivation of flower crops.


interview They are growing Roses, Carnations, Gerbera, gladiolus, Lilium, etc. These companies have contributed significantly through green houses and tissue culture technology. Maharashtra state has established Floriculture Park at Talegaon with the financial assistance from APEDA New Delhi. MIDC is the nodal agency for monitoring of the activities under Floriculture Park at Talegaon, Dist. Pune. Considering the increasing area under

floriculture in Nashik, Satara and Nanded districts, there is a need to establish new floriculture park facilities. For marketing and export of flowers, common facilities like flower auction center at Talegaon, Nanded, Nashik and Satara are very essential. On line phytosanitory certification facilities for export of Flowers are established at Mumbai, Pune, Nashik and Sangli which will be very useful for small exporters. Over all we are

trying to develop all the backward and forward linkages to promote floriculture in Maharashtra. When we talk about floriculture, a major constraint comes in mind and that is ‘marketing’, as Mumbai auction centre developed by APEDA and the State jointly failed to go on. Farmers are facing sale problems, and are forced to sell their produce through whole-sellers only. Do you

Table 1: City-wise Greenhouse in Maharashtra Sr. No.

Name of

District

1 2

No. of greenhouses

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

Total

Thane

0

1

0

1

Raigad

1

0

8

9

3

Ratnagiri

0

0

4

4

4

Sindhudurg

0

0

0

0

5

Nashik

0

0

5

5

6

Dhule

0

0

15

15

7

Jalgaon

0

0

2

2

8

Nandurbar

0

0

0

0

9

Pune

2

15

34

51

10

Ahmednagar

0

10

33

43

11

Solapur

1

0

0

1

12

Satara

2

12

31

45

13

Sangli

0

0

11

11

14

Kolhapur

0

2

12

14

15

Aurangabad

0

1

3

4

16

Jalna

1

0

0

1

17

Beed

0

2

0

2

18

Latur

0

1

5

6

19

Nanded

15

56

39

110

20

Parbhani

0

0

0

0

21

Hingoli

0

1

3

4

22

Osmanabad

5

6

7

18

23

Akola

0

0

0

0

24

Amravati

0

17

2

19

25

Yeotmal

0

0

0

0

26

Buldhana

0

0

1

1

27

Washim

0

0

0

0

28

Nagpur

0

0

0

0

29

Chandrapur

0

0

0

0

30

Gadchiroli

0

0

0

0

31

Gondia

0

0

0

0

32

Bhandara

0

0

1

1

33

Wardha

0

1

3

4

Total

27

125

219

371

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interview promoted the Viticulture in the state but also brought our state on the world map. With such achievements the thrust of farmers for newer technology and crops is ever increasing. For promotion of Horticulture Export specially for Grape, Pomegranate and Vegetables, on line facilities for monitoring of pesticides residues for export to European Union, Grapenet, Anarnet and Vegnet systems is very effectively implemented in the state which resulted in increase of Export and fulfilled the requirement of Importing Countries. Producer Growers are also taking part in exporting their produce directly. For phytosanitory Certification for export purposes, online certification facilities through PQIS system at Pune, Nashik, Sangli, Solapur, Amravati, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg are established which will also help to promote the horticulture and floriculture export.

have any plan to help the, realize good returns? The existing flower auction facilities established at Goregaon are not adequate for flower growers and exporters, so it is necessary to establish modern flower auction facilities at Talegaon, Nashik, Stata and Nanded for better development of floriculture industry. Special transport, packing & grading facilities are also very essential for small flower growers. There is a growing demand for the facilities and government may soon come up with an alternative plan. Do you visualize a situation where Maharashtra will be a force to reckon with in the export of horticulture – including floriculture -- products? Are you taking any steps towards this direction? Maharashtra is endowed with different agro climatic conditions. The state has nine agro climatic zones with different types of soil and climate. Maharashtra has always taken initiatives in adopting new technologies. During the recent past the state has emerged as one of the horticulture state in India. The exports of grapes, mango, flowers and vegetables have shown increasing trend. This shows the impressive achievements of state in the horticultural development. Many 100% Export Oriented Units have been established in the state mainly in the field of floriculture, tissue culture, etc. The well organized co-operative infrastructure of Grape Growers Association has not only

Is the Dept. planning to have any public-private partnership (PPP) to promote horticulture in a big way? Yes, we do have certain plans in pipeline. During 2012-13, PPPs are planned for promotion of new technologies for quality production of fruit crops such as grapes, pomegranate and vegetables like tomato, potato and onion. The public private partnership projects are being implemented under RKVY scheme in the state with the help of Private sector. Maharashtra State Horticulture and Medicinal Plant Board is implementing public-private partnership project for value Chain development in vegetables (i.e. in Tomato, Potato and Onion) from 2012-13. (please see table 2)

Have you any initiative towards the implementation of latest farm technologies to enhance horticulture production in the State? In Maharashtra, the area expansion programme for fruit crops was undertaken in convergence with EGS Horticulture scheme and thus an area of 1341359 he was brought under fruit crops till 2009-10. The only fruit crops outside EGS Hort scheme such as Banana, Grapes, Papaya, Strawberry and Pine Apple were included in these schemes since 2010-11 and an area of 9014 ha is covered during year 2011-12. Thus total area of 226138 ha is brought under various fruit crops since inception of the NHM Programme. The open field cultivation of flower crops such as Roses, Jasmine (Mogra), Marigold, Tuberose, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum etc. has also been promoted under the floriculture component under NHM. The cultivation of various flower crops was taken up an area of 1493 ha and 12112 ha was brought under cut flower cultivation in Maharashtra through NHM. High density plantation is improved technique to enhance the production and productivity of important fruit crops and becoming more popular amongst farmers of the state. This activity is introduced in the year 2010-11 & during last two years 137 ha area is covered for Mango and Guava with financial assistance of Rs. 33.42 lakh. Crop diversification through adoption of spices and Aromatic plants has been given priority under NHM. There is as good response from growers to Turmeric and Ginger crops due to their increasing demand in domestic

Table 2: PPP in Maharashtra Horticulture Sr. No.

Commodity

Involved Pvt. Sector companies Main Marketing Company

Project Cost Associated (Rs. Lakh) Companies

District Covered

1 Tomato Hindustan Unilever (HUL)

1. Bayer crop science 2. Indus seeds 1500.00 3. UPL

Nashik

2. Potato PepsiCo

1. Bayer crop science 2. Dupont 976.50 3. UPL

Satara, Sangli

3. Onion Jain Irrigation 1. Bayer crop Science 854.50 2. Syngetna

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Floriculture Today January 2013

Jalgaon, Dhule, Buldhana, Nandurbar.


interview as well as overseas markets because of medicinal values. The new area brought under cultivation of these spice crops is 5161 has during the last year. Horticulture mechanization is a new activity to promote mechanization of horticulture related activities to improve farm efficiency farm productivity and reduce drudgery of farm work force. This activity was included in the year 2010-11 and during the last two years 2637 power operated machines ad equipments are distributed to the farmers with financial assistance of Rs. 401.66 lakh. Beekeeping for pollination is an important activity for improving productivity is also promoted under NHM. Assistance is also given for promotion of IPM and INM practices to boost quality production of horticulture produce. The bulk of Indian horticulture produce comprises fruits, vegetables, cut flower seeds, cashew, spices and other processed products. Horticulture produce accounts for 25% of the total export of agriculture commodities from India. Among the fruits: mango, banana, grapes, guava, sapota and litchi have more potential with suitable infrastructure and market support, these fruits can be exported in bulk. Major exportable vegetable commodities are onion followed by potato, okra, brinjal, tomato and chilies. Cut flowers have

been considered to have much potential for export. Indian continues to be a major exporter of cashew products viz. Shell liquid, cashew shell etc. We also see a great demand for spices. The major exportable commodities are black pepper, small and large cardamom, ginger, turmeric, chillies, and spices of oleoresins. Already the state has stated implementation of Agri. Export Zone (AEZ). The state has announced eight (8) Agri. Export Zone for important crops being implemented through various Agencies in the State. The concept of Agri. Export Zones attempts of take comprehensive look at particulars produce/ products located in a continuous area for the purpose of developing and sourcing the raw material their processing, packing, leading to final export. (please see table 3) Has the state government any new plan or scheme on the anvil to give a greater push to the growth of horticulture to create more employment? What about providing financial aid/subsidy to the farmers? Maharashtra with varied climate existing in nine agro – climatic zones successfully cultivates almost all tropical and sub tropical fruits & vegetables. Maharashtra plays a major role in India’s horticulture as its production of fruits is

Table 3: Agri Export Zone Development Sr. Crops Under AEZ Districts covered No.

Implementing Agency

Remarks

1. Mango (Alphonso)

Sindudurag, Ratangiri, Raigad, Thane

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

2. Mango (Kesar)

Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nashik, A, Nagar

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

3. Onion

Nashik, Pune, A, Nagar, Solapur, Jalgaon

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

4. Pomegranate

Nashik, Pune, Solapur, A, Nagar Latur, Beed, Sangli

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

5.

Floriculture Park

Pune, Nashik, Sangli

MIDC

Sanctioned By Govt.

6.

Grape wine park

Nashik, Sangli

MIDC

Sanctioned By Govt.

7.

Orange

Amravati, Nagpur

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

MSAMB

Sanctioned By Govt.

8. Banana Jalgaon, Dhule, Warda, Nanded, Hingoli, Buldana, Parbhani

12% and of vegetables is 10% of the total produce of India. The exports contribution from Maharashtra for fresh fruit & vegetables to the India’s basket is 32% and that the share under processed food is nearly 50%. With the availability of varied range of agricultural produce, the state provides great potential for agribusiness. With this broad view in mind, state proposes to develop infrastructure to speed up processing industry. Agro processing industry is the backbone of the food processing industry as it takes care of glut and all possible waste. Value addition always fetches an additional income to the growers and helps in stabilising the prices and providing good economic returns. Hence, primary processing industry at farm level should be encouraged and developed. Considering this face processing unit at farm level having low cost technology is proposed under this scheme. Cashew processing, Fruit Processing, Spices/ turmeric/ ginger processing will be promoted under this scheme. National Horticulture Mission has also come up with ambitious and innovative projects such as Indo-Israel work plant project, under which the Centers of Excellence shall be established at four places in Maharashtra through the Agricultural Universities. The Central Government has initiated the vegetable initiative programme of National vegetables initiative for urban clusters to strengthen the vegetable production, productivity, marketing and value addition near the urban clusters. Total Annual Action Plan of NHM for 2012-13 is Rs. 160 crores. The plan for 2011-12 was Rs. 150 crores out of which the expenditure was Rs. 148.25 crores. During the years 2012-13, the National Horticulture Mission shall focus on components like area expansion, rejuvenation, products cultivation, post harvest and Marketing infrastructure development and technology demonstration so as to enhance farmer’s income through increase in productivity and value addition. n

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interview

Farmers are Encouraged to Adopt Greenhouse Cultivation Technologies ..... Dr. Satyavir Singh

Like Punjab and Maharashtra, Haryana too is an emerging state in the field of horticulture including floriculture. The growers are open to new ideas, and the state government is willing to help them in adopting latest technologies to progress and reap profits at minimum costs. In an interview with Floriculture Today, Dr. Satyavir Singh, Director General, Horticulture, Haryana, spoke about the current status, government’s various schemes, and future plans, among other things. Excerpts: Haryana is emerging as a major hub for horticulture production including fruits, vegetables and commercial floriculture. What is the current status of horticulture in the state--area under production, variety of crops and the like? At present total area under horticulture is 4.30 lac ha with total production of 55.67 lac MT. Cropwise area and production is tabulated as below: Fruits: The major crops grown are

22

Floriculture Today January 2013

mango, guava, citrus and ber. The area under mango is 9083 ha, guava 9919 ha, citrus 18420 ha and under ber is 3617 ha. Vegetables: Being nearer to National Capital, a number of vegetables are grown in the State of Haryana. The area under potato is 27818 ha, onion 27448 ha, tomato 27070 ha, radish 26790 ha, carrot 18869 ha, cabbage 14065 ha, cauliflower 29946 ha, bhindi 18761 ha, brinjal 17808 ha, peas 13807 ha, leafy vegetable 29698 ha and 71004 ha under cucurbits. Spices: The major spices are grown

ginger in 1127 ha, turmeric 2455 ha, garlic 4656 ha, coriander 2620 ha and fenugreek 4747 ha. Flowers: Area under gladiolus is 903 ha and marigold is 5013 ha. Other flower crops are tuberose, rose and chrysanthemum. Mushroom: Haryana is the largest producer of button mushroom in India and produces around 7733 MTs of mushroom in a year. (for more see table) Culture of Greenhouse production in floriculture is a new trend for Haryana farmers traditionally growing crops like wheat and rice. Can you share your views on diversification options for them? Green house cultivation is a new viable option for the farmers of the State. With the establishment of Centre of Excellence for Vegetable and Model Floriculture Centre at Gharaunda (Karnal), farmers are encouraged to adopt greenhouse cultivation technologies under vegetables and flowers. With high net returns, farmers are diversifying towards flowers under open field conditions and greenhouse cultivation. Farmers being innovative are


interview

We have established 14 Frontline Demonstration Centres under Public-Private-Farmer Partnership and are running successfully at farmers’ fields in 14 districts. These Centres are for vegetable demonstration under new technologies. Some new projects are under pipeline

developing entrepreneurship and taking this option as viable alternative. The crops of liliums, gladiolus, gerberas and marigold are being grown in large areas in the State of Haryana. Potato seed business is another area where Haryana stands for supplying to other states, but farmers lacking in proper production post-harvest practices in comparison with other states. Do you have any plan to assist this sector also under State Horticulture Mission? Horticulture Department for the last more than 20 years are supplying foundation and certified seed of potatoes developed at our Govt. Garden and Nurseries. Department procure basic breeder seed from CPRI, Shimla. As the breeder seed availability is not available in substantial quantity, therefore, Department has started developing its own breeder seed through tissue culture. Department has already developed G0 potato seed production stage and for large scale production, a Horticulture Bio-technology Centre is being established at Shamgarh, Karnal. At this Centre post-harvest practices shall also be demonstrated and for this grading line are already established and cold storage is under construction. Further, new varieties are being tested in collaboration with International Potato Centre, Peru.

Exports of seeds, fruits and vegetables are a potential area where Haryana is trailing after other states. Any specific plans to increase the exports of horticulture produce from the state? Being very near to consumer market, whatever Haryana produces is consumed. However, new varieties are being tested at our Centres and a number of farmers are coming up for quality produce of exotic vegetables there is a scope for export. As we understand you are now focusing to encourage horticulture farmers to adapt greenhouse technology for commercial Horticulture production. Please share the Project status of your Demonstration Centre at Gharaunda. The Centre of Excellence for Vegetables at Gharaunda was inaugurated on 17th January, 2011. The Centre has demonstrated more than 70 varieties of tomatoes, more than 15 varieties in cucumber and capsicum. Sr. No. Crop

Area (ha)

2011-12

1

Fruits

47224

483075

2

Vegetable

356769

4916762

3

Flowers

6340

64150

4

Spices

18092

93585

5

Mushroom (Tray)

1419455

7733

6

Medicinal

1731

1133

Total

4.30 lac ha

55.67 lac MT

A vegetable expo is organized every year on 17th January. More than 10,000 farmers have visited the Centre and dignitaries of other countries have paid their visits. We have trained extension officers of private companies and farmers also. Recently, we have given training to the Afghanistan farmers and extension officers under UNDP programme. The Centre has achieved potential production of 300 MTs per ha in tomatoes, 210 MTs in capsicum and 150 MTs in cucumber, which is comparable with world standards. We are further improving the technologies by bringing new seeds and cultivation practices.

Production (MTs)

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interview projects are under pipeline.

Is the Dept. planning to have any public-private partnership (PPP) to promote horticulture in a big way? We have established 14 Frontline Demonstration Centres under Public-Private-Farmer Partnership and are running successfully at farmers’ fields in 14 districts. These Centres are for vegetable demonstration under new technologies. Some new

24

Floriculture Today January 2013

Have you any initiative towards the implementation of latest farm technologies to enhance horticulture production in the State? In the field of vegetable vertical farming is the new technology which we are promoting in a big way under protected cultivation. However, under open field conditions mulching along with and micro irrigation has tremendous potential to increase vegetable production. Mini sprinklers are gaining momentum in the State in vegetables. In field of fruits a new Centre has already been established at Sirsa. The production technologies like ridge plantation, canopy management alongwith mulching and drip irrigation are demonstrated. Farmers have started adopting these technologies on large scale. Some new varieties of citrus (11 nos), olives (4 nos), pomegranate (3 nos) and date-palm (5 nos) have also been introduced and give farmers a vital

choice for adoption in varied climatic conditions. Has the state government any new plan or scheme on the anvil to give a greater push to the growth of horticulture to create more employment? What about providing financial aid/subsidy to the farmers? New schemes like monitoring pesticide residue and adoption of national and international technologies have been started. Further, new Centres on bee-keeping, flowers and on subtropical fruits like mango, persimmon shall be established in the near future. As Horticulture and protected cultivation is capital intensive, therefore, Haryana Govt. is supporting the farmers with additional financial assistance as for example the subsidy under drip irrigation is 90% as against 50% under the scheme and it is 65% on protected cultivation as against 50%. Apart from these, the assistance as envisaged under NHM and NMMI are being given to the farmers on priority basis. n


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interview

Farmers are Taking Floriculture as an Alternative to Traditional Crops ..... Dr. L. S. Brar

Punjab is emerging one of the leading states in the field of horticulture including floriculture. Like Maharashtra, here too, the farmers are progressive, and the state government is open to new ideas and ready to adopt latest technologies to remain competitive as the horticulture hub in the country. But like Maharashtra, here too, there are bottlenecks like ‘marketing constraints’ that need to be addressed. Naveen Grover of Floriculture Today toured Punjab, and visited a number of greenhouse/polyhouse projects, met several farmers and top officilas of Punjab horticulture department, to know the latest status and trends and future of horticulture in the state. Naveen Grover Dr. L. S. Brar, Director, Horticulture, and Mission Director, NHM, Punjab, Dept. of Horticulture, Chandigarh, is taking proactive steps to ward off growers’ problems, and has been successful in educating and linking farmers to the latest tools and technologies for enhanced productivity, creation of employment and higher income. In a brief chat with Naveen Grover, he spoke on the latest status of horticulture in Punjab and certain issues, among other things. Excerpts:

Punjab is emerging as a major hub for horticulture production including fruits, vegetables and commercial floriculture. What is the current status of horticulture in the state—area under production, variety of crops and the like? I think it is better to answer this question through a table.

Culture of Greenhouse production in floriculture is a new trend for Punjab farmers traditionally growing crops like wheat and rice. Can you share your views on diversification options for them? The greenhouse environment is effective for promoting rapid plant growth and act as a barrier for insects

Current Status of the Horticulture in the State – Year 2011-2012 Sr. No. Crops

26

Area Hec.

Av. Yield Kgs./Hect.

Production M. Tonnes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

All Vegetables 1,92,544 19394 All Fruits 71473 19866 All Flowers (A) Loose 1300 7734 (B) Seed 760 86 Mentha 7124(In terms of Oil) 180 Turmeric 1206 17502 Celery 4174 1261 Mushroom - -

37,34,181 14,19,862

Total

5222833

278581

Floriculture Today January 2013

10054 65 1285 21108 5264 31014

and pests. Greenhouse crops are grown in small volume containers and they are irrigated frequently with large volumes of water. The combination of rapid plant growth, limited root volume, and frequent leaching make organic fertility management a challenge. Pest management in greenhouses has changed dramatically over the past few years. Growers are now using natural enemies purchased from commercial suppliers to manage many pests in their greenhouses. The progressive farmers and entrepreneurs of Punjab are taking up floriculture as an alternative to the traditional crops. Some of them have started seed production of flowering annuals for export purpose. As a matter of fact, floriculture has received a big boost in the country as a whole during the past few years


interview To produce quality and disease free fruit plants for supply to the farmers at nominal rates, three model nurseries have been established in the state where containerized production of planting material using sterilized media is being done. Apart from this, 3 Centres of Excellence are being established in the state to provide latest technical know-how to the farmers regarding cultivation of citrus and vegetable crops following awareness among the people about the use of flowers for decoration purposes, at work place, for worship and as ornaments.. Potato seed business is another area where Punjab stands for supplying to other states, but farmers lacking in proper production post-harvest practices in comparison with other countries. Do you have any plan to assist this sector also under State Horticulture Mission? Jalandhar and Kapurthala are known for seed production of Potato. About 60-65% of Produce from these districts is used as seed. Out of the total production of 21.00 lakh M. Tonnes, 60-65% i.e. 13.00 lakh Tonnes is used for seed. About (9.00 lakh M.Tonnes) seed potato is supplied to other states. To promote quality seed production of this crop, financial assistance is being provided under NHM @Public (100 %) as well as Private sector (50%). (see table "Estimates of Production....") As we understand you are now focusing to encourage horticulture farmers to adapt greenhouse technology for commercial floriculture production. Please share the steps you have taken for the development? To promote the culture of Green House production, 50 % subsidy is being provided under NHM for installation

established in the state to provide latest technical know-how to the farmers regarding cultivation of citrus and vegetable crops.

of hi-tech as well as naturally ventilated green house with maximum limit of 4000 sq.m /beneficiary. Apart from this assistance is also provided planting material including inputs for green house cultivation.

Has the state government any new plan or scheme on the anvil to give a greater push to the growth of horticulture to create more employment? What about providing financial aid/subsidy to the farmers? Different centrally as well as state sponsored schemes are being implemented by this department to create employment especially for rural youth and women, which helps upliftment of economic status of rural sector directly, or indirectly .Under NHM financial assistance for creation / establishment of infrastructure like cold store, ripening chamber, model nurseries etc helps employment of rural unemployed people. Likewise, establishment of mushroom units helps employment of rural women. n

Have you any initiative towards the implementation of latest farm technologies to enhance horticulture production in the State? Under mechanization, latest equipments are used in farming operations including immediate post harvest activities with a view to increase productivity of land and labour through timeliness of operations for efficient use of inputs, improvement in quality of produce, for reduction in post harvest losses etc. To produce quality and disease free fruit plants for supply to the farmers at nominal rates , three model nurseries have been established in the state where containerized production of planting material using sterilized media is being done. Apart from this, 3 Centres of Excellence are being

Estimates of Production of Potato- Year 2011-12 Sr. No.

District

Area Hec.

Av. Yield Kgs./Hect.

Production in M. Tonnes

1 2 3 4 5 6

Jalandhar Kapurthala Hoshiarpur Moga Bathinda Others State

19625 8786 16804 5800 5320 27779 84114

25848 25421 24464 25414 24424 24656 25013

5,07,267 2,23,349 4,11,093 1,47,401 1,29,936 6,84,928 21,03,974

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interview

We are Focusing on Cold Storage Now ..... Dr. Satbir Singh

Jaladhar is a centre of polyhouses in Punjab. Farmers are aggressively opting for it to get the good produce round the year. The city’s Horticulture Board is very helpful to their cause and wants them to prosper and compete. Dr. Satbir Singh, Deputy Director, Horticulture, Jalandhar, spoke to Floriculture Today, about the floriculture scenario in Jalandhar which is also the hub of vegetables like potatoes. Excerpts:

Please tell us the overall floriculture scenario in and around Jalandhar. Floriculture is definitely growing in Jalandhar and in fact, the whole state of Punjab. Here, farmers grow mainly gerbera, carnations, lilium and marigold due to suitability of climate. They send it to Delhi markets and various cities of Punjab. Local demands in marriage season and in mandis are high. So there is no problem from demand side. NHM has done a great deal work in popularizing polyhouse that started from this city. Due to this, farmers can grow any flower as they can control climate. The first polyhouse was very popular and farmers imitating each other slowly began to buy more and more polyhouses. They devoted their land to grow flowers as they found it economically attractive. Jalandhar became a centre of polyhouses as it is a hub of newspapers and most of the industries are based here. The demands of flowers are also huge here, and farmers could get good price by selling flowers in neighbouring cities. NHM’s 50% subsidy on polyhouses also helps floriculture to grow here. And for one time in the initial period, they also get 50% subsidy for procuring plants. What are you doing for awareness which is very vital for this segment? Horticulture Board spreads awareness through local radio, DD Punjabi, vernacular newspapers, and also holds camps often to educate farmers about floriculture. They also

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Floriculture Today January 2013

get a chance to know the latest schemes and get literature that helps them. What is the total area under polyhouse here? Around 20000 sq metres of land is currently under polyhouses, out of which 5000 sq metres are under vegetable cultivation such as capsicum, coloured capsicum and cucumber. Punjab is the hub of potato. Are you doing something remarkable in this field? The soil of Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Hoshiarpur is very suitable for the production of potatoes. And the climate (from October to December) is also very good as during this period there is minimum chance of germs. We offer subsidy for seed production. If someone wants to produce certified seeds, we give Rs. 25000 per hectare subsidy, but then he must do it in at least 4 hectares.

What are the future plans of the Horticulture Board to promote horticulture/floriculture here? We are focusing on having storage houses and cold storages to not allow the produce to rot or get wet in open. Farmers badly need it. Private companies have some storage houses but that are expensive for poor farmers. The board offers 40 per cent subsidy for building cold storage with a capacity of 5000 MT. These cold storages are basically multichambered houses which can house potato seeds and other vegetables. What advice do you want to offer to the farmers? We advise farmers to keep in touch with us for the awareness of the latest schemes and other information. We also advise them to try high-value crops to augment their farm income. Diversification is important for soil also. n


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interview

Punjab has Ideal Climate for Growing Gerbera ..... K.S. Atwal

Kulwant Singh Atwal, owner of Atwal Farms, Jalandhar, shares his experience and views with Floriculture Today about the latest horticulture scenario in his state, farmers’ aggressiveness for high-tech floriculture, and new challenges, among other things. Excerpts: When did you start your venture? We started this farm in March, 2011. We have this greenhouse which has an area 2300 sq metres. What are the varieties you grow? We mainly grow gerbera, and for trial purpose we also have lily and carnations. Since crops depend on the climate of a place, here we are able to grow gerbera very well. The climate here suits its production perfectly. Only extreme heat in summer (above 35 and 40 degree Celsius) affects its production, causing the loss in quality. Do you export also or supply only to local markets? No we do not export. Since the demand for flowers in places like Amritsar, Jalandhar and Ludhiana is high, we do not face any demand problem. Marriage season also begins in September, keeping us busy in supplying flowers to well-established markets of Jalandhar, Chandigarh and other adjacent cities. What advantages do you get from the ployhouses? Is the demand for polyhouses on the increase in this state? Our family has two polyhouses, one is mine and another is owned by my son. One is an upgraded

high-tech one. Obviously, we feel these are very useful, especially from May to September. This is the best way to control climate and humidity and get good quality flowers. Apart from this, ployhouses help to avoid pests and thus enabling us not to use insecticide spray much. Growers are opting for polyhouse more and more due to this reason. Do you get any government support, if not what would you like to suggest? Yes, National Horticulture Mission’s Punjab wing offers 50% assistance in buying polyhouse. It also gives the same

Packhouse and expert workers like trained packers are vital. Apart from it, NHM should also provide us refrigerated van to cover distances without losing flowers’ quality and freshness. Due to lack of these facilities, flowers which are already of poor quality due to harsh climate are plucked at 5 pm, reach Delhi market at 5 am, and sold next day, so they tend to twist and become lifeless

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Floriculture Today January 2013

amount of subsidy for plants. Punjab is better than other states in supporting floriculture, and as you know this activity is simply not viable without government support since we need high-tech things like polyhouse. Initial support is vital for the segment until farmers stand on their own feet, as this is an investment-intensive sector. Presently we get only one-time support and we have to spend our own money if we go in for upgradation of polyhouse. We also need state government’s support to boost floriculture and horticulture. It is said that South India is the producer of flowers and North India is the consumer. What are your thoughts on it? Yes, it is true, but partially. We produce good amount of flowers as well. South Indian growers have been getting high-tech facilities and


interview government support since early 1990s, while companies and technologies came to this part very late. So, we lag behind a little. But we can also send our flowers to Bangalore and other places in the south, if we get good transport infrastructure and cold chain. Do you use hybrid seeds? We use only tissue culture plants, buying from firms like K F Bioplants and Florence Flora. Both are leading companies in India. What are your future plans? We want to explore other options like growing strawberries, as also other flowers that are in huge demand. We can do it with proper support and high-tech polyhouses. Since natural polyhouse

is good only for winter, we need to go in for high-tech to beat the summer and grow other flowers. Any advice? Packhouse and expert workers like trained packers are vital. Apart from it, NHM should also provide us refrigerated van to cover distances without losing flowers’ quality and freshness. Due to lack of these facilities, flowers which are already of poor quality due to harsh climate are plucked at 5 pm, reach Delhi market at 5 am, and sold next day, so they tend to twist and become lifeless. If we have these vans, we can have big shelf-life of flowers and bulk buyers can deliver door-to-door offering consumers flowers as fresh as they are

when plucked. All these facilities are available in developed countries like the Netherlands and that is the reason floriculture is at top there. Since demands are growing very rapidly in India, big retail chains a like Wal-Mart and all malls have dedicated flower section. They have their own dedicated refrigerated vans that carry flowers as well as other commodities like grapes. If we can get such vans, farmers as well as consumers will get benefits if we remove transportation bottlenecks. And despite 40 to 50 per cent subsidy, it is still tough for us to run floriculture as the costs are very high, so we need state as well as NHM support. n

Punjab needs to focus on innovation & technology: Shivraj Patil

P

unjab Governor, Shivraj Patil, said that the state needs innovation more than any other place in the country in the food processing sector as nearly 30 per cent of its production is getting wasted every year. Addressing a DST-Lockheed Martin India innovation growth programme, Patil said that there is a

need for technological intervention in the areas of diary and agriculture production in the state. “Punjab is a state which has not only started the White Revolution but Green Revolution as well. There is however a need for more technological adaptation in these sectors,” he said. Patil said that innovation is the catalyst for growth. He added that the future will depend on knowledge and innovation and more than the capital and labour it will be innovation which will drive the growth. “Innovation is the key to doing things better, faster and cheaper leading to higher productivity and efficiency,” he said.

The Governor said that technologies in India should fulfil the local needs. Patil also said that there was no dearth of innovative technologies in India and the techniques developed by the national and the state laboratories should be transferred to the industries for them to be supplied to different fields. “There is an urgent need for interaction and cooperation between the academia, R and D labs and the industry to enable successful commercialisation of the technological innovations taking place in the country,” he said.

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interview

A farmer can Achieve Ten-Time Profit by Polyhouse Farming ..... Vinod Gupta

Vinod Gupta, a progressive and highly cooperative farmer of village Raowali, Jalandhar, has so far helped his fellow farmers to set up 15 polyhouses in his region apart from having his own. His future plans include setting up big projects under joint venture with his like-minded friends. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today correspondent, he talks about his inspiration, and some issues, among other things. Excerpts: When did you start your floriculture venture? I started two years ago. Before this I was running hardware export business. In fact, the germ of floriculture was sown in my mind when I visited Dubai some years back for hardware business purpose. There I saw people growing vegetables inside polyhouses in the deserts. This amazed me and I thought if they can do it in the desert why should I not. What is the area under polyhouse and whether it is hi-tech? My polyhouse covers 35 sq metre and it is a natural one with selfventilator. Punjab is the hub of horticulture and floriculture. What advantage does polyhouse give to farmers in this state? Polyhouse is very useful as we have climate-control facility and germ-free production. A farmer can achieve ten time profit in a polyhouse farmland than what he gets in open-land farming, if he does it systematically and scientifically. Farmers here usually opt for chemical fertilizers, but you are also using organic fertilizers. Can you tell us what differences organic

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Floriculture Today January 2013

fertilizers bring? In organic fertilizers vermicompost should be used as by using it we can avoid germs and at the same time can get higher produce. Cow-dung is not good as it promotes germ breeding. What are the things you grow? I am going flowers (gerbera and gladiolus), broccoli, capsicum and salad leaves. Do you get any government support, if not what would you like to suggest? Yes, we get active government support and information. It gives us 50% subsidy for setting up polyhouse and buying plants. Do you use hybrid seeds or tissue culture? We buy both. For flowers, we buy tissue culture, while for vegetables we opt for hybrid seeds. Is flower growing profitable for farmers here? According to experts, a plant usually gives 40 cut-flowers per year. Now even if it gives 20 due to spoilage by extreme summer and other reasons, we would anyway get 1,20,000 flowers per 1000 metre area out of 6000 plants, which will give a grower Rs.3,60,000 at a minimum cost of Rs. 3 per flower. That is great as

Vinod Gupta (R) and Dr. Krishan Gopal Malik

expenditure is almost negligible. You just need two workers to do the job. Do you have any plan to set up a backhouse to achieve good linkage with the markets? We do not have that kind of volume that may warrant for a back-house. Once we get the required volume, we will think about that. What are your future plans? I am cooperative by nature, and have so far helped farmers to set up 15 polyhouses. My future plans include setting up big project under joint venture with my like-minded friends. I also run a self-help group which means working together for horticulture/floriculture growth in the state. Any advice? We advise government to provide us marketing network as we are facing this problem very much. Market is in Delhi. We grow such produce which have very brief shelf-life. In season time, we get good price, but during off-season, we have to sell cheaply. The government should open storage houses here and help us to transport our produce to Delhi and other markets. If it is done, I guarantee that if a farmer opts for polyhouse, he will grow many times financially. n


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interview

Now Floriculture in Punjab is going great ..... Rahul Gupta

Rahul Gupta of Narangpur village, Adampur block (Jalandhar), is the latest entrant in the floriculture segment in Punjab. He is very positive and sanguine about the bright prospects of this new venture and will work towards exploring export opportunities soon. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today, he shares his views. Excerpts:

When did you start your floriculture venture? I started this nearly 3-4 months back. This is the result of my diversification plan as my other businesses are related to cement, electrical instruments and education. What is the area of your farm and whether you use hybrid seeds? I have a 2 acre farm, and grow only gerbera. I buy tissue-culture plants from KF Bioplants that has partnership with an Israeli firm. It brings mother-plants from Israel and makes tissue culture out of it. We also buy from FlorenceFlora. I have spare land of 5 and 1 acre area, and will use it for floriculture if I get good profits in my current venture. We may also grow vegetables once the farm area increases. Since, this is my first experience, let me wait for the first output of gerbera. Future plans will depend on the result. Do you get some government support? I have applied for subsidy some time back, and hopefully will avail it soon. They give 50% subsidy for buying plants and polyhouse.

Are you planning to export also? Although, local demands are huge and Punjab and Delhi are the best markets, we will also explore export opportunities. As we want to increase our scale, it would be reasonable to export.

House fitted with air-conditioning. This will store flowers for a day. And once we reach volume and begin export, we will certainly have a cold storage. But overall, we do not need cooling van as the flowers plucked in the evening can reach Delhi markets following morning.

Are you also planning to set up storage house as Punjab is facing acute shortage of it? Currently we are building a Packing

Punjab is considered as floriculture hub. What do you think about it? Floriculture picked up in Punjab this year only. Now, farmers are copying each other’s success story and are ready with their polyhouse plans. One year back, Haryana was the only hub in this fertile region. But now, Punjab is also going great. NHM (National Horticulture Mission) is also very supportive. n

Floriculture picked up in Punjab this year only. Now, farmers are copying each other’s success story and are ready with their polyhouse plans. One year back, Haryana was the only hub in this fertile region. But now, Punjab is also going great. NHM (National Horticulture Mission) is also very supportive

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Floriculture Today January 2013

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interview

FDI is a win-win game for

farmers and consumers ..... Harman Randhawa

Harman Randhawa is helping his state Punjab to become horticulture hub in the country and believes in diversification of crops and the use of technology for achieving greater income. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today, he shares his views. Excerpts

FDI will certainly help us as multiretail chains will develop cold storage and refrigerated vans, visit our farms, guide us, and above all, pay us more. Processing units will also emerge that will also help us to go for value addition. It is a win-win game for farmers and consumers as middle-men will be eradicated due to direct procurement by retail giants

When did you start your Horticulture venture? I started this 8 acre farm 5 years ago, and another 12 acres one and half year ago. What are the varieties that you grow? We are producing Kino and guava. Are you planning to export also? No we are not in to exports. The domestic markets are strong and the demands are huge. We are supplying fruits to Wal-Mart and Metro. Do you need cold storage? No, we do not need cold storage as delivery is done fast and the distance to the major markets is not too much, and we can also store

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Floriculture Today January 2013

these fruits for 21 days. What we need is grading of the produce like what is done in branded pulses. There is also a need of processing plants for value addition. There is one such plant but that is nonfunctional. Do you get some government support? We get more than enough support from horticulture department including subsidy and awareness literature and guidance. Without government support, there is no question of people like us to work in this field. An expert from horticulture department makes weekly/ monthly visits and surveys the crops. If he finds anything he advises accordingly and signs in the register. So, it is very organized way of working. Punjab is considered as floriculture hub. What do you think about it? We are happy at that, and working

hard to maintain this position. Do you think FDI in retail is going to solve your problems? FDI will certainly help us as multiretail chains will develop cold storage and refrigerated vans, visit our farms, guide us, and above all, pay us more. Processing units will also emerge that will also help us to go for value addition. It is a win-win game for farmers and consumers as middle-men will be eradicated due to direct procurement by retail giants. Middlemen are pocketing a lot of margin. Neither farmers nor consumers are getting benefits just because of them. But overall, we see a great future of this segment as more and more people in India are becoming health-conscious and consume fruits and juices. Rising income is also a factor in our favour.


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interview

We want to get involved in the Marketing now ..... Sarbhjit Singh

Sarbhjit Singh of village Monakala, Hoshiarpur, owns a farm of 30 acres and grows Kinnow. He is also the Director of one of the five Estates that have been created by the government for the development of citrus and Kinnow. In a brief chat with Floriculture Toady, he shares his views. Excerpts:

When did you start your horticulture venture and what fruits you grow? We started this farm in 2005. It has an area of 30 acres. We grow mainly Kinnow. We have also planted eucalyptus in the surrounding area. Apart from this, we also grow carrots and potatoes in large quantities. Where do you sell your produce? We sell it to mandi. Agents of retail chains also come to buy in bulk. What kind of problems do you face? We face labour shortage, especially in the first two months of the year as the labourers get busy in other vegetables’ fields. Although workers from Horticulture Department visit farm and help us in pruning, we often face labour shortage for the same. Are you also planning to set up storage house as Punjab is facing acute shortage of it? We have one potato storage house, though we do not need it as agents come and take away the produce.

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Are you getting some government support? Government has created 5 Estates for citrus development. Three Estates are in other districts of the state and two are in this district. I am the director of one such Estate. Each Estate has 20 members, 15 farmers and 5 government officials. Their job is to do research and decide the most suitable kinds of machinery and other needful tools and products for the farms. Decisions are taken once the consensus is built. It is like a government-run cooperative society. Farmer-members get tools such as rotavators, pruners on nominal rent. Funding is 100 per cent done by the government. The rent is not for profit but for the maintenance of the machinery. So farmers are getting a lot of benefits. And this is also a practical move as a farmer needs these instruments once in a year only, so there is no point of purchasing it for a heavy price. These farm tools are all imported and of high quality. Apart from this, experts from the Horticulture Department are very

cooperative. They answer our problems promptly and make regular visits to our farms. Do you have some processing plant in this region? There is one processing plat but Kinnow processing is not done in big quantity. It is a multi-purpose processing plant. The government should do something for the Kinnow so that we can have some value-addition. Any diversification plan like entering floriculture? We are not entering floriculture. And we are already producing a lot of carrots and potatoes. Earlier we faced washing problems, but now we have washing machines. We get 50% subsidy on these machines and it saves a lot of labour cost. What are your future plans? Now, we want to get involved in the marketing directly as we do not want to sell to agents. Direct involvement will give us more profits. n

Sarbhjit Singh (L) with Naveen Grover of Floriculture Today


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interview

Floriculture is Very Profitable Due to Surging Demands

..... Harsunjit Singh Thiara

Harsunjit Singh Thiara of village Khanpur, Thiara (Hoshiarpur) was previously growing vegetables like coloured capsicum. Later, he shifted to floriculture. Now, he has 2000 sq metre area covered under polyhouse. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today, he shares his views. Excerpts: When did you enter floriculture segment? Initially, I was in vegetable growing and produced coloured capsicum, etc, but a few years back I totally shifted to floriculture as it saves us from repeated cropping and is a lot more profitable than traditional crops. In the beginning of this shift, we grew gladiolus and other flowers openly, but opted for polyhouse three years ago and began to produce gerbera. Currently, 2 acres of farmland is under natural ventilated polyhouse. As you know gerbera does not need high-tech polyhouse in this state due to climate suitability. What are the varieties that you grow? We grow mainly gerbera as the climate of Punjab suits it the best. We have been growing it for many years, but this year we are also growing carnations and liliums in 2000 sq metre area covered by polyhouse. This is just a trial. Where do you sell your produce? Local demands are huge. We sell it to the markets of Jalandhar, Amritsar and Ludhiana and sometimes to Delhi markets. Decorators come to us and buy in bulk during marriage season which fortunately coincides with floriculture blooming period. Profit margin in gerbera is also high as each stick sells for Rs. 6, and each plant gives at least 46 sticks annually. Do you use hybrid seeds? No, we are using only tissueculture plants. Initially, we used to buy from KF Bioplants, but now take from FlorenceFlora as their service is good. Their representative comes to us whenever we call him for guidance or

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any problem. Their quality is also good. Do you get government support? The government is very supportive and gives 50% subsidy in setting up polyhouse and buying plants. It also helped us in setting up a pack-house. Do you have any plan to set up cold house or procure a refrigerated van? We do not need cold storage as flowers are consumed fast here and markets are close by. What we need is a refrigerated van, but buying it is not viable for a farmer who has just 2 acres. So, now some of the farmers are thinking about forming a society and procuring one such van for common use. This will also solve local problems of transportation as government buses here do not allow flowers without a caretaker who must travel with the load, while in Himachal Pradesh there is no such issue. The drivers take the produce on the top of the bus and deliver it genuinely to the

receiving persons at the other end. That is the reason we use train if we have to send flowers to Delhi. What are your future plans? We want to add acres to our present farming strength. Since there is massive growth in demands, floriculture is very lucrative here. When we had just 2000 sq metres, we used to sell all the produce, and now when we grow in 2 acres we do the same. Any advice to potential floriculture farmers and government? See, this is very profitable business due to surging demands. But farmers with fragmented landholdings are stopping themselves for the fear of the initial investment which is quite high. The government department should spread more awareness among them and help more, so that floriculture can grow by leaps and bounds in this state and, of course, all of India. n


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interview

This is the Time of

Horticulture & Floriculture Tools

Implements & Machinery ..... S P Singh Dua

Falcon Garden Tools (P) Ltd. is an eminent manufacturer and exporter of agricultural, horticultural, gardening and forestry equipment and tools. With a view to provide best quality products, it uses superior quality materials and latest global technology. Its tools are very popular amongst the renowned horticulturists of the country and beyond. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today, Falcon’s Managing Director, S. P. Singh Dua spoke about the current industry scenario, farm mechanization, the importance of joint venture (JV), among other things. Excerpts: What is the overall scenario in agriculture/horticulture machinery industry including tractor segment in India? The overall scenario of this segment is very attractive. But I must say that the current and future demands are for horticulture and floriculture machinery as more and more farmers are moving towards it to achieve profit in farming. Government is also giving fillip to this segment including floriculture. Farmers cannot progress by agriculture alone. They have to diversify and use new technologies and tools to achieve maximum productivity. This has put pressure on machinery manufacturers and we are happy to innovate, form JV and

offer useful varieties to farmers. Farm labour problem is a serious issue today in many states. This calls for increasing farm mechanization like what we see in countries such as China, Italy, Turkey, gulf region, etc. What do you think India should do to address this problem? As Indian farmers had have been using manual tools for a long time, a sudden shift towards power tools will not serve their purpose. The other problems are unreliable power supply, unavailability of petrol in remote areas and above all lack of money. Apart from this, they own fragmented landholdings, and do not need big tools. Also, they do not have financial capacity to buy imported machinery. The government

As Indian farmers had have been using manual tools for a long time, a sudden shift towards power tools will not serve their purpose. The other problems are unreliable power supply, unavailability of petrol in remote areas and above all lack of money. Apart from this, they own fragmented landholdings, and do not need big tools. Also, they do not have financial capacity to buy imported machinery. The government should consider this gap seriously, and instead of forcing farmers to shift from manual tools to power tools, it should take them slowly from manual tools to mechanical tools first as they are cheaper and need less power

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should consider this gap seriously, and instead of forcing farmers to shift from manual tools to power tools, it should take them slowly from manual tools to mechanical tools first as they are cheaper and need less power. Once they adapt this, they can then be shifted to power tools. By using mechanical tools, they can get maximum output at minimum cost. What product lines you have, and do you use Indian or imported machinery to manufacture your products? We make agriculture, horticulture, forestry and gardening tools. There are over 200 varieties of these tools to suit everyone’s purpose. We make manual, pneumatic, and power tools including special tools for special crops like kinno, grapes, mangoes and apples. The list of tools includes lawn-mowers, brush-cutters, rose thorn removers, bulb planters, hose reels, maize shellers, pruners, fruit pluckers grafting tools and also introduce woman friendly special design tools. We use Japanese and German machinery to manufacture our products. What do you think government should do to strengthen the industry and


interview increase farm productivity? The government should enable farmers to accept new technologies and tools. But at the same time, it should not hurry up. The process should be gradual and steady. There is no point of bringing a machine if farmers are not ready for it. The case in point is Mango Pruners. They brought it but there were no plantation according to this machinery. Farmers got ready five years after planting. So, we have to consider all these factors and involve farmers while formulating a plan. Apart from this, we have to Indianise the foreign tools for better adaptability. By doing these things we can achieve high productivity. In India, most of the farmers are small. In such a scenario, how should we go about in adopting machines suitable for fragmented landholdings? For this, we have to ape such countries which have small landholdings. Japan is such a country. So we can look toward it and see if its machinery fits our farmers as well. We

cannot bring Canadian machines as it has very large farmlands, and hence large machinery. Countries like Italy, Turkey, and China have penetrated Indian agri-machinery sector considerably. What are your plans in such a competitive scenario? See, we buy technology only, and associate with foreign companies to import critical components only, while manufacturing indigenously. This also saves a lot of transportation and labour costs. Our company buys critical components from Italy and manufactures and assembles here. So, it is a good business idea for us. This also keeps us very competitive in all markets. Selling a technology is just one aspect, but equally important aspect is aftersale service. Being a leading company, can you share your views on this important factor? Yes, after-sale service is the key to success. No brand can survive without it. Initially, these foreign companies

came here, demonstrated their attractive product-lines but failed to provide after-sale service. So they lost customers. This forced them to form JV with people like us, as only we can provide timely after-sale service on behalf of them. What are your expectations from the markets, and do you have any JV plan? The future of the market is very bright as farmers are becoming technology-conscious and want maximum value out of their land. We have formed Joint Venture for marketing with Zenoah of Japan and Campagnola of Italy to capture more markets. The JV gives us Indian rights and will also enable both parties to jointly manufacture future products. And in the last I will say what I said in the beginning: horticulture and floriculture tools, implements and machinery are the future of this industry. n

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interview

We See an Impressive Growth in Hybrid Seeds in India ..... Amit Kumar Singh

Demand Agro Seeds is a Haryana-based hybrid seeds company, which believes in building its business by educating and taking along farmers. In a brief chat with Floriculture Today, its proprietor Amit Kumar Singh explains the current industry scenario, his company’s future plans, and awareness about hybrid seeds, among other things. Excerpts:

What is the overall scenario of flower seed industry including hybrid seeds in India in contrast to the rest of world? Flower seeds and seedlings’ demands are everywhere: houses, gardens, rooftops, nurseries office gardens, etc. Go to any place in the world, you will witness demands of these items. So, there is a lot of scope in this segment. And there is no limit.

successful. I persuade nurserymen to go for commercial floriculture as hybrid seeds of flowers like Genda, carnations, gladiolus are successful only when we aim big production.

When did you join this segment? I have been in this business for 8 years.

What are the most popular flower seeds among growers and nurserymen of various states? Genda (marigold), Penji, aster, carnations, ranunculas are very popular here. Overall, there are over 15 most popular varieties. We have around 500 varieties, but that are sold according to various climatic regions.

Hybrid seed is generating both popularity as well as stiff opposition, while scientific facts regarding its usefulness and dangers are quite ambiguous. Farmers are apprehensive of such seeds and awareness initiatives are lacking. What are your views on this? Spreading awareness is vital for us to remove farmers’ apprehensions and doubts. We go to the farmers and teach them benefits of hybrid seeds through presentations and literature. Once they are convinced about the true nature of hybrid seeds, it become easier for us. We train them properly, and tell them that they would earn 3-4 times more profit if they go for hybrid vegetable seeds. You know hybrid flower seeds in India are not very

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Is the growth of hybrid seeds increasing in India? Yes, we see an impressive growth in hybrid seeds in India, but comparatively, it is still less than what we see in USA, Canada and New Zealand.

As a whole, Indian nursery industry is not organized in comparison with other nations but demand in quality seeds is on the rise. Can you share your views on growth factors? Earlier, we faced real challenges due to lack of awareness. But now, we go door-to-door informing and spreading awareness about hybrid seeds among potential growers. We request them to try hybrid seeds and see the difference. Once they are convinced they love to buy these seeds. Earlier they were priceconscious, but now they are qualityconscious. How do you differentiate and market

your product/service from your competitors? There are a lot of small players (dealers) in this segment. Every small area has several dealers who sell two-three items cheaply and sell the remaining items very costly thus maintaining a profitable margin. But we sell world-class quality at reasonable prices and give fixed discounts. We cannot sell a cheap item at high price. The items of which companies do you keep? We are registered dealer of four world-class companies: Pan American, Goldsmith, Sakata and Benary, and Takii (Japan). We also sell commercial seeds to several companies. Do you get some government support, and if not, what would you like to suggest? Not much…we need robust government support. We even met officials of local horticulture board, and put up our demands. Although, there are a lot of subsidies, but farmers are not able to get them. And this hampers development. What is your future plan to expand your presence in ‘Garden Centres’ segment? We want to sell our own table seeds, and are very much looking at the possibility of export and import of seeds. If things fall at right places we will be able to begin it soon. But now, we are interested mainly in hybrid vegetable seeds. n


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interview

Costs can Come Down

Only if Foreign Farm Tools are Manufactured Here ..... Parvinder Singh

Blue Stallion Equipments (P) Ltd is a leading manufacturer and supplier of wide variety of Agricultural Sprayers and Green Houses, in India. Their products are high in demand for their superior quality and cost-effectiveness. Parvinder Singh, Director, Blue Stallion Equipments (P) Ltd., spoke to Floriculture Today about the latest industry scenario, farm mechanization, his company’s plans, among other things. Excerpts: What is the overall scenario in agriculture/horticulture machinery industry in India? As agriculture/Horticulture is flourishing in India and farmers are taking interest in adopting new technologies, there is a huge scope for latest technology in agriculture/ horticulture machinery.

are also adopting new manufacturing techniques by importing latest machineries and raw materials from other countries.

Farm labour problem is a serious issue today in many states. This calls for increasing farm mechanization like what we see in countries such as China, Italy, Turkey, gulf region, etc. What do you think India should do to address this problem? In these days, there is a big scarcity of farm labour in many states of India. We can deal efficiently with this issue only by adopting farm mechanization management, through which only two labourers can do the work of ten.

What do you think government should do to strengthen this industry and farm productivity? Yes, Agriculture is a back-bone of our country. New technology coming through foreign companies is still a costly affair for farmers. There is a need to provide the new technology at appropriate prices to farmers. This could only be made possible if the agriculture machinery and equipment having latest technology are manufactured in India. And it could be done only if the government moves ahead to strengthen the agriculture industry in India by providing different facilities and subsidies to set-up new hi-tech industrial units or upgrade old units with latest technology, charging less import duties on latest production machinery and plants, etc.

What product lines you have, and do you use Indian or imported machinery to manufacture your products? We have complete green-house solution and range of Agriculture Sprayers under one roof. Some of the products are manufactured here while some are imported from Europe, Korea and Taiwan. As the industry is growing very fast, we

In India, most of the farmers are small. In such a scenario, how should we go about in adopting machines suitable for fragmented landholdings? Yes, in India mostly the farm holdings are very small and farmers always face problems in adopting new machinery and marketing their produce. So, I understand that the best way is to form societies, clubs, and clusters of farmers to buy machinery through

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these associations for the common use of their members. Another option is that the panchayat of every village may buy the new machinery with the help of the government and provide these to farmers on rent for their work. Countries like Italy, Turkey, China have penetrated Indian agri-machinery sector considerably. What are your plans in such a competitive scenario? Due to globalization, market is becoming very competitive. Therefore, we are regularly working to improve our product quality and cut down production costs to provide world-class products at very competitive prices. Selling a technology is just one aspect, but equally important aspect is aftersale service. Being a leading company, can you share your views on this important factor? Along with the quality, after-sale service is a major challenge for the companies. Only those companies, who will provide good after-sale service and spare parts to their clients, will have the market. What are your expectations from the markets, and do you have any JV plan? In coming years, we are expecting agriculture market to grow more. Further, we are in process of jointventure (JV) with an Italian company for technology transfer and production base in India. n


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interview

If You Give Quality, You Do not Face Competition

..... Raman Satyarthi & Praveen Satyarthi Gromor Food Nursery is the biggest nursery in Hyderabad with a sales outlet near Kompally on Hyderabad-Nagpur Highway. Its owners Raman Satyarthi and Praveen Satyarthi, in an interview with Azeem Haider of Floriculture Today, spoke about the latest nursery scenario, plant demands, future plans, among other things. Excerpts:

Raman Satyarthi

Praveen Satyarthi

When did you start your venture? Gromor Food Nursery was started by our father late Shri Anantharam Satyarthi, in 1965, in Purnia, Bihar. Then, we shifted to Hyderabad and established a branch in 1998. Now it is the main nursery, spread across 60 acres. The Purnia nursery is managed by Arvind Satyarthi. This is our family business, and most of the family members are involved in it. What are the varieties that you sell? The nursery specializes in grownup plants of 10 to 15 feet height which are available in pots and polybags and sold in bulk quantity. Main varieties are: all type of flowering,

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ornamental, indoor, outdoor plants. We specialize in avenue plants as demands are also high. Do you face any Competition? There is no competition in nursery segment. If you provide good quality, you face no completion. You just need to give good products and services. India is now importing a lot of Chinese plants. Does it give any worry to the Indian growers? Since most of the growers are importing Bonsai plants only, we do not need to worry about any competition. Where do you buy plants from? We purchases plants from

Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kadiyam and Bangalore. Do you get government support? We have recently built a 1000-metre poly-house. As a farmer, we got 50% subsidy from the government. Since this is cost-intensive business, subsidy definitely helps growers to start their venture. What are your views about current nursery segment? The present and future of this segment is very bright. All the growers work hard, and help each other. The demands are high, and that is good for the segment.


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eventreport

Open Season

Where Passion Meets Purpose Bharat S. Bhojane (L), General Manager (Business Development), & Bhagyashree Prasadrao Patil (R), Director, Rise N Shine Biotech Pvt. Ltd, Pune

T

he Rise N Shine Group of Companies is centred around the well-known Biotech firm located 22 km outside Pune, at the Lord Ganesh temple town of Theur. The Group has embarked on a growth phase to reinvent itself to face the future challenges in the emerging floriculture space. As part of this process, it had successfully conducted an open day to coincide with the Kisan Exhibition in the second week of December. The response was encouraging and gave farmers an opportunity to visit the facility for better customer engagement – to understand the practical problems of farmers.

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Farmer to Farmer Interaction The interaction has given a boost to the company’s commercial landscape as customers yearn for authentic relationships. In today’s world, customers trust other consumers more than they trust brands. A conducive environment was created so that this interaction was nurtured for a genuine mutual understanding for an empathetic response. What better method than to spread the message by word of mouth! This also gave farmers from different states an opportunity to exchange notes – It was a treat to see Gujarat growers interact with farmers from Andhra Pradesh. Language was no barrier as their common ground was the business of flowers.

Show House The focus was a techno-commercial approach so that the technical requirements were given a commercial perspective where “Passion meets Purpose”. The Centre of Gravity of the event was the recently developed “Show House” which has been carefully designed to give the growers a first-hand experience of show- casing the bouquet of varieties in all its colorful glory. The customers got to see the mainstay of the Gerbera varieties of the collaboration between Rise N Shine and Terra Nigra of the Netherlands – this is in two basic sections to give the customers options of planting. Both hydroponics and soil based cultivation are demonstrated to give the growers a choice of techniques. The specifications of each variety with the important parameters of vase life including stem length and flower diameter were prominently displayed. Geographical location of floriculture farms play an important role in the nurturing process – That is why the Rise N Shine Group believes in a techno-commercial approach which is “Global in Perspective & Local in Application”. Barberet & Blanc of Spain has a longstanding collaboration with the Company for the propagation of Carnations. The “Show House” has a section with carnations both in growbags and soil cultivation. Another facet of the relationship between the two companies is the latest introduction of Limoniums which are also shown with its flourish of subtle color. Rise N Shine


eventreport has also commenced the propagation of Chrysanthemums in collaboration with Fides of the Netherlands. The Company has a large worldwide market presence with its excellent varieties. This is another product line with tremendous future in both the domestic and export market. Tissue Culture Recently, the Group has started an initiative with Darwin Plants of the Netherlands in the Tissue Culture space producing perennial flower plants exclusively for export. This has given an added boost to the flexible product line to be responsive to market demands. The business philosophy is to approach life as a never ending experiment to remain relevant in the changing environment through a continuous process of calibrated reinvention helping customers get more value. Orchid Project Rise N Shine has also embarked on the Orchid Project with the propagation of the basic varieties of the Dendrobium genus. The plants are prepared for large scale specific projects as well as sale of smaller volumes to customers. A complete package is prepared for potential investors to get an understanding of the project which includes technical advice with follow up support. The objective is partner a practical do-able project custom designed to supply the addressable market on a regional basis. The main focus is on

building a long term relationship rather than a flash in the pan sale. Collaborative Approach The spearhead of this technocommercial dimension with the showhouse approach is Floriculture Business Development Team which has over the span of a decade built up credibility through genuine contributions to the industry at the regional, national and international levels. The spectrum of engagement is from the grass root farmer to the highest corporate level. Over a period of time this has become an institution by itself. The collaborative

approach with a vast web of relationships has also helped others from start up projects to established growers. The show-house concept is not a new idea – the Dutch have fine tuned this into an art-form with flair and panache. The Rise N Shine Group has taken a petal out of the Dutch bouquet and adapted it to local conditions. The blossoms of these efforts will manifest itself in a larger footprint with deep long term relations. “The first impression is the best recommendation�

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eventreport

Open House 2013

KF Bioplants adds ‘Salad Preparation’ This Year K

F Bioplants does organize an annual show to display its new varieties of various crops and new crops. This year “Salad Preparation” was added as an appealing activity for the end consumers like super markets, chefs of star hotels, wholesale buyers of exotic vegetables and progressive farmers. The open house was attended by almost 1700 growers from Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh etc. The enthusiasm of KF & Rijk Zwaan staff made this event a grand success. KF expresses thanks to Mr. Hans Bowman (Area Manager), Jos van der Knaap (Prod. Dev. Manager RZ Indonesia), P.T. Uday (Business Development Manager) for their presence on this occasion n valuable guidance. About KF Bioplants is India’s premier producer and exporter in the high-

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technology field of plant tissue culture. The Company was established as a joint venture between Kumar Gen Tech & Tissue Culture Company (KGTC) and Florist de Kwakel b.v., Holland. It is committed to a vision of the most advanced technologies, combined with continuous excellence. Main Product Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) is an important commercial flower crop grown throughout the world in a wide range of climatic conditions. It is ideal for beds, borders, pots and rock gardens. The flowers come in a wide range of colors and lend themselves beautifully to different floral arrangements. This is one of the flagship products of KF Bioplants and it has been in the forefront of the country’s ‘Gerbera revolution’, with the introduction of new techniques, processes and varieties to the Indian floriculture industry.


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greenhouse

Plastic Gutters

New Innovation in Greenhouse Structures —Anand Zambre, Vice President - Agri business ESSEN Multipack Ltd, Rajkot, Gujarat

Greenhouse Greenhouse is a structure under which the crops can be grown in partial or fully controlled climatic conditions. Greenhouse cultivation is currently very common in India. Almost every part of the country, farmers are showing interest in greenhouse technology and Government is also providing huge subsidies for greenhouse projects. It is generally observed that most of the farmers all over India growing flowers and vegetables under greenhouses are not happy with the economics of the project as the input costs are continuously increasing but the price of the produce remaining the same for last so many years. Thus it is very difficult for farmers/ growers to maintain profits in greenhouse projects. It has become necessary to reduce the input costs maintaining the same quality so that the initial cost of the project will be reduced. ESSEN Multipack Ltd has developed plastic gutters those are found to be a good alternative for GI gutters. This article aims to provide the readers the detailed technical information of the newly innovated plastic gutters those are used successfully in Gujarat and Haryana over 100 acres of polyhouses in last 3 years. Plastic Gutters – A new innovation in Greenhouse structures Presently, Tropical polyhouses

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PLASTIC GUTTERS INSTALLED ON A POLYHOUSE IN GUJARAT

are sold to farmers at the rate of Rs. 600/to Rs. 1000/- per sqm depending upon area of the polyhouse, specifications and location of the greenhouse to be installed. The greenhouse industry is all time set to reduce the costs of greenhouses by modifying the structures and the structural parts. ESSEN Multipack Ltd Rajkot, being masters in developing quality plastic products used in Agriculture, printing, packaging etc took a challenge to develop plastic gutters for greenhouses. The challenge was difficult as the competition was with GI gutters. The technical team of ESSEN considered rain water intensity, pressure, self weight/ load etc and developed plastic gutters in three different thicknesses viz 1.2mm,

1.4 mm and 1.6 mm with a specific width of 600 mm. The plastic material used was purely virgin, HIGHLY UV stabilized and transparent. The plastic gutters were installed in greenhouses in Gujarat and tested for one complete year. It was observed that the plastic gutter having width 600 mm and a thickness of 1.4 mm is having good strength to withstand heavy rain intensity of Surat, Gujarat. These gutters are installed three years back and found excellent in terms of quality and desired outputs. Theoretically, the life of the gutter is 10 to 15 years as proportioned with 4 years of 200 micron covering film, however, for safety concerns the company is guaranteeing the life of 5 years.


greenhouse It was also observed that 8 to 10 workers can easily stand on plastic gutter for fitting of polythene cover or any other maintenance works.The gutters can easily sustain the load of 8 to 10 workers without any damage. Advantages of plastic gutters over GI gutters 1. Light Transmission – Maximum light transmission through plastic gutters helping the plants for photosynthesis. 2. Flexibility – It provides effortless and easy installation for workers and fabricators. 3. Leakage free – Single gutter can be developed of any length avoiding joints thereby minimizing the possibility of leakages. 4. Rust free – Plastic gutters are always rust free thereby minimizing the possibility of reducing life of gutter because of rusting. 5. Cost – The manufacturing and installation cost of plastic gutter is only 65% as that of GI gutters, thus reducing the cost of greenhouses. n

INSIDE VIEW OF PLASTIC GUTTER (COMPLETE TRANSPERANT)

Presently, Tropical polyhouses are sold to farmers at the rate of Rs. 600/- to Rs. 1000/- per sqm depending upon area of the polyhouse, specifications and location of the greenhouse to be installed. The greenhouse industry is all time set to reduce the costs of greenhouses by modifying the structures and the structural parts

It is interesting to know the comparison between plastic gutters and GI gutters. The results we obtained through our R & D team are given below:

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curtainraiser

February to Become

Festival of

Flowers A curtain-raiser takes place at Sikkim House, New Delhi

S

ikkim thriving on organic farming is set to mesmerize people around the world once again with its exotic varieties of flowers by organizing second international flower festival in February 2013.The five-day-long festival would begin at Saramsa the outskirts of Gangtok the capital of Sikkim from February 23. Saramsa in east Sikkim is a well-landscaped open garden covering an expanse of 10 acres with tall canopies and ornamental bamboo grooves. The festival is aimed to showcase Sikkim a biodiversity hotspot to the

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outside world as must visit place when the flowers are in full bloom from February every year. On Friday 28 December, the department of horticulture and agriculture organised a curtain raiser programme at Sikkim House in New Delhi, presided by the the Governor, Sikkim Balmiki Prasad Singh, during which the websites dedicated to the international flower festival were launched. Speaking at the occasion, as chief guest Chief Minister of Sikkim Pawan Chamling said that Sikkim has already embarked on the way to convert


curtainraiser Sikkim into a fully organic farming state and the international flower festival would witness huge domestic and international visitors. The main objective of this flower show is to provide a common platform to common grower, farmer and person engaged in flower business. This platform will also provide employment opportunities to the youth of Sikkim. He further added that this time the International Flower Show will be inaugurated by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The festival organised once in every five year is likely to be participated by 25 international, 30 national and 190 domestic growers respectively, Chamling said. Other than the various states from India, International participants for this event are Netherland, Australia, Newzealand, China, and Taiwan. He also said that the festival in addition to drawing international attention would sensitize farmers of the state, explore potential for high value floriculture, diversification and value addition. It is also aimed at enhancing investment in floriculture and related sectors. Sikkim is celebrating 2012-2013 as the year of horticulture. Sikkim a tiny state and the newest member of North East Council has around 5000 species of flowering plants, 515 rare orchids, 60 primula species, 36 Rhododendron species, 11 oak and 23 bamboo varieties, 16 conifers species, 360 types of ferns and fern allies, 8 tree ferns and over 424 medical plants, a variant of poinsettias is a veritable treasure house of flora and fauna, a botanist’s delight. Amongst the flowers exported from Sikkim are Cymbidium, Rose and Lilium. Floriculture in Sikkim is becoming so popular that a good number of educated youths have started growing flowers and the state government provides all requisite support to market their products. In Sikkim, flowers are grown on 210 hecters of land out of which 69.99 percent are covered with flower cultivation. Chamling said that the festival would go a long way to showcase Sikkim as the floriculture destination. The first international flower festival was organised in 2008 for three days. As the 2008 festival was so successful that this

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curtainraiser * To promote organic produce and tourism Materials on Display The exhibitions will showcase flowers, vegetables, spices, roots and tubers, bumboos and mushroom, tools, equipment and organic inputs. Various competitions will also be held and awards including the best international, national, North East display awards, and best private pavilions awards will also be distributed. Major Exhibitors State horticulture departments, North Easter states, ministries, government of India organizations (APEDA, NHB, etc), post-harvest companies, seed and planting material companies, equipment manufacturers, greenhouse companies, drip and sprinkler companies, organic input manufacturers, infrastructure developers are among the exhibitors. Theme Pavilion A theme pavilion with Partner country will also be set up. This would be the Special Attraction.

The exhibitions will showcase flowers, vegetables, spices, roots and tubers, bumboos and mushroom, tools, equipment and organic inputs. Various competitions will also be held and awards including the best international, national, North East display awards, and best private pavilions awards will also be distributed time the festival would be held for five days. Handsome cash awards and certificates will be awarded to the winners in different categories. Praising the bond between nature and Sikkim’s people, he said, “Nature has always remained closest to the people of the state. In the present context of emerging challenges arising out of climate change, the policy of the state government in managing natural resources based on the principle of conservation and sustainability hold high relevance. Horticulture is

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a potential sector which has surged into limelight in the emerging paradigm of the development�. Objectives The objectives of this year show include: * To showcase the floriculture potential of the state * To provide international exposure to the local flower growers, facilitate their understanding of global trends of floriculture development and business * To highlight Sikkim as floriculture destination

Seminar & workshops To provide a platform for the interaction and exchange of ideas, seminars and workshops will be organized for three days. Internationally acclaimed speakers will be invited to address. International FloriShow 2008 International FloriShow 2008 was held in 2008 and was a roaring success. It provided glimpses of rare varieties of exotic orchids and other flowering plants. The event saw the participation of 22 global companies, 65 national private companies, and 15 national and state government agencies. International FloriShow 2008 is still considered as the most momentous even in the annals of floriculture development of the country. It succeeded in drawing up the maximum number of foreign participants. The event attracted over 1 lakh visitors. Now after 5 long years, such a big show is again going to take place in the state. n


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flowerpackaging Remaining part of the article published in previous issue………

Advanced & Environment-Friendly

Packaging of Cut-Flowers

Shivani Sharma & Dr. R. Chandrashekhar

(Department – Floriculture Landscape & Architecture, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, College of Horticulture, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad)

P

ackaging is a science, an art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can also be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics sale, and end use. In short, packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. E. AQUATIC BUCKETS Act as functional Bouquet for easy display of fresh flowers, and are durable and used for various

post - harvest treatments like pulsing, conditioning & hold vase solution during transport. F. HIP / HEP PACK Frees both hands for quicker loading, and promotes easy drop and load method. G. FLORA CUPS Protects plants during transport from greenhouse to consumer by holding the plant’s foliage in its ideal shape while preserving moisture…ensuring optimum presentation. H. BROWN CRAFT PAPER Craft paper brings a natural packaging alternative for plants. Craft

paper is a very traditional form of plant packaging. Sleeves are produced on a custom basis to meet any size requirement. It is environment friendly as well. I. CLEAR POTS EYEC Catching, Protective, Suitable for pottet cut flower. J. HANDLE TRAY  Holds four plants.  SINGLE handle to hold pots.  Easy to carry. K. TWO TOTE PACK / CARRY BAG  Carries two plants easily.  Helps protect plants from damage, and promotes multiple Sales of more than one Plant, because they are so easy to carry. POINTS TO PONDER FOR PACKAGING  Boxes used for air cooling should have sufficient vents on either end.  Cut flowers like orchid and anthurium are susceptible to damage by chilling. They should be packed individually in plastic vial or rubber balloon filled with water tied to the end of cut flowers.  Cut ends of the cut flowers can also be placed in absorbent cotton saturated with water and enclosed in waxed paper or polythene foil.  Polythene foil can be used in case of light packing for maintaining humidity and to keep the respiration rate low.

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flowerpackaging ADVANCED PACKAGING MATERIALS

Coffin type box.

Non printed film

Brown craft paper

Crates

Printed film

Hip / hep pack

Pot plants sleeves.

Acquatic buckets

Two pack tote / carry bags

 Delicate buds and flower heads are packed by wrapping with soft paper or plastic mesh or by placing them in specially moulded forms made of plastic or card board.  Foil sacks, filled with air or nitrogen, are also used for packing delicate exotic flowers.  Cut flowers like carnation, orchid, alstromeria ,narcissus, lily, antirrhinum and delphinium are

Paper roll.

Handle tray

Clear pots

Flora cups

Environment friendly Bopp film

highly sensitive to ethylene. Ethylene scrubbers containing KMnO4 may be added to packages having such flowers. ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY PACKAGING MATERIALS 1. BOPP FILM: is made from Polypropylene resin by-product of petroleum refining. These types of polymer-based films are the most

Non-woven film

P. Box with cool liner

commonly used by the packaging industry due to their wide variety of applications and excellent flexibility, sealability and appearance. 2. P.L.A FILM [ Polylactic acid]: This film comes from fermenting starch, and can be made from a number of natural resources such as corn, sugarcane or potatoes. However, in the U.S. cornstarch is the most commonly used resource. The

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flowerpackaging SYMBOLS USED ON PACKAGING BOXES

end product is a 100% biodegradable film with properties that include superior strength, clarity and sealability. This film is made from natural products that are obtained from planting and growing crops, in order to yield a 100% renewable resource. PLA also compiles with ASTM D6400, the American Standard for biodegradable materials. It is also recyclable and compostable under appropriate temperature and

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humidity conditions. 3. OXO - BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC: This offer a packaging solution that addresses environmental concerns while maintaining physical attributes comparable to regular plastic packaging materials. When this film is disposed of in a landfill site, it will decompose in the presence of oxygen, heat and stress within 12-24 months. Even if the film is dropped as litter, it will begin to degrade in the presence of sunlight and wind. The

film is also recyclable both before and after it is used. There are many advantages to using this type of film: it will degrade in any outdoor or indoor environment as long as there is air present, it is less expensive than other biodegradable materials, less energy is used in recycling and creating this film, and it does not produce bi-products that are bad for the environment. n


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gardentrees

Trees to Make Gardens Colourful all round the Year M. Jawaharlal, M. Visalakshi, S. Ganesh, M. Ganga (Department of Floriculture and landscaping, Tamil Nadu agricultural University, Coimbatore)

T

rees are important to human kind not only economically and ecologically but also ornamentally, spiritually, historically and bio aesthetically. Increased urbanization and industrialization have resulted in isolating humans from nature. Trees in a landscape can make urban areas green, liveable and beautiful. Trees with colourful flowers or foliages add extra attractiveness and seasonal interest to the landscape. We can enjoy a garden when there is year round blooming. Maintaining colour and fragrance in the landscape year round through trees can be achieved with thoughtful planning. India has the largest number of flowering trees in the world, both indigenous and exotic. Knowledge about the season and duration of flowering of trees can help a landscapist choose the right kind of trees, to ensure year-round occurrence of flowering and hence presence of

colour in the garden. When selecting flowering trees, the important factors to be considered are overall appearance of the tree, season of flowering, intensity and duration of blooming and flower colour. A classification based on flowering season of the most popular trees which are widely used in gardening has been attempted in this article. The flowering behaviour of the trees may slightly vary with the climatic conditions.

A. Trees flowering throughout the year:

1. Botanical name: Acacia auriculiformis Common name: Ear pod wattle / Kaththi savukku (Tamil) Family: Mimosaceae Flowers: Flowers are 8 cm long and in pairs, honey sweet showy yellow and sweet scented. Character of tree: Evergreen tree that grows fast between 15-30 m, dense foliage with an open spreading crown giving

shade. Leaves are thick, leathery and curved. 2. Botanical name: Alstonia scholaris Common name: Indian devil’s tree / Elliali paalai (Tamil) Family: Apocyanaceae Flowers: Small, greenish white funnel shaped fragrant flowers Character of tree: 25m tall, elegant, glabrous, elegant branching, leaves in whorls of 4-7 in numbers, all parts of plant poisonous. 3. Botanical name: Bauhinia purpurea Common name: Purple orchid tree / Mandarai (Tamil) Family: Leguminaceae Flowers: 5 inch wide beautiful, delicate fragrant, purplish coloured orchid like flowers with five petals. Character of tree: Deciduous tropical tree reaching a height of 14m. Native to India and favourite of many plant lovers. 4. Botanical name: Bauhinia tomentosa Common name: Yellow orchid tree / Thiruvatti (Tamil) Family: Leguminaceae Flowers and Season: Large bell shaped bright sulphur yellow flowers with black to deep maroon coloured centre. Character of tree: Deciduous medium to large shrub or small tropical tree reaching a height of 2 m. Branches are drooping with slender twigs and two lobed leaves. 5. Botanical name: Cordia sebestena Common name: Scarlet Cordia / Geiger tree Family: Boraginaceae Flowers: Showy tubular small orange flowers found scattered all over the tree. Flowering year round with profuse flowering in spring and summer. Character of tree: Slow growing to a height of 7m with an equal spread, compact crown, large, alternately arranged rough textured dark green leaves with undulate margins.

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gardentrees 6. Botanical name: Plumeria alba Common name: Temple tree / Nela sampangi (Tamil) Family: Apocyanaceae Flowers: White and white with yellow centered flowers with exquisite fragrance. Character of tree: Small deciduous tree with good branching pattern. Tree remains leafless from December until rains. 7. Botanical name: Thespesia populanea Common name: Indian Tulip Tree / Poovarasu (Tamil) Family: Malvaceae Flowers: It has glossy green, heart-shaped leaves and yellow hibiscus-type flowers. Colour is pale yellow with a maroon spot at the base of each petal. Flowers open and close on same day, and the yellow flowers turn dark red, purple or pink as the day progresses. Character of tree: It is a small tree or arborescent shrub that has a pantropical distribution, found on coasts around the world. Tree reaches a height of 10 - 16 m and a trunk diameter of 20–30 cm.

B. Trees flowering for half of the year:

1. Botanical name: Amherstia nobilis

Common name: Queen of flowering tree / Tree of heaven Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flower: Exceptionally beautiful flowers. Large profuse irregular yellow spotted scarlet flowers hanging from

the long inflorescence or flower stalk. There are 5 petals, 2 petals are minute and the rest are of unequal size. Flowering season: November - April Character of tree: Evergreen tropical

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gardentrees When selecting flowering trees, the important factors to be considered are overall appearance of the tree, season of flowering, intensity and duration of blooming and flower colour. A classification based on flowering season of the most popular trees which are widely used in gardening has been attempted in this article. The flowering behaviour of the trees may slightly vary with the climatic conditions tree 10m height, slow growing giving excellent shade. 2. Botanical name: Cassia siamea Common name: Burmese cassia / Manjal kondrai (Tamil) Family: Caesalpinaceae Flowers: Sunny yellow flowers which bloom in large clusters upto 3.5 cm long. Flowering season: June - January Character of tree: Elegant small to medium sized tree growing upto a height of 15-20 m, with a short bole, low arching branches with high crown. 3. Botanical name: Millingtonia hortensis Common name: Tree jasmine / cork tree / Maramalli (Tamil) Family: Bignoniaceae Flowers: Trumpet / bell shaped

white flowers in clusters with pleasant fragrance. Flowering season: June - December Character of tree: Tall and straight growing tree of 25 m. The bark of the tree has deep fissures and is used as corks and hence the name. 4. Botanical name: Spathodea campanulata Common name: Indian tulip / African tulip tree / Patadi (Tamil) Family: Bignoniaceae Flowers: It is appreciated for its very showy reddish-orange or crimson (rarely yellow), campanulate flowers. The open flowers are cup-shaped and hold rain and dew, making them attractive to many species of birds. Flowering season: December - April Character of tree: It is a fast growing and ever-blooming tree. The wood is known to be very soft and brittle. The trunk is

light grey and somewhat buttressed. When young, the leaves are bronze; deep glossy green at maturity.

C. Trees flowering yearly twice

1. Botanical name: Acacia dealbata Common name: Silver wattle / Velvayalam (Tamil) Family: Mimosaceae Flowers: The flowers are in large racemose inflorescences made up of numerous smaller globose bright yellow flower heads of 13 - 42 individual flowers. Flowering season: February - March / July - August Character of tree: It is a fast growing evergreen tree growing up to 15 m height, leaves are bipinnatus, glaucous blue-green to silvery grey, 1–12 cm long. 2. Botanical name: Callistemon lanceolatus Common name: Bottle brush Family: Myrtaceae Flowers: Produces bunch of red flowers resembling bottle brush. The pollen of the flower forms on the tip of a long coloured stalk called a filament. It is these filaments which give the flower spike its colour and distinctive bottlebrush like appearance. Flowering season: April- May / August September Character of tree: Medium evergreen tree growing up to a height of 10m with narrow lanceolate leaves. Drought tolerant and suitable to acidic soils, and water logging conditions. 3. Botanical name: Eucalyptus ficifolia Common name: Red flowering gum Family: Myrtaceae Flowers: Tends to have orange, but can be almost white, pink, or deep crimson. Very prolific flowering. Flowering season: April - May / September - November Character of tree: It is an ideal street tree as it is hardy, moderately fast growing, and rarely grows large enough to require pruning. It is largest known single-stemmed tree in the world. 4. Botanical name: Lagerstroemia speciosa Common name: Pride of India / Poomaruthu (Tamil) Family: Lthyraceae Flowers and Season: Flowers pink, mauve, white with crimped paper like petals in panicles up to 9 cm. Flowering season: April – June, August – September Character of tree: Medium deciduous tree, grows to height of 15-20 m, multi stemmed

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gardentrees tree, wide spreading, flat topped, open habit when mature and with prominent smooth greyish bark that sheds annually. 5. Botanical name: Michelia champaca Common name: Golden champa / Shenbagam (Tamil) Family: Magnoliaceae Flowers: Strong fragrant yellow or white flowers which are solitary and rarely in pairs. Flowering season: April - May / August - September Character of tree: Large evergreen semi deciduous medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; bole straight, cylindrical, up to 200 cm in diameter, without buttresses. 6. Botanical name: Peltophorum ferrugineum Common name: Copper shield / Iyalvagai (Tamil) Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowers: Inflorescences in panicles of terminal spikes of yellow flowers. Profuse flowering to give an attractive sight. Flowering season: April - June / September - November Character of tree: Handsome fast growing tree grows up to 25 m height with a dense, spreading, deep seated crown.

D. Trees flowering in first quarter of the year (January - March) 1. Botanical Name: Butea monosperma Common name: Flame of forest / Elaiporasu (Tamil) Family: Leguminosae Flowers: The flowers are 2.5 cm long, bright orange-red, and produced in racemes up to 15 cm long. Flowering season: January – April Character of tree: It is a medium sized deciduous tree, growing to 12m tall. It is a slow growing tree.

2. Botanical name: Cassia grandis Common name: Pink Cassia / Konnai (Tamil) Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowers: During the dry season, the tree sheds its old leaves, giving way to racemes of pastel pink flowers. Flowering season: February – March Character of tree: Medium sized tree growing to a height of 15m, leaves are pinnate and deciduous, with 10-20 pairs of leaflets of 3-5 cm. Branching is profuse and a dense, umbrella-shaped canopy is produced.

3. Botanical name: Guaiacum officinale Common name: Tree of life Family: Zygophyllaceae Flowers: The blue flowers have five petals that yield a bright-yellow borange fruit with red flesh and black seeds. Flowering season: March – April Character of tree: This small tree is very slow growing, reaching about 10 m in height with a trunk diameter of 60 cm. 4. Botanical name: Saraca indica Common name: Sorrowless tree / Ashoka tree (Tamil) Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowers: Rich orange slightly fragrant flowers borne in roundish panicles. Flowering season: February - May Character of tree: A handsome 7-10 m tall evergreen tree with branches spreading in all directions forming a dome shaped crown. The young leaflets come out in drooping bunches, greyish white to pinkish and remain unfolded 5. Botanical name: Tabebuia spectabilis Common name: Silver trumpet tree Family: Bignoniaceae Flowers: Showy bright yellow funnel shaped clustered flowers which bloom in summer season when the tree is leafless. Flowering season: February - March Character of tree: A small erect, deciduous tree growing to a height of 15 m having rough, brown bark, digitate leaves with ovate-oblong leaflets, useful as an avenue tree.

Others:

6. Botanical name: Bauhinia alba Common name: White orchid tree / White kachnar Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowering season: February - April

E. Trees flowering in second quarter of the year (April - June)

1. Botanical name: Calophyllum inophyllum Common name: Alexandrian Laurel / Punnai (Tamil) Family: Clusiaceae Flowers: Showy bright yellow funnel shaped clustered flowers which bloom in summer season when the tree is leafless. Flowering season: April – May Character of tree: A small erect, deciduous tree growing to a height of 16 m height having rough, brown bark, digitate leaves with ovate-oblong leaflets, useful as an avenue tree 2. Botanical name: Cassia fistula Common name: Golden shower / Amaltas / Sarakondrai (Tamil) Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowers: In summer, the tree is decorated with thick clusters of showy yellow blooms which cover the slightly drooping branches. Flowering season: April – June Character of tree: The golden shower tree is a medium-sized tree, growing to 10–15 m height with fast growth. The racemes are long and pendulous. 3. Botanical name: Couroupita guianensis Common name: Cannon ball tree / Nagalingam tree (Tamil) Family: Lecythidaceae Flowers: Its flowers are orange, scarlet and pink in colour, and form large bunches measuring up to 3m in length. Flowering season: April - June

7. Botanical name: Sterculia villosa Common name: Hairy sterculia / Kottai thanuku (Tamil) Family: Sterculiaceae Flowering season: January March

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gardentrees Character of tree: A large deciduous tropical tree 27m tall The "cannonball tree" is so called because of its brown cannon-ball-like fruits. 4. Botanical name: Delonix regia Common name: May flower / Mayil konrai (Tamil) Family: Caesalpiniaceae Flowers: The flowers are large, with four spreading scarlet or orange-red petals up to 8 cm long, and a fifth upright petal called the standard, which is slightly larger and spotted with yellow and white Flowering season: April- June Character of tree: It is useful shade tree in tropical conditions, because it usually grows to a modest height of 16 m but spreads widely, and its dense foliage provides full shade 5. Botanical Name: Jacaranda mimosifolia Common name: Blue Gulmohar / Peru-maram (Tamil) Family: Bignoniaceae Flowers and Season: The lilac blue flowers are up to 5 cm long, and are grouped in 30 cm panicles. They appear in spring and early summer, and last for up to two months. Flowering season: March - May Character of tree: This medium size deciduous tree growing to a height of 10 - 15 m, laves bipinnate 6. Botanical name: Pterospermum acerifolium Common name: Maple-leaved bayur tree / Vennangu (Tamil) Family: Sterculiaceae Flowers: It has large fragrant nocturnal white flowers, occurring in axillary fascicles. Flowering season: March - June Character of tree: Pterospermum is a genus of tropical trees and shrubs. Some species are grown ornamentally while others are valued for their timber. It is a relatively large tree, growing up to 30 m tall, mostly planted as an ornamental or shade tree, the leaves, flowers, and wood of the tree serve a variety of functions. 7. Botanical name: Samanea saman Common name: Rain tree / Thoongumoonji maram (Tamil) Family: Mimosaceae Flowers: The tiny flowers (12–25 per head) are massed in pinkish heads 5 6 cm across and about 4 cm in height.

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The long, bicoloured stamens (white in lower half and reddish above) give the whole inflorescence the appearance of a powder puff or feather duster held slightly above the foliage. Flowering season: April – June Character of tree: Rain tree has a characteristic dome-shaped canopy and a large symmetrical crown. It usually reaches a height of 25 m and a diameter of 40 m. It is a good shade tree.

Others:

8. Botanical name: Azadirachta indica Common name: Neem / Vembu (Tamil) Family: Meliaceae Flowering season: April - June 9. Botanical name: Erythrina variegata (Syn. indica) Common name : Indian coral tree / Kalyana murungai (Tamil) Family: Leguminaceae Flowering season: March - May 10. Botanical name: Grevillea robusta Common name: Silver oak / Savukku maram (Tamil) Family: Proteaceae Flowering season: April- June 11. Botanical name: Magnolia grandiflora Common name: Champa tree / Nagasuram (Tamil) Family: Magnoliaceae Flowering season: May - June 12. Botanical name: Parkia biglandulosa Common name: Badminton ball tree Family: Mimosaceae Flowering season: April - May

F. Trees flowering in third quarter of the year (July – September)

1. Botanical name: Anthocephalus indicus Common name: Kadam / Vellai Kadambam (Tamil) Family: Rubiaceae Flowers: Flowering usually begins when the tree is 4–5 years old. Kadam flowers are red to orange, occurring in dense, globe-like heads of approximately 55 cm. Flowering season: July - September Character of tree: The kadam tree grows up to 25 m high. It is a large tree with a broad crown and straight cylindrical bole. It is quick growing. 2. Botanical name: Colvillea racemosa Common name: Colville’s glory / whip tree Family: Caesalpinaceae Flowers: Very conspicuous cylindrical

or cone shaped clusters of bright orange flowers that are bright red in bud. Flowering season: July - October Character of tree: Beautiful large tree with large pinnate leaves, grows to a height of 25 m. 3. Botanical name: Heterophragma adenophyllum Common name: Monkey tail’s tree / Vaalulavai (Tamil) Family: Bignoniaceae Flowers: Flowers borne on terminal spikes with yellowish brown flowers. Flowering season: July - September Character of tree: Deciduous tree growing to a height of 20-25 m with uniformly spreading medium size crown.

G. Trees flowering in fourth quarter of the year (October - December)

1. Botanical name: Acacia farnesiana Common name: West Indian acacia / Sweet acacia / Kadivel (Tamil) Family: Mimosaceae Flowers: Small, fragrant, orange-yellow flowers of 1/2 inch diameter with globose heads. Flowering season: October - December Character of tree: It is both deciduous and evergreen according to habitat. The tree grows to a height of up to 8 m (26ft) and has a life span of about 25–50 years. 2. Botanical name: Chorisia speciosa Common name: Mexican silk cotton tree Family: Bombacaceae Flowers: The flowers are creamy-white in the centre and pink towards the tip with five petals. They measure 10 - 15 cm in diameter and their shape is superficially similar to hibiscus flowers. Flowering season: October-December Character of tree: It is resistant to drought and moderate cold. It grows fast when water is abundant, and sometimes reaches more than 15 m in height. 3. Botanical name: Nyctanthes arbortristis Common name: Coral jasmine / Pavazhamalli (Tamil) Family: Oleaceae Flowers: The flowers are fragrant with a five- to eight-lobed white corolla with orange-red centre. Flowers are produced in clusters of two to seven together with individual flowers opening at dusk and finishing at dawn. Flowering season: September - December Character of tree: It is more like shrub or a small tree growing 5-8 m tall with flaky grey bark. n


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‘Floriculture Today’ Pays

14-09-1975 — 12-12-2012

I

t was heart-breaking for the entire agro industry to come to know the sad and untimely demise of Mr. Aditya Shah, the founder of Arcadia Agro, on 12th December. The industry has really lost a great emerging entrepreneur in his death. An emerging name in national agro industry, Aditya was noted for his high standards, extreme dedication and humble nature that were very inspiring. The industry would always miss him profoundly. Born on 14th September, 1975, he did his Master’s in International Business and Marketing from University of Western Sydney, Australia. Upon his

Tribute to Aditya Shah

return to India, he worked in the family business which was engaged in various activities, from manufacturing of pesticides and pharmaceutical intermediates to processing tobacco and farming. Aditya worked to develop exports for various products for this business. In 2002-03, Aditya followed his own vision and inspirations to create a new venture. While he continued his work in Human Resources for the family business, he decided to explore new frontiers and started his own project in Floriculture. One of the major draws of this adventure was its nature of aliveness. Having started with floriculture, he soon went on to further explore and establish his business in the fields of Tissue culture. Being someone who took great pleasure in the details that built the whole, this marriage seemed to have

been made in heaven. Though he was not familiar with this field, his thirst to learn, explore and experiment saw him achieve an unusual and unexpected level of success. The growth of his company surprised all who learned of its evolution into what Arcadia Agro is today, including advisors and experts. Aditya’s leadership qualities and his involvement at every level inspired and deeply motivated his team. He insisted on high quality and all the work that entailed, even from himself. This is the legacy he left behind. Every member of Arcadia Agro and those associated to his company are committed to make his dreams a reality. Floriculture Today mourns his loss and expresses heart-felt condolence to his family.

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gardentrees

Garden

Miniature

— N. Mageswari, V. Ponnuswami, K. Padmadevi and S. Muthu Kumar

Steps in formation of miniature garden

A

miniature garden is the perfect blend of tiny trees, plants, hardscaping (patios and paths) and garden accessories that are in scale with one another to create a lasting, living garden scene or vignette. The term ‘miniature garden’ is an allencompassing phrase for any small sized garden, living or artificial. It can be as big as a small backyard or as small as a thimblesized terrarium. Dish gardens, bonsai, rock gardening, railroad gardening, tray gardening, windowsill gardening, teacup gardening and terrariums are all types of miniature gardens. Most miniature and all alpine plants require very special soil conditions that have to be provided to enable them to survive the winter or a wet summer. Basically, they have to have very gritty, gravelly, well draining soil. The growing mix should consist of crushed stone for proper drainage. The rest consists of peat moss, compost, vermiculite, coarse sand and loam in various amounts.

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Choosing a container The best containers for little landscapes have a large open surface area to accommodate many garden features. Ceramic and terra cotta pots, wicker baskets, hyper-tufa troughs and wooden boxes are all good choices. Small containers work great for creating little garden vignettes or scenes and make great gifts. Choosing a spot in the garden Miniature gardens, when established in the ground, need a special spot. A location under a tree or near a bench can anchor the little landscape and ensure visitors won’t miss seeing the tiny treasure. For a more traditional fairy garden approach or to create a surprise garden feature, consider planting the miniature garden under an arching tree or shrub or among a stand of ferns. One of the perks of creating a little landscape in the ground is the opportunity to use elevation changes to make the garden more dynamic. Any protection from heavy rains, strong winds and direct

afternoon sun will help to maintain the integrity of your little landscape design and miniature garden pieces. Potting Mix The growing media for a miniature garden in a container must provide good drainage. The average potting mix, with peat moss, perlite, vermiculite, that is used for garden planters. The mixes containing actual soil/dirt should be avoided as they will not drain well enough. Growing sedums, echeveria and other succulents, then a potting mix for cactus/succulents would be a good choice. When using a basket for a miniature garden, it should be ensured that it has lots of holes in the bottom for good drainage. Wooden planters should have a small hole at least every 5 or 6” along the bottom. Some terra cotta bowls and ceramic pots have very large holes in the bottom. One or two dry coffee filters can be placed over large holes to prevent the soil from falling through. In any container, a layer of gravel (1-2” deep) or “Better than Rocks” on the


gardentrees bottom of the planter will improve the drainage. The container should be filled to an inch or two of the top and level it out before planting. Laying out the garden Before planting the garden, all features, furniture and plants to be included in the design should be placed in their perspective place on top of the soil. The placement of big plants, patios, paths, arbors and benches should be well planned. Planting Once the overall design is established, planting can be done. Plant the plants with the largest root mass should be planted first as they cause the most disruption to the soil level. Be sure to excavate a hole for the roots into the soil. Small creeping plants can often be divided and planted as a border or edging. Most sedum will grow new roots if the stem is stuck in the soil and kept moist. When finished planting, the soil should be well smooth and gently water the entire surface with a sprinkling can. Care should be taken to divide sedums and other creeping plants. Placing and creating garden features Hardscapes (patios and paths) are best laid on soil that has been watered (to settle it) and gently pressed down with a finger tip. Watering the soil Scientific Name Abies balsamea ‘Nana’ Dwarf Balsam Fir Remarks Very hardy, soil sensitive

first will help to keep the little landscape gravel and pavers from mixing with the soil and looking messy. To create a garden pond using blue stone or marbles, a shallow area should be dug with the size of the pond and watered to settle it. Place a thin layer of little landscape gravel or tiny rocks to line the pond and keep the “water” clean. Finally fill the area with 2 or more layers of the marbles. A creeping sedum or thyme planted around or near the edge will soften the look. A little carex or ophiopogon (grass-like plants) will enhance the natural water garden look. Types of miniature garden l Small size miniature garden l Medium size miniature garden l L a r g e s i z e m i n i a t u r e garden Plants suitable for miniature garden Dwarf alberta spruce (Picea glauca ‘Conica’) grow easily into 8 foot large trees (although very slowly), while others might only grow to about 24 inches tall (Picea glauca ‘Echiniformis’). Other plants that do not grow very high might spread very far (Junipers, Bearberry, etc.). Many shrubs and trees can be kept in size by pruning.

Scientific Name Acorus gramineus ‘Ogon’ Dwarf Sweet Flag ‘Ogon’ Remarks Small, beautiful, tuff and easy, tolerant to worst winters

Scientific Name Arabis sturii Cushion Rock cress Remarks A wonderful, low mat of dense, juicy-green foliage, and small white flowers; perfect for the miniature garden Scientific Name Armeria maritima ‘Rubrifolia’ Remarks Great dark chocolate-purple foliage color which fades out to a dull grey in the summer Scientific Name Buxus Boxwood Remarks Remove twigs and foliage from the lower parts to expose the stem and give the boxwood the appearance of a small tree Scientific Name Cotula minor Remarks A fine textured low cover with interesting foliage and flowers. Scientific Name Dianthus ‘Sternkissen’ Dwarf Pink ‘Star Pillow’ Remarks: A very good miniature, easy to grow and forms low cushions of dense and healthy foliage that slowly broaden with time, prolific small pink blooms

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gardentrees Scientific Name Draba rigida Remarks It has good drainage and is located in a situation where it has a little bit of dappled shade. Scientific Name Globularia trichosantha Remarks Beautiful globe-shaped blue flowers of fine, fluffy texture

Scientific Name Gypsophila repens ‘Rosea’ Creeping Baby’s Breath Remarks Fine bluish-green foliage, floriferous

Scientific Name: Picea glauca ‘Echiniformis’ ‘Echiniformis’ Miniature Spruce Remarks: A great, easy miniature, fine texture and good, slightly irregular shape, very slow growing and perfect for small landscapes and troughs Scientific Name Pinus mugo ‘Moppet’ ‘Moppet’ Miniature Mugo Pine Remarks: A very tiny plant, small needles; use in troughs, containers and railroad gardens Scientific Name Saxifraga paniculata ‘Brevifolia’ Remarks A beautiful alpine with crisp and crusty succulent foliage

Scientific Name Hosta venusta

Scientific Name Sedum pachyclados

Remarks Great, tiny, easy, longlived, simple green foliage

Remarks Very promising for miniature garden

Scientific Name Juniperus communis ‘Miniature’ ‘Miniature’ Juniper

Scientific Name Sempervivum pumilum

Remarks Slightly broader and easy to grow

Scientific Name Nymphaea ‘Helvola’ Miniature Waterlily Remarks Plant can grow in a small container only 12” deep Scientific Name Phlox subulata ‘Betty’ Remarks: One of the best: a super-tiny cushion-phlox and loaded with tiny flowers, everything in good scale and a great plant for miniature gardens

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Remarks Super-tiny, beautiful in miniature gardens; fine proportions Scientific Name Silene uniflora ‘Compacta’ Catchfly Remarks Forms a small mat of greygreen foliage, sufficiently vigorous, beautiful flowers and overwintered well. Scientific Name Thuja occidentalis ‘Hetz Midget’ Dwarf Arborvitae Remarks Shaped like a boxwood, very slow growing, should be very suitable for miniature use if pruned to expose stem


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ornamental

Senecio Species as New Ornamental Annual –H. P. Sumangala, K. Manivannan, A. S. Sidhu, R. Venugopalan

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enecio L. (Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl.; Senecioneae Cass.) is one of the largest genera of flowering plants and the genus is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The most recent and reliable estimate suggests that it comprises approximately 1,250 species (Nordenstam, 2007). In the last few years, commercialization of new flower crops from wild genetic resources is an emerging area of interest. It is necessary to introduce new flower crops into the market and Senecio species are an excellent choice for bedding plants for landscape purpose.

Germination Studies

Senecio bomyensis

Objectives The aim of this research work is to evaluate four native Senecio species through morphological descriptors collected form of Western Ghats, a mega diversity hotspot in South India Methodology The study was conducted on plants sampled from the Western Ghats. A total of four different species were collected for the study. Plants were raised from the seeds collected. The following characters were evaluated: Plant height, plant spread, number of leaves per plant, number of flowers per plant, days to flowering, number of primary branches and number of secondary branches. Apart from these 43 qualitative characters were also recorded. Analysis of measurable characters was carried out by developing SAS-GLM codes (SAS V9.2, 2008) available at Statistics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) Results The accurate description and identification of Senecio species

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Senecio belgaumensis

Senecio dalzillii

are crucial as there is no information available about these species. The significant differences of the species was observed for the number of primary and secondary branches, number of leaves and number of flowers, indicating their inconsistent behavior over the years because of greater role of environment in its expression. This is limiting its scope to establish distinctiveness among the present four species under study and the traits with respect to the mentioned

characters. Senecio bomyensis, Senecio dalzillii and Senecio belgaumensis have recorded very good plant growth and spread and compactness and more number of flowers per plant which are also important indicatives for the selection goal.( for bedding purpose). The leads presented here appear more promising. The three Senecio species evaluated present potential bedding plants for commercial exploration and could be used as material for future breeding


ornamental

Table No 1 : SAS analysis for 7 measurable characteristics Species and Plant height Plant spread Days to No of primary No of secondary No. of leaves test statistic (cm) (cm) flowering branches branches per plant

No. of flowers per plant

SP 1

51.31b

94.98 a

46.44 b

19.73 b

180.90 b

428.50 c

291.78 c

Sp 2

33.18c

33.58 c

66.13 a

4.52 d

8.48 d

198.01 d

61.07 d

Sp 3

62.51a

66.56 b

46.11 b

12.4 c

188.76 a

902.91 b

494.88 b

Sp 4

48.74b

59.86 b

40.72 c

30.36 a

150.34 c

1253.70 a

617.77 a

Mean ± SEM

48.94 ± 0.93

63.74±2.62

49.85 ±0.090 16.79±0.11

132.10 ±0.88

695.78 ±2.52

366.33±1.62

CV (%)

14.69

31.89

1.40

5.08

5.21

2.80

3.44

R-Square

0.77

0.66

0.10

0.99

0.99

0.10

0.10

Root MSE

7.18

20.33

0.70

0.85

6.98

19.53

12.59

F Value

42.45

23.09

3800.17

2478.20

2231.52

8828.97

5621.64

Pr > F

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

<.0001

CD (5 %)

5.29

14.98

0.52

0.62

5.08

14.40

9.28

HSD (5 %)

7.02

19.85

0.76

0.83

6.73

19.08

12.31

programs. This preliminary research suggests that these wild species could be used for landscaping purpose. If we promote these species for cultivation it will

lead to conservation of these species and we can also fulfill the present day need of minimal maintenance gardening.

(K. Manivannan belongs to the Horticulture Department, Annamalinagar, while other authors are from Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru)

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orchids

Orchids

Fascinating flower for décor & pot culture — M. Kannan, P. Ranchana, M. Jawaharlal and S. Vinodh, Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC& RI, TNAU, Coimabtore

India has a very large variety of orchids and hilly regions have one or the other orchid species, flowering almost throughout the year. The diversity is so large that there are large-flowered, terrestrial, epiphytic and also saprophytic orchids. In general terrestrial orchids are more common in North-Western India, epiphytic orchids in North-Eastern India and small flowering orchids in Western Ghats

Dove orchid - Peristeria elata

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Nun orchid - Phaius tankervillea

Floriculture Today January 2013

O

rchids, the most beautiful flowers in god’s creation, comprise a unique group of plants. Taxonomically, they represent the most highly evolved family among monocotyledons with 600-800 genera and 25,000-35,000 species. Orchids exhibit an incredible range of diversity in size, shape and colour of their flowers. They are most pampered of the plants and occupy top position among all the flowering plants valued for cut flower production and as potted plants. They are known for their long lasting and bewitchingly beautiful flowers which fetch a very high price in the international market and they are grown all over the world ranging from Equator to the Arcticcircle, especially in the tropics and temperate regions. The main centers of origin are the

tropical forests of the Amazon and the Indo-Malayan region. India has a very large variety of orchids and hilly regions have one or the other orchid species, flowering almost throughout the year. The diversity is so large that there are large-flowered, terrestrial, epiphytic and also saprophytic orchids. In general terrestrial orchids are more common in NorthWestern India, epiphytic orchids in North-Eastern India and small flowering orchids in Western Ghats. The largest terrestrial genus is Habenaria (100 spp.) and the largest epiphytic genus is Dendrobium (70 spp.). Most of the Paphiopedilum (lady’s slipper) species are restricted to North Eastern Himalayas except for Paphiopedilum druryi which has been reported from Kerala but now is almost extinct from


orchids its original habitat. Some of the important orchid species which can be used for flower arrangement and pot culture are listed below. Dove orchid Dove orchid is scientifically known as Peristeria and the name is derived from the Greek word Peristerion which means small dove. It is a full sun terrestrial orchid originating from Central America. There are 11 species with Peristeria elata being the most popular. The pseudobulbs are large and ovoid bearing two to three long, thick and heavily plicate leaves. Erect inflorescences with strong thick stalks of one metre to almost two metres height are produced from the base of the new pseudobulbs, one or two in number per bulb. Flowers are large, cup- shaped, waxy white with purple spots and sweetly scented. They open one after another in succession from the base and each lasts for only 2 or 3 days. Nun orchid Phaius is commonly known as nun orchid, it resembles Peristeria in vegetative characters with swollen ovoid pseudobulbs and large plicate leaves. Bunches of flowers with reddish purple lips are borne on tall, thick, erect stalks. Flowers open one after another in succession from the base and last only for a few days. The tubular lip is the characteristic feature of the genus. Phaius tankervillae grows well in highly shaded condition. Jewel orchids Certain orchids are grown for their beautiful gem-like foliage rather than

their inconspicuous flowers and hence it was named as jewel orchids. They possess exquisite and unusual leaves, ranging in colour from bright green to red, often with veins of contrasting colours. Anoectochilus roxburghii, Haemaria discolor, Macodes sanderiana and Zeuxine strateumatica are the examples for jewel orchids. Pigeon orchid Dendrobium crumenatum is commonly called as pigeon orchid. The genus name â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Dendrobiumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is derived from Greek word dendron (tree), bios (life). But the species name is of Latin origin crumena meaning purse. The orchid is an epiphyte. The stems are swollen basally for a few nodes, ridged, yellow with age, often branching, carrying 4â&#x20AC;&#x201C;19 thick, leathery, eventually deciduous leaves. Flowers are borne on the upper nodes of the leafless older canes, with several to many flowers on each. The flowers, each 5 cm or less in length, are white with a yellow-tinted throat, and are fragrant. Fibers from the stems are used as decorative material in basket making and other crafts. Pineapple orchid Dendrobium densiflorum is commonly known as Pineapple orchid. It is an evergreen, epiphytic orchid, with 6 inch long lance-shaped or elliptic leaves. Long, drooping racemes, with numerous yellow blossoms, appear from the upper nodes. Grow epiphytically on a bark slab, or in slatted baskets with epiphytic orchid potting mix. A temperate-growing orchid requires humidity and partial shade from late-spring through summer, full light

during remaining months of the year. Keep dry in winter. Flowers best in small containers. Dancing girl orchid Oncidium is called as dancing girl orchid. It has about 600 species and native of Cetral and South America. They are usually thin-leaved with flattened pseudobulbs or terete with pencil shaped leaves or without pseudobulbs but with thick leathery leaves rising from rhizome. Most Oncidiums are found in sprays, with dozens of delicate florets that are 1 to 1.5 inches across blooming along a central branching stem. The flowers have a broad lip which resembles a spreadout skirt that has given the nick name of dancing girl. Lady slipper orchid Slipper orchids are easily distinguished from other orchids by their slipper- or shoe-like flowers. The most important genera of Slipper orchids are Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. All of these genera are in demand for international trade. Cypripedium grows in a wide range of habitats from coniferous or mixed deciduous woodlands, to marshes and grasslands. They are terrestrial, with leaves that, in most species, grow fresh from the base each year. The flowers are slipper-like and range in colour from green through white and yellow to red and deep purple. Leaves of Phragmipedium are oblong to linear and are usually dull or glossy green with no markings. When the flowers are in bud, the petal-like modified leaves (sepals) that surround the flower touch

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orchids at the margins. In the other groups, these sepals overlap. In addition, the margin of the lip of the slipper-like flower folds inward. Paphiopedilum is the largest genus of slipper orchids. Most of them are ground-growing, growing in leaf litter or in cracks in rocks containing organic matter. They have the characteristic slipper-like flower, some with exaggerated inflated flowers.

Moth orchids Phalaenopsis, Doritis and Doritaenopsis are known as moth orchids. They are shade loving epiphytes. In Phalaenopsis, the leaves are few in number, large and fleshy. Flowers last for almost four months on the plant. The majority of Phalaenopsis species are characterized by rather short, drooping inflorescences which display

star-shaped, waxy flowers fairly close to the plant and its foliage. Doritis is a genus of small to medium-sized, predominantly terrestrial plants native to Southeast Asia. The showy, mediumsized flowers are strongly allied to Phalaenopsis. Doritaenopsis, is an intergeneric hybrid between the orchid genera Doritis and Phalaenopsis.

Fox tail orchid Rhyncostylis is commonly known as fox tail orchid and its inflorescence resembles that of Aerides. Flower spikes are pendulous, 20- 30 cm long carrying a large number of heavy waxy fragrant flowers, white with magenta- purple markings. Rhyncostylis gigantea and Rhyncostylis retusa are the popularly grown species. Scorpion or Spider orchids Arachnis, Renanthera and their hybrids (Arachnthera, Aeridachnis, Arachnostylis, Renanopsis) are commonly called as scorpion or spider orchids. The name Arachnis is derived from the greek word ‘Arachine’ meaning spider.Its most popular species is Arachnis Maggie Oei, an outstanding hybrid derived from the cross between Arachnis flosaeris var. gracilis and Arachnis hookeriana var. luteola. On the basis of colour, there are two varieties available. They are red ribbon (flowers dark yellow with red bands) and yellow ribbon (creamy yellow flowers with brown bands). Renantheras are very popular climbing monopodials with spectacular large bunches of scarlet, orange or crimson flowers. In this genus, the species imshootiana is popularly called as ‘red vanda’ and it produces large branched inflorescence with yellowish red flowers. Mokara hybrids Mokara is a multigeneric hybrid among Vanda, Ascocentrum and Arachnis. It combines the good characteristics of the parents such as strong and straight stem, petal with a slight curvature, variety of flower colours with small spots {for example Calypso (purple), Panee (yellow), Chakkuan (orange), Teresa, Sayan (yellow)}, easy to grow and most of all possessing long lasting vase life. n

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News

Rose of the Year 2013 Floribunda rose, You're Beautiful ('Fryracy') has been named the winner

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red by Gareth Fryer, You’re Beautiful ('Fryracy') has been chosen as winner of Rose of the Year 2013. It also gained a Gold Standard® award in a recent British Association of Rose Breeders/National Institute Agricultural Botany rose trial. This Floribunda rose produces an abundance of bright pink, well-formed, lightly scented flowers with rich and healthy foliage. It has strong growth and is bushy but neat in habit, making it suitable for borders and containers. Rose of the Year trials UK rose breeders and breeders’ agents only enter their most promising new roses into the Rose of the Year trials. The diversity of trial locations around the

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country ensures that the roses are tested in a variety of soil and climate conditions. Flower and plant form, colour, scent, abundance of flower, health and ease of maintenance are all considered. Other new varieties making their debut at this show include: Lancelot Introduced by Pococks Roses and bred by Rosen Tantau of Germany, this large-flowering climber produces fragrant yellow flowers. The foliage is olive-green and glossy, with excellent resistance to fungal diseases. Easy to train and reaching a height of about three metres (10ft), this rose is ideal for growing on trellis,

walls and columns. Once established, it repeat flowers rapidly, blooming continuously throughout the season.


news

Galanthus Flowers – Profile Galanthus ‘Atkinsii’ Very early, vigorous and slightly honey-scented, ‘Atkinsii’ is distinctive in its outer 3.3cm (1.25in) petals being long and slender in shape. There is a green, heart-shaped mark at the tips of the inner petals. Another, small, distinctive feature is that one edge of one of each bulb’s two leaves is usually folded back. Introduced in the 1870s, similar plants with malformed flowers are often seen and known as ‘James Backhouse’. Galanthus nivalis The familiar naturalised snowdrop of the narrow foliage is grey-green, the edges touching at the base (not reflexed or overlapping). The flowers have outer petals about 2.5cm (1in) long and the inner petals have a small neat green inverted V at the tip. Often thought of as a British native, it was probably brought to Britain in the 16th century. Adaptable and resilient.

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News

Maharashtra: Horticulture in full bloom

M

aharashtra is probably one among the few States that have a vibrant agriculture base, buoyant financial market and bustling industrial belts. The State grows both food and cash crops in two seasons — Kharif and Rabi. Maharashtra is a bio-diverse State with nine-agro climatic zones suitable to grow a variety of crops. The main food crops of Maharashtra are wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, pulses, mangoes, grapes, bananas and orange. Cash crops include groundnut, sugarcane, cotton, turmeric and tobacco, flowers and pot-plants. The State has about 18 million hectare of cultivable land distributed largely among marginal farmers. The state government has invested substantially to improve agriculture infrastructure such as irrigation, seed and fertiliser. The state has a total irrigated area of 33,500 square km. The consorted effort of the government has helped the State emerge as one of the leading producer of many fruits such as grapes, oranges and mangoes. Most of the fruit produced in the state fetch a premium in the export market. Interestingly, the regions that grow these fruits have emerged as big brands in the export markets. For instance, Nagpur oranges are sold at a premium in West Asia, the US and other European countries. Similarly, Alphonso mangoes from the southern district of Ratnagiri and south-northern parts of Sindhudurg including Dapoli and Devgad talukas are exported in large quantities. Table grapes grown in Nashik, which is touted as wine capital of India, is exported to Europe and West Asia. Anil Jain, Managing Director, Jain

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Irrigation, said though the State has just 21 per cent of its agriculture land irrigated, it is one of most progressive state as far as agriculture is concerned due to its focus on value added agriculture, especially horticulture. “The Government should try to bring more dry land under irrigation and focus on rain water harvesting at taluka level rather than taking up big projects which are generally time consuming. It should also improve linkages, storage facility and other allied infrastructure to help horticulture in the State,” he said. The State Government is the process of implementing project to promote horticulture in about one million hectare. Under this project the State has recorded an impressive growth compared to other states in the country. Crops such as grapes, pomegranate and processed banana are exported earning substantial foreign exchange. Maharashtra, one of the leading states in export of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables, has identified eight potential horticultural crops of commercial importance for Agriculture Export Zone, which is supported by the Central Government. The eight crops that have been identified include Alphonso mangoes, kesar mangoes, onions, pomegranate,

banana, orange, floriculture and grapes. Maharashtra is also one of the leading sugarcane producers. It recently toppled Uttar Pradesh to become India’s largest sugarcane grower. Sugarcane is grown in about 14 districts in the state. The largest among them include Solapur, Kolhapur, Pune, Ahmednagar, Sangli and Satara. The State is expected to crush 545 lakh tonnes of sugar cane to produce 63 lakh tonnes of sugar this year. The State is the second largest producer of cotton after Gujarat. It is largely grown in Nasik , Pune, Kolahpur, Aurangabad , Latur, Amravati and Nagpur which have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate. Cotton is largely cultivated under rain-fed conditions in the state. Maharashtra and Gujarat account for about 58 per cent of the country’s total cotton output. The buzzing agriculture fortunes has attracted leading corporate houses to set up there base in the state. The most prominent among them include Rallis India, Bayer, Monsanto, Jain Irrigation, Godrej, Bejo Sheetal Seeds, KF Bioplants, Rise n’ Shine, Floritec, Venky’s, Mahindra & Mahindra, DeLavel, Ghodawat Agro, Mahyco, among others. The availability of excellent port services has made the State one of the gateways for agriculture exports.


news

Flower prices double as wedding season peaks up

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lower prices have almost doubled thanks to the ongoing Indian wedding season, generating a daily turnover of over a crore in markets such as Gazipur in New Delhi. "Flower production is naturally less during winter when demand goes up due to weddings. The price of a bunch of gerbera, the most used cut flower for wedding decorations, has increased from Rs 20-30 per bunch before the starting of the wedding season to Rs 60 per bunch of ten flowers now," said Shivaji Bhegde, president, Talegaon Floriculture Association. Talegaon is one of the major hubs of floriculture in Pune, known for rose exports. Due to wedding demand, the retail prices of cut flowers like roses and gerbera have increased by up to Rs 5 a stem. Maharashtra and Karnataka were main flower suppliers to north India for a long time. However, local supplies have gone up due to an increase in floriculture acreage in subHimalayan states like Himachal Pradesh thanks to the efforts of National Horticul-Of flowers used in wedding decorations, Indian varieties account for 80% while the rest 20% are imported from Australia, New Zealand and Thailand. According to sources in flower trade, the daily turnover in main flower markets like the Gazipur market in New Delhi crosses Rs 1 crore during the peak wedding season. We are now looking forward to weddings that will take place between January 15 and March, which may see better demand," said Ajabsingh Chaudhari, president, Gazipur flower market. Akash Kirpal, proprietor, Delhibased Flower Decor, said the demand for flowers like carnation used in wedding decorations has increased from the first week of November. "However, due to cold weather, carnation production in main supplier Himachal Pradesh is less leading to a 100% increase in prices." Of flowers used in wedding decorations, Indian varieties account for 80% while the rest 20% are imported from Australia, New Zealand and Thailand. According to sources in flower trade, the daily

turnover in main flower markets like the Gazipur market in New Delhi crosses Rs 1 crore during the peak wedding season. Despite the increasing spend on flowers during weddings, flower traders are worried about the growing use of artificial flowers. "The overall demand for flowers was less in the current wedding season which is about to get over. We are now looking forward to weddings that will take place between January 15 and March, which may see better demand," said Ajabsingh Chaudhari, president, Gazipur flower market.

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News

Flower business blooms this year: FAN

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he flower business this year was worth 20 million rupees, the Floriculture Association of Nepal (FAN) has stated. The association said that the demand for flowers especially for marigold and globe amaranth was high this year. According to FAN, flowers worth Rs. 10 million were imported from India last year but the import of flower was down by 50 percent this year due to the supply of flowers within the country. Treasurer of FAN, Min Bahadur Tamang, stressed that flower import could be completely replaced by the supply of flowers within the country itself in the coming days if the government provided technical support and subsidies for the promotion of floriculture. Floriculture Association Nepal (FAN) was established in 1992 with the ten founder-members. The basic aim of FAN is to promote floriculture business in Nepal collectively. It is a member of FNCCI and is supported by Agro Enterprise Centre (AEC), FNCCI, Trade and Export Promotion Centre (TEPC) of Nepal Government, & Dept. of Agriculture under Ministry of Ag. & Co. The association works for the benefit of this industry members including growers/ producers and retailers. It has various activities that help in enterprise growth to ultimately establish floriculture as export oriented industry in Nepal.

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news

Florists happier than better-paid workers: Research

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lorists and gardeners are the happiest workers, while bankers stand out as the least content, a study has found. According to the UK survey, greater job satisfaction is down to workers having more flexibility and control over their daily routine. The results are in line with previous studies that show money doesn't buy long-term happiness, the 'Daily Express' reported. A survey of 2,200 workers by the vocational awards body City & Guilds found that almost nine out of 10 gardeners and florists were happy in their job, compared with four out of five hairdressers and three out of four plumbers. In contrast, just 44% of finance and bank workers and 48% of computer staff were happy. Despite the presumption that jobs in banking, computing and human resources were often wellpaid, in reality they did not offer fulfillment, the report said. The finding highlighted that those earning over 60,000 were the unhappiest, at 22%. Overall, people in vocationally trained, skills-based jobs were happiest. The research also showed that 85% of self-employed people were happier at work. As long as employees earned a baserate wage other factors then become motivators, said professor Cary Cooper, of Lancaster University.

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News

Drop in exports cause a tumble in jasmine prices

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fter having surged to Rs 1,200 a kg, prices of jasmine have begun to drop in Sathyamangalam primarily due to slack demand. In particular, those exporting to the UAE and other Gulf destinations did not buy and this led to crash in prices. Sathyamangam and its surrounding areas are noted for jasmine cultivation and it is being cultivated in over 20,000 hectares. During the normal season, 40 tonnes of jasmine would be harvested in a day and all would be were transported to Sathyamangalam for sale in the private flower market run by the Sathyamangalam Flower Producers Association.

Hundreds of flower merchants from all over Erode, Coimbatore and Salem districts attend the sale and purchase of flowers. Of the total arrival daily, the jasmineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s share is 75 per cent. Due to climatic conditions and heavy mist in Sathyamangalam , the jasmine production has dropped. Daily 2-3 tonnes of jasmine are produced and on Sunday, they sold for a peak price of Rs 1,200 a kg. On Wednesday, however, and prices decreased to Rs 600. P. Murugesh, President of the Association, said only 2.5 tonnes of jasmine arrived for sale, but the demand for the flower has dropped and buyers quoted a lower price of Rs 600. Similarly, prices of the Arabian jasmine and plumeria (sampangi) also decreased to Rs 350 and Rs 80 a kg respectively.

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Floriculture Today January 2013


Floriculture Today January 2013

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Floriculture Today January 2013


Floriculture Today January 2013

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100Floriculture Today January 2013


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