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The Pre-Election Coverage by Kenyan Media ahead of the 2013 General Election March 2013

Monitoring Report


Published by: Media Council of Kenya P. O. Box 43132 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Ground Floor, British American Insurance Centre Mara/Ragati Road Junction, Upper Hill Tel: +254 (020) 2737058, 2716265, 2716266 Mobile: +254 727 735252 Email: info@mediacouncil.or.ke Website: www.mediacouncil.or.ke Š Media Council of Kenya, 2013


The Pre-Election Coverage by Kenyan Media ahead of the 2013 General Election March 2013

Monitoring Report Media Council of Kenya


OUR MANDATE To regulate the media and the conduct and discipline of journalists in accordance with the provisions of the Media Act CAP 411B. OUR VISION A professional and free media accountable to the public OUR MISSION To safeguard media freedom, enhance professionalism and arbitrate media disputes COUNCIL’S ROLE, MANDATE, FUNCTIONS AND AUTHORITY The Council draws its mandate and authority from the Media Act CAP 411B. Its functions are to: 1.

Mediate or arbitrate in disputes between the government and the media, between the public and the media and intra-media. 2. Promote and protect freedom and independence of the media. 3. Promote high professional standards amongst journalists. 4. Enhance professional collaboration among media practitioners. 5. Promote ethical standards among journalists and in the media. 6. Ensure the protection of the rights and privileges of journalists in the performance of their duties. 7. Advise the government or the relevant authority on matters pertaining to professional, education and the training of journalists and other media practitioners. 8. Make recommendations on the employment criteria for journalists. 9. Uphold and maintain the ethics and discipline of journalists. 10. Do all matters that appertain to the effective implementation of this Act. 11. Compile and maintain a register of journalists, media practitioners, media enterprises and such other related registers. 12. Conduct an annual review of the performance and the general public opinion of the media, and publish the results.


Table of Contents Acknowledgement Executive Summary Highlights of Key Findings Chapter 1 : Print Media Background Coverage in The Standard The Daily Nation The Star The People Allocation of Space Chapter 2 : Electronic Media Background Coverage of Politicians/Allocation of Airtime Airtime Allocated to Presidential Candidates/Running Mates Tonality Topics Associated with Politicians Findings Radio General Observations: Radio Talk Shows Election Coverage Call to Vote General Findings: News Coverage Election Coverage Breaches Adherence to the Code of Conduct Hate Speech Chapter 3 : Conclusion and Recommendations Recommendations

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2 3 4 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 19 19 19 20 21 22 23 23 23 23 25 25 26 26 26 28 28


Acknowledgements

T

he Media Council of Kenya wishes to extend sincere gratitude to all those who participated in ensuring the success of data collection, analysis, report writing and preview/editing of this report.

We acknowledge the work of the MCK Media Analysis team: • • • • •

Immaculate Mwende Abraham Kisang Allennita Gakii Njeri Munyiri Ahmed Kassim

The Council also acknowledges the contribution of the following media monitors: Martin Kimani, Evans Kiogora, Ivy Wafula, Dan Sudi, Frida Ngéthe, David Mulatyah, Nancy Gitonga, Dancan Juma, Evelyne Musambi, Fred Orina, Carolyne Kathure. Special thanks also go to the Research and Media Monitoring Supervisor Amos Kibet for assisting in editing this report and Media Council of Kenya's Communications and Information Officer Jerry Abuga for overseeing production of the report. We also appreciate the input and support of the Programs Manager, Victor Bwire and the CEO, Haron Mwangi towards the success of publication of this report. We thank German Development Cooperation GIZ (Social Justice Program & Civil Peace Service) and PACT, Kenya Program for the support of this project.

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Executive summary

K

enya undertook its historic general election in March 4th 2013 under the Kenya Constitution 2010.The passing of the constitution in 2010 led to formation of six elective positions from the country representatives all the way up to the president. The novelty of the election process attracted several aspirants and contestants for all the elective posts. The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) cleared 8 candidates and their running mates to contest the presidency and the sponsoring Coalitions, who are the main focus of this report. The Media Council of Kenya conducted a pre-election monitoring of the coverage of Presidential candidates and their running mates with an objective of measuring the quantity and determining the quality of journalistic reporting and the adherence to both the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya and the Guidelines on Elections Coverage. This report therefore covered 8 presidential aspirants: Raila odinga (CORD), Uhuru Kenyatta (Jubilee), Musalia Mudavadi (Amani), James Ole Kiyiapi (RBK), Martha Karua (NARK Kenya), Paul Muite (SaďŹ na), Peter Kenneth (KNC) and Mohammed Abduba Dida (ARK). From March 1st to March 9th 2013, The Media Council of Kenya monitored the coverage of Presidential candidates and their running mates across 4 newspapers, 6 vernacular Radio stations and 5 TV stations. All stories in the Daily Nation, The Star newspaper, The Standard and The People were analysed. On TV, 9pm bulletins on Citizen TV, NTV, KTN, KBC and K24 were monitored, while talk shows of between 6 A.M and 10AM and News at 1PM and 7 PM were analysed on Kameme FM (Kikuyu), Radio Salaam (Kiswahili), Kass FM (Kalenjin), Mulembe FM (Luhya), Egesa FM (Ekegusii) and Nam Lolwe FM (Dholuo)

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Highlights of Key findings Television •

Raila Odinga was the presidential candidate most mentioned in the TV coverage during the monitoring period (23% of all mentions), followed by Uhuru Kenyatta (21%), Musalia Mudavadi 9%, Peter Kenneth (8%), Martha Karua 5%, Paul Muite 4%. Both Abduba Dida and James ole Kiyiapi got 3%. Most mentions of Raila Odinga were monitored on NTV and KTN at 28% and 27% respectively. KBC aired the least of his mentions (17%). Elections featured prominently on TV platform and overshadowed other topics such as National cohesion, agriculture and Constitution implementation which were accorded minimal airtime Notable was the Major Coverage accorded to two Presidential candidates of the two leading coalitions: Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta (Jubilee Alliance) and Hon. Raila Odinga (CORD)

Radio •

There was marked improvement in professional handling of interviews and moderation of discussions during interviews and call-in programmes. There were however a few isolated incidences in some radio stations which aired reckless statements made by politicians. During the period under review, radio stations scored highly on accuracy, balance and fairness, with majority of the news reports and the talk-shows showing no evidence of slanted reporting. Most W/H questions were answered, the sources quoted were credible and at least two viewpoints given. However a few incidences of hate speech were noted in some Vernacular radio stations.

Print •

The People Newspaper dedicated the highest space (39%) in coverage of presidential aspirants, The Standard (29%), Daily Nation (20%) whereas The Star

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was the least with only (11%) overall space allocation in cm2 for the four Newspapers analysed. The People, The Star and The Standard allocated more space to Uhuru Kenyatta (23%), (39%) and (26%) respectively. Raila Odinga was prominently covered in Daily Nation (27%). William Ruto of the Jubilee Alliance was the most prominently covered presidential running mate at 58% in all the four newspapers analysed. Kalonzo Musyoka of CORD came second (33%). William Ruto was allocated the highest space in all the four newspapers analysed; The People (74%), Daily Nation (56%), The Star (50%) and The Standard (43%). Jubilee Alliance was allocated the highest space in The Star (67%) and The People (45%), whereas CORD was allocated more in The Standard (57%). Daily Nation allocated equal space to both Jubilee and CORD (47%).

Objectives The monitoring aimed at: a) Conducting content (discourse analysis) of pre-election coverage of presidential candidates ahead of the general election held in March 2013 in order to understand major trends. b)

Determining the incidence and extent to which the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya was adhered to or otherwise during the reporting and news dissemination of this historic event.

c)

Undertake an objective analysis of allocation of space and time by media platforms to presidential candidates ahead of the general election.

Methodology Content Analysis was used for content development which formed a data set that informed the analysis and findings of this report. All media platforms; print, radio and TV were analysed. Quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis and interpretation were then used to synthesise the collected data into the findings of this report. The basis of media monitoring which strongly guided the adoption of the code sheet that was used for this report is the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism as enshrined in the Media Act 2007.

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Chapter 1 Print Media Background The monitoring of pre-election coverage of presidential candidates by print media explores the extent to which newspapers reported on elections with a clear focus on the 8 presidential candidates. The print media in Kenya consist of regular daily newspapers, weekly newspapers, magazines, regional newspapers and alternative press. Print media platform comes third after radio and TV platforms in terms of Audience consumption. According to Quarterly audience research study conducted by Ipsos Synovate, the Daily Nation and The Standard are the two leading newspaper publications in the country and are produced by the two leading media houses in the country. This study focused majorly on the daily newspapers which include the Daily Nation, The Standard, The People and The Star newspapers. Print media monitoring at MCK is automated with high accuracy levels with un- doubtable degrees of validity and reliability from the data it generates. The print media module allows the capturing of all relevant key words tied to a particular topic of study and allows systematic capturing and retrieval of data for analysis. The print media platform offers an ample space and opportunity for extensive discourse and coverage of pre-elections because of its attributes as a media tool. Some of the areas that coverers political/election related articles are the local News section, opinion & letters to the editor section, Editorial/commentary and also in special features magazine inserts. Some of these sections were key informants during our data collection on the topic of preelection coverage of presidential aspirants. Coverage in The Standard The Standard newspaper election related articles were published under special pages

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dubbed Choice 2013. Uhuru Kenyatta (Jubilee Alliance presidential Candidate) and Raila Odinga (CORD presidential candidate) received significant coverage as compared to the other six candidates. There was a call for peaceful elections, and on 04.03.13, pg. 1 cont. 14 the paper carried a story dubbed "If peace prevails" that urged Kenyans to maintain peace before and after elections. Post poll results were 1extensively covered with a majority of stories carrying different views from various political parties and coalitions; e.g. 05.03.13 pg. 1 continued on 11, 17 and 37 'Uhuru and Raila lead in early poll results’ A majority of opinion pieces carried peace messages e.g. 01.03.13. pg.15; 'Here's my prayer: Go ye all and vote in peace', 'IEBC must not allow sensational claims of electoral fraud', 'Geeks for peace' are all ears to monitor hate speech', 'We have ability to manage peaceful transfer of power', 05.03.13.pg.14 'Let us all keep the peace as we await final vote tally”. The Daily Nation The paper dedicated more coverage to both Jubilee Presidential candidate Uhuru Kenyatta and CORD presidential candidate Raila Odinga; both candidates were the primarily covered before and after the elections as they continued dominating the headlines. This trend was particularly noted between 1st and 9th March 2013 in the front pages extending to inner ones, in regards to their political campaigns. During this period, peace remained a crucial subject as presidential candidates finalised their campaigns wooing voters in their strongholds. They called upon them to turn up in large numbers to vote. They also took their time to urge voters to remain peaceful during and after the election process; this was reected in many articles published.

1 Standard: 01.03.13 pg.8 “Uhuru call for high voter turnout”pg.9 “keep promise on peace, Mudavadi tells leaders”02.03.13. pg. 18; “Uhuru promises fish factory in HomaBay”, pg. 19. “Raila urges voters to get out, vote for CORD,' 03.03.13, pg. 2. “Raila urges voters to get out, vote for CORD”pg.3; “Jubilee leaders predict first round victory, appeal for voters support”pg.4; “Kenneth pledges new order in his final call, says he is best” 04.03.13. pg. 1 &4; “D-Day as Kenyans vote in biggest election ever”, pg. 5; “Raila, Uhuru vow to keep peace after elections”, pg. 4; “ Mudavadi confident of smooth transition”05.03.13, pg. 1,,11,17 and 37; “Uhuru and Raila lead in early poll results”.06.03.13 Pg.3; “Vote tally shows race between Raila, Uhuru” pg.7; “Voter verification slows election”06.03.13. pg.1 &2; “Results headache as big names fall”, pg.2. “CORD calls for calm over election results”,” Jubilee protests IEBC's move on spoilt votes”. 07.03.13, pg. 2 “Uhuru, Raila ahead in fresh vote count”, pg.3 “URP's generational change policies send home long-serving MPs”, Pg.6 “Joho, Omar cement lead as competitors cry foul”, pg.10; “Jubilee claims Britain out to force run-off”. 08.03.13, pg.1&6: “Uhuru leads as Raila team protest tallying” pg. 2 “Jubilee asks IEBC to be firm on results”, Pg. 3; “CORD, Jubilee alliances eclipse rivals in race for MPs seats”. 09.03.13, pg. 1; “Victory for Uhuru”, pg.4; “Mudavadi concedes defeat, calls for unity”Pg.2; “Uhuru wins race to state house with tiny margin”.

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On 3rd March 2013: pg. 4 & 5 the presidential candidates were extensively covered attending church services ahead of the elections where they exuded confidence with the IEBC on transparency in the voting process. On 5.03.13: pg.3 all presidential candidates were covered casting votes in their registered polling stations. Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) was 2predominantly covered after the voting process. This was comprehensively done on 06.03.13: pg. 1 & 2. In regards to the challenges the commission experienced through its electronic transmission system in relying the poll official results. Matter of integrity on the two jubilee leaders Uhuru Kenyatta and his running mate William Ruto regarding charges they are facing at the ICC was comprehensively covered. The Star During this period the paper concentrated mainly on campaigns, voting and announcement of election results. Presidential candidates were vastly covered in regards to their final political campaigns. This saw Uhuru Kenyatta (Jubilee Alliance Presidential Candidate) and Raila Odinga (CORD presidential candidate), get more coverage as compared to the other six presidential candidates. E.g. 01.03.13pg. 20. “Raila campaigns in Nyanza today and Nairobi tomorrow”, 02-03.03.13 pg.6; “Jubilee's Uhuru holds campaign in Homa Bay”. Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission was extensively covered in regards to controversy surrounding the electronic transmission of the results E.g. 07.03.13, pg. 3. “Cord rejects manual tally of poll results”, 06.03.13. pg. 2. “TNA complains over KTN poll transmission”. Star 08.03.13; pg. 4 “Kenneth decries results delay”, 06.03.13:pg. 22 “IEBC explains the many spoilt votes” International Criminal Court issues were covered in regards to the cases facing Jubilee Alliance Presidential candidate Uhuru Kenyatta and his running mate William Ruto. 2 Daily Nation: 03.03.13; pg. 1, 6&10; “Turn out in large numbers, Raila tells voters” 02.03.13: pg.20; “Karua takes campaigns to home turf”, pg. 26 “Kiyiapi vows to be ruthless on graft if elected”.06.03.13:pg52;“Cord asks supporters to be calm.” 01.03.13: pg.6; “Uhuru vows to concede defeat if he loses.”07.03.13: pg.6;“IEBC ditches tally system after hitch”, pg.8; “Row rages over spoilt votes in final poll tally.” 09.03.13: pg.6; “Electoral commission to check results for errors”, 01.03.13:pg.5 “PM seeks to woo western bloc”, 3.03.13: pg. 28 “How ICC gave rise to the Jubilee coalition”, 01.03.13: pg. 72; “Uhuru dismisses claim key ICC witness bribed”, 09.03.13: pg. 7; “ICC

puts off Ruto, Sang trial to May”, 03.03.13: pg. 33; “Fresh fault line as Ruto and Sang differ on ICC.” 08.03.13:pg.52; “Uhuru ICC trial set for July.” 02.03.13: pg. 21; “Raila says he is confident of first round win.”, 02.03.13: pg.20,“Mudavadi accuses Cord of sabotage”,07.03.13: pg. 8,“Row rages over spoilt votes in final poll tally”

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09.03.13- 10.03.13; pg. 1 cont. 8; “Ruto, Sang ICC case to start on May 28”, 08.03.13: pg. 1 cont. 6. “Muthaura, Uhuru ICC case starts on July 9”, Presidential aspirants emphasized on the importance of maintaining peace during and after elections. The People Jubilee presidential aspirant Uhuru Kenyatta and CORD presidential aspirant Raila Odinga were among the presidential extensively covered. Jubilee and cord coalitions were the most covered coalitions. All presidential aspirants, were given one page coverage on 04.03.13, with a major focus on their promises to Kenyans if elected to the office of president. International criminal court matters were covered in regards to cases facing Uhuru Kenyatta and his running mate William Ruto. The voting process, and poll results announcement were given limelight; this further extended to the delayed relaying of results through the Independent Electoral Boundaries Commission electronic transmission system that failed at some point, thus generating a lot of controversies. Election was the major topic covered in the opinion pieces mainly focusing on various politicians.

3 04.03.13;pg.4 “Ruto justify plea for ICC Video-link trials”; 06.03.13; pg. 17; “Jubilee, Amani spoil Cord 'party' in Busia” 07.03.13; pg. 14, “Cord takes majority seats in Bungoma”, 07.03.13; pg. 1 cont. 6, Jubilee adamant on spoilt ballots, 08.03.13; pg. 1 cont. 6 “Jubilee will have majority in senate and National Assembly”; 01.03.13pg. 30. “What Kenyans have learnt in five year”s, 09.03.13; pg. 9 “Losers claim irregularities”, 09.03.13;pg. 7; “Othaya poll a sham says loser” 01.03.13,pg. 2 “Enforce the law, Karua tells IEB”C, 01.03.13, pg. 30 “What Kenyans have learnt in five years”, 09.03.13; pg. 9 Star Losers claim irregularities , 09.03.13,pg. 7 “Othaya poll a sham says loser” , 01.03.13; pg. 2 “Enforce the law, Karua tells IEBC”

4 08.03.13; pg. 1 and 2, “Jubilee, cord take lion's share of senate, governor seats” , 07.03.13; pg.5: “Jubilee accuses UK envoy of meddling”, 06.03.13,pg. 20; “Cord suffers big blow in Nandi as bigwigs lose” 01.03.13, pg.3, “Cord in rift as poll nears”, 02.03.13, pg.11 “Cord endorse Jirongo for senator”, on 03.03.13; pg. 1,2 and 3, “Jubilee, cord plead for high turnout of voters”. 08.03.13, pg. 9: “Uhuru,

Muthaura Hague case date set for July 9th “, 09.03.13, pg.4 “Ruto, sang ICC trial date postponed to may 28th “. 04.03.13:pg.3 “The iron lady remains focused”, pg. 4; “Raila upbeat as he takes third stab at presidency”, pg. 6 “A decade after false start, Uhuru comes of age to mount tough bib”, pg. 7 “Kiyiapi promises true rebirth for Kenya”, pg. 8, “Kenneth promises integrity, development for Kenya”, pg. 9 “Mudavadi out to prove he is his own man”, pg. 10 “Dida entry spiced the state house race”, 08.03.13: pg. 1 and 2; “ Jubilee, cord take lion's share of senate, governor seats”, 07.03.13 pg. 5 “Jubilee accuses UK envoy of meddling”, 06.03.13: pg.20 “Cord suffers big blow in Nandi as bigwigs lose”, 01.03.13:pg 3. “Cord in rift as poll nears”, 02.03.13, pg. 11 “Cord endorse Jirongo for senator” 03.03.13: pg. 1,2 and 3 “Jubilee, cord plead for high turnout of voters” 05.03.13: pg. 9 “Jubilee confident of victory”

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Allocation of Space Coverage of Presidential Aspirants Uhuru Kenyatta was the most prominently covered presidential aspirant with 26% overall space allocation in all newspapers analysed. CORDs presidential ag bearer Raila Odinga received 24%, Musalia Mudavadi 15%, Peter Kenneth 10%, Martha Karua 9%, Abduba Dida received 6%, whereas Paul Muite and James Ole Kiyiapi received 5%. Space Allocation to Presidential Aspirants

Dida 6%

Mudavadi 15%

Kenneth 10% Karua 9%

Mui

te Kiyiapi

Kenyatta 26%

5%

Odinga 24%

5%

The People dedicated the highest space (39%) in coverage of presidential aspirants, The Standard (29%), Daily Nation (20%) whereas The Star was the least with only 11% overall space allocation in cm2 for the four Newspapers analysed. The People, The Star and The Standard allocated more space to Uhuru Kenyatta (23%), (39%) and (26%) respectively. Raila Odinga was prominently covered in Daily Nation (27%).

Muthaura Hague case date set for July 9th “, 09.03.13, pg.4 “Ruto, sang ICC trial date postponed to may 28th “. 04.03.13:pg.3 “The iron lady remains focused”, pg. 4; “Raila upbeat as he takes third stab at presidency”, pg. 6 “A decade after false start, Uhuru comes of age to mount tough bib”, pg. 7 “Kiyiapi promises true rebirth for Kenya”, pg. 8, “Kenneth promises integrity, development for Kenya”, pg. 9 “Mudavadi out to prove he is his own man”, pg. 10 “Dida entry spiced the state house race”, 08.03.13: pg. 1 and 2; “ Jubilee, cord take lion's share of senate, governor seats”, 07.03.13 pg. 5 “Jubilee accuses UK envoy of meddling”, 06.03.13: pg.20 “Cord suffers big blow in Nandi as bigwigs lose”, 01.03.13:pg 3. “Cord in rift as poll nears”, 02.03.13, pg. 11 “Cord endorse Jirongo for senator” 03.03.13: pg. 1,2 and 3 “Jubilee, cord plead for high turnout of voters” 05.03.13: pg. 9 “Jubilee confident of victory”

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Coverage of Presidential Candidates in Newspapers 100% 90% 80%

7%

9%

70% 60%

4%

50% 40% 30%

8%

6%

17% TPN

4% 11%

4% 31%

6%

7%

Kenneth

Karua

STAR

5%

10% 5%

39%

2% 23%

5%

13%

7%

20%

7%

20% 10%

23%

22%

13%

5%

4%

36%

17%

STD DN

27%

16%

0% Dida

Kiyapi

Odinga

Muite

Kenyatta Mudavadi

Coverage of Presidential Running mates William Ruto of the Jubilee Alliance was the most prominently covered presidential running mate at 58% in all the four newspapers analysed. Kalonzo Musyoka of CORD came second (33%), Ronald Osumba (Eagle Alliance) (5%), Shem Ochuodho (SaďŹ na Party) (2%). Jeremiah Kioni (Amani coalition), Joshua Onono (Alliance for Real Change) and Winnie Kaburu Kinyua (RBK) received 1%. William Ruto was allocated the highest space in all the four newspapers analysed; The People (74%), Daily Nation (56%), The Star (50%) and The Standard (43%). Overal coverage of Running mates

Ruto

5%

Kalonzo Lotodo

33%

58%

Osumba Kinyua Ochuodho Kioni Onono

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Coverage of Running Mates on Specific Newspapers 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% DN Ruto

Kalonzo

STD Lotodo

TPN

STAR Kinyua

Osumba

Ochuodho

Kioni

Onono

Coverage of Political Alliances The Jubilee Alliance was the most prominently covered political Alliance with 52% in all four dailies analysed. Coalition of Reforms and Democracy (CORD) received 44%, Amani Coalition (4%) Whereas Eagle Alliance received less than 1%. Allocation of print Space to Coalitions CORD

JUBILEE

AMANI

0% 4%

44%

52%

12

EAGLE


Jubilee Alliance was allocated the highest space in The Star (67%) and The People (45%), whereas CORD was allocated more in The Standard (57%). Daily Nation allocated equal space to both Jubilee and CORD (47%). The use of photographic manipulation to show mammoth crowds was particularly evident especially when two political rallies for different alliances were running concurrently. Coalition Coverage according to Newspapers Coalitions cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

DN

DN

STD

STD

STAR

STAR

TPN

TPN

TOTAL

TOTAL

CORD

274.63

47%

629.87

57%

347.95

31%

116

42%

1369.806 44%

Eagle

8

1%

0

0%

3

0%

0

0%

11.0165

Jubilee

272.94

47%

433.62

39%

756.81

67%

124

45%

1588.909 52%

Amani

23

4%

39

4%

16

1%

34

12%

112.0894 4%

Total

578.57

100%

1102.49 100% 1123.76 100%

274

100%

3081.82

0%

100%

Coverage of Political Parties The National Alliance (TNA), was the most prominently covered political party in all newspapers (31%) of coverage of all political parties observed), followed by Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) (30%). United Republican Party (URP) received 15%, United Democratic Forum (UDF) (7%), Wiper (6%), Narc Kenya (4%), Kenya National Congress (KNC) (3%), Restore and Build Kenya (RBK) and SaďŹ na received (1%) whereas Alliance for Real Change (ARK) received (1%). Coverage of Party's in print Media AR

K 1 C3 % %

KN Keny a

ODM 30%

4%

TNA 31%

U 15 RP %

W i 6% per

RBK 2% a 1% SaďŹ n 7% UDF

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Political Parties Coverage according to Newspapers cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

cm2

%

DN

DN

STD

STD

STAR

STAR

TPN

TPN

TOTAL

TOTAL

ARK

7

2%

3

0%

2

0%

3

1%

15.02275 1%

KNC

12

3%

17

3%

17.52

2%

21

4%

67.59406 3%

NARC K

15

3%

25

4%

13

1%

49

9%

102.0889 4%

ODM

151.32 34%

185.8

31%

248.3

27%

176

32%

762.3371 30%

RBK

10

2%

15

2%

6

1%

17

3%

48.05359 2%

Safina

15

3%

10

2%

9

1%

11

2%

45.05983 2%

TNA

117.51 26%

137.3

23%

389.16

43%

144

26%

788.8874 31%

UDF

21

5%

48

8%

56.8

6%

41

7%

166.9885 7%

URP

63.51

14%

131

22%

124.3

14%

65

12%

384.3043 15%

Wiper

36

8%

36

6%

40

4%

29

5%

141.1836 6%

TOTAL

448.34 100%

608.1

100%

906.08

100%

556

100%

2521.52

Political Parties

100%

Adherence to the Code of Conduct 98.4% of all articles monitored were classified as not containing breaches of the code of conduct, whereas 1.6% did not adhere to the rules of the code. Accuracy and Balance 77.2% of all news reports provided more than one viewpoint, only 22.8% did not. A vast majority of news articles did not provide all the six W/H questions (Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How?). 39.7% provided all the six W/H questions, whereas 41.2% answered five of the questions; the rest 19.1% provided 4 and less. There were a significant number of news articles with unnamed sources (20.5%) recorded. 40.2% of all news reports referred to only one source, 19.7% to two sources and 19.6% to more than three sources.

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Number of viewpoints in news reports

80

Percent

60

40

77.2%

20

22.8% 0 1

2

n=580

The Standard and Daily Nation scored the highest regarding the diversity of viewpoints covered in the news. 97% of the news reports analysed in Daily Nation and 97.2% of the reports in The Standard presented more than one viewpoint. 47.9% of the reports in The People and 26% in The Star only provided one viewpoint. Viewpoints n=580 1 2

100%

Percent

80%

60% 97.0%

97.2%

40%

74.0%

47.9%

20%

52.1%

26.0%

0%

DN

STAR STD TPN Viewpoints in News Reports

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The Standard scored the highest with regard to the completeness of information. 66% of all The Standard news reports answered all 6W/H questions, compared to only 23% in Daily Nation. W/H Answers n=580

2 3 4 5 6 66%

40%

0%

20%

28%

24%

23%

16%

20%

41%

42% 35%

58%

Percent

60%

DN STAR STD TPN Number of W/H Answers in News Reports

Distinction between comment and facts The majority of articles did not mix editorial comments and facts. 94.5% of all news reports didn't contain any journalistic opinion, whereas 0.2% contained a small portion (<20%) and 5.3% a higher portion (>20%) of journalistic opinion. 100

Percent

80 60 94.5%

40 20 0

0.2%

5.3%

Less than 20% journalistic Opinion

More than 20% journalistic Opinion

No journalistic Opinion

Distinction of Facts and Opinion in News Items

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Hate Speech None of the articles observed contained hate speech. Obscenity None of the articles observed contained obscene language or images. Gender Balance 84.1% of all articles analysed contained male as the central subjects, whereas 4.8% only focused on women. A majority of articles were written by men (64 %), only 10.2% of the authors were female. 21.9% of articles observed did not contain by-lines, whereas 4% were written by both gender. 100

Percent

80 60 84.1%

40 20 0

0.5%

10.5%

(n.a)

Both women and men equally central

4.8% Man Central

Woman Central

News Gender Presence

Percent

60

40 64.0%

20 21.9%

0

10.2%

4.0% (n.a)

Both

Female

Author Gender

17

Male


The People had signiďŹ cantly more female writers at 14% as compared to Daily Nation represented by only 3% Author Gender n=580

80%

(n.a.) both female male

Percent

60%

40%

73%

70% 60%

20%

47%

42%

8%

0%

DN

13%

13%

21%

17%

14% 6%

STAR

STD

Author Gender

18

TPN


Chapter 2 Electronic Media Background Electronic Media in this report refers to both radio and TV which are the major media platforms that are consumed in Kenya. Therefore the impact of the two media platforms in terms of reporting and coverage regarding political/electoral issues during the pre-elections period made it a key area of focus for monitoring. The coverage of politicians on the campaign trail soliciting for votes ahead of the March 4th 2013 election was the most dominant topic during the monitoring period. This was followed up closely by the election petition that followed. The electronic medium witnessed a few violations. The low number of incidences is however not surprising and is owed to the numerous trainings and sensitisation programs that journalists have been subjected to by the Media Council of Kenya and other stakeholders ahead of the general election. Coverage of politicians/allocation of Airtime The total number of TV items analysed during the three days of analysis contained 189 containing 75 mentions of presidential candidates and their running mates. Citizen TV aired the most mentions (62), followed by K24(48), 43 on NTV, 22 on KTN and KBC (14). The majority of items were news reports (82%), followed by special features at 10% while 8% were political advertisements. The highest number of mentions were observed on Saturday and Sunday (1.3.13&2.3.13), the ďŹ nal weekend to the general election. The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission had set Saturday as the last day of campaigning (1.3.13) and thus there was heightened political activity. Raila Odinga was the presidential candidate most mentioned in the TV coverage during the

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monitoring period (23% of all mentions), followed by Uhuru Kenyatta (21%), Musalia Mudavadi (9%), Peter Kenneth (8%), Martha Karua (5%), Paul Muite (4%). Both Abduba Dida and James Ole Kiyiapi got 3%. Most mentions of Raila Odinga were monitored on NTV and KTN at 28% and 27% respectively. KBC aired the least of his mentions (17%). KBC aired the most mentions of Uhuru Kenyatta at 29% while KTN aired 27% of his mentions. Citizen TV aired the least Kenyatta mentions (18%). Raila Odinga was exclusively mentioned as the Coalition for Democracy and Reforms presidential candidate at 95% while he was mentioned as the Kenyan Prime Minister at 2%. On the other hand, Uhuru Kenyatta was mentioned as the Jubilee alliance exclusively at 95% while 3% of his mentions were in his capacity as the Deputy Prime minister. Vice President Kalonzo Musyoka was exclusively mentioned as the Coalition for Reform and Democracy at 93%, while only 7% mentioned him as the Vice President. The Jubilee Alliance running mate William Ruto was the highest mentioned running mate at 12% followed by Kalonzo Musyoka of the Coalition for Reform and democracy who got 8% of the total mentions. Ronald Osumba (2%) while Winnie Kaburu got 1% of the total mentions. Most Ruto mentions came from K24 (30%) while the least mentions came from KTN (9%). Kalonzo Musyoka's most mentions came from K24 (33%), while his least mentions were from KBC (7%). Airtime Allocated to Presidential candidates/Running mates There were signiďŹ cant variances in terms of airtime allocated to Presidential candidates and their running mates across the ďŹ ve sampled stations.On Citizen TV, Prime Minister Raila Odinga received the most airtime of all the presidential candidates at 32%, followed by Kenyatta at 18 % while Musalia Mudavadi got 10%.18% of the total airtime on K24 was allocated to Odinga, while Kenyatta got 17%. Kenneth got 13% while Mudavadi got 8%. KBC allocated 39% of their total airtime to Kenyatta while Odinga and Mudavadi got 13% and 12% respectively.Uhuru Kenyatta received more than a third of the coverage on KTN at 34% followed by Odinga at 33%. Mudavadi got 10% of the total airtime. NTV allocated 39% of their total airtime to Raila Odinga, while Kenyatta got 21%.

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Mudavadi received 19% of the total airtime on the station. On Citizen TV, William Ruto was the highest covered running mate (12%), followed by Kalonzo Musyoka (8%). K24 had the highest Ruto coverage at 17%, followed by Kalonzo Musyoka at 9%. K24 was the only station that covered Eagle Alliance's Ronald Osumba. KBC allocated 27% of the total airtime to Ruto while Musyoka got 5%. The amount of airtime on KTN allocated to Ruto and Musyoka was almost the same at 7% and 6 %respectively. Out of all other running mates apart from Musyoka and Ruto, only Osumba was covered on KTN at 1%. On NTV, 12% of the total airtime was allocated to Ruto, while Musyoka got 8%. Osumba got 2%

Tonality The overall tonality of coverage was assessed as highly neutral (96%). Receiving the highest number of mentions CORD's presidential candidate Raila Odinga also received the highest number of negative mentions (7%), Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta did not have any negative mentions.

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Tone Negative Neutral Positive

40

Percent

30

20

10

Ruto

Osumba

Onono

Odinga

Musyoka

Muite

Mudavadi

Lotodo

Kiyapi

Kenyatta

Kenneth

Karua

Kaburu

Dida

0

Topics associated with Politicians The overall coverage focussed on the March 4th 2013 General election as well as campaigns of both the Presidential candidates and their running mates. Topics such as land issues, National Cohesion and constitution implementation took a backseat in terms of coverage during the period in which coverage was assessed. Topics such as education, health and women issues were completely ignored. Jubilee Alliance Presidential Candidate Uhuru Kenyatta was most associated with issues around the International Criminal Court. Peter Kenneth and Raila Odinga were the Presidential candidates most associated with issues about economic development and employment. Raila Odinga was also most associated with land issues than any other Presidential candidate. Augustine Lotodo, Joshua Onono, Ronald Osumba and Winnie Kaburu were the running mates associated with speaking about elections only. Ruto was mostly associated with the ICC topic

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Findings Radio General Observations: Radio Talk-shows Election Coverage Call to vote On the election date, trends were similar in majority of the vernacular radio stations. Stations covered the election process, with the programmes focusing on updates from various polling stations across the country. The updates were mainly from reporters on the ground. On Kameme FM 4.03.2013, the presenter encouraged people to, "…turn out in large numbers to elect leaders of their choice for a better Kenya..." The presenter also focused on pleading with the audience to cast their votes in peace saying that, "…we were all The People of one nation and we should be united and peaceful..." Kass FM, 4.03.2013, the reporters on the field covered Jubilee Deputy Presidential candidate William Ruto voting in Gat Kosechai Primary school polling station. William Ruto called on all supporters to turn up in large numbers and vote. On Mulembe FM this trend continued with presenters sensitising people to ensure that they went out to vote. 5.03.2013, Kameme FM, Kass FM and Mulembe FM streamed the results of the elections as they were being received in the Independent Electoral Boundaries Commission (IEBC) tallying centre, Bomas of Kenya. On Kameme FM, the presenter thanked the commissions and non- governmental organizations for getting involved in civic and voter education country wide attributing this to the high voter turnout. On Egesa FM, 6.03.2013,reporters and presenters called for peace as they waited for the result tallying process to be completed. IEBC continued to stream election results on the third day after voters cast their ballots, streaming in of this reports was the main focus in the monitored stations with most of the stations keeping their listener's updated on the latest result tallies and figures. Kass FM, 6.03.2013, Caroline Lesan from Mercy Corps and Longet Teres from Ministry of Justice and National Cohesion were invited to the studio. The two talked about how people can protect themselves during the election period.

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Egesa FM, on the 7.03.2013 held discussions based on what issues listeners would want respective leaders to focus on. Some of the issues the callers discussed as paramount for leaders to start work on were Education, roads, harnessing resources from the Diaspora. On Mulembe FM, the presenters highlighted on some of the unexpected results received from IEBC, including some of the veteran politicians who lost in the elections. Some of them included Najib Balala, Lina Jebii Kilimo, Joshua Kutuny, Samuel Phogisio, Ayiecho Olweny and Magerer Langat. The discussion sought to find out what went wrong for these politicians?5 On the 8.03.2013 the country entered into day five of the vote counting process. IEBC remained clear that they were still within the law as they had seven days to announce the results of the elections. Most stations held their discussions based on future expectations as most results for Governors, Senators, and Woman Representatives had already been declared. Given this prolonged period of vote tallying members of the public were also urged to return to their jobs and resume normal day to day activities. Egesa F M, talk-show requested listeners to call in with key issues they would want elected leaders to tackle first. Some of the main issues highlighted by callers included roads (infrastructure), issues of cattle rustling, education, electricity and agriculture. Mulembe FM focused on the question of leaders from different coalitions working together after the elections. Examples, in Nairobi, where the Governor Elect Evans Kidero-ODM, Senator, Mike Mbuvi-TNA, Woman Representative, Rachel Shebesh-TNA. In Kakamega County, the Governor Wycliffe Oparanya-ODM, Senator, Bony Khalwale-UDF were also expected to work together despite their affiliation to opposing sides. On Kameme FM the presenter played a clip of government spokesman Muthui Kariuki reading a statement from the PS, and Ministry of State for Provincial Administration and head of the public service Francis Kimemia, issuing a directive for all public and civil servants to report back to work with immediate effect.

5 Some of the opinions of the callers included: Caller 1 said, “baendeleanga nende isiama, bebilila barumwa nende Kenya.” Transcription, “They only concentrate on their parties and forget about The People of Kenya are the one who send them.” Caller 2 said, “Bandu mukenya bachakire huerevuka.” Transcription, “The Kenyan People are knowledgeable on elections and therefore they are well informed.”

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General Findings: News Coverage Election Coverage The main subject in the news coverage of the six vernacular radio stations was the General Election. On the 4th of March the main news items focused on the voter turnout. Mulembe FM on 4.03.2013,“Kenyans come out in large numbers to vote for their respective presidential candidates.” IEBC as the main electoral body said that all polling stations would be closed at 5pm. Isaac Hassan however assured voters in the queue would be given enough time to cast their vote. Kameme F M, 4.03.2013, “Polling stations to close at 5pm.” Sporadic cases of insecurity were reported. Mulembe F M, 4.03.2013, “Inspector General David Kimaiyo confirms killings of six policemen.” The Inspector General urged people to go and vote and restated that security was in place. Kameme F M, 4.03.2013, “Police reinforce security personnel countrywide.” IEBC chair applauded Kenyans for voting peacefully, Nam Lolwe 5.03.2013. He also urged Kenyans to remain calm as the tallying continued at the Bomas of Kenya. He asked Kenyans not to celebrate or complain about the election results released saying that they were provisional results, Kameme, 5.03.2013, “IEBC chairman asks Kenyans to remain calm.” On the second day of voter tallying the news was on the IEBC reverting to manual voter tallying. Mulembe F M, 6.03.2013, “Manual tallying of elections.” This was after a glitch in the electronic system occurred. United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon, urged Kenyans to maintain peace and Commonwealth Electoral observers said Kenyans elections were free and fair, Kass FM, 6.03.2013. “United States praise Kenyans for conducting a peaceful poll as Uhuru Kenyatta holds the lead on second day of vote counting, Nam Lolwe”, 6.03.2013. On the 7.03.2013, the vote tallying showed that Uhuru Kenyatta was leading in the official tally. Kameme F M, Mulembe F M, Kass Fm and Egesa F M. On Egesa FM and Kameme F M, the IEBC chairman rejected claims by the Cord Alliance that some presidential results released far exceeded the number of registered voted. Egesa FM, 7.03.2013, “parliamentarians defeated.” This news item highlighted the 'big' loses and the new parliamentarians.

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The main focus on the 8.03.2013 was Amani Coalition presidential aspirant Musalia Mudavadi, conceding defeat. On Radio Salaam, Kameme FM and Mulembe FM 8.03.2013, news item highlights High Court dismissal of Civil Societies case seeking to stop the presidential vote tallying process. The three judge bench ruling indicated that the Supreme Court and not the High Court had jurisdiction. Breaches Adherence to the Code of Conduct Most of the news and talk-show content adhered to the Code of Conduct for Practice of Journalism and the Guidelines for Elections Coverage. Accuracy and fairness was the most common breach observed. Majority of the news reports provided answers to all six W/H questions (who? What? Where? When? Why? and How?). Credible sources were also provided. Majority of the talk-shows also adhered to the code, with most topics presented in an accurate way. Majority of the discussions also covered two sides of the topics with no journalistic opinion injected. Hate Speech Of the talk shows monitored only one contained hate speech, Kameme F M, 01.03.2013, morning show, Njogu wa Njoroge (the host) invites guests Ephraim Maina - Aspiring Nyeri senator (TNA) to the studio and inquires how the campaigns have been and what he thinks of the recent tussle between Ferdinand Waititu, Shebesh and Mike Sonko aspiring Nairobi County Governor, Senator and Woman Representative respectively. The guest made alarming statements and used coded language for ethnic groups.6 He uses names that are dehumanizing to the people of the Kikuyu ,Luo and Kalenjin communities by referring to them as 'Mbogo' which translates to Buffalo and he also says that the reason communities support their own is that if they do not they will be attacked or eaten.

6 Hate Speech; Quoting persons making derogatory remarks based on ethnicity, race, creed, colour and sex shell be avoided. Racist or negative e ethnic terms should be avoided. Careful account should be taken of possible effect upon the ethnic or racial group concerned, and on the population as a whole, and of the changes in public attitudes as to what is and is not acceptable when using such terms.

26


He says that the Kikuyu are already oppressed and were denied a lot of constituencies unlike in other places like Rift Valley. He also says that if Kikuyu fail to support Uhuru in TNA party they are the ones who will suffer.

Ephraim Maina, “…mbogo itiikaranagia ni kwedana,cie ikaranagina todo ire iki nii koreago ireagwo.” Transcription Mr.Maina, “...Buffalos do not huddle together because of love; they do so because if they are alone they are eaten.” Ephraim Maina, “…tumahinyererie already …” Translation, “…we are already oppressed…” And “…gikuyu ni twatunyirwo constituency ciito..” Translation, “…kikuyu constituencies were stolen from us...”. Maina, “….ando aitu marega koingera kiamaine kia TNA nimo makarea thena tii Uhuru….” Translation, “… if our people fail to support the National Allinace Party (TNA) they are the ones who will suffer not Uhuru…”

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Chapter 3

Conclusions and recommendations

Elections issues got the highest coverage in percentage. However, issue based election media reports were minimal as journalists chose to focus on the sensation stories. However a media house worth mentioning is the Nation Media Group which developed specific interest stories that governed their election coverage. This was very remarkable. The media coverage of the March 4th 2013 General Election showed a comparative improvement with that of 2007.This can be attributed to the sensitisation and training that the journalists have undergone especially after the 2007 Post-election violence. Adherence to the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya was also well reected in most media articles and reports. However, accuracy and fairness was one of the most violated article in the code. During this period, the media focused on campaigns, voting and announcement of election results which formed the key themes around which election media reporting was done. From this report analysis, it is notable that Jubilee and CORD were the two mostly covered political parties during the period under study. Commendable trends by the media were noted especially on coverage aimed at promotion of peace after the vote casting especially after the delayed results announcement by IEBC. The media did a good job in mitigating the growing tension especially during and after the election results delayed. The media gave the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission extensive coverage with regards to controversy surrounding the electronic transmission of the results which failed at some point. Therefore the mostly covered topic was elections followed by economic issues. Recommendations Democracy and the media have a symbiotic relationship where both benefit immensely. The media in Kenya undertook a vital step in the coverage of first elections under the new constitution. The challenges were not lacking because of the complex voting process brought about by the new constitutional framework. Based on this report, the following

28


are some of the recommendations: i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

The Media should enhance a more balanced coverage of elections and avoid preferential treatment of parties or candidates. This can be done through equitable allocation of space and time for all parties, candidates and coalitions involved in the elections. Issues based coverage of elections should be encouraged as was depicted by the Nation Media Group as opposed to personality based coverage. This is where key topical issues drive coverage of elections and help to shape agenda around what is of importance for a country's progress. The photographic journalists should also avoid using camera tricks to magnify and display the size of a small rally as a mammoth meeting. This is in utter disregard to journalistic ethics and the fundamental principles of the Code of Conduct and Guidelines on Elections Reporting should be factual and accurate as possible. Covering elections should be objective as much as possible. Covering election is a two sided affair which includes covering what the politicians are saying and investigating if the issues that are being discussed are a proper reď&#x20AC;&#x201A;ection of actual situation. The media should therefore strive to present both perspectives.

29


Guidelines for Elections Coverage in Kenya booklet developed by the MCK

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P. O. Box 43132 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Ground Floor, British American Insurance Centre Mara/Ragati Road Junction, Upper Hill Tel: +254 (020) 2737058, 2716265, 2716266 Mobile: +254 727 735252 Email: info@mediacouncil.or.ke Website: www.mediacouncil.or.ke


Monitoring report march 2013