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Floriculture Today November 2012

Floriculture Today November 2012


Floriculture Today December 2012

Floriculture Today December 2012

Floriculture Today December 2012

Contents 8


10 Cover Story Chief Editor

S. Jafar Naqvi

Consulting Editors T.V. Satyanarayanan K Dharmarajan Chief Coordinator M.B. Naqvi Editorial Coordinator Syed M K

News Editor General Manager Layout & Design

Anwar Huda Lalitha V. Rajan Mohd. Iqbal Faiyaz Ahmad

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Printed, published and owned by M.B. Naqvi, Printed at Everest Press, E-49/8, Okhla Industrial Area Ph-II, New Delhi - 110 020 and Published from E-11/47 A, New Colony, Hauz Rani, Malviya Nagar, New Delhi-110017 (INDIA) Editor : S. Jafar Naqvi Vol 17....... Issue 7...... December 2012

Floriculture Today Today December December 2012 2012  Floriculture

16 l l 18

Horti Fair 2012 closes on promising note Leading to shift FloraHolland, Aalsameer next year — S. Jafar Naqvi, Chief Editor, Floriculture Today

New Appointment IAI forms new Executive Council, Primal Oswal becomes President Interests of farming community are paramount, says Primal Oswal Cut-Flowers Advanced & Environment-Friendly Packaging of Cut-Flowers — Dr. R. Chandrashekhar & Shivani Sharma, Dr. Y.S.R.

22 Gardening Jacaranda: Loveliest Garden Tree

— N. Deepa Devi, Dr. A. Shanthi, Dr.S.Mariappan and Dr.P.Balasubramani

30 Soka Bodhi Tree Garden: The best kept secret of Delhi — Preeti Mehra 26 Sylviculture Exotic Blooms in the Silent Green Valley of Roorkee — S. Narayana Swamy 28 Climate Effect Delhi’s confusing climate affects its flora and fauna — Sohail Hashmi 32 Heritage Park 21st Century Green Space Environment - India Beautiful Park-Heritage Trees of Model Town Jalandhar City, Punjab..... Ground Realities....Shivani Park 37 Nursery We face labour and supply chain problems, says NVSN Raju 38 Kadiyam Nurserymen submit representation to Andhra CM 40 Flower Diseases Tips to save garden from insects 44 Research We are losing wildflower species, says a study 46 News

— Geeta

Floriculture Today December 2012

Editorial I

n all beauty contests that are many, all eyes are on who wins the title. However, different from them is the Miss Earth pageant, now in its 12th year. While the winner does get much attention, equally important – or more important – is the cause that the pageant espouses. Isn’t it significant that gorgeous and committed young women from the seven continents of the world have joined the movement for saving Mother Earth from hurtling towards ecological disaster, largely human-induced? The participant beauties seek to promote tree planting, afforestation, and other greening initiatives so that the world we live in becomes more liveable and on-going development becomes more sustainable. This time, the contestants vying for the crown and the title of Miss Earth 2012 came from 79 countries to Versailles Palace in Alabang, Muntinlupa City in the Philippines. Since this year has been declared as the “International Year of Sustainable Energy for All”, the pageant focused on re-using the energy sources so as to ensure universal access to energy services. The Global Renewable Energy Status Report 2012 shows that renewable energy is making a positive impact and it has grown to supply 16.7 per cent of the global energy consumption. Notably, India has been on the forefront in the use of green technology and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in the Union government has a number of programmes to promote these initiatives. One such programme is the National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. Inaugurating the first ASEAN-India Ministerial meeting on

cooperation in renewable energy, Minister for Renewable Energy Dr Farooq Abdullah underscored the role of renewable energy in India’s energy security plan and in achieving the goal of providing reliable energy supply and access through a sustainable energy mix. The meeting was told that India stands among the top five countries in the world in terms of renewable energy installed capacity. The country aims to achieve about 55 GW of renewable power in the next five years, against the present installed capacity of 26 GW, representing about 1.5 per cent of its total installed power generation capacity. Investment in renewable energy in India exceeds 10 billion dollars per year and this is a field which offers significant investment and business opportunities for the private sector. Another noteworthy development is the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Malaysia to promote cooperation in renewable energy, especially in areas of biomass, biogas, micro- hydropower, solar energy and wind power. Both countries have agreed to form a joint Working Group for better coordination through joint research on subjects of mutual interest, exchange and training of scientific and technical personnel, and transfer of know-how, technology and equipment. Even as the general awareness to protect and conserve nature’s gifts like flora and fauna is on the increase, much more needs to be done through a series of initiatives to meet the challenges of climate change and achieve greater environment sustainability.

Comments are welcome at: Views expressed by individuals and contributors in the magazine are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of Floriculture Today editorial board. Floriculture Today does not accept any responsibility of any direct, indirect or consequential damage caused to any party due to views expressed by any one or more persons in the trade. All disputes are to be referred to Delhi Jurisdiction only. .....Editor

Floriculture Today December 2012

Floriculture Today December 2012

Cover Story

Horti Fair 2012 closes on promising note Leading to shift FloraHolland, Aalsameer next year — S. Jafar Naqvi, Chief Editor, Floriculture Today

The trade show received a total of 15,000 visitors, and the number of foreigners among them was greater than ever. It was not surprising, then, that many exhibitors indicated how pleased they were about the quality of these visitors. According to many exhibitors, “The Horti Fair was the centre of greenhouse horticulture all through the week”.


ndians were among the top trade visitors at this year Horti Fair in Amsterdam. This along with participation of Floriculture Today as official Media Partner created a positive buzz about India and neighbouring countries. Coir Board of India, working under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) created an Indian coir pavilion in hall-8 near Floriculture Today stall showcasing the range of popular coir peat products as preferred growing medium


Floriculture Today December 2012

for high-quality horti crops. Over 10 Indian companies exporting coir peat displayed their range of products in the well-designed ‘Theme Area’. Among trade visitors, officials from Himachal Pradesh and a few other states also visited the show but a number of floriculture entrepreneurs came from Maharashtra, Karnataka and other states looking for new varieties of planting materials and technology launched during the show.

Cover Story

Representatives of the companies, marketing Dutch and European products in India, such as K F Bioplants, FlorenceFlora, Rise n’ Shine Floritec, Flora Consult, Cosmita Hortivision, Sheel Biotech, Sabeer Biotech and Rajdeep Agri were there to facilitate Indian trade visitors to visit horti fair and parallel shows. A group of growers from Maharashtra also visited Open House organized by Dutch breeders concurrently with the Horti Week at their respective production centres. For the first time, A CD Version of Floriculture Today was also launched during the programme which generated interests among international visitors about Indian markets. New Combined Fair The International Horti Fair and FloraHolland Trade Fair Aalsmeer will be pairing up in the form of a new combined fair that retains their own sharply defined profiles. In 2013, visitors can attend both trade fairs at a single location at FloraHolland in Aalsmeer. This combined fair means a single trading and exhibition floor in the Netherlands for everyone operating in the international horticulture. The Horti Fair and Trade Fair Aalsmeer will thus be providing exhibitors and visitors with an integrated solution. With each of the fairs retaining its own clearly defined profile, visitors from the horticultural world of flowers, plants, vegetables and

technology can conduct their business efficiently. For visitors, the major advantage to this consolidation at a single location is onestop shopping: no more time wasted on travel. During the event, the auction floor will be turned into a professional fair venue: one that does justice to the Netherlands’ influential international position in hortibusiness. FloraHolland and the Horti Fair will be working in the coming months on their combined trade fair event. For producers of vegetables, flowers and plants, Horti Fair is the biggest international trade show for technology, innovation and inspiration. The Trade Fair serves as a trading floor for the producers and buyers of cut flowers, houseplants and garden plants. Towards a positive direction The organizers of Horti Fair 2012 can look back on a successful trade show this year. High points included the successful Horti Seminars, a convivial atmosphere, and an international crowd, the presentation of many new products and services and, above all, the positive reactions regarding the future move to Aalsmeer in 2013. The Horti Fair is the biggest international trade show for ‘Technology, Innovation and Inspiration in Horticulture’ and took place this year from 30 October to 2 November inclusive in

Floriculture Today December 2012 11

Cover Story the Amsterdam RAI. Almost 500 companies from 36 countries presented their products and services in such areas as plant breeding, cultivation technology and greenhouse technology. The trade show received a total of 15,000 visitors, and the number of foreigners among them was greater than ever. It was not surprising, then, that many exhibitors indicated how pleased they were the quality of these visitors. According to many exhibitors, “The Horti Fair is the centre of greenhouse horticulture all week long.” Reactions to the planned move to Aalsmeer have been predominantly positive as well, according to Willem Luuk Nijdam, Director of the Horti Fair. The Horti Fair and the FloraHolland Trade Fair announced that both of their events would start taking place at a single location in 2013 while still retaining their own identities. More details of this joining of forces will be announced in due time. Next year, this combined trade show will take place during the first full week of November. Awards Interpolis Quality Cup The Interpolis Quality Cup 2012 was presented to Stolk Brothers (Bergschenhoek) for its Anthurium ‘Rainbow Champion’ and to Kwekerij De Zweetdruppel (Roelofarendsveen) for its Chrysanthemum ‘Saffina’. The judges of the VKC permanent judging committee said: “The quality of the entries for the Interpolis Quality Cup was the highest ever this year.” The award was presented by Willem Snoeker of Interpolis Agro on the first day of the Horti Fair in the Amsterdam RAI. In his speech, Snoeker emphasized: “We are proud of the quality of Dutch horticulture. The Interpolis House of Quality is the iconic location where growers can present the superlative standard of their cultivation performances. By organizing the Interpolis Quality Cup and having entries independently judged by the VKC permanent judging committee, we are pleased to support improvements in growing flowers and houseplants.” The other seven finalists were Royal Van Zanten (Rijsenhout) with its pot plant Chrysanthemum ‘Zanminuit’ Inuit, Holstein Flowers (De Lier) with its Gerbera ‘Aladin’, Royal Base Corporation


Floriculture Today December 2012

Taipei (Taiwan) with its Phalaenopsis ‘Sogo Yukidian’, Kwekerij Atlantis (Monster) with its Medinella ‘J’Adore Dolce Vita, DK DeRoose-Kuipers (De Kwakel) with its Nepenthes alata, Kwekerij De Googh (Oude Wetering) with its Euphorbia fulgens ‘Orange Queen’, Vet-Boon (Ursem) with its Brassica oleracea ‘Bogdana’, and De Bromelia Specialist (Moerkapelle) with its Bromelia Guzmania ‘Amor’. Once again, the New2Market Award was presented this year. This is the award for the best new products in the cut flower and pot plant categories. The judges of the VKC permanent judging committee selected the Medinella J’Adore Dolce Vita submitted by Kwekerij Atlantis (Monster) and the Eustoma russellianum ‘Rosanne Green’ submitted by Montana Lysianthus (Poeldijk) as the best new products for 2012/2013. Just as last year, the red carpet was rolled out by Javado and Hilverda De Boer. This means that the these export companies will be providing the winners of the New2Market Award as well as the winners of the Interpolis Quality Cup with international marketing support for one year. The quality of the entries was high this year, according to the VKC permanent judging committee. “The members of the jury, which number more than a hundred, were very impressed with the flowers and plants that had been submitted.” Innovation Award Horti Fair Innovation Award 2012 went to Sercom Regeltechniek and Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMS) for its Air Monitoring Press Award goes to the AVAG consortium for its Next Generation Semi-Closed Greenhouse Sercom Regeltechniek and Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMS) BV have won the prestigious prize for the most promising innovation at the Horti Fair with the development of their Air Monitoring. This announcement was made on behalf of the jury by Geert van Oosterhout, chairman of the international jury of experts, on the first day of the trade fair in the Amsterdam RAI.

Cover Story The jury noted that “suppliers to horticulture are continuing to innovate and invest in the future, despite the unrelenting economic climate.” A total of more than a hundred new products and services are being introduced at the upcoming Horti Fair. On behalf of the organizers, Horti Fair’s Chairman of the Board, Ewald van Vliet, presented the winner’s cup and a cheque good for € 2,500 in stand space for the next Horti Fair. Press Award: A jury representing the Dutch and international press presented the Press Award to a consortium of AVAG companies for its ‘Next Generation Semi-Closed Greenhouse’. Jury report: “Making the invisible visible” This innovation can be used to control the air quality in the greenhouse, in addition to the traditional parameters of temperature, humidity and light. This means that a new step forward has been taken in measuring and controlling plant quality. The key focus is the use of fewer resources. The CO2 dosage can be even better adjusted, the growth potential of the crop increased even more, and heat utilized even better. This combination tool (MACView Greenhouse Gas Analyser and SERCOM climate computer, stand 08.0305) focuses on reducing the consumption of energy and ensuring a crop that provides an added value. Chairman of the jury, Geert van Oosterhout had this to say about Air Monitoring: “Sercom and EMS effectively apply technologies from other sectors to greenhouse horticulture. When the presence of small quantities of harmful gases in the greenhouse

air is hindering the optimal growth of a crop, the source of the problem cannot be detected with the naked eye. Although it can be detected in more serious cases, it is obvious that the damage has already been done. Air Monitoring detects harmful gases even in low concentrations and thus makes the invisible visible. And it then provides guidelines for measures to solve the problem. This combination is thus adding a new dimension to greenhouse climate control.” The international jury of experts This year, the jury assessed more than a hundred new products and services and selected a winner from eleven finalists. “A remarkable number of entries are follow-up developments of the concept of ‘The Closed Greenhouse’ and elaborate on ‘Cultivation New Style’. So the focus is on saving energy and increasing efficiency, production and quality,” concludes Geert van Oosterhout (Director, LTO Groeiservice), chairman of the international jury of experts. “Five of the eleven nominated entries are based on this concept, but the differences among these new products and services are very slight. Even so, they point to the future of technology in horticulture,” adds the chairman of the jury. The other members of the jury are Jeroen van Buren (Manager of Greenhouse Horticulture, DLV Plant BV), Heinrich Dressler (Gb Das Magazin für Zierpflanzenbau, Germany), Cor van de Kaay (vegetable grower), Linda Kaluzny-Pinon (Culture Légumière, France), Frank Kempkes (technical researcher at Wageningen UR

Floriculture Today December 2012 13

Cover Story

Greenhouse Horticulture), Leo Marcelis (Professor in Crop Protection in lowenergy greenhouses at Wageningen UR) and Steven Vale (The Commercial Greenhouse Grower, Great Britain). Hortilux Schréder launches Hortilux Originals The grow light manufacturer Hortilux Schréder in Monster has introduced a new product line: the “Hortilux Originals”. The fixings marketed under this label by Hortilux Schréder, mainly HS2000 600 Watt fixtures, are themselves not new but have in fact been used in the field for varying lengths of time. However, although they have since been replaced by the electronic 1,000 Watt fixings, this does not mean that they have been technically written off. Hortilux Schréder has therefore opted for the sustainable option of reusing the fixtures. The advantages are clear: less environmental damage, and an economic and reliable alternative for several growers as Hortilux Schréder does not make any concessions regarding the quality requirements set for its fixings. Not all used fixtures are suitable; only those fixtures that pass a strict selection test will be considered. The components that are subject to wear, including the bulb, the reflector and several components in the ballast, will be replaced by new components or well checked shortly used components. These used components will of course always have a measurement report. Hortilux Schréder has so much


Floriculture Today December 2012

confidence in this new line that it is providing a one-year guarantee on the Hortilux Originals fixtures. Growers will naturally be given individual advice, just as if they were buying a new installation, and Hortilux Schréder will draw up a light plan before their purchase to ensure that the light output and light distribution of the installation correspond to the horticulturist’s wishes. After the installation has been installed the service too will be optimally handled in collaboration with Raymax, the specialist in service and the measurement of grow light, and Lightshine Cleaning, the professional partner for the thorough, rapid cleaning of your reflectors. Hortilux Schréder is part of Dool Industries. Dool Industries has its own R&D department with a practical area where it carries out various trials. The group of companies to which Hortilux Schréder belongs is involved in lighting for greenhouses and animal housings and in the supply of electricity in data centres. The group was founded in 1975 and has offices in The Netherlands, Canada and the USA. PL Light systems is responsible for supplies in the USA and Canada. Dool Industries feels responsible for the world in which we live and its policy for the future is to make a contribution to a better environment through small or large changes. We will keep you informed of further steps in our sustainable entrepreneurship. n

Floriculture Today December 2012 15

New appointment

IAI forms new Executive Council,

Primal Oswal becomes President


new Executive Council of the Irrigation Association of India (IAI) has been selected for the year 2012-14. Primal Oswal of Harvel Agua India Private Limited has been nominated as the President of the Association. Irrigation Association of India, the

erstwhile All India Drip Manufacturers Association (Dripma), was formed in 1998. It is the Association of all Drip, Sprinkler and other pressurized irrigation system manufacturers in India. The Irrigation Association of India is registered under Societies Act and also as a Public Trust.

Pune-headquartered IAI is attached to MCCIA & FICCI. IAI has 110 members. The Association is voluntary, non-profit organization formed to promote: v Development, proper use and acceptance of irrigation equipment for all possible applications. v T o p r o m o t e w a t e r a n d s o i l conservation and more economical crop production through the use of irrigation. v To conserve energy through efficient design and operation of irrigation systems: *To enhance the environment by expanding efficient use of irrigation for landscape maintenance, dust and erosion control. v To collect and disseminate information regarding irrigation and value to members of the Association, allied industries and to the public. v To acquaint public and private agencies, institutions and organizations with development in the industry and the part the industry occupies in the economy and development of the Nation. v To conduct educational programs regarding the industry and extend scholarships; to promote research, development and extension work. v To recognize outstanding contribution in promotion of modern irrigation systems and carry out such other lawful trade association activities as the general object may direct.

Interests of farming community are paramount, says Primal Oswal A new Executive Council of the Irrigation Association of India (IAI) has recently been selected for the year 201214. Primal Oswal, MD of Harvel Agua India Pvt. Ltd. has been nominated as the President of the Association. In a brief chat with AgriTech India, he talks about his farmer-friendly missions as the new president of IAI, and Harvel’s future plans, among other things. Excerpts:


Floriculture Today December 2012

New Appointment First of all we congratulate you for becoming the new President of Indian Association of Irrigation (IAI). The general understanding about IAI, founded years back, is that it is only a body working for lobbying with government. As the newly elected president, can you please explain this and upcoming plans of the association? Thanks a lot, it’s definitely an honor and gives me an opportunity to share my experiences of over three decades in the irrigation field with my industry colleagues. The general perception of IAI merely being an irrigation industry lobbying tool is perhaps not a correct one. Although public relations and lobbying were always a part of democratic set up worldwide, they are still a grey area in India in the absence of any regulatory mechanism. To the extent, it would not be apt to dub IAI as a lobby. However, any formal coming together of entities from a specific field of activity is definitely not in the social realm but must have a purpose which in this case is to share common experiences and problems faced by the industry and find solutions to the same and if that also requires engaging the government on the issues, I see no harm in that. Some of the problems faced by the industry include unavailability of budget during peak seasons, issues of differential pricing and the absence of streamlined processes, which not only hurts the industry but also retards the spread of MIS and consequently the interests of farming community. Together, we shall strive to highlight these vigorously and to which you could add our emphasis on increasing the membership count. Water management and intelligent use of water are key-words worldwide today. Do you think this is the right time to highlight this important aspect among masses as most of agri/horti crops are under flood irrigation system? That water is a scarce and ever depleting resource was never a secret, it was always known. The realization that water is actually becoming scarcer by the day dawned only recently, relatively speaking and which led those on the forefront to believe that water needs to be managed to prolong its availability. The origin of the key words mentioned by you is

probably in that realization. With roughly 4% of known water resources worldwide available in India and a population which constitutes 17% of the humanity on earth, the need or the timing of managing water can never be overemphasized. From the point of view of irrigation industry supporting the endeavour, the area to be brought under Micro Irrigation, which is one of the intelligent ways of utilizing water, is almost 80% of the cultivable land in the country and requires a consistent and focused approach of all stake holders. In a recently concluded seminar at the Pusa Institute in New Delhi, the former president of the association demanded a budget hike for micro irrigation schemes under NMMI (National Management for Micro Irrigation). Have you already submitted, or do you have plans to submit, your proposal regarding this? The NMMI (National Mission on Micro Irrigation) outlay definitely needs to be on an upward spiral on a consistent basis so that not only the farming community gets benefitted by technology but ever increasing area is brought under MIS at a faster pace. Ultimately the helping hand of government should correspond to the need for MIS to spread as fast as possible, particularly in light of the enhanced support which is on offer for other industries in the agriculture sector. NMMI under Ministry of Agriculture is working through state government departments and the ultimate beneficiaries are the members of IAI. Can you please share with our readers the state-wise progress in this regard? Saying that the members of IAI are the ultimate beneficiaries of NMMI is too simplistic and ignores ground realities. It also ignores the progress achieved in states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, MP, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, which also answers the second part of the question. In the ultimate analysis, any endeavour is sustainable only if there is a convergence of interests and in this case the objectives of the government and interests of farming community are paramount. Private investments in agri/horti sector are increasing, but the awareness about

the modern and innovative products are lacking. Do you have any plan to launch a campaign for the promotion of techniques like greenhouse, drip irrigation, water harvesting, recycling waste water etc? Being a technocrat in the industry we seek your expert views. The need for spreading awareness on innovative products and services on offer, as I have said elsewhere, can never be overemphasized, irrespective of the quantum of private financial involvement in the agri/horti sector. However, businesses alone cannot be the harbinger of change and expected to lead campaigns of such nature except in their limited spheres. Ultimately, these are issues of national priorities, developing a collective scientific temper and reaping the benefits of technology which requires institutional thrust and socially responsible behavior of citizens including businesses rather than mere promotional activities. Harvel has been active in areas of farm equipments, irrigation and water management solutions, greenhouses and its financing. Can you please elaborate on your company’s future plans to become an end-to-end solution provider to all horticulture and landscaping companies? HARVEL group is presently the only organization in the country which offers customized solutions with perhaps the best technology worldwide in all the four segments of irrigation business, viz; Agriculture (including protected cultivation) Golf, Turf, and Home & Gardens Irrigation. HARVEL’s consolidated structure enables each business to draw its own future and simultaneously leverage synergies across the group’s competencies. The future plans include, among a host of other initiatives, a forward and backward integration in the field of agriculture with the offer of Agronomy services as well as turnkey solutions for intensive and protected cultivation. n For Advertisements in

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Floriculture Today December 2012 17


Packaging of flowers can play an important role in reducing security risks of shipment. Packages can be made of temper-resistant, sterilized materials and oxygen absorbers / desiccants to help extend vase life and hence assure security of flowers. Packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential customers to purchase the product

Advanced & Environment-Friendly

Packaging of Cut-Flowers — Dr. R. Chandrashekhar & Shivani Sharma (Department – Floriculture Landscape & Architecture, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, College of Horticulture, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad)

P Primary




Floriculture Today December 2012

ackaging is a science, an art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can also be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics sale, and end use. In short, packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. Types of Packaging Primary Packaging: Container that directly holds the flowers or product i.e. it touches the product. Secondary Packaging: Outside the primary packaging. It helps to store, transport, inform, display and protect the flower/produce, but doesn’t touch the flowers itself.

Tertiary Packaging: Packaging that holds together a group / bulk for storage, handling and transport. Need of Packaging * To prevent spoilage, breakage, moisture change, tempering * To avoid environment contaminants (germs, dirt, dust, moisture, etc.) * To easily and safely move the flowers from producer to retailer and finally to consumer and to prevent from vibrations * To attractively display the size, cost, colour, illustration and to give an image of contained flower product * To identify the brand and any related company, and to reveal contained flower’s information * To fulfill label requirements, i.e. name of the flower, variety, No/ Qty. per box, bunch, grade of flowers, colour of the flowers etc

Cut-Flowers *To hold the product upright * To maintain convenience-level in distribution, handling, stacking, display, opening, re-closing, use, reuse, recycling, and ease of disposal *To maintain portion control, i.e. bulk / group of flowers can be divided into small groups or single flower and can easily be distributed according to demand of consumers. *To maintain security–Packaging of flowers can play an important role in reducing security risks of shipment. Packages can be made of temperresistant, sterilized materials and oxygen absorbers / desiccants to help extend vase life and hence assure security of flowers. *To facilitate marketing–The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential customers to purchase the product. Packaging Materials Packaging materials are all materials/ products used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and

presentation of goods from the producer to the end-user and consumer. Criteria for using a packaging material 1. Inertness: Compatibility with the product to maintain it in a satisfactory state during storage and transit until it reaches to a retailer. 2.

Fitness for consumption / use: To provide product security during storage and transit.


Environmental protection: It should able to provide environmental protection against the high risk of adverse interchange with gases.


Mechanically strong: Against handling and transit hazards.


Cost effective: Economical and available in commercial market.


Decorative: It should be attractive p rovide adequate surface for identification of the product.

7. Informative: It should help in

selling the product i.e. it should give description, information. 8.

Bulk density: It should give idea about weight, volume, and number.


Conductivity: It should be bad conductor of heat.

ADVANCED PACKAGING MATERIAL FOR FLOWERS: A. BOXES B. CRATES C. SLEEVES D. ROLLS & SHEETS E. ACQUATIC BUCKETS F. HIP PACKS G. FLORA CUPS H. BROWN CRAFT PAPER I. CLEAR POTS J. HANDLE TRAYS K. TWO PACK TOTE/CARRY BAG A. BOXES v Floriculture has two sizes of boxes used for shipping flowers, a “coffin” and “half-coffin”. v Large box is mainly used for bulk

Floriculture Today December 2012 19


v v


v v

wholesale and export consignments. The small box is exactly half the size of the large box, being 20cm tall x 38cm wide x 95cm long. Small box is used for all retail sales, plus some wholesale and export-flowers. Flexible dry ice packs and an insulated liner are integrated into the packaging. The liner with the ice packs ensures the flowers stay cool. All retail consignments include ice packs and insulated liners. Generally each bundle individually wrapped using corrugated paper, paper board, polypropylene or polyethylene tissue paper or combination of these materials and then into corrugated boxes. Protective cushioning, elastic tape or other fastening devices, wooden or paper board cross bars, nails or staples are used. Containers for cut flowers are often long and narrow, of full telescopic design with vents / holes at both ends to facilitate forced-air cooling. The total vent area should be 5% of the total box surface area. A closable flap can help maintain cool temperatures if boxes are temporarily delayed in transport or storage in an uncontrolled temperature environment.

Dry Pack Boxes Perfect for protection, storage and efficient shipping of Dry Packed Fresh cut Flowers. Wet Pack Boxes Wet Pack boxes have an efficient and practical self display feature designed into the shipper & Maintain moisture. TYPES OF BOXES: 20”


12” Up


Figure 1: One-piece box

Figure 2: Tow-piece box with cover

B. CRATES They provide optimum protection and ease of handling during transportation are very important. C. POT PLANT SLEEVES Sleeves add -value to flowers & increase recognition of FLOWER products and also make flowers to look more attractive. Problem-free automated packing of cut flowers and pot plants can only be guaranteed if the sleeves are of a consistent very-high quality and are finely tuned to the filling machine and the product to be packaged. D. ROLLS & SHEETS a.) PAPER ROLLS: traditional & innovative, PROTECTIVE, Easy to handle, ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY.


Closeable Flap 3” diameter holes, both ends Figure 3: Full telescoping box

b.) Non woven film: made of the plastic polypropylene is used for many very different applications. The applications for the film on the roll include the packaging of flowers and plants in a decorative way and gift packaging. c.) PRINTED AND UNPRINTED FILMS: Flowers packaged in film look attractive and festive. This double-sided stretched polypropylene film is shiny, crystal clear, rigid and anti-static. These rolls are suitable for both the manual and automated packing of bouquets, cut flowers, floral arrangements. ... to be continued in the nex issue



Floriculture Today December 2012



Loveliest Garden Tree — N. Deepa Devi, Dr. A. Shanthi*, Dr.S.Mariappan and Dr.P.Balasubramani

Jacaranda mimosifolia is a sub-tropical tree, native to South America. It is widely planted elsewhere because of its beautiful and long-lasting blue flowers. It is also known as Jacaranda, Blue Jacaranda, Black Poui, or as the fern tree. Older sources give it the systematic name Jacaranda acutifolia, but it is currently, usually classified as Jacaranda mimosifolia. In scientific usage, the name “Jacaranda� refers to the genus Jacaranda, which has many other members, but in horticultural and everyday usage, it nearly always means the Blue Jacaranda.

Cultivation History Jacaranda is native to Brazil and Argentina but has been introduced as an ornamental in most parts of the tropics, though in many tropical climates its flowering is light, irregular and disappointing. It was introduced to Kenya in 1907, at the Nairobi Arboretum and is now an outstanding ornamental tree of the city and district, where it flowers when leafless. Taxonomy The taxonomic status of the Blue Jacaranda is unsettled. ITIS regards the older name, Jacaranda acutifolia, as a synonym for J. mimosifolia. However, some modern taxonomists maintain the distinction between these two species, regarding them as geographically distinct: J. acutifolia is endemic to Peru, while J. mimosifolia is native to Bolivia and Argentina. If this distinction is made, cultivated forms should be treated as


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Jacaranda can be raised from seed or cuttings, the latter being more usual. The tree is a prolific seeder, no pretreatment is required, and germination rate is 50-92%. Seeds should be sown fresh for best germination results, fresh seed soaked in water for 24 hours take 10-12 days for germination, which continues for 2 months




J. mimosifolia, since they are believed to be derived from Argentine stock. Other synonyms for the Blue Jacaranda are Jacaranda chelonia and J. ovalifolia. The Blue Jacaranda belongs to the section Monolobos of the genus Jacaranda. Habitat The Blue Jacaranda has been cultivated in almost every part of the world where there is no risk of frost. Established trees can however tolerate brief spells of temperatures down to around −70C. It grows best on well-drained sandy loam


soils, although it will also survive on poor shallow soils. It does not tolerate waterlogged or clay soils. A deep-rooted, greedy feeder so that few plants or crops can grow below it; therefore, best planted away from flowerbeds. Leaf fall is also considerable. In Puerto Rico, flowering is from early spring to June, the fruit maturing in spring and early summer. In northern India, the tree flowers from March to April. 99 per cent of flowers open in the early hours of the morning between 5 and 7 a.m. The tree seeds annually begin at 8-10 years old.


Botanic description It is a deciduous tree up to 20 m in height with spreading branches making a light crown. Bark pale brown and furrowed, transverse cracks dividing the ridges between the furrows into long, narrow scales. The bole is almost always short and malformed, and up to 40-50 cm in diameter. The Pink Cassias are flowering when the Jacaranda blooms and the two colors side by side make a lovely combination. Leaf: Alternate, bipinnately compound, 8

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to 15 inches long, 13 to 25 pairs of major leaflets, each with a similar number of minor leaflets, green above and paler below. Flower: Beautiful, lavender blue, tubular, 1 inch long, appearing in dense 6 to 10 inch terminal clusters in spring; spectacular display in spring and early summer with often the entire tree and later the ground turning blue as the flowers fall off. Fruit: Round, flat, reddish brown, woody capsule, 1.5 to 2 inches in diameter containing numerous small winged seeds.

Twig: Slender, slightly zigzag, light reddish brown. Bark: Thin, gray-brown, smooth for sometime but becoming finely scaly when old. Form: A small tree reaching up to 25 to 40 feet tall with a spreading, arching vase shaped crown. In urban use it is important to prune into one dominant trunk. Propagation Jacaranda can be raised from seed or cuttings, the latter being more usual. The tree is a prolific seeder, no pretreatment is required, and germination rate is 50-92%. Seeds should be sown fresh for best germination results, fresh seed soaked in water for 24 hours take 10-12 days for germination, which continues for 2 months. Planting Planting should be from container stock during cool weather, 8-10 months should elapse before plants can be transplanted to the field. In avenues, planting may be done at 2 x 2 m or 3 x 3 m in well-manured 30-cubic cm pits. The plants can be raised from branch cuttings. Management The plants need


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weeding for about the first 2 years. Young trees should be staked until well rooted. They require regular watering. Very fast growing on good sites up to 3 m/yr in height in the first 2 years and over 1 m/yr over the first 9 years. Established plants respond well to coppicing. If used as an ornamental roadside tree, wide spacing (over 5 m) is advisable. It is a light demander, and to flower prolifically it needs to be grown in the open. Uses v The relatively large flowers easily attract bees. And therefore, it is suitable for bee forage. v

It provides useful firewood.


The timber is yellowish-white, hard, and moderately heavy; fine textured, easy to work, and is used for carpentry.


Wood is light brown and soft, it is used for poles and for making small items such as tool handles and carvings. Note that the wood associated with the timber trade name ‘jacaranda’ does not come from this tree but from Dalbergia nigra.


Bark and roots are used for syphilis. Leaves also used as a vulnerary.


The tree creates pleasant open shade and can be used effectively as a screen or as a windbreak.


It is widely grown throughout the highland tropics. When trees are not in flower, the finely cut foliage is also attractive, especially at close range.


IT is difficult to understand why such a beautiful tree as the Jacaranda is not more widely cultivated.


It is one of loveliest garden trees in India, both the flowers and leaves having a definite charm of their own. n

(Department of Horticulture, AC & RI, TNAU, Madurai – 625 104, * Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, P. J. N. Agricultural College & Research Institute, Karaikal)

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Ashoka trees trimmed & trained as topiary

Barintonia acutangula- comonly called INDIAN OAK-a rare

Rows of ashoka and cassias in IIT Cmpus

Exotic Blooms in the Silent Green Valley of Roorkee — S. Narayana Swamy


oorkee is a cantonment town nestled in idyllic transitional belt in Uttarakhand. Once a small village, it has grown into a metropolis, thanks to the British who set up a cantonment in 1850’s, and Thomson College of Engineering, first of its kind in the whole of India, founded in 1847. Now, its cantonment area is famous not only for the gallant acts of Bengal Engineering Group but also for the green valley of sylviculture. Calm and serenity pervades its campus of rustic charm. All the cantonments in India possess good vegetation. It is a common feature for any military area to be camouflaged either with shrubs, creepers or trees. It is mandatory to cover every structure in military campuses with greenery. Roorkee’s campus of Bengal Engineering Group and Centre, however, is distinctively different. The well managed lawns, gardens, avenues, hedges, topiaries and the good old but elegant trees are a class apart. The vast and well maintained golf area, the parade ground, the ornamental gardens in the premises of ochre colored


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tile-roofed cottages, add to the aesthetics of the campus.

Eucalyptus globules, which is a very rare specimen here.

Trees:- Foremost among them is eucalyptus, perhaps planted in latter part of 19th century. They have grown so tall that one has to strain one’s neck to survey their canopy. Most of them are Eucalyptus citriodera – which has its unique odour and is antiseptic in character, providing relief to people suffering from asthma, and rheumatism. There is another variety

The mast trees of Madras – Polyialthia pendula — are the avenue trees here. They are not topped, as normally done in other places to control terminal growth. They stand like sentinels along the sarvathra marg, but the trees of the same family are trained and clipped in parade ground where an avenue of these trees reminds one of the disciplines of the regiments.


Cassia auriculiformis with compact shrubby canopy with blooms

Chrissia in bloom IN I I T campus

The maduca trees, commonly called Mahua in North India – botanical name Bassia latifolia -- have exhibited their natural vigour, reaching gigantic height and spreading their vast canopy. Peepal Tree:- Though they are uncommon in temperate climate, here they have spread over the whole campus, some being very old and can be tagged as heritage trees. Cassia fistulas: They are commonly called the Indian Laburnums. The laburnums are common in Europe, but in India, these trees with their pendulous yellow golden flowers imitate the laburnums. Normally they are not huge trees, but in Roorkee which is fortunate to have a transitional climate – both temperate and tropical – these trees have grown to very good heights. The hanging pods are a classic feature of the trees. Poplars: They are very common, and they are considered more as commercial plantation trees than as avenue or arboriculture trees. The common cassias – Cassia Zigantias: They are local and indigenous and are seen in every nook and corner of the campus. They are very conspicuous by their yellow flowers borne on top of the branches intermittently. The other common cassia – Cassia Auruculiformis is a miniature tree, but luxuriously and prolifically flowering. They have added charm to the avenues as well as boulevards, with compact shrubby canopy, sprinkled over the surface with protruding blossoms which are bright yellow. The IIT campus, particularly, has many of this kind. The Whole campus is lit with the riot of its blossoms in October. A few solitary trees have made their

Tecoma stans in bloom

presence very significant – lie the Indian Silk Cotton Tree – Bombax Malbaricum -and its sister – Bombax Scopulorum. Another notable species of the same family – Bombacaceae – is the Chorisia speciosa. In the month of October this tree is very predominant with its bell shaped light pink coloured flowers. The specialty of this tree is that the whole tree would shed its leaves and make way for bud bursting all of a sudden and in a week’s time the whole tree is laden with only flowers. Though it is very common in Delhi, it is uncommon in other places. Roorkee is an exception – it has a good number of chorisias. A few trees of pride of India – commonly called Lagerstroemia Flosreginae -- are scattered here and there. Fragrant trees such as the plumerias, the magnolias, the champakas, the parijathas, the kanaka champas are not uncommon; they are found here in the bungalows as well in the premises of official buildings. The timber trees, the fruit trees the fibre trees – such as swetenias, the Alstonias, the Litchis, the Mangoes, the Terminalias, the Jamuns -- are very common and very luxuriantly grown. Among shrubs, the Dombeyas, Cratons, Musandas, Ixoras are sprinkled over the campus. The creepers and climbers are rampantly grown and are prolific bloomers, the important ones that are common being the Antigonon leptopus, the bignonias, allamandas and others. The exotic trees noticed are the Araucarias, the Thuzas, the Cupressus, which are found here and there. Very rare and heritage trees: Called Indian Oaks, there are two of them which could be seen here, and they are nearly a century old. They are perhaps standing as silent sentinels, right from the time the cantonment was set up. They can be seen by the side of BEG mess.

Roads,lanes &bylanes lined with trees

Sylvan beauty of roorkee cantonment in early morning

Chorissia- deciduos tree comon in Delhi-several trees are h

Integration of plants,trees ,water &birds in exotic land sca

vast &well maintained golf areas lined with trees at borders

Dombeyas in bloom

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Climate Effect

Delhi’s confusing climate affects its flora and fauna — Sohail Hashmi


t has been said that Delhi does not have a climate, what it has is in the name of a climate is so closely tied to developments in the geographical neighbourhood that it can fairly accurately be described as a comprador climate. If it snows in Simla or Srinagar we in Delhi begin to freeze and if it gets too hot in Rajasthan we need to run our fans, coolers or ACs without a break. But it is not only this; the weather cycle in Delhi follows a strange logic. All over the world the cycle of seasons is winter; spring, summer and autumn and winter once again to restart the cycle. The regions covered by the monsoons have a fifth season. The monsoons arrive after summer and the rest of the cycle remains unchanged. But Delhi has its own idiosyncratic take on the weather cycle. After the sweltering heat of summer and the monsoons one would expect an autumn, and it arrives, but it arrives so quietly and surreptitiously that even most of trees don’t notice it. Trees in Delhi by and large bypassing late September and October is something that I had noticed earlier, but this became very evident when I began to carry and peruse, with the devotion of a new convert, Pradeep Krishen’s green bible on the trees of Delhi. One wonders why the end September, early October break in schools is called the ‘autumn break’ while there is hardly any sign of autumn. Actually, if you look around, you might mistake this time of the year as an early spring as there are flowers sprouting of all kinds, for example


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Delhi has its own idiosyncratic take on the weather cycle. Trees shed their leaves from end December to April, begging for a system of composting to be put in place by civic agencies the Babool and the Ronjh are in full bloom through September and October. The Copperpod – called ‘Peeli Gulmohar’ — a native of Andamans and the almost lookalike African Wattle flower at the same time as do the yellow bells. One can identify the trees and talk knowledgeably about their original habitat thanks to Pradeep Krishen — a whole lot of people are beginning to notice the trees of Delhi thanks to him. An interesting thing about these flowering trees and shrubs is that they are all, with the honourable and glorious exception of Calindra, in shades of yellow or pale orange. It is difficult to say if it is more than a coincidence, since all these trees/ shrubs do not belong to the same region or family. Many of the varieties of trees that have been planted in Delhi are evergreens but among those that shed their leaves most do it across a time span that stretches between October- November to March- April, some shedding earlier and others waiting for

summer to set in properly before they get rid of their worn out raiment and don a new attire. The following list has been compiled with help from ‘Trees of Delhi’ to indicate the period when one set of trees would begin to shed their leaves from December onwards and continuing through April. Between December and January Sonjna or Sainjan, Tun, Goolar, Khirk, Bistendu, ,Jamun, Dhau, Peepal, Toot and Shahtoot, Mango, Amla, Sembhal, Sheesham, Ronjh, Siris and Bakain will shed their leaves. February will see Harsinghar, Pilkhan, Dhak and Imli, losing their foliage, to be followed in March by Ber, Kadamb, Baheda, Kachnar, Bael, Neem and Babool, while Arjun and Amaltas bring this rather protracted autumn to a close. So from January to April we have trees that are shedding their leaves across the city, all the trees listed above are not avenue trees and some avenue trees that shed during this time are not on this indicative list. The point of placing this list here is to underscore the fact that for almost one-third of the year trees of one kind or another are shedding their leaves on the avenues and gardens of Delhi. If the civic agencies are serious about the promises that they have made before the courts that no leaves will be burnt in Delhi then they will need to put in place a system of collecting and composting these leaves and it will have to be an ongoing and not a sporadic activity. Unfortunately one sees no signs of such concern. n Courtesy: Hindu Business Line

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Soka Bodhi Tree Garden

The best kept secret of Delhi — Preeti Mehra


he Soka Bodhi Tree Garden, an hour’s drive from Delhi, is perhaps the best kept secret of the Capital. Here around 3,000 peepal trees, scores of ducks, geese, peacocks, squirrels, flowers and ponds blend with energetic architecture in a green spread of 170 acres. Conceived as a centre for peace and friendship and a gift to India from Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, the president of the Buddhist organisation Soka Gakkai International (SGI), the tree garden was unveiled in 2011. Today Bodhi trees (the peepal tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment) tower the landscape in various stages of growth – some still saplings while others full grown, shading a carpet of grass below and providing sustenance to the interdependent ecosystem. Though the garden is dotted with symbolic peace structures, the landscaping is so close to the natural that in no way does it take away from the raw energy of the elements and the lightness of being that the garden exudes. Keeping close to the vision of the SGI president of “a large stretch where thousand of Bodhi saplings would be nurtured into tall trees” embodying “the dreams, hopes and future of humanity”, the landscaping has been executed by Prof Mohammad Shaheer, then head of the landscaping department at the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. To promote serenity and encourage visitors to use the tree garden for meditation and thought, between the trees grass clearings have been created where stone benches


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and pathways are embedded in beds of green grass. When the garden was conceived in 1993, Dr Ikeda had said, “I am positive that from among those who will come to visit this garden in the future –when the Bodhi trees that are saplings now, have grown tall and robust and are luxuriant with fresh green leaves – there will emerge great leaders…. It will be a place where leaders from various fields around the world will come to meet in order to cultivate and develop themselves, inspiring and stimulating each other’s growth”. Last Sunday saw a glimpse of this vision of the tree garden when it became the venue of a peace symposium. Director General of the National Archives of India Professor Mushirul Hasan, journalist

and writer Mark Tully, and Director of India International Centre Dr Kavita Sharma spoke to a large audience on the 40 anniversary of a dialogue for world peace that had taken place between British historian Arnold J Toynbee and Dr Ikeda. The dialogue, that discussed a whole range of subjects — from the personal to the international and the political to the philosophical — was captured in a book titled ‘Choose Life’, which since then has been translated into 28 languages. While the three speakers held eloquent on the subject of peace, pluralism and a respect for all humankind, the Soka Bodhi Tree Garden provided the befitting venue. Architect Achyut P Kanvinde who visualised its built up area and gave


structure to the vision, first set up the Renaissance Hall which can accommodate around 100 people. Later, an open air bird house and a pond for geese and pigeons were added close by. He then designed a friendship centre that envelopes the environs and brings them right into the exhibition hall. The most imposing of structures is the World Peace Monument that gently merges into the landscape, but stands solid beneath the vast sky — embodying the determination to achieve lasting world peace. The garden also sports four pavilions that symbolise the four elements — Earth, Water, Fire and Air — with benches

and shelters for visitors to imbibe the environment. “The softness of grass merges with the hardness of rock, qualities that forge a person’s inner being,” explains a handbook just brought out on the garden, while it explains the presence of so many lotuses in the ponds, quoting from the Buddha’s philosophy about the flower and how it rises above the water unsoiled just like human beings should. “We plant a mustard crop here along with the trees and give the produce to the villagers in the vicinity so that it can add to their income,” says Hardayal Sharma, in charge of the Soka Bodhi Tree Committee who has nurtured the garden since 1993. A volunteer with the Indian arm of the

Buddhist organisation, Bharat Soka Gakkai, he drives here all the way from Delhi (the garden is situated in Bilaspur, Haryana) to tend to the garden’s details. He recalls how the garden, its trees, flora and fauna grew from year to year, with Bodhi trees from several nations being added periodically. “The garden has many moods, and in each season it looks different, with every nook and corner taking on a varied hue,” says another volunteer as she points out the blue, yellow and red Soka Gakkai flag that rests within a leafy grove. It flutters unfazed in the hope of world peace. n Courtesy: Hindu Business Line

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Heritage Park


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Floriculture FloricultureToday TodayDecember December2012 201233


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We face labour and supply chain problems, says NVSN Raju Sri Siva Parvathi Nursery is located in Kadiyapulanka, which is 9 km away from Rajahmundry, on NH5. River Godavari and lush green environment adds beauty to the nursery. The main objective of the nursery is to push up the sale of unique Show Plants and Fruit plants, both qualitatively and quantitatively. It has 5 storage locations for all varieties of plants, spreading over 20 acres of land. Its owner NVSN Raju, in a brief chat with Floriculture Today correspondent Azeem Haider, spoke about current nursery scenario and his company’s status, among other things. Excerpts: When and how did you start your venture? This nursery was established in 2006 by my father Mr. Subbaraju. Initially, SSP Nursery was famous for selling quality mango plants and show plants. That we still do. Now by moving a step forward, we also supply wide range of plants like indoor plants, creepers and flower items. We started producing grown-up plants in fruit and ornamental varieties. Indoor plants are grown in soil-less medium which is free from soil borne pests and diseases. We are the leaders in tropical and subtropical fruit plants of 2 1/2 to 4 year old and wide varieties of ornamental plants. Though having a turnover of lakhs of plants throughout the year, we are able to meet the demand. We forecast the demand based on which we fix out targets and propagate plan. Currently, the area of the nursery is 50 acre.

We do not get much support from the government. I think government should come up with attractive sachems and on-thefield support to strengthen this segment. What are the other difficulties you face? We face labour and supply chain problems. Demands are also low.

Where do you supply to? We supply all over India including Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Delhi, Karnataka, etc. What are the varieties you supply? We mainly sell fruit plants like mango (20 varieties), guava (5), water-Apple (3). Overall, we sell 100 varieties. There are 6 varieties in royal palm, and four in Ficus. We also sell Mexican carpet grass, and almost all varieties of indoor and outdoor plants including avenue plants, foxtail plants, champion plants. Do you get any government support, if not what would you like to suggest? Floriculture Today December 2012 37


Kadiyam Nurserymen submit representation to Andhra CM


ulla Veera Venkata Rao, Head of Sri Satyadeva Nursery, submitted a representation to Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N. Kiran Kumar Reddy seeking the grant and sanction of land for the construction of Directorate of Floriculture Research Center in Kadiyam, Mandal. While submitting report he also apprised him with various problems of nurserymen like economical and power supply issues. He requested him for the exemption of stamp duty for bank loans and subsidized solar systems to nurserymen. He also requested him to consider nurseries for NABARAD loans with low interest rates. The other prominent members present at the time of submission included Tadala Veera Swamy, Margani Satyanarayana, Palla Venkanna, Gangumalla Satyanarayana, Pulla Sathibabu, and Ravipati Venkatesh. The Chief Minister responded positively and promised to sanction land and other permissions for the establishment of Directorate of Floriculture


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Research Center in Kadiyam, Mandal. Kadiyam: Plant Capital of India Kadiyam is a village, situated near Rajahmundry in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Due to aggressively following a collective goal of growers, it has emerged as a major hub of floriculture nurseries. Today, there are around 600 nurseries here providing work to more than 25,000 people. Kadiyam, famed for its attentiongrabbing nurseries, is occasionally called as the ‘Plant Capital’ of the country. It impresses its visitors beyond words. The nurseries at Kadiyam, have put the region on the international horticulture map. These nurseries are earning valuable foreign exchange by exporting fruit and flower saplings worth crores of rupees. Kadiyam is, perhaps, the only location with around 600 nurseries of small, medium and large, at a solitary place. The nurseries are adjacent to the river Godavari, and extended over Kadiyam, Kadiyapulanka and Burrilanka areas in 6,000 acres of land, and provide an

ideal environment for the growth and development of plants. It was started around a century ago by Akula Subba Rao, Ratnam Veeraraju, Ratnam Musalayya and Tadala Veera Raju, each giving one acre of land for the purpose. In olden days, only mango, guava, sapota and coconut were the plant varieties available here. There were no transportation facilities available hence they used to carry their sapling over their shoulder in “Doli”. Plants were planted in earthen pots. The beginning was a real tough thing. But Kadiyam could not have earned a bright place on the global map without Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, who is still honored in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh for his great efforts. In 1844 Cotton recommended the construction of “Anicut”, a dam with Channels, Embankments, and roads in Godavari Delta. The mammoth work started in 1847. He succeeded in completing the magnificent project in 1852. n

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Flower Diseases

Tips to save garden from insects — Geeta


he biggest threat to your garden is the pests that eat and destroy your plants and flowers. We give you a few tips to deal with them. Nothing will give you more satisfaction than roaming without slippers in your garden in the morning or doing gardening there in the evening. Nevertheless, often, you find yourself helpless in the face of the attacks of insects that eat your plants and flowers. Pesticides are the only way out, but it is a high-risk factor in the long run. P L Sharma, an agricultural scientist, says “The best way to get rid of pests from your garden is to use organic methods. Cowdung, along with special clay, neem powder, salt and turmeric, are healthy and environment-friendly. Planting neem along the sides of your compound is another protection, as neem has anti-bacterial properties. Dried leaf and flowers from the garden and organic waste from the kitchen are also natural reuse manure.” While life in cities has become very fast and people have to conform to tight professional and domestic schedules, a lot of people still find the time and energy to maintain their home gardens. Anil Makhijani of Mak Realtors says that despite the fact that houses with gardens are fast dwindling, there are still thousands of home gardens in the capital, as well as in the NCR. And in most of the cases, people engage professional gardeners to take care of their garden. “There are localities where people spend a lot of money to maintain their garden, “he says. Are all insects bad P L Sharma says that not all insects are harmful to the flora in the garden. There exist beneficial insects, too, like bees and ladybugs, which kill unwanted pests. Chemical pesticides can destroy helpful insects too, along with the harmful ones, and pollute your soil. If you use chemical pesticides over and over again, there is a hidden danger of the pests getting immune and attacking your garden with double vigour. Natural pesticides are but the best way one can handle the issue. Harmful insects can be done away with by tolerating helpful insects in your garden. “Another important point for a healthy and pest free garden is to refrain from harming the local bird population. They are natural enemies of pests, as pests are the best dishes for birds,” says Pawan Dhir, who reads a lot on gardening and maintains a small garden in his East Delhi home. “The use of unhealthy chemicals will affect the birds too, and could eventually kill them. Silver oak, mango trees and sunflowers are what birds get attracted to .Plant them in your garden and place a bird bath that could help them become regular visitors,” says Pawan.


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Nuzhat Alim, the director of realty firm ILD Group, who maintains a garden in her home, has a word of advice for all those who have their own garden. “People must cover their garden with thin nets that act as perfect barriers; and this result in a drastic fall in flying insects. Spray soap solutions towards the evening,” Nuzhat says. Pawan Dhir also says that there’s nothing more frustrating than finding a prized vegetable crop being devoured by pests. A couple of hornworms can level a row of tomatoes overnight.” Fortunately, every pest has a predator, and we can use that natural food chain to our advantage. A sufficient number of beneficial insects will keep garden pests to manageable numbers. You must attract those beneficial insects into your garden,” says Dhir. Like all animals, insects need water to live. If you use a sprinkler to water your garden, the puddles that form will suffice to give bugs a drink. Between watering or if you use a drip irrigation system, the insects will need another source of water. Make a simple watering hole with a saucer and some rocks, and keep it full on dry days. Remember, most of these insects have wings, and will fly away if they can’t get what they need nearby. Some beneficial insects stay on the ground, searching for soil-dwelling pests. Ground beetles, for example, rarely climb the plants looking for pests to eat; instead, they patrol the soil at night, munching on slugs and cutworms. Keep your garden beds mulched, so ground beetles and other earthbound insects can burrow during the day. The mulch will also keep the soil moist, and help the beneficial bugs from drying out. Also, use stepping stones on garden paths. Courtesy: ET

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We are losing wildflower species, says a study


recent report by a leading nature charity has revealed that Britain has lost 10 wildflower species since the Queen came to the throne 60 years ago. The research carried out by Plantlife, showed that wildflowers were disappearing from the British countryside at a rate of up to one species a year and could eventually lead to total extinction on a national scale. The study looked at the rate at which flowers were being lost from 50 counties in England, Scotland and Wales and found some, such as field gentian and burnt orchids, were disappearing while once-widespread plants were becoming rarer. Summer lady’s tresses, downy hemp-nettle, and interrupted brome are among the 10 species that have completely vanished across Britain in the last six decades, leading Plantlife to warn that, without protection, critically endangered flowers such corn buttercup, fringed gentian and the yellow early marsh orchid could be next to disappear. Dr Trevor Dines, Plantlife Cymru’s conservation director, said: “There’s something that’s happening in our back fields and the hedgerows around us – we’re seeing the common things becoming rarer and the rare things disappearing. In the 1950s, the fields would have been richer in colour, the hedgerows would have been richer in colour and the arable fields as well, you would have seen more poppies, been more aware of flowers, they would have been part of life.”


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He said action needed to be taken or more plants would vanish at a national level and warned that wild native plants were needed to support the rest of Britain’s wildlife, including bees, butterflies and farmland birds. “Plants are the fundamental building blocks of our countryside,” he said. “Our landscape is constructed from plants and it’s the diversity of these plants that supports, nourishes and sustains everything else.”

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California flower growers battle imports


or decades, California growers have been small players in a U.S. cut flower market dominated by imports. But now the state’s flower industry, with a substantial presence in Ventura County, faces new challenges, and growers say it’s time to take more of the market. They point to a new Los Angeles warehouse that imports South American flowers and to federal policies that give free access to Colombian imports as the latest triggers convincing growers that aggressive action is needed to survive. “California is the last great state of flower farmers,” said Kasey Cronquist, CEO/ambassador of the California Cut Flower Commission in Santa Barbara. “Farmers are up against competition that consumers are unaware of.” Californians’ ambitious plan to take some of the nearly 80 percent market share held by Colombian growers would consolidate out-of-state shipping of California flowers to a single site to substantially cut freight costs. Business from supermarkets and wholesale floral suppliers would increase, in turn, growers hope.


Floriculture Today December 2012

“We see it as an important tool,” Cronquist said. “All around, it would be a more sustainable way for an industry to survive and thrive.” The challenges facing California growers from Colombia’s cheaper flowers and well-established supply chain aren’t new. They have long butted up against U.S. and Colombian policies that have helped grow Colombia’s floral industry as a way to discourage drug crops. According to Cronquist, the number of flower farms in California has, in turn, dropped to 225 from roughly 500 since the policies first took effect in the 1990s. California’s growers, who produce 75 percent of domestically grown flowers and contribute to a $286 million state industry, have responded by developing specialties that cannot be grown in Colombia or survive the flight here, such as brightly colored and delicate gerbera daisies. The challenges to California floriculture and particularly Ventura County’s $52 million industry — one of four key flower regions in the state — prompted curator Anne Graumlich to design “Dollars and Scents: The Business of Cut Flowers,”

an exhibit running until Dec. 30 at the Museum of Ventura County’s Agriculture Museum in Santa Paula. “Most people don’t realize where their flowers come from, and they don’t care,” Graumlich said. “People think of flowers as just being something pretty, but it’s a business.” ENCROACHING IMPORTS A 16,000-square-foot cold storage warehouse opened late last year next to Los Angeles International Airport to import South American flowers, fruits and vegetables that before had mostly gone to Miami. The business is expected to

News expand LAX’s tiny share of the perishables market. The import pressure on California growers could grow, Cronquist said, unless the industry can convince consumers that the quality of their flowers is worth the extra cost. More South American flower import centers are on the horizon, in Houston, St. Louis and other areas, according to a recent study by USC’s Daniel Epstein Department of Industry and System Engineering. To remain competitive, it is critical for California’s flower industry to establish a distribution center that would consolidate all the state’s outgoing truck orders, the USC report states. The authors determined that if 50 percent of California’s growers, which primarily use trucks, sent shipments to the distribution center rather than all over the state, the volume would reduce overall transportation costs by 22.8 percent per year, or about $6.7 million. If 80 percent joined, costs would drop 34.8 percent, or $20 million per year. The findings convinced the California Cut Flower Commission to undertake the ambitious plan. Consolidated distribution “drives down costs, increases efficiencies and improves quality control,” Cronquist said, while keeping flowers in “the cold chain.” The study recommended the center be in Oxnard, a central location between the main flower farming areas of Santa Barbara, Oxnard, Monterey County and San Diego. UNFILLED TRUCKS Ventura County growers say they

support the effort, still in the concept stage, because most ship flowers to supermarkets or wholesale floral businesses across the nation but rarely fill a truck, which jacks up the price customers pay. “What it will deal with is give us a more competitive playing field by giving us cheaper rates,” said Fred Van Wingerden, president/CEO of Pyramid Flowers Inc., which grows gerbera daisies in Oxnard. Consolidated distribution centers in Miami enabled Colombian flower farmers decades ago to get a strong foothold in the U.S. market, growers here said. “We’re competing because in Florida the truck lines are close to big warehouses, and they don’t travel thousands of miles,” said Joe Ortiz Jr., sales manager of Joseph & Sons Inc., which grows stock, snapdragons and larkspur among other florals in Santa Paula. “In California, our growers are all so spread out. If we had less trucks out there and more of a consolidation, it would make a huge difference.” For wholesale floral supplier SieckWright Floral Products Inc. in Hightstown, N.J., freight adds 50 cents to $2 to the cost of a $4 bunch of flowers, said General Manager Patty Sormilich, whose orders often fill only one-fifth of a truck. Flowers from Colombia account for 70 percent of what her business buys because of the types of flowers, she said, but also because the freight is cheaper. The freight on shipments from California “just kills us,” she said. But there is a market for the higher-quality

California stalk, snapdragons and larkspur among her more affluent customers. “If we could drop the freight by a third, that would help tremendously,” Sormilich said. “People appreciate the different things that come out of California.” ‘BUY LOCAL’ California growers have also labeled their flowers with “CA Grown” stickers on plastic-sleeved flower bunches they sell to participating retailers, such as Trader Joe’s, Whole Foods Market, Vons, Albertsons and Bristol Farms. The flower commission focused its marketing on the Buy California Marketing Agreement about five years ago, Cronquist said. The campaign has proved successful, according to the growers, but Cronquist points to a survey in 2008 that found 85 percent of consumers who bought or received flowers for Valentine’s Day didn’t know where the flowers came from. The good news for Cronquist was that 55 percent said they would choose California flowers over imports if given a choice. “We have an opportunity to win back the hearts and buyers of flowers and let them know that you have this history, that these farms are growing America’s flowers,” Cronquist said. “Otherwise, we could lose an industry and become foreign dependent for our flowers.” Courtesy: (Ventura Country Star)

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Floriculture Today December 2012

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Floriculture Today December 2012

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Floriculture Today -December 2012  
Floriculture Today -December 2012  

India's First & Only monthly Magazine on Floriculture, Nursery, Floristry, Landscape and GreenHouse Technology, widely read by flower grower...